McsHitp-creation:: {2019-12-21},

overview of science

· science is a-collection of scientific-knowledge on an-entity|subject.
· and the-scientists and organizations related to it.

* McsEngl.McsEdu000002.last.html//dirEdu//dirMcs!⇒science,
* McsEngl.dirMcs/dirEdu/McsEdu000002.last.html!⇒science,
* McsEngl.SCIENCE,
* McsEngl.entity'science!⇒science,
· "science" from Latin "scientia"-knowledge, from PIE-root "skei"-cut|split, Greek "σκίζειν" [{2021-02-06}]
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.επιστήμη!=science,
· "επιστήμη" < (λόγιο) < αρχαία ελληνική ἐπιστήμη < ἐπίσταμαι (γνωρίζω καλά) [επιστήμη]

01_area-of-study of science

· area-of-study of science is the-entity that researches.

* McsEngl.area-of-study--of-science,
* McsEngl.subject-of-science,
* McsEngl.subject-matter--of-science,

branch of science

· field-of-science is a-(widely)-recognized PART of the-subject-matter of a-science.


02_mapping-relation of science

· the-relation between the-scientific-knowledge of the-science and its area-of-study.


03_scientific-method of science

· scientific-method is the-mapping-method a-science uses to create its model|knowledge.

* McsEngl.scientific-method,

"The scientific method is an empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. It involves careful observation, applying rigorous skepticism about what is observed, given that cognitive assumptions can distort how one interprets the observation. It involves formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental and measurement-based testing of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings. These are principles of the scientific method, as distinguished from a definitive series of steps applicable to all scientific enterprises.[1][2][3]
Though diverse models for the scientific method are available, there is in general a continuous process that includes observations about the natural world. People are naturally inquisitive, so they often come up with questions about things they see or hear, and they often develop ideas or hypotheses about why things are the way they are. The best hypotheses lead to predictions that can be tested in various ways. The most conclusive testing of hypotheses comes from reasoning based on carefully controlled experimental data. Depending on how well additional tests match the predictions, the original hypothesis may require refinement, alteration, expansion or even rejection. If a particular hypothesis becomes very well supported, a general theory may be developed.[4]
Although procedures vary from one field of inquiry to another, they are frequently the same from one to another. The process of the scientific method involves making conjectures (hypotheses), deriving predictions from them as logical consequences, and then carrying out experiments or empirical observations based on those predictions.[5][6] A hypothesis is a conjecture, based on knowledge obtained while seeking answers to the question. The hypothesis might be very specific, or it might be broad. Scientists then test hypotheses by conducting experiments or studies. A scientific hypothesis must be falsifiable, implying that it is possible to identify a possible outcome of an experiment or observation that conflicts with predictions deduced from the hypothesis; otherwise, the hypothesis cannot be meaningfully tested.[7]
The purpose of an experiment is to determine whether observations agree with or conflict with the predictions derived from a hypothesis.[8] Experiments can take place anywhere from a garage to CERN's Large Hadron Collider. There are difficulties in a formulaic statement of method, however. Though the scientific method is often presented as a fixed sequence of steps, it represents rather a set of general principles.[9] Not all steps take place in every scientific inquiry (nor to the same degree), and they are not always in the same order.[10][11]"

04_school of science

· a-subject[a] is-modeled diferently by scientists.
· a-school is one model of the-area-of-study[a].

* McsEngl.sciency'04_school,
* McsEngl.sciency'att003-school,
* McsEngl.sciency'school,

05_theory of science

· theory is knowledge on a-subject, part of a-science, with a-known author.
· and the-theorists and organizations related to it.

* McsEngl.theory,
* McsEngl.theory-of-science!⇒theory,
* McsEngl.thr!⇒theory,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.θεωρία!=theory,

"In modern science, the term "theory" refers to scientific theories, a well-confirmed type of explanation of nature, made in a way consistent with scientific method, and fulfilling the criteria required by modern science. Such theories are described in such a way that scientific tests should be able to provide empirical support for, or empirically contradict ("falsify") it. Scientific theories are the most reliable, rigorous, and comprehensive form of scientific knowledge,[1] in contrast to more common uses of the word "theory" that imply that something is unproven or speculative (which in formal terms is better characterized by the word hypothesis).[2] Scientific theories are distinguished from hypotheses, which are individual empirically testable conjectures, and from scientific laws, which are descriptive accounts of the way nature behaves under certain conditions.
Theories guide the enterprise of finding facts rather than of reaching goals, and are neutral concerning alternatives among values.[3]:131 A theory can be a body of knowledge, which may or may not be associated with particular explanatory models. To theorize is to develop this body of knowledge.[4]:46
The word theory or "in theory" is more or less often used erroneously by people to explain something which they individually did not experience or tested before.[5] In those instances, semantically, it is being substituted for another concept, a hypothesis. Instead of using the word hypothetically, it is replaced by a phrase: "in theory". In some instances the theory's credibility could be contested by calling it "just a theory" (implying that the idea has not even been tested).[6] Hence, that word "theory" is very often contrasted to "practice" (from Greek praxis, πρᾶξις) a Greek term for doing, which is opposed to theory.[6] A "classical example" of the distinction between "theoretical" and "practical" uses the discipline of medicine: medical theory involves trying to understand the causes and nature of health and sickness, while the practical side of medicine is trying to make people healthy. These two things are related but can be independent, because it is possible to research health and sickness without curing specific patients, and it is possible to cure a patient without knowing how the cure worked.[a]"

