speech--human-language senso-concept-Mcs

McsHitp-creation:: {2019-08-02},

overview of lagSpch

· oral-lagHmnm is a-lagHmnm that uses sound uttered through the-mouth to create its logo-view.

* McsEngl.McsLag000009.last.html//dirLag//dirMcs!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.dirMcs/dirLag/McsLag000009.last.html!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.lagHmnm.0017-oral!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.lagHmnm.oral!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.lagOral!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.lagOrl!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.lagSpch,
* McsEngl.lagSpch'(McsLag000009)!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.lagSpch'(speech-language)!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.oral-lagHmnm!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.oral-language!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.sound-lagHmnm!⇒lagSpch,
* McsEngl.speech-lagHmnm!⇒lagSpch, {2021-10-02},
* McsEngl.spoken-lagHmnm!⇒lagSpch,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.kǒuyǔ-口语!=lagSpch,
* McsZhon.口语-kǒuyǔ!=lagSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.γλσΠρφκ!=lagSpch,
* McsElln.γλώσσα-ομιλίας!=lagSpch,
* McsElln.γλώσσα-προφορική!=lagSpch,

input1-(mind-view) (link) of lagSpch

input2-(sensorial--mind-view) (link) of lagSpch

input3-(semaso-view) (link) of lagSpch

output of lagSpch

· speech of lagSpch is the-logo-view of a-lagSpch.

* McsEngl.lagSpch'output!⇒speech,
* McsEngl.logo-of-lagSpch!⇒speech,
* McsEngl.output-of-lagSpch!⇒speech,
* McsEngl.speech,
* McsEngl.speech-of-lagSpch!⇒speech,

utterance of speech of lagSpch

· utterance is any part of speech.

* McsEngl.info-of-speech,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-utterance,
* McsEngl.utterance-of-lagSpch,

syntax-tree of speech

· syntax-tree of lagSpch is the-structure of the-speech.
· this structure is a-whole-part-tree of speech-nodes.

* McsEngl.lagSpch'syntax-tree,
* McsEngl.speech'syntax-tree,

node of speech

· speech-node of lagSpch is any identifiable part of the-syntax-tree.

* McsEngl.lagSpch'node,
* McsEngl.speech'node,

* logo-node,

unit of speech

· unit of lagSpch is any indivisible part of speech.

* McsEngl.lagSpch'unit!⇒unitSpch,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-unit!⇒unitSpch,
* McsEngl.unitSpch,

* logo-unit,

* main-name-unit,
* termNo-unit,

unit.term-(phoneme) of speech of lagSpch

· phoneme is a-set of sounds that distinguish words (i.e. changing one phoneme in a-word can-produce another word).
· phoneme of lagSpch is its main-name-unit.
· phone is an-individual phoneme.
· allophone is the-phones of one phoneme.
· a-phoneme is-symbolized as /p/.

* McsEngl.lagSpch'phoneme!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-unit.phoneme!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-unit.term!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-phoneme!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.generic-phone--of-lagSpch!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.main-unit--of-lagSpch!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.phmHmn!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.phnmHmn!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.phoneme-of-lagSpch!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.phoneme,
* McsEngl.phonemeOrl!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.speech-unit-of-lagSpch!⇒phoneme,
* McsEngl.unitSpch!⇒phoneme,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.yīnwèi-音位!=phoneme,
* McsZhon.音位-yīnwèi!=phoneme,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ΦΩΝΗΜΑ!=phomeme,
* McsElln.φωνίδιο!=phomeme,
* McsElln.φώνημα!=phomeme,

* main-name-unit--of-lagHmnm,

distinctive-feature of phoneme

"distinctive feature
In any language it seems that the sounds used will only differ from each other in a small number of ways. If for example a language had 40 phonemes, then in theory each of those 40 could be utterly different from the other 39. However, in practice there will usually be just a small set of important differences: some of the sounds will be vowels and some consonants; some of the consonants will be plosives and affricates, and the rest will be continuants; some of the continuants will be nasal and some not, and so on. These differences are identified by phonologists, and are known as distinctive features.
There is disagreement about how to define the features (e.g. whether they should be labelled according to articulatory characteristics or acoustic ones), and about how many features are needed in order to be able to classify the sounds of all the languages in the world. See the entry for feature.
[Peter Roach 2009]

* McsEngl.phoneme'distinctive-feature,
* McsEngl.phoneme'feature,

airstream-obstruction of phoneme

· the-degree of obstruction of the-airstream creates the-vowels and consonants phonemes.

* McsEngl.phoneme'airstream-constriction,
* McsEngl.phoneme'airstream-obstruction,
* McsEngl.phoneme'obstruction-of-airstream,

notation of phoneme

· a-phoneme is-symbolized as /p/.
"IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types, letters and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, [t], or with a letter plus diacritics, [t̺ʰ], depending on how precise one wishes to be.[note 1] Slashes are used to signal phonemic transcription; thus /t/ is more abstract than either [t̺ʰ] or [t] and might refer to either, depending on the context and language."
[{2021-10-03 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Phonetic_Alphabet]

* McsEngl.phoneme'notation,
* McsEngl.phnmHmn'notation,

info-resource of phoneme

* IPA_Kiel_2015.pdf,
* IPA-page: https://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/,
* http://www.ipachart.com/: with sounds,
* http://www.internationalphoneticalphabet.org/ipa-sounds/ipa-chart-with-sounds/,

* McsEngl.phoneme'Infrsc,

GENERIC of phoneme

* unit-of-lagHmnm,

* McsEngl.phoneme'generic,

phoneme.SPECIFIC of speech

* phone,
* allophone,
* aggregate,
=== on airstream-obstruction:
* vowel-phoneme,
* vowelNo-phoneme-(consonant),
* vowelBo-phoneme-(semivowel),

* McsEngl.phoneme.specific,

phoneme.specifics-division.language of speech

* Chinese-phoneme,
* English-phoneme,
* Esperanto-phoneme,
* Greek-phoneme,
* Sinago-phoneme,

* McsEngl.phoneme.specific-division.language,

phoneme.specifics-division.obstruction of speech

· on airstream-obstruction:
* vowel-phoneme,
* vowelNo-phoneme-(consonant),
* vowelBo-phoneme-(semivowel),

* McsEngl.phoneme.specifics-division.airstream-obstruction,

phoneme.aggregate of speech

· very few languages have more than 50.

* McsEngl.phoneme.aggregate,

phoneme.allophone of speech

· allophone of lagSpch is one of several similar phones that belong to the-same phoneme.
· allophones are-symbolized as [p]

* McsEngl.allophone-of-lagSpch,
* McsEngl.lagSpch'allophone,
* McsEngl.phoneme.allophone,

phoneme.phone of speech

· phone of lagSpch is an-instance of a-phoneme.
· a-phone is-symbolized as [p].

* McsEngl.individual-phoneme--of-lagSpch!⇒phoneSpch,
* McsEngl.lagSpch'phone!⇒phoneSpch,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-phone!⇒phoneSpch,
* McsEngl.phoneme.phone!⇒phoneSpch,
* McsEngl.phone-of-lagSpch!⇒phoneSpch,
* McsEngl.phone//speech!⇒phoneSpch,
* McsEngl.phoneSpch,
* McsEngl.speech-sound--of-lagSpch!⇒phoneSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.φθόγγος!=phoneSpch,


"Στις γλώσσες που μιλιούνται στον κόσμο εμφανίζεται μια τεράστια ποικιλία ήχων (φθόγγων). Κανένα ζώο δεν μπορεί να παραγάγει την ποικιλία των ήχων που βρίσκουμε στις ανθρώπινες γλώσσες. Βρίσκουμε περίπου διακόσια είδη φωνηέντων και εξακόσια είδη συμφώνων! Ήχοι που σε μια γλώσσα δεν λειτουργούν ως φθόγγοι (ως υλικό για την κατασκευή λέξεων) μπορεί να λειτουργούν με αυτό τον τρόπο σε μια άλλη γλώσσα. Έτσι, στα ελληνικά ο ήχος που κάνουμε όταν καθαρίζουμε τον λαιμό μας δεν λειτουργεί ως φθόγγος, δεν φτιάχνουμε λέξεις με αυτού του είδους τον ήχο. Στα αραβικά τέτοιοι ήχοι (τους λέμε φαρυγγικούς γιατί ο φάρυγγας παίζει ρόλο στη δημιουργία τους) είναι φθόγγοι με τους οποίους δημιουργούνται λέξεις. Επίσης, στα ελληνικά ο ήχος που παράγουμε για να δηλώσουμε άρνηση (tsk, το τσού που κάνουμε) δεν εμφανίζεται ως φθόγγος της γλώσσας μας. Αν προσέξτε πώς σχηματίζεται αυτός ο ήχος, θα δείτε ότι δημιουργείται με το «ρούφηγμα» του αέρα και όχι με την εξώθησή του, το βγάλσιμό του έξω από τη στοματική κοιλότητα. Τέτοιου είδους ήχοι είναι σπάνιοι, ως φθόγγοι, στις γλώσσες του κόσμου. Ωστόσο, σε κάποιες γλώσσες της Αφρικής υπάρχουν και λειτουργούν ως φθόγγοι. Για να δώσουμε ένα τελευταίο παράδειγμα, στα νέα ελληνικά που μιλάμε όλοι μας, στην κοινή νέα ελληνική, το παχύ σ που χρησιμοποιούμε όταν θέλουμε να επιβάλουμε τη σιωπή (σσσσ!) δεν εμφανίζεται ως φθόγγος της γλώσσας. Σε πολλές όμως διαλέκτους της νέας ελληνικής βρίσκουμε αυτό το παχύ σ να συμμετέχει στον σχηματισμό λέξεων."
[{2022-04-15 retrieved} https://www.greek-language.gr/Resources/ancient_greek/history/ag_history/browse.html?start=18]

* McsEngl.phoneSpch.specific,

phoneSpch.IPA of speech of lagSpch

"The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an academic standard created by the International Phonetic Association.
IPA is a phonetic notation system that uses a set of symbols to represent each distinct sound that exists in human spoken language. It encompasses all languages spoken on earth. The system was created in 1886 and was last updated in 2005. It consists of 107 letters, 52 diacritics, and four prosodic marks."


* McsEngl.IPA-international-phonetic-alphabet,
* McsEngl.phoneSpch.IPA,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ΔΦΑ'Διεθνές-Φωνητικό-Αλφάβητο!=IPA,
* McsElln.Διεθνές-Φωνητικό-Αλφάβητο!=IPA,

* Unicode-block: IPA-Extensions,
* http://www.internationalphoneticalphabet.org/ipa-sounds/ipa-chart-with-sounds/,
* http://www.ipachart.com/,
* http://www.internationalphoneticalphabet.org/ipa-charts/ipa-symbols-with-unicode-decimal-and-hex-codes/,
* https://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/wells/ipa-unicode.htm,

phoneme.vowel of speech

· vowel of lagSpch is a-phoneme without airstream-obstruction.

* McsEngl.phoneme.vowel!⇒vowelSpch,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-vowel!⇒vowelSpch,
* McsEngl.speech-vowel--of-lagSpch!⇒vowelSpch,
* McsEngl.vowel-of-lagSpch!⇒vowelSpch,
* McsEngl.vowelOrlHmn!⇒vowelSpch,
* McsEngl.vowelPhmHmn!⇒vowelSpch,
* McsEngl.vowelSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.φωνήεν-ομιλίας!=vowelSpch,
* McsElln.φωνήενΠρφκ!=vowelSpch,

lip-openess of vowelSpch

* close,
* near-close,
* close-mid,
* mid,
* open-mid,
* near-open,
* open,

* McsEngl.vowelSpch'lip-openess,
* McsEngl.vowelSpch'openess,

lip-roundness of vowelSpch

* round,
* roundNo,

* McsEngl.vowelSpch'lip-roundness,
* McsEngl.vowelSpch'roundness,

tongue-position of vowelSpch

* front,
* central,
* back,

* McsEngl.vowelSpch'position,
* McsEngl.vowelSpch'tongue-position,


· the-possible vowel instances on oppeness-(7), roundness-(2), and position-(3) are 7x2x3 = 42.
· the-evolution of lagSpch chose 5 as the-most identifiable: /a e i o u/.

openess/position front central back
close i   u
mid e   o
open   a  

"Πόσα φωνήεντα βρίσκουμε στις γλώσσες του κόσμου; Το λιγότερο τρία και το περισσότερο είκοσι τέσσερα. Το πιο συχνό είναι να έχει μια γλώσσα γύρω στα πέντε φωνήεντα και το πιο κοινό φωνήεν είναι το [a]."
[{2022-04-16 retrieved} https://www.greek-language.gr/Resources/ancient_greek/history/ag_history/browse.html?start=23]

* McsEngl.vowelSpch.aggregate,


"The open front unrounded vowel, or low front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. It is one of the eight primary cardinal vowels, not directly intended to correspond to a vowel sound of a specific language but rather to serve as a fundamental reference point in a phonetic measuring system.[2]
The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) that represents this sound is ⟨a⟩, and in the IPA vowel chart it is positioned at the lower-left corner. However, the accuracy of the quadrilateral vowel chart is disputed, and the sound has been analyzed acoustically as extra-open at a position where the front/back distinction has lost its significance. There are also differing interpretations of the exact quality of the vowel: the classic sound recording of [a] by Daniel Jones is slightly more front but not quite as open as that by John Wells.[3]
In practice, it is considered normal by many phoneticians to use the symbol ⟨a⟩ for an open central unrounded vowel and instead approximate the open front unrounded vowel with ⟨æ⟩ (which officially signifies a near-open front unrounded vowel).[4] This is the usual practice, for example, in the historical study of the English language. The loss of separate symbols for open and near-open front vowels is usually considered unproblematic, because the perceptual difference between the two is quite small, and very few languages contrast the two. If there is a need to specify the backness of the vowel as fully front one can use the symbol ⟨æ̞⟩, which denotes a lowered near-open front unrounded vowel.
The Hamont dialect of Limburgish has been reported to contrast long open front, central and back unrounded vowels.[5] This is extremely unusual."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_front_unrounded_vowel]

* McsEngl./a/,
* McsEngl.lagSpch'a,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-open-vowel,
* McsEngl.phoneme.a,
* McsEngl.vowelSpch.a,
* McsEngl.vowelSpch.open,


"The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨e⟩.
For the close-mid front rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ɪ⟩ or ⟨i⟩, see near-close front unrounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨e⟩, the vowel is listed here."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Close-mid_front_unrounded_vowel]

* McsEngl./e/,
* McsEngl.lagSpch'e,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-openMid-frontNo-vowel,
* McsEngl.phoneme.e,
* McsEngl.vowelSpch.e,
* McsEngl.vowelSpch.openMid-frontNo,


"The close front unrounded vowel, or high front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound that occurs in most spoken languages, represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet by the symbol i. It is similar to the vowel sound in the English word meet—and often called long-e in American English.[2] Although in English this sound has additional length (usually being represented as /iː/) and is not normally pronounced as a pure vowel (it is a slight diphthong), some dialects have been reported to pronounce the phoneme as a pure sound.[3] A pure [i] sound is also heard in many other languages, such as French, in words like chic.
The close front unrounded vowel is the vocalic equivalent of the palatal approximant [j]. The two are almost identical featurally. They alternate with each other in certain languages, such as French, and in the diphthongs of some languages, [i̯] with the non-syllabic diacritic and [j] are used in different transcription systems to represent the same sound.
Languages that use the Latin script commonly use the letter ⟨i⟩ to represent this sound, though there are some exceptions: in English orthography that letter is usually associated with /aɪ/ (as in bite) or /ɪ/ (as in bit), and /iː/ is more commonly represented by ⟨e⟩, ⟨ea⟩, ⟨ee⟩, ⟨ie⟩ or ⟨ei⟩, as in the words scene, bean, meet, niece, conceive; (see Great Vowel Shift). Irish orthography reflects both etymology and whether preceding consonants are broad or slender, so such combinations as ⟨aí⟩, ⟨ei⟩, and ⟨aío⟩ all represent /iː/."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Close_front_unrounded_vowel]

* McsEngl./i/,
* McsEngl.lagSpch'i,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-openNo-frontNo-vowel,
* McsEngl.phoneme.i,
* McsEngl.vowelSpch.i,
* McsEngl.vowelSpch.openMid-frontNo,


· front (long) /i/.

* McsEngl./i1/-(front),
* McsEngl.phoneme.i1-(front),


· back (short) /i/.

* McsEngl./i2/-(back),
* McsEngl.phoneme.i2-(back),


· round lips /i/.

* McsEngl./i3/-(round),
* McsEngl.phoneme.i3-(round),


"The close-mid back rounded vowel, or high-mid back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨o⟩.
For the close-mid back rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʊ⟩ or ⟨u⟩, see near-close back rounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨o⟩, the vowel is listed here."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Close-mid_back_rounded_vowel]

* McsEngl.lagSpch-o,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-openMid-front-vowel!⇒lagSpch-o,
* McsEngl.vowelSpch.o!⇒lagSpch-o,
* McsEngl.vowelSpch.openMid-front!⇒lagSpch-o,


"The close back rounded vowel, or high back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨u⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is u.
In most languages, this rounded vowel is pronounced with protruded lips ('endolabial'). However, in a few cases the lips are compressed ('exolabial').
The close back rounded vowel is almost identical featurally to the labio-velar approximant [w]. [u] alternates with [w] in certain languages, such as French, and in the diphthongs of some languages, [u̯] with the non-syllabic diacritic and [w] are used in different transcription systems to represent the same sound."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Close_back_rounded_vowel]

* McsEngl./u/,
* McsEngl.lagSpch'u,
* McsEngl.phoneme.u,
* McsEngl.vowelSpch.u,
* McsEngl.vowelSpch.openNo-front,

phoneme.vowelNo of speech

· consonant of lagSpch is a-phoneme with airstream-obstruction.

* McsEngl.consonantOrlHmn!⇒consonantSpch,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch,
* McsEngl.phoneme.vowelNo!⇒consonantSpch,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-consonant!⇒consonantSpch,
* McsEngl.consonant-of-lagSpch!⇒consonantSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=consonantSpch,

airstream of consonantSpch

* pulmonic,
* pulmonicNo,

* McsEngl.consonantSpch'airstream,

place-of-articulation of consonantSpch


"Places of articulation (active and passive)
1. Exo-labial (outer part of lip)
2. Endo-labial (inner part of lip)
3. Dental (teeth)
4. Alveolar (front part of alveolar ridge)
5. Post-alveolar (rear part of alveolar ridge & slightly behind it)
6. Pre-palatal (front part of hard palate that arches upward)
7. Palatal (hard palate)
8. Velar (soft palate)
9. Uvular (a.k.a. Post-velar; uvula)
10. Pharyngeal (pharyngeal wall)
11. Glottal (a.k.a. Laryngeal; vocal folds)
12. Epiglottal (epiglottis)
13. Radical (tongue root)
14. Postero-dorsal (back of tongue body)
15. Antero-dorsal (front of tongue body)
16. Laminal (tongue blade)
17. Apical (apex or tongue tip)
18. Sub-laminal (a.k.a. Sub-apical; underside of tongue)
- Some phoneticians may define terms slightly differently and may include more or less distinctions (e.g. Post-velar could be an area between Velar and Uvular; or Exo-labial and Endo-labial could be subsumed under Labial). The scheme used above is from Catford (1977).
- Pharyngeal can usefully be divided into different regions.
- The term Retroflex is better thought of as a particular combination of a sublaminal/apical active articulator and a alveolar/postalveolar/prepalatal/palatal passive region.
- Radical is often considered to be both the upper tongue root (#13) and the lower tongue root including the epiglottis (#12)."
[{2022-08-27 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Places_of_articulation.svg]
* Labial,
* Coronal,
* Dorsal,
* Laryngeal,
* Bi­labial,
* Labio­dental,
* Linguo­labial,
* Dental,
* Alveolar,
* Post­alveolar,
* Retro­flex,
* Palatal,
* Velar,
* Uvular,
* Pharyngeal/epiglottal
* Glottal,

* McsEngl.consonantSpch'place-of-articulation,

articulator of consonantSpch

"αρθρωτής [articulator]
Αρθρωτές είναι τα όργανα του σώματος που χρησιμοποιούνται για να παραχθούν οι φθόγγοι κατά την ομιλία: τα χείλη, τα δόντια, τα φατνία, ο ουρανίσκος, η υπερώα, η σταφυλή, η γλώσσα, η στοματική και η ρινική κοιλότητα (οι οποίες ονομάζονται και φωνητική κοιλότητα), οι φωνητικές χορδές, η γλωσσίδα, ο λάρυγγας, ο φάρυγγας. Τα όργανα αυτά καθορίζουν τον τόπο άρθρωσης ενός συμφώνου ή φωνήεντος . Η τραχεία και οι πνεύμονες, αντίθετα, είναι όργανα που χρησιμοποιούνται για την παραγωγή της ομιλίας αλλά όχι για την παραγωγή των φθόγγων, στον βαθμό που κατά την εκπνοή ο αέρας ξεκινάει μεν από τους πνεύμονες και περνάει από την τραχεία αλλά σε αυτά τα σημεία δεν παράγεται φωνή· τα όργανα τα οποία εμπλέκονται στην παραγωγή των φθόγγων -στις γλώσσες του κόσμου- βρίσκονται από τον λάρυγγα και πάνω. Θα πρέπει να σημειωθεί επίσης ότι σε όλα αυτά τα όργανα η παραγωγή ομιλίας και ήχων είναι δευτερογενής λειτουργία, ενώ η πρωτογενής βιολογική τους λειτουργία είναι άλλη: π.χ. αναπνοή, μάσηση. Διακρίνονται σε ενεργητικούς και παθητικούς αρθρωτές. Ενεργητικοί είναι οι αρθρωτές που -κατά κανόνα- μετακινούνται προς κάποιον παθητικό ή σταθερό αρθρωτή. Π.χ. κατά την παραγωγή του φθόγγου [c] η ράχη της γλώσσας (ενεργητικός αρθρωτής) κινείται προς τον ουρανίσκο (παθητικός αρθρωτής).
Μ. Θεοδωροπούλου"
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} ]

* McsEngl.articulator-of-consonantSpch,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch'articulator,

mode-of-articulation of consonantSpch

* nasal,
* stop,
* sibilant-fricative,
* non-sibilant-fricative,
* approximant,
* tap/flap,
* trill,
* lateral fricative,
* lateral approximant,
* lateral tap/flap,

* McsEngl.consonantSpch'manner,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch'mode,

voiceness of consonantSpch

· many languages use this antithesis to create consonants.
* voicedNo:voiced,
* /f:v/, /th:dh/, /t:d/, /s:z/, /c:j/, /k:g/, /h:y/,

* McsEngl.consonantSpch'voiceness,
* McsEngl.voiceness-of-consonantSpch,

aspiration of consonantSpch

· Chinese-family-languages use this antithesis to create consonants.
* /p:pʰ/, /k:kʰ/, /t:tʰ/, /c:cʰ/, /C:Cʰ/, /cc:ccʰ/,
"Ancient Greek, including the Classical Attic and Koine Greek dialects, had a three-way distinction in stops like Eastern Armenian: /t tʰ d/. These series were called ψιλά, δασέα, μέσα (psilá, daséa, mésa) "smooth, rough, intermediate", respectively, by Koine Greek grammarians."
[{2022-08-25 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspirated_consonant#Greek]
* /p pʰ b/
* /t tʰ d/
* /k kʰ g/

* McsEngl.aspiration-of-consonantSpch,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch'aspiration,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.δασύτητα-συμφώνουΠρφκ!=aspiration,
* McsElln.σύμφωνοΠρφκ'δασύτητα!=aspiration,


* https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_consonants,

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.specific,


"ηχηρό σύμφωνο [voiced consonant]
Όρος ταξινόμησης των συμφώνων με βάση το διακριτικό χαρακτηριστικό της ηχηρότητας . Πρόκειται για τα σύμφωνα που παράγονται όταν οι φωνητικές χορδές πλησιάσουν τόσο ώστε να τίθενται σε παλμικές κινήσεις. Ως προς αυτό το χαρακτηριστικό τα ηχηρά σύμφωνα προσιδιάζουν στα φωνήεντα με τη διαφορά ότι η ροή του αέρα παρεμποδίζεται σε κάποιο σημείο της στοματική ή ρινικής κοιλότητας. Ηχηρά σύμφωνα της νέας ελληνικής είναι τα κλειστά [b d g ɟ], τα τριβόμενα [v ɣ ʝ ð z], τα υγρά και έρρινα [l ʎ r m ɱ n ŋ ɲ ] καθώς και το προστριβόμενο [ʤ]. (Βλ. και άηχο σύμφωνο).
Μ. Αραποπούλου"
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://www.greek-language.gr/greekLang/modern_greek/tools/lexica/glossology/show.html?id=149]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.voiced,
* McsEngl.vd-consonantSpch,
* McsEngl.voiced-consonantSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ηχηρό-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=voiced,
* McsElln.σύμφωνοΠρφκ-ηχηρό!=voiced,


"άηχο σύμφωνο [voiceless / unvoiced consonant]
Όρος ταξινόμησης των συμφώνων με βάση το διακριτικό χαρακτηριστικό της ηχηρότητας . Πρόκειται για τα σύμφωνα που παράγονται όταν οι φωνητικές χορδές παραμένουν τόσο ανοιχτές ώστε να είναι αδύνατο να τεθούν σε παλμική κίνηση, ενώ ταυτόχρονα η ροή του αέρα παρεμποδίζεται σε κάποιο σημείο της στοματικής κοιλότητας. Άηχα σύμφωνα της νέας ελληνικής είναι τα κλειστά [p t k c], τα τριβόμενα [f x ç θ s] και το προστριβόμενο [ts]. (Βλ. και ηχηρό σύμφωνο).
Μ. Αραποπούλου"
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://www.greek-language.gr/greekLang/modern_greek/tools/lexica/glossology/show.html?id=148]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.voicedNo,
* McsEngl.unvoiced-consonantSpch,
* McsEngl.vl-consonantSpch,
* McsEngl.voicedNo-consonantSpch,
* McsEngl.voiceless-consonantSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.άηχο-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=voiceless,
* McsElln.σύμφωνοΠρφκ.άηχο!=voiceless,


* Labial,
* Coronal,
* Dorsal,
* Laryngeal,
* Bi­labial,
* Labio­dental,
* Linguo­labial,
* Dental,
* Alveolar,
* Post­alveolar,
* Retro­flex,
* Palatal,
* Velar,
* Uvular,
* Pharyngeal/epiglottal
* Glottal,

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.specifics-division.place,


"Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator. The two common labial articulations are bilabials, articulated using both lips, and labiodentals, articulated with the lower lip against the upper teeth, both of which are present in English. A third labial articulation is dentolabials, articulated with the upper lip against the lower teeth (the reverse of labiodental), normally only found in pathological speech. Generally precluded are linguolabials, in which the tip of the tongue contacts the posterior side of the upper lip, making them coronals, though sometimes, they behave as labial consonants.[clarification needed]
The most common distribution between bilabials and labiodentals is the English one, in which the nasal and the stops, [m], [p], and [b], are bilabial and the fricatives, [f], and [v], are labiodental. The voiceless bilabial fricative, voiced bilabial fricative, and the bilabial approximant do not exist as the primary realizations of any sounds in English, but they occur in many languages. For example, the Spanish consonant written b or v is pronounced, between vowels, as a voiced bilabial approximant.
Lip rounding, or labialization, is a common approximant-like co-articulatory feature. English /w/ is a voiced labialized velar approximant, which is far more common than the purely labial approximant [β̞]. In the languages of the Caucasus, labialized dorsals like /kʷ/ and /qʷ/ are very common.
Very few languages, however, make a distinction purely between bilabials and labiodentals, making "labial" usually a sufficient specification of a language's phonemes. One exception is Ewe, which has both kinds of fricatives, but the labiodentals are produced with greater articulatory force."
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labial_consonant]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.labial,
* McsEngl.labial-consonantSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.σύμφωνοΠρφκ.χειλικό!=labial,
* McsElln.χειλικό-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=labial,


"Coronals are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue. Among places of articulation, only the coronal consonants can be divided into as many articulation types: apical (using the tip of the tongue), laminal (using the blade of the tongue), domed (with the tongue bunched up), or subapical (using the underside of the tongue) as well as different postalveolar articulations (some of which also involve the back of the tongue as an articulator): palato-alveolar, alveolo-palatal and retroflex. Only the front of the tongue (coronal) has such dexterity among the major places of articulation, allowing such variety of distinctions. Coronals have another dimension, grooved, to make sibilants in combination with the orientations above."
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronal_consonant]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.coronal,
* McsEngl.coronal-consonantSpch,


"Dorsal consonants are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum). They include the palatal, velar and, in some cases, alveolo-palatal and uvular consonants. They contrast with coronal consonants, articulated with the flexible front of the tongue, and laryngeal consonants, articulated in the pharyngeal cavity."
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorsal_consonant]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.dorsal,
* McsEngl.dorsal-consonantSpch,


"Laryngeal consonants (a term often used interchangeably with guttural consonants) are consonants with their primary articulation in the larynx. The laryngeal consonants comprise the pharyngeal consonants (including the epiglottals), the glottal consonants,[1][2] and for some languages uvular consonants.[3]
The term laryngeal is often taken to be synonymous with glottal, but the larynx consists of more than just the glottis (vocal folds): it also includes the epiglottis and aryepiglottic folds. In a broad sense, therefore, laryngeal articulations include the radical consonants, which involve the root of the tongue. The diversity of sounds produced in the larynx is the subject of ongoing research, and the terminology is evolving.
The term laryngeal consonant is also used for laryngealized consonants articulated in the upper vocal tract, such as Arabic 'emphatics' and Korean 'tense' consonants."
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laryngeal_consonant]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.larygeal,
* McsEngl.larygeal-consonantSpch,


"In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a labial consonant articulated with both lips."
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bilabial_consonant]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.bilabial,
* McsEngl.bilabial-consonantSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.διχειλικό-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=bilabial,
* McsElln.διχειλικό-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=bilabial,


"An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue (apex) in conjunction with upper articulators from lips to postalveolar, and possibly prepalatal.[1][2] It contrasts with laminal consonants, which are produced by creating an obstruction with the blade of the tongue, just behind the tip. Sometimes apical is used exclusively for an articulation that involves only the tip of the tongue and apicolaminal for an articulation that involves both the tip and the blade of the tongue.[3] However, the distinction is not always made and the latter one may be called simply apical, especially when describing an apical dental articulation.[1][4] As there is some laminal contact in the alveolar region, the apicolaminal dental consonants are also labelled as denti-alveolar.
It is not a very common distinction and is typically applied only to fricatives and affricates. Thus, many varieties of English have either apical or laminal pairs of [t]/[d]. However, some varieties of Arabic, including Hadhrami Arabic in Yemen, realize [t] as laminal but [d] as apical.
Basque uses the distinction for alveolar fricatives, as does Serbo-Croatian. Mandarin Chinese uses it for postalveolar fricatives (the "alveolo-palatal" and "retroflex" series). Lillooet uses it as a secondary feature in contrasting velarized and non-velarized affricates. A distinction between apical and laminal is common in Australian Aboriginal languages for nasals, plosives and (usually) lateral approximants.
Most dialects in the Bengali–Assamese continