speech--human-language structured-concept-Mcs
(lagSpch)

McsHitp-creation:: {2019-08-02},

overview of lagSpch

description::
· oral-lagHmnm is a-lagHmnm that uses sound uttered through the-mouth to create its logo-view.

name::
* McsEngl.McsLag000009.last.html//dirLag//dirMcs!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.dirMcs/dirLag/McsLag000009.last.html!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.lagHmnm.0017-oral!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.lagHmnm.oral!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.lagOral!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.lagOrl!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.lagSpch,
* McsEngl.lagSpch'(McsLag000009)!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.lagSpch'(speech-language)!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.oral-lagHmnm!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.oral-language!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.sound-lagHmnm!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.speech-lagHmnm!⇒lagSpch, {2021-10-02},
* McsEngl.spoken-lagHmnm!⇒lagSpch,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.kǒuyǔ-口语!=lagSpch,
* McsZhon.口语-kǒuyǔ!=lagSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.γλώσσα-ομιλίας!=lagSpch,
* McsElln.γλώσσα-προφορική!=lagSpch,

input1-(mind-view) (link) of lagSpch

input2-(sensorial--mind-view) (link) of lagSpch

input3-(semaso-view) (link) of lagSpch

output of lagSpch

description::
· speech of lagSpch is the-logo-view of a-lagSpch.

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch'output!⇒lagSpch-speech,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-speech,
* McsEngl.logo-of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-speech,
* McsEngl.output-of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-speech,
* McsEngl.speech-of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-speech,

utterance of speech of lagSpch

description::
· utterance is any part of speech.

name::
* McsEngl.info-of-speech,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-utterance,
* McsEngl.utterance-of-lagSpch,

syntax-tree of speech of lagSpch

description::
· syntax-tree of lagSpch is the-structure of the-speech.
· this structure is a-whole-part-tree of speech-nodes.

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch'syntax-tree,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-speech'syntax-tree,

node of speech of lagSpch

description::
· speech-node of lagSpch is any identifiable part of the-syntax-tree.

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch'node,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-speech'node,

generic-tree::
* logo-node,

unit of speech of lagSpch

description::
· unit of lagSpch is any indivisible part of speech.

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch'unitnit,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-unit,

generic-tree::
* logo-unit,

specific::
* term-unit,
* termNo-unit,

unit.term-(phoneme) of speech of lagSpch

description::
· phoneme is a-set of sounds that distinguish words (i.e. changing one phoneme in a-word can-produce another word).
· phoneme of lagSpch is its term-unit.
· phone is an-individual phoneme.
· allophone is the-phones of one phoneme.
· a-phoneme is-symbolized as /p/.

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch'phoneme!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-unit.phoneme!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-unit.term!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-phoneme!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.generic-phone--of-lagSpch!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.main-unit--of-lagSpch!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.phmHmn!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.phnmHmn!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.phoneme-of-lagSpch!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.phoneme,
* McsEngl.phonemeOrl!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.speech-unit-of-lagSpch!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.unitSpch!⇒phoneme,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ΦΩΝΗΜΑ!=phomeme,
* McsElln.φωνίδιο!=phomeme,
* McsElln.φώνημα!=phomeme,

generic-tree::
* term-unit--of-lagHmnm,

distinctive-feature of phoneme

description::
"distinctive feature
In any language it seems that the sounds used will only differ from each other in a small number of ways. If for example a language had 40 phonemes, then in theory each of those 40 could be utterly different from the other 39. However, in practice there will usually be just a small set of important differences: some of the sounds will be vowels and some consonants; some of the consonants will be plosives and affricates, and the rest will be continuants; some of the continuants will be nasal and some not, and so on. These differences are identified by phonologists, and are known as distinctive features.
There is disagreement about how to define the features (e.g. whether they should be labelled according to articulatory characteristics or acoustic ones), and about how many features are needed in order to be able to classify the sounds of all the languages in the world. See the entry for feature.
[Peter Roach 2009]

name::
* McsEngl.phoneme'distinctive-feature,
* McsEngl.phoneme'feature,

airstream-obstruction of phoneme

description::
· the-degree of obstruction of the-airstream creates the-vowels and consonants phonemes.

name::
* McsEngl.phoneme'airstream-constriction,
* McsEngl.phoneme'airstream-obstruction,
* McsEngl.phoneme'obstruction-of-airstream,

notation of phoneme

description::
· a-phoneme is-symbolized as /p/.
===
"IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types, letters and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, [t], or with a letter plus diacritics, [t̺ʰ], depending on how precise one wishes to be.[note 1] Slashes are used to signal phonemic transcription; thus /t/ is more abstract than either [t̺ʰ] or [t] and might refer to either, depending on the context and language."
[{2021-10-03 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Phonetic_Alphabet]

name::
* McsEngl.phoneme'notation,
* McsEngl.phnmHmn'notation,

info-resource of phoneme

description::
* IPA_Kiel_2015.pdf,
* IPA-page: https://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/,
* http://www.ipachart.com/: with sounds,
* http://www.internationalphoneticalphabet.org/ipa-sounds/ipa-chart-with-sounds/,

name::
* McsEngl.phoneme'Infrsc,

GENERIC of phoneme

description::
* unit-of-lagHmnm,

name::
* McsEngl.phoneme'generic,

phoneme.SPECIFIC of speech

description::
* phone,
* allophone,
===
* aggregate,
=== on airstream-obstruction:
* vowel-phoneme,
* vowelNo-phoneme-(consonant),
* vowelBo-phoneme-(semivowel),

name::
* McsEngl.phoneme.specific,

phoneme.specifics-division.obstruction of speech

description::
· on airstream-obstruction:
* vowel-phoneme,
* vowelNo-phoneme-(consonant),
* vowelBo-phoneme-(semivowel),

name::
* McsEngl.phoneme.specifics-division.airstream-obstruction,

phoneme.aggregate of speech

description::
· very few languages have more than 50.
[ΠΕΤΡΟΥΝΙΑΣ, ΕΥΑΓΓΕΛΟΣ. ΝΕΟΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΙΚΗ & ΣΥΓΚΡΙΤΙΚΗ ΑΝΑΛΥΣΗ Α'. ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗ, 1984]

name::
* McsEngl.phoneme.aggregate,

phoneme.allophone of speech

description::
· allophone of lagSpch is one of several similar phones that belong to the-same phoneme.
· allophones are-symbolized as [p]

name::
* McsEngl.allophone-of-lagSpch,
* McsEngl.lagSpch'allophone,
* McsEngl.phoneme.allophone,

phoneme.phone of speech

description::
· phone of lagSpch is an-instance of a-phoneme.
· a-phone is-symbolized as [p].

name::
* McsEngl.individual-phoneme--of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-phone,
* McsEngl.lagSpch'phone!⇒lagSpch-phone,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-phone,
* McsEngl.phoneme.phone!⇒lagSpch-phone,
* McsEngl.phone-of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-phone,
* McsEngl.speech-sound--of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-phone,

name.Greek::
* McsElln.ΦΘΟΓΓΟΣ,
* McsElln.φθόγγος,

phone.IPA of speech of lagSpch

description::
"The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an academic standard created by the International Phonetic Association.
IPA is a phonetic notation system that uses a set of symbols to represent each distinct sound that exists in human spoken language. It encompasses all languages spoken on earth. The system was created in 1886 and was last updated in 2005. It consists of 107 letters, 52 diacritics, and four prosodic marks."
[http://www.internationalphoneticalphabet.org/]

[https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8f/IPA_chart_2020.svg]

name::
* McsEngl.IPA-international-phonetic-alphabet,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-phone.IPA,

addressWpg::
* Unicode-block: IPA-Extensions,
* http://www.internationalphoneticalphabet.org/ipa-sounds/ipa-chart-with-sounds/,
* http://www.ipachart.com/,
* http://www.internationalphoneticalphabet.org/ipa-charts/ipa-symbols-with-unicode-decimal-and-hex-codes/,

phoneme.vowel of speech

description::
· vowel of lagSpch is a-phoneme without airstream-obstruction.

name::
* McsEngl.phoneme.vowel!⇒vowelPhmHmn,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-vowel!⇒vowelPhmHmn,
* McsEngl.speech-vowel--of-lagSpch!⇒vowelPhmHmn,
* McsEngl.vowel-of-lagSpch!⇒vowelPhmHmn,
* McsEngl.vowelOrlHmn!⇒vowelPhmHmn,
* McsEngl.vowelPhmHmn,

lip-openess of vowelPhmHmn

description::
* close,
* near-close,
* close-mid,
* mid,
* open-mid,
* near-open,
* open,

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch-vowel'lip-openess,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-vowel'openess,

lip-roundness of vowelPhmHmn

description::
* round,
* roundNo,

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch-vowel'lip-roundness,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-vowel'roundness,

tongue-position of vowelPhmHmn

description::
* front,
* central,
* back,

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch-vowel'position,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-vowel'tongue-position,

vowelPhmHmn.aggregate

description::
· the-possible vowel instances on oppeness-(7), roundness-(2), and position-(3) are 7x2x3 = 42.
· the-evolution of lagSpch chose 5 as the-most identifiable: /a e i o u/.

name::
* McsEngl.vowelPhmHmn.aggregate,

vowelPhmHmn.a

description::
"The open front unrounded vowel, or low front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. It is one of the eight primary cardinal vowels, not directly intended to correspond to a vowel sound of a specific language but rather to serve as a fundamental reference point in a phonetic measuring system.[2]
The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) that represents this sound is ⟨a⟩, and in the IPA vowel chart it is positioned at the lower-left corner. However, the accuracy of the quadrilateral vowel chart is disputed, and the sound has been analyzed acoustically as extra-open at a position where the front/back distinction has lost its significance. There are also differing interpretations of the exact quality of the vowel: the classic sound recording of [a] by Daniel Jones is slightly more front but not quite as open as that by John Wells.[3]
In practice, it is considered normal by many phoneticians to use the symbol ⟨a⟩ for an open central unrounded vowel and instead approximate the open front unrounded vowel with ⟨æ⟩ (which officially signifies a near-open front unrounded vowel).[4] This is the usual practice, for example, in the historical study of the English language. The loss of separate symbols for open and near-open front vowels is usually considered unproblematic, because the perceptual difference between the two is quite small, and very few languages contrast the two. If there is a need to specify the backness of the vowel as fully front one can use the symbol ⟨æ̞⟩, which denotes a lowered near-open front unrounded vowel.
The Hamont dialect of Limburgish has been reported to contrast long open front, central and back unrounded vowels.[5] This is extremely unusual."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_front_unrounded_vowel]

name::
* McsEngl./a/,
* McsEngl.lagSpch'a,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-open-vowel,
* McsEngl.phoneme.a,
* McsEngl.vowelPhmHmn.a,
* McsEngl.vowelPhmHmn.open,

vowelPhmHmn.e

description::
"The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨e⟩.
For the close-mid front rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ɪ⟩ or ⟨i⟩, see near-close front unrounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨e⟩, the vowel is listed here."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Close-mid_front_unrounded_vowel]

name::
* McsEngl./e/,
* McsEngl.lagSpch'e,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-openMid-frontNo-vowel,
* McsEngl.phoneme.e,
* McsEngl.vowelPhmHmn.e,
* McsEngl.vowelPhmHmn.openMid-frontNo,

vowelPhmHmn.i

description::
"The close front unrounded vowel, or high front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound that occurs in most spoken languages, represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet by the symbol i. It is similar to the vowel sound in the English word meet—and often called long-e in American English.[2] Although in English this sound has additional length (usually being represented as /iː/) and is not normally pronounced as a pure vowel (it is a slight diphthong), some dialects have been reported to pronounce the phoneme as a pure sound.[3] A pure [i] sound is also heard in many other languages, such as French, in words like chic.
The close front unrounded vowel is the vocalic equivalent of the palatal approximant [j]. The two are almost identical featurally. They alternate with each other in certain languages, such as French, and in the diphthongs of some languages, [i̯] with the non-syllabic diacritic and [j] are used in different transcription systems to represent the same sound.
Languages that use the Latin script commonly use the letter ⟨i⟩ to represent this sound, though there are some exceptions: in English orthography that letter is usually associated with /aɪ/ (as in bite) or /ɪ/ (as in bit), and /iː/ is more commonly represented by ⟨e⟩, ⟨ea⟩, ⟨ee⟩, ⟨ie⟩ or ⟨ei⟩, as in the words scene, bean, meet, niece, conceive; (see Great Vowel Shift). Irish orthography reflects both etymology and whether preceding consonants are broad or slender, so such combinations as ⟨aí⟩, ⟨ei⟩, and ⟨aío⟩ all represent /iː/."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Close_front_unrounded_vowel]

name::
* McsEngl./i/,
* McsEngl.lagSpch'i,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-openNo-frontNo-vowel,
* McsEngl.phoneme.i,
* McsEngl.vowelPhmHmn.i,
* McsEngl.vowelPhmHmn.openMid-frontNo,

vowelPhmHmn.i1

description::
· front (long) /i/.

name::
* McsEngl./i1/-(front),
* McsEngl.phoneme.i1-(front),

vowelPhmHmn.i2

description::
· back (short) /i/.

name::
* McsEngl./i2/-(back),
* McsEngl.phoneme.i2-(back),

vowelPhmHmn.i3

description::
· round lips /i/.

name::
* McsEngl./i3/-(round),
* McsEngl.phoneme.i3-(round),

vowelPhmHmn.o

description::
"The close-mid back rounded vowel, or high-mid back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨o⟩.
For the close-mid back rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʊ⟩ or ⟨u⟩, see near-close back rounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨o⟩, the vowel is listed here."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Close-mid_back_rounded_vowel]

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch-o,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-openMid-front-vowel!⇒lagSpch-o,
* McsEngl.vowelPhmHmn.o!⇒lagSpch-o,
* McsEngl.vowelPhmHmn.openMid-front!⇒lagSpch-o,

vowelPhmHmn.u

description::
"The close back rounded vowel, or high back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨u⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is u.
In most languages, this rounded vowel is pronounced with protruded lips ('endolabial'). However, in a few cases the lips are compressed ('exolabial').
The close back rounded vowel is almost identical featurally to the labio-velar approximant [w]. [u] alternates with [w] in certain languages, such as French, and in the diphthongs of some languages, [u̯] with the non-syllabic diacritic and [w] are used in different transcription systems to represent the same sound."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Close_back_rounded_vowel]

name::
* McsEngl./u/,
* McsEngl.lagSpch'u,
* McsEngl.phoneme.u,
* McsEngl.vowelPhmHmn.u,
* McsEngl.vowelPhmHmn.openNo-front,

phoneme.vowelNo of speech

description::
· consonant of lagSpch is a-phoneme with airstream-obstruction.

name::
* McsEngl.consonantOrlHmn!⇒consonantPhm,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm,
* McsEngl.phoneme.vowelNo!⇒consonantPhm,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-consonant!⇒consonantPhm,
* McsEngl.consonant-of-lagSpch!⇒consonantPhm,

airstream of consonantPhm

description::
* pulmonic,
* pulmonicNo,

name::
* McsEngl.consonantPhm'airstream,

place-of-articulation of consonantPhm

description::
* Bi­labial,
* Labio­dental,
* Linguo­labial,
* Dental,
* Alveolar,
* Post­alveolar,
* Retro­flex,
* Palatal,
* Velar,
* Uvular,
* Pharyngeal/epiglottal
* Glottal,

name::
* McsEngl.consonantPhm'place-of-articulation,

mode-of-articulation of consonantPhm

description::
* nasal,
* stop,
* sibilant-fricative,
* non-sibilant-fricative,
* approximant,
* tap/flap,
* trill,
* lateral fricative,
* lateral approximant,
* lateral tap/flap,

name::
* McsEngl.consonantPhm'manner,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm'mode,

voiceness of consonantPhm

description::
· many languages use this antithesis to create consonants.
* voicedNo:voiced,
* /f:v/, /th:dh/, /t:d/, /s:z/, /c:j/, /k:g/, /h:y/,

name::
* McsEngl.consonantPhm'voiceness,
* McsEngl.voiceness-of-consonantPhm,

aspiration of consonantPhm

description::
· Chinese-family-languages use this antithesis to create consonants.
* /p:pʰ/, /k:kʰ/, /t:tʰ/, /c:cʰ/, /cc:ccʰ/, /cci:cciʰ/,

name::
* McsEngl.aspiration-of-consonantPhm,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm'aspiration,

consonantPhm.affricat

description::
"An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal). It is often difficult to decide if a stop and fricative form a single phoneme or a consonant pair. English has two affricate phonemes, /t͡ʃ/ and /d͡ʒ/, often spelled ch and j, respectively."
[{2019-08-10} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affricate_consonant]

name::
* McsEngl.affricat-consonant--of-lagSpch,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.affricat,

consonantPhm.c-(ts)

description::
· example: tsunami,
"A voiceless alveolar affricate is a type of affricate consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth. This refers to a class of sounds, not a single sound. There are several types with significant perceptual differences:
The voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate [t͡s] is the most common type and has an abrupt hissing sound, as the ts in English cats.
The voiceless alveolar retracted sibilant affricate [t͡s̺], also called apico-alveolar or grave, has a weak hushing sound reminiscent of retroflex affricates. It is found e.g. in Basque, where it contrasts with a more conventional non-retracted laminal alveolar affricate.
The voiceless alveolar non-sibilant affricate [t͡θ̠] or [t͡θ͇], using the alveolar diacritic from the Extended IPA, is somewhat similar to the th in some pronunciations of English eighth. It is found as a regional realization of the sequence /tr/ in some Sicilian dialects of Standard Italian.
The voiceless alveolar lateral affricate [t͡ɬ] is found in certain languages, such as Cherokee, Icelandic and Nahuatl."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_alveolar_affricate]

name::
* McsEngl./c/-(ts),
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.c!⇒phoneme.c,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-c!⇒phoneme.c,
* McsEngl.phoneme.c,

consonantPhm.cc-(tʃ)

description::
· example: chip,
· char.116't' char.643'ʃ'
"The voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant affricate or voiceless domed postalveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨t͡ʃ⟩, ⟨t͜ʃ⟩ or ⟨tʃ⟩ (formerly the ligature ⟨ʧ⟩). The alternative commonly used in American tradition is ⟨č⟩. It is familiar to English speakers as the "ch" sound in "chip".
Historically, this sound often derives from a former voiceless velar stop /k/ (as in English church; also in Gulf Arabic, Slavic languages, Indo-Iranian languages and Romance languages), or a voiceless dental stop /t/ by way of palatalization, especially next to a front vowel (as in English nature; also in Amharic, Portuguese etc.)."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_postalveolar_affricate]

name::
* McsEngl./cc/-(tʃ),
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.cc!⇒phoneme.cc,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-cc!⇒phoneme.cc,
* McsEngl.phoneme.cc,

consonantPhm.j-(dz)

description::
· example: lads,
"The voiced alveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨d͡z⟩ or ⟨d͜z⟩ (formerly ⟨ʣ⟩)."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_alveolar_affricate]

name::
* McsEngl./j/-(dz),
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.j!⇒phoneme.j,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-j!⇒phoneme.j,
* McsEngl.phoneme.j,

consonantPhm.jj-(dʒ)

description::
· example: jam,
· char.100'd' char.658'ʒ'
"The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate, voiced post-alveolar affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨d͡ʒ⟩ (formerly the ligature ⟨ʤ⟩), or in broad transcription ⟨ɟ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA representation is dZ. Alternatives commonly used in linguistic works, particularly in older or American literature, are ⟨ǰ⟩, ⟨ǧ⟩, ⟨ǯ⟩, and ⟨dž⟩. It is familiar to English speakers as the pronunciation of ⟨j⟩ in jump."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_postalveolar_affricate]

name::
* McsEngl./jj/-(dʒ),
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.jj!⇒phoneme.jj,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-jj!⇒phoneme.jj,
* McsEngl.phoneme.jj,

consonantPhm.aproximant

description::
"Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow. Therefore, approximants fall between fricatives, which do produce a turbulent airstream, and vowels, which produce no turbulence. This class is composed of sounds like [ɹ] (as in rest) and semivowels like [j] and [w] (as in yes and west, respectively), as well as lateral approximants like [l] (as in less)."
[{2019-08-10} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Approximant_consonant]

name::
* McsEngl.aproximant-consonant--of-lagSpch,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.aproximant,

consonantPhm.l

description::
· example: love,
"The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar lateral approximants is ⟨l⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is l.
As a sonorant, lateral approximants are nearly always voiced. Voiceless lateral approximants, /l̥/ are common in Sino-Tibetan languages, but uncommon elsewhere. In such cases, voicing typically starts about halfway through the hold of the consonant. No language is known to contrast such a sound with a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative [ɬ].
In a number of languages, including most varieties of English, the phoneme /l/ becomes velarized ("dark l") in certain contexts. By contrast, the non-velarized form is the "clear l" (also known as: "light l"), which occurs before and between vowels in certain English standards.[1] Some languages have only clear l.[2] Others may not have a clear l at all, or only before front vowels (especially [i])."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dental,_alveolar_and_postalveolar_lateral_approximants]

name::
* McsEngl./l/,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.l!⇒phoneme.l,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-l!⇒phoneme.l,
* McsEngl.phoneme.l,

consonantPhm.r

description::
· example: ring,
"The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the alveolar and postalveolar approximants is ⟨ɹ⟩, a lowercase letter r rotated 180 degrees. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r\.
There is no separate symbol for the dental approximant (as in Spanish nada) in the International Phonetic Alphabet, which most scholars transcribe with the symbol for a voiced dental fricative, ⟨ð⟩.
The most common sound represented by the letter r in English is the postalveolar approximant, pronounced a little more back and transcribed more precisely in IPA as ⟨ɹ̠⟩, but ⟨ɹ⟩ is often used for convenience in its place. For further ease of typesetting, English phonemic transcriptions might use the symbol ⟨r⟩ even though this symbol represents the alveolar trill in phonetic transcription."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alveolar_and_postalveolar_approximants]

name::
* McsEngl./r/,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.r!⇒phoneme.r,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-r!⇒phoneme.r,
* McsEngl.phoneme.r,

consonantPhm.fricative

description::
"Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. These may be the lower lip against the upper teeth, in the case of [f]; the back of the tongue against the soft palate, in the case of German [x] (the final consonant of Bach); or the side of the tongue against the molars, in the case of Welsh [ɬ] (appearing twice in the name Llanelli). This turbulent airflow is called frication.
A particular subset of fricatives are the sibilants. When forming a sibilant, one still is forcing air through a narrow channel, but in addition, the tongue is curled lengthwise to direct the air over the edge of the teeth[1]. English [s], [z], [ʃ], and [ʒ] are examples of sibilants.
The usage of two other terms is less standardized: "Spirant" is an older term for fricatives used by some American and European phoneticians and phonologists. "Strident" could mean just "sibilant", but some authors[who?] include also labiodental and uvular fricatives in the class."
[{2019-08-10} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fricative_consonant]

name::
* McsEngl.fricative-consonant--of-lagSpch,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.fricative,

consonantPhm.f

description::
· example: five,
"The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in a number of spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨f⟩."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_labiodental_fricative]

name::
* McsEngl./f/,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.f!⇒phoneme.f,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-f!⇒phoneme.f,
* McsEngl.phoneme.f,

consonantPhm.v

description::
· example: vine,
"The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨v⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is v.
The sound is similar to voiced alveolar fricative /z/ in that it is familiar to most European speakers, but cross-linguistically it is a fairly uncommon sound, being only a quarter as frequent as [w]. Moreover, Most languages that have /z/ also have /v/ and similarly to /z/, the overwhelming majority of languages with [v] are languages of Europe, Africa, or Western Asia, although the similar labiodental approximant /ʋ/ is also common in India. The presence of [v] and absence of [w], is a very distinctive areal feature of European languages and those of adjacent areas of Siberia and Central Asia. Speakers of East Asian languages that lack this sound tend to pronounce it as [b] (Korean and Japanese), or [f]/[w] (Cantonese and Mandarin), thus failing to distinguish a number of English minimal pairs.[citation needed]
In certain languages, such as Danish, Faroese, Icelandic or Norwegian the voiced labiodental fricative is in a free variation with the labiodental approximant."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_labiodental_fricative]

name::
* McsEngl./v/,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.v!⇒phoneme.v,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-v!⇒phoneme.v,
* McsEngl.phoneme.v,

consonantPhm.th-θ of speech of lagSpch

description::
· example: thanks,
· char.952'θ'
"The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. It is familiar to English speakers as the 'th' in thing. Though rather rare as a phoneme in the world's inventory of languages, it is encountered in some of the most widespread and influential (see below). The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨θ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is T. The IPA symbol is the Greek letter theta, which is used for this sound in post-classical Greek, and the sound is thus often referred to as "theta".
The dental non-sibilant fricatives are often called "interdental" because they are often produced with the tongue between the upper and lower teeth, and not just against the back of the upper or lower teeth, as they are with other dental consonants.
This sound and its voiced counterpart are rare phonemes occurring in 4% of languages in a phonological analysis of 2155 languages. Among the more than 60 languages with over 10 million speakers, only English, various dialects of Arabic, Standard European Spanish, Swahili (in words derived from Arabic), Burmese, and Greek have the voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative.[citation needed] Speakers of languages and dialects without the sound sometimes have difficulty producing or distinguishing it from similar sounds, especially if they have had no chance to acquire it in childhood, and typically replace it with a voiceless alveolar fricative (/s/) (as in Indonesian), voiceless dental stop (/t/), or a voiceless labiodental fricative (/f/); known respectively as th-alveolarization, th-stopping, and th-fronting.
The sound is known to have disappeared from a number of languages, e.g. from most of the Germanic languages or dialects, where it is retained only in Scots, English, Elfdalian, and Icelandic, but it is alveolar in the last of these. Among non-Germanic Indo-European languages as a whole, the sound was also once much more widespread, but is today preserved in a few languages including the Brythonic languages, Castilian Spanish, Venetian, Albanian, few Occitan dialects and Greek. It has likewise disappeared from many Semitic languages, such as Hebrew (excluding Yemenite Hebrew) and many modern varieties of Arabic (excluding Tunisian, Mesopotamian Arabic and various dialects in the Arabian Peninsula which still include it)."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_dental_fricative]

name::
* McsEngl./th/-(θ),
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.th!⇒phoneme.th,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-th!⇒phoneme.th,
* McsEngl.phoneme.th,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.θ!⇒phoneme.th,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-θ!⇒phoneme.th,

consonantPhm.dh-δ

description::
· example: this,
· char.948'δ' char.240'ð'
"The voiced dental fricative is a consonant sound used in some spoken languages. It is familiar to English-speakers, as the th sound in father. Its symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is eth, or [ð] and was taken from the Old English and Icelandic letter eth, which could stand for either a voiced or unvoiced interdental non-sibilant fricative.
The letter ⟨ð⟩ is sometimes used to represent the dental approximant, a similar sound, which no language is known to contrast with a dental non-sibilant fricative,[1] but the approximant is more clearly written with the lowering diacritic: ⟨ð̞⟩. Very rarely used variant transcriptions of the dental approximant include ⟨ʋ̠⟩ (retracted [ʋ]), ⟨ɹ̟⟩ (advanced [ɹ]) and ⟨ɹ̪⟩ (dentalized [ɹ]). It has been proposed that either a turned ⟨ð⟩ or reversed ⟨ð⟩ be used as a dedicated symbol for the dental approximant, but despite occasional usage this has not gained general acceptance. Dental non-sibilant fricatives are often called "interdental" because they are often produced with the tongue between the upper and lower teeth (as in English), and not just against the back of the upper teeth, as they are with other dental consonants.
This sound and its unvoiced counterpart are rare phonemes. Almost all languages of Europe and Asia, such as German, French, Persian, Japanese, and Mandarin, lack the sound. Native speakers of languages without the sound often have difficulty enunciating or distinguishing it, and they replace it with a voiced alveolar sibilant [z], a voiced dental stop or voiced alveolar stop [d], or a voiced labiodental fricative [v]; known respectively as th-alveolarization, th-stopping, and th-fronting. As for Europe, there seems to be a great arc where the sound (and/or its unvoiced variant) is present. Most of Mainland Europe lacks the sound. However, some "periphery" languages as Gascon, Welsh, English, Icelandic, Elfdalian, Kven, Northern Sami, Inari Sami, Skolt Sami, Ume Sami, Mari, Greek, Albanian, Sardinian, some dialects of Basque and most speakers of Spanish have the sound in their consonant inventories, as phonemes or allophones.
Within Turkic languages, Bashkir and Turkmen have both voiced and voiceless dental non-sibilant fricatives among their consonants. Among Semitic languages, they are used in Turoyo, Modern Standard Arabic, albeit not by all speakers of modern Arabic dialects, as well as in some dialects of Hebrew and Assyrian Neo-Aramaic."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_dental_fricative]

name::
* McsEngl./dh/-(δ),
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.dh!⇒phoneme.dh,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-dh!⇒phoneme.dh,
* McsEngl.phoneme.dh,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.δ!⇒phoneme.dh,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-δ!⇒phoneme.dh,

consonantPhm.s

description::
· example: sit,
"The voiceless alveolar sibilant is a common consonant sound in vocal languages. It is the sound in English words such as sea and pass, and is represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨s⟩. It has a characteristic high-pitched, highly perceptible hissing sound. For this reason, it is often used to get someone's attention, using a call often written as sssst! or psssst!.
The voiceless alveolar sibilant [s] is one of the most common sounds cross-linguistically. If a language has fricatives, it will most likely have [s].[2] However, some languages have a related sibilant sound, such as [ʃ], but no [s]. In addition, sibilants are absent from Australian Aboriginal languages, in which fricatives are rare; even the few indigenous Australian languages that have developed fricatives do not have sibilants.[citation needed]
The voiceless alveolar retracted sibilant (commonly termed the voiceless apico-alveolar sibilant) is a fricative that is articulated with the tongue in a hollow shape, usually with the tip of the tongue (apex) against the alveolar ridge. It is a sibilant sound and is found most notably in a number of languages in a linguistic area covering northern and central Iberia. It is most well known from its occurrence in the Spanish of this area. In the Middle Ages, it occurred in a wider area, covering Romance languages spoken throughout France, Portugal, and Spain, as well as Old High German and Middle High German."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_alveolar_fricative#Voiceless_alveolar_sibilant]

name::
* McsEngl./s/,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.s!⇒phoneme.s,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-s!⇒phoneme.s,
* McsEngl.phoneme.s,

consonantPhm.z

description::
· example: zed,
"The voiced alveolar sibilant is common across European languages, but is relatively uncommon cross-linguistically compared to the voiceless variant. Only about 28% of the world's languages contain a voiced dental or alveolar sibilant. Moreover, 85% of the languages with some form of [z] are languages of Europe, Africa, or Western Asia."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_alveolar_fricative#Voiced_alveolar_sibilant]

name::
* McsEngl./z/,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.z!⇒phoneme.z,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-z!⇒phoneme.z,
* McsEngl.phoneme.z,

consonantPhm.ss-(ʃ)

description::
· example: sure,
· char.643'ʃ'
"Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative [ʃ], the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative [ɹ̠̊˔], the voiceless retroflex fricative [ʂ], and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative [ɕ]. This article discusses the first two."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_postalveolar_fricative]

name::
* McsEngl./ss/-(ʃ),
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.ss!⇒phoneme.ss,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-ss!⇒phoneme.ss,
* McsEngl.phoneme.ss,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.ʃ!⇒phoneme.ss,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-ʃ!⇒phoneme.ss,

consonantPhm.zz-(ʒ)

description::
· example: treasure,
· char.658'ʒ'
"Voiced fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiced palato-alveolar fricative [ʒ], the voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative [ɹ̠˔], the voiced retroflex fricative [ʐ], and the voiced alveolo-palatal fricative [ʑ]. This article discusses the first two."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_postalveolar_fricative]

name::
* McsEngl./zz/-(ʒ),
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.zz!⇒phoneme.zz,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-zz!⇒phoneme.zz,
* McsEngl.phoneme.zz,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.ʒ!⇒phoneme.zz,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-ʒ!⇒phoneme.zz,

consonantPhm.h

description::
· example: hear,
"The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate,[1][2] is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨h⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is h, although [h] has been described as a voiceless vowel because in many languages, it lacks the place and manner of articulation of a prototypical consonant as well as the height and backness of a prototypical vowel:
[h and ɦ] have been described as voiceless or breathy voiced counterparts of the vowels that follow them [but] the shape of the vocal tract […] is often simply that of the surrounding sounds. […] Accordingly, in such cases it is more appropriate to regard h and ɦ as segments that have only a laryngeal specification, and are unmarked for all other features. There are other languages [such as Hebrew and Arabic] which show a more definite displacement of the formant frequencies for h, suggesting it has a [glottal] constriction associated with its production.[3]
Lamé contrasts voiceless and voiced glottal fricatives.[4]"
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_glottal_fricative]

name::
* McsEngl./h/,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.h!⇒phoneme.h,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-h!⇒phoneme.h,
* McsEngl.phoneme.h,

consonantPhm.hh

name::
* McsEngl./hh/-(hi),
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.hh!⇒phoneme.hh,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-hh!⇒phoneme.hh,
* McsEngl.phoneme.hh,

description::
· example: huge /hhudzz/.

consonantPhm.y-(γ)

description::
· example: yes,
· char.121'y' char.947'γ'
"The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages. It is not found in Modern English but it existed in Old English {Baker, 2012, P. 15}.[full citation needed] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɣ⟩, a Latinized variant of the Greek letter gamma, ⟨γ⟩, which has this sound in Modern Greek. It should not be confused with the graphically similar ⟨ɤ⟩, the IPA symbol for a close-mid back unrounded vowel, which some writings[1] use for the voiced velar fricative.
The symbol ⟨ɣ⟩ is also sometimes used to represent the velar approximant, though that is more accurately written with the lowering diacritic: [ɣ̞] or [ɣ˕]. The IPA also provides a dedicated symbol for a velar approximant, [ɰ], though there can be stylistic reasons to not use it in phonetic transcription.
There is also a voiced post-velar fricative (also called pre-uvular) in some languages. For voiced pre-velar fricative (also called post-palatal), see voiced palatal fricative."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_velar_fricative]

name::
* McsEngl./y/,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.y!⇒phoneme.y,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-y!⇒phoneme.y,
* McsEngl.phoneme.y,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.γ!⇒phoneme.y,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-y!⇒phoneme.y,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-γ!⇒phoneme.y,

consonantPhm.yy

name::
* McsEngl./yy/-(yi),
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.yy!⇒phoneme.yy,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-yy!⇒phoneme.yy,
* McsEngl.phoneme.yy,

description::
· example: you /yyu/.

consonantPhm.nasal

description::
"In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. The vast majority of consonants are oral consonants. Examples of nasals in English are [n], [ŋ] and [m], in words such as nose, bring and mouth. Nasal occlusives are nearly universal in human languages. There are also other kinds of nasal consonants in some languages."
[{2019-08-10} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nasal_consonant]

name::
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.nasal,
* McsEngl.nasal-consonant--of-lagSpch,

consonantPhm.m

description::
· example: man,
· voiced bilabial nasal [m]

name::
* McsEngl./m/,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.m!⇒phoneme.m,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-m!⇒phoneme.m,
* McsEngl.phoneme.m,

consonantPhm.n

description::
· example: net,
· voiced alveolar nasal [n]

name::
* McsEngl./n/,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.n!⇒phoneme.n,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-n!⇒phoneme.n,
* McsEngl.phoneme.n,

consonantPhm.nn

name::
* McsEngl./nn/-(ni),
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.nn!⇒phoneme.nn,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-nn!⇒phoneme.nn,
* McsEngl.phoneme.nn,

description::
· example: new /nnu/.

consonantPhm.stop

description::
"In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
The occlusion may be made with the tongue blade ([t], [d]) tongue body ([k], [ɡ]), lips ([p], [b]), or glottis ([ʔ]). Stops contrast with nasals, where the vocal tract is blocked but airflow continues through the nose, as in /m/ and /n/, and with fricatives, where partial occlusion impedes but does not block airflow in the vocal tract."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stop_consonant]

name::
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.stop,
* McsEngl.plosive-consonant--of-lagSpch,
* McsEngl.stop-consonant--of-lagSpch,

stop.p of speech of lagSpch

description::
· example: pin,
"The voiceless bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound used in most spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨p⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is p."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_bilabial_stop]

name::
* McsEngl./p/,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.p!⇒phoneme.p,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-p!⇒phoneme.p,
* McsEngl.phoneme.p,

stop.b of speech of lagSpch

description::
· example: bubble,
"The voiced bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨b⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is b. The voiced bilabial stop occurs in English, and it is the sound denoted by the letter ⟨b⟩ in obey."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_bilabial_stop]

name::
* McsEngl./b/,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.b!⇒phoneme.b,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-b!⇒phoneme.b,
* McsEngl.phoneme.b,

stop.t of speech of lagSpch

description::
· example: tip,
"The voiceless alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiceless dental, alveolar, and postalveolar stops is ⟨t⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is t. The dental stop can be distinguished with the underbridge diacritic, ⟨t̪⟩, the postalveolar with a retraction line, ⟨t̠⟩, and the Extensions to the IPA have a double underline diacritic which can be used to explicitly specify an alveolar pronunciation, ⟨t͇⟩.
The [t] sound is a very common sound cross-linguistically; the most common consonant phonemes of the world's languages are [t], [k] and [p]. Most languages have at least a plain [t], and some distinguish more than one variety. Some languages without a [t] are Hawaiian (except for Niʻihau; Hawaiian uses a voiceless velar stop [k] for loanwords with [t]), colloquial Samoan (which also lacks an [n]), Abau, and Nǁng of South Africa."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_dental_and_alveolar_stops]

name::
* McsEngl./t/,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.t!⇒phoneme.t,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-t!⇒phoneme.t,
* McsEngl.phoneme.t,

stop.d of speech of lagSpch

description::
· example: dad,
"The voiced alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiced dental, alveolar, and postalveolar stops is ⟨d⟩ (although the symbol ⟨d̪⟩ can be used to distinguish the dental stop, and ⟨d̠⟩ the postalveolar), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_dental_and_alveolar_stops]

name::
* McsEngl./d/,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.d!⇒phoneme.d,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-d!⇒phoneme.d,
* McsEngl.phoneme.d,

stop.k of speech of lagSpch

description::
· example: kit,
"The voiceless velar stop or voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨k⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is k.
The [k] sound is a very common sound cross-linguistically. Most languages have at least a plain [k], and some distinguish more than one variety. Most Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindi and Bengali, have a two-way contrast between aspirated and plain [k]. Only a few languages lack a voiceless velar stop, e.g. Tahitian.
Some languages have the voiceless pre-velar stop,[1] which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless velar stop, though not as front as the prototypical voiceless palatal stop.
Conversely, some languages have the voiceless post-velar stop,[2] which is articulated slightly behind the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless velar stop, though not as back as the prototypical voiceless uvular stop."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_velar_stop]

name::
* McsEngl./k/,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.k!⇒phoneme.k,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-k!⇒phoneme.k,
* McsEngl.phoneme.k,

stop.g of speech of lagSpch

description::
· example: gun,
"The voiced velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.
Some languages have the voiced pre-velar stop, which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiced velar stop, though not as front as the prototypical voiced palatal stop.
Conversely, some languages have the voiced post-velar stop, which is articulated slightly behind the place of articulation of the prototypical voiced velar stop, though not as back as the prototypical voiced uvular stop."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_velar_stop]

name::
* McsEngl./g/,
* McsEngl.consonantPhm.g!⇒phoneme.g,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-g!⇒phoneme.g,
* McsEngl.phoneme.g,

phoneme.vowelBo of speech

description::
"It has long been recognised that most languages contain a class of sound that functions in a way similar to consonants but is phonetically similar to vowels"
[Peter Roach 2009 Glossary]

name::
* McsEngl.phoneme.vowelBo!⇒lagSpch-semivowel,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-semivowel,
* McsEngl.semivowel-of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-semivowel,

unit.termNo of speech of lagSpch

description::
· termNo-unit of lagSpch is any other unit except phonemes.

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch-unit.termNo,

unit-structure of speech of lagSpch

description::
· speech-unit-structure of lagSpch is a-speech-node that is a-structure of units.

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch'unit-structurenit-structure,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-node.unit-structurenit-structure,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-unit-structure,
* McsEngl.speech-unit-structure--of-lagSpchnit-structure,
* McsEngl.unit-structure-of-lagSpchnit-structure,

specific::
* speech-word,

word of speech of lagSpch

description::
· word of lagSpch is a-speech-node that is a-structure of units.

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch'word!⇒lagSpch-word,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-node.word!⇒lagSpch-word,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-word,
* McsEngl.word-of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-word,
* McsEngl.wordOrl!⇒lagSpch-word,

generic-tree::
* logo-word,

stress of wordLogHmn

description::
"Accent: There are three kinds of accent in world languages: stress accents, pitch accents, and tones. Here accent doesn't mean different varieties of pronunciation, such as in "His English has a Texan accent," but it means a way to distinguish words other than consonants and vowels.
English has stress accents, where the strong voice determines accents. For instance, the words subject in "the subject" and in "to subject" have different accents while they have the same consonants and vowels.
Japanese has pitch accents, where the high tone of voice determines accents. The strength of voice doesn't matter in Japanese to differentiate words.
Chinese has tones, where every syllable has either one of the four tones. Unlike Chinese, wrong accents don't make much trouble in Japanese, so you can skip this section if you want to master kana first."
[http://www.sf.airnet.ne.jp/ts/japanese/phoneme.html]

name::
* McsEngl.stress-of-word--of-lagSpch,
* McsEngl.wordOrl'stress,

mapping-unit-(speech-name) of speech of lagSpch

description::
· speech-name of lagSpch is a-speech-node that denotes a-semaso-concept.

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch'semantic-unit!⇒lagSpch-name,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-node.semantic-unit!⇒lagSpch-name,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-name,
* McsEngl.mapping-unit--of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-name,
* McsEngl.semantic-unit--of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-name,
* McsEngl.speech-name--of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-name,

generic-tree::
* lagHmnm-name,

sentence of speech of lagSpch

description::
· sentence of lagSpch is a-speech-node that denotes a-semaso-sentence.
· sentences are the-main units of speech.

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch'sentence!⇒lagSpch-sentence,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-node.sentence!⇒lagSpch-sentence,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-sentence,
* McsEngl.sentence-of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-sentence,
* McsEngl.statement-of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-sentence,

section of speech of lagSpch

description::
· section[a] of lagSpch is a-speech-node that denotes a-semaso-section.
· it[a] is a-whole-part-structure of sentences.

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch'section!⇒lagSpch-section,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-node.section!⇒lagSpch-section,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-section,
* McsEngl.section-of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-section,

root-node of speech of lagSpch

description::
· root-node of lagSpch is the-outermost node of speech.

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch'root!⇒lagSpch-root,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-node.root!⇒lagSpch-root,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-root,
* McsEngl.root-node--of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-root,

info-resource of lagSpch

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch'Infrsc,

addressWpg::
* http://www.cambridge.org/elt/peterroach/resources.htm,

ATTRIBUTE of lagSpch

knower of lagSpch

description::
· knower of lagSpch is a-human or a-machine who knows the-language.
· the-knower has his own brain-worldview and understands the-brain-worldviews of others (= can-create the-mind-views of others when he senses the-speech of them).

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch'knower!⇒lagSpch-knower,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-knower,

knower.speaker of lagSpch

description::
· speaker is the-creator of speech.

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch'speaker,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-knower.speaker,

knower.listener of lagSpch

description::
· listener of lagSpch is the-knower who undertands the-speech.

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch'listener,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-knower.listener,

DOING of lagSpch

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch'doing,

generic-tree::
* lagHmnm-doing,

specific::
* main-functing,
* evoluting,
* pronunciation,

doing.listening of lagSpch

description::
· listening is the-decoding of a-lagSpch.

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch'listening!⇒listening,
* McsEngl.listen!~verbEnglA1:listen--s-ed-ing-ed!⇒listening,
* McsEngl.listening,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ακούω-ομιλία!~verbElln!=listening,

doing.speaking of lagSpch

description::
· speaking is the-encoding of a-lagSpch.
· pronunciation of lagSpch is its lagHmnm-implementation.

name::
* McsEngl.functing.speaking!⇒speakingFuncting,
* McsEngl.lagSpch'pronunciation!⇒speakingFuncting,
* McsEngl.lagSpch'speaking!⇒speakingFuncting,
* McsEngl.say!~verbEnglC:say-says-said-saying-said!⇒speakingFuncting,
* McsEngl.speak!~verbEnglC:speak-speaks-spoke-speaking-spoken!⇒speakingFuncting,
* McsEngl.speakingFuncting,
* McsEngl.tell!~verbEnglC:tell-tells-told-telling-told!⇒speakingFuncting,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.λέ-ω-ομαι!~verbElln!=speakingFuncting,
* McsElln.λέγ-ω-ομαι!~verbElln!=speakingFuncting,
* McsElln.μιλ-άω-ώ-ιέμαι!~verbElln!=speakingFuncting,
* McsElln.ομιλ-ώ-ούμαι!~verbElln!=speakingFuncting,

EVOLUTING of lagSpch

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch'evoluting,

{time.}::
=== :

GENERIC of lagSpch

generic-tree::
* human-mind-language,
* language,
* mapping-method,
* method,
* info,
* model,
* entity,

lagSpch.SPECIFIC

description::
* English-lagSpch,
* Greek-lagSpch,
* Sinago-lagSpch,

name::
* McsEngl.lagSpch.specific,

meta-info

this webpage was-visited times since {2019-08-02}

page-wholepath: synagonism.net / worldviewSngo / dirLag / lagSpch

SEARCH::
· this page uses 'locator-names', names that when you find them, you find the-LOCATION of the-concept they denote.
GLOBAL-SEARCH:
· clicking on the-green-BAR of a-page you have access to the-global--locator-names of my-site.
· use the-prefix 'lagSpch' for structured-concepts related to current concept 'oral-language'.
LOCAL-SEARCH:
· TYPE CTRL+F "McsLang.words-of-concept's-name", to go to the-LOCATION of the-concept.
· a-preview of the-description of a-global-name makes reading fast.

footer::
• author: Kaseluris.Nikos.1959
• email:
 
• edit on github: https://github.com/synagonism/McsWorld/blob/master/dirLag/McsLag000009.last.html,
• comments on Disqus,
• twitter: @synagonism

webpage-versions::
• version.last.dynamic: McsLag000009.last.html,
• version.1-0-0.2021-04-11: (0-18) ../../dirMiwMcs/dirLag/filMcsLagOral.1-0-0.2021-04-11.html,
• version.0-1-0.2019-08-02 draft creation,

support (link)