subject of theory

· the-referent of theory.

* McsEngl.theory'subject,

author of theory

· one or more humans that created the-theory

* McsEngl.theorist,
* McsEngl.theory'author!⇒theorist,

evaluation of theory

"If you have a theory, you must try to explain what’s good and what’s bad about it equally. In science, you learn a kind of standard integrity and honesty."
[Richard Feynman]

* McsEngl.theory'evaluation,

06_scientist of science

* McsEngl.hmnWorker.021-scientist,
* McsEngl.hmnWorker.scientist,
"The 19th century saw the birth of science as a profession; the term scientist was coined in 1833 by William Whewell,[21] which soon replaced the older term of (natural) philosopher."

· scientist is a-human that contributes to a-science.

07_organization of science

· an-organization related to a-science.

* McsEngl.oznScience,

relation-to-society of science

"The saddest aspect of life right now is that science gathers knowledge faster than society gathers wisdom."
-- Isaac Asimov (1920 - 1992)

* McsEngl.society'relation-to-science,

relation-to-religion of science

"Science is a culture of doubt; religion is a culture of faith."

* McsEngl.religion'relation-to-science,

Infrsc of science


* arXiv is a free distribution service and an open-access archive for 1,661,988 scholarly articles in the fields of physics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology, quantitative finance, statistics, electrical engineering and systems science, and economics:,

evaluation of science

"If you find science boring, you're learning it from a wrong teacher!"



"Philosophy of science is a branch of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.[1] The central questions of this study concern what qualifies as science, the reliability of scientific theories, and the ultimate purpose of science. This discipline overlaps with metaphysics, ontology, and epistemology, for example, when it explores the relationship between science and truth. Philosophy of science focuses on metaphysical, epistemic and semantic aspects of science. Ethical issues such as bioethics and scientific misconduct are often considered ethics or science studies rather than philosophy of science."

* McsEngl.philosophy-of-science,

DOING of science

"Science is the belief in the ignorance of experts.
When someone says 'science teaches such and such', he is using the word incorrectly.
Science doesn't teach anything, experience teaches it."


* educating,
* learning,
* researching,
* teaching,

researching of science

"Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications."[1] It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue. At a general level, research has three steps:
* 1. Pose a question.
* 2. Collect data to answer the question.
* 3. Present an answer to the question.
This should be a familiar process. You engage in solving problems every day and you start with a question, collect some information, and then form an answer. Research is important for three reasons.
* 1. Research adds to our knowledge: Adding to knowledge means that educators undertake research to contribute to existing information about issues
* 2.Research improves practice: Research is also important because it suggests improvements for practice. Armed with research results, teachers and other educators become more effective professionals.
* 3. Research informs policy debates: research also provides information to policy makers when they research and debate educational topics.[2]"

* McsEngl.research!⇒researching,
* McsEngl.researching,
* McsEngl.scienticif-research!⇒researching,

resource of researching

*, "The Research Data Alliance (RDA) builds the social and technical bridges to enable the open sharing and re-use of data"

* McsEngl.researching'Infrsc,

EVOLUTING of science


=== McsHitp-creation:
· creation of current concept.

WHOLE-PART-TREE of science


* human-society,
* Sympan,

* field,
* theory,
* school,



* knowledgeBrain,
* infoBrain,
* infoBio,
* model,
* entity,



* biology,
* economics,
* linguistics,
* mathematics,
* philosophy,
* sociology,

"Open science is the movement to make scientific research (including publications, data, physical samples, and software) and its dissemination accessible to all levels of an inquiring society, amateur or professional.[2] Open science is transparent and accessible knowledge that is shared and developed through collaborative networks.[3] It encompasses practices such as publishing open research, campaigning for open access, encouraging scientists to practice open notebook science, and generally making it easier to publish and communicate scientific knowledge.
Open Science can be seen as a continuation of, rather than a revolution in, practices begun in the 17th century with the advent of the academic journal, when the societal demand for access to scientific knowledge reached a point at which it became necessary for groups of scientists to share resources[4] with each other so that they could collectively do their work.[5] In modern times there is debate about the extent to which scientific information should be shared.[6] The conflict that led to the Open Science movement is between the desire of scientists to have access to shared resources versus the desire of individual entities to profit when other entities partake of their resources.[7] Additionally, the status of open access and resources that are available for its promotion are likely to differ from one field of academic inquiry to another.[8]"

* McsEngl.sciOpen,

"Open Science is a system change allowing for better science through open and collaborative ways of producing and sharing knowledge and data, as early as possible in the research process, and for communicating and sharing results. This new approach affects research institutions and science practices by bringing about new ways of funding, evaluating and rewarding researchers. Open Science increases the quality and impact of science by fostering reproducibility and interdisciplinarity. It makes science more efficient through better sharing of resources, more reliable through better verification and more responsive to society’s needs."
"Η Ανοικτή Επιστήμη είναι το νέο πρότυπο πρακτικών, μέσων και συνεργασίας για την παραγωγή και διάθεση επιστημονικού έργου και αποτελεσμάτων της έρευνας, με άμεσο επιστημονικό, οικονομικό και κοινωνικό αντίκτυπο. Η Ανοικτή Επιστήμη είναι κρίσιμη προτεραιότητα της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης (ΕΕ) για τη βιώσιμη ανάπτυξη, την καλύτερη παραγωγή και αξιοποίηση ερευνητικών αποτελεσμάτων, τη συνεργατικότητα, καθώς και τον εκδημοκρατισμό της γνώσης."

evaluation of sciOpen

"Η Ανοικτή Επιστήμη αποτελεί πυλώνα του Ευρωπαϊκού οικοσυστήματος Υπεύθυνης Έρευνας και Καινοτομίας [10], καθώς:
• επισπεύδει τις επιστημονικές ανακαλύψεις, μέσα από τη συνεργατικότητα, την επέκταση και επανάχρηση των αποτελεσμάτων της έρευνας
• επιτρέπει την επαλήθευση των ερευνητικών συμπερασμάτων, οδηγώντας στην εξάλειψη του ανορθολογισμού της έρευνας
• συμβάλλει στην καλύτερη και ταχύτερη εμπορική αξιοποίηση των αποτελεσμάτων της έρευνας και αυξάνει την καινοτομία
• συνεισφέρει στην κατάρτιση του ανθρώπινου δυναμικού με ανταγωνιστικές δεξιότητες στο χειρισμό, ανάλυση και αξιοποίηση δεδομένων
• ενισχύει την ακεραιότητα των ερευνητών και της παραγόμενης επιστημονικής γνώσης, συμβάλλοντας στην ερευνητική αριστεία και τη σύναψη αξιόπιστων συνεργασιών
• ενισχύει την εμπιστοσύνη των πολιτών στην επιστημονική γνώση
• ενισχύει την επιστημονικά τεκμηριωμένη χάραξη βιώσιμης πολιτικής σε διάφορους τομείς που άπτονται της λειτουργίας του κράτους και της ζωής του πολίτη (π.χ. υγεία, κλίμα, καινοτομία)
• προωθεί την εξωστρέφεια των ερευνητικών και χρηματοδοτικών οργανισμών "

* McsEngl.sciOpen'evaluation,

resource of sciOpen

*, "Built and developed by researchers, to ensure that everyone can join in Open Science",

* McsEngl.sciOpen'Infrsc,


"Citizen science (CS; also known as community science, crowd science, crowd-sourced science, civic science, volunteer monitoring, or online citizen science) is scientific research conducted, in whole or in part, by amateur (or nonprofessional) scientists.[1] Citizen science is sometimes described as "public participation in scientific research," participatory monitoring, and participatory action research whose outcomes are often advancements in scientific research, as well as an increase in the public's understanding of science.[2][3] Based on Alexa rankings[4] iNaturalist is currently the most popular citizen science website[5] followed by eBird[6] and then Zooniverse[7] in second and third place respectively.[needs update]"

* McsEngl.sciCitizen,
* McsEngl.citizen-science!⇒sciCitizen,


* McsEngl.Sympan'science!⇒sciPhilosophy,
* McsEngl.entitty'science!⇒sciPhilosophy,
* McsEngl.philosophy!⇒sciPhilosophy,
* McsEngl.philosophy,

· philosophy is the-science of entity|Sympan.


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· this page uses 'locator-names', names that when you find them, you find the-LOCATION of the-concept they denote.
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· use the-prefix 'science' for sensorial-concepts related to current concept 'science'.
· TYPE CTRL+F "McsLang.words-of-concept's-name", to go to the-LOCATION of the-concept.
· a-preview of the-description of a-global-name makes reading fast.

• author: Kaseluris.Nikos.1959
• email:
• edit on github:,
• comments on Disqus,
• twitter: @synagonism,

• version.last.dynamic: McsEdu000002.last.html,
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• version.0-1-0.2019-12-21 draft creation,

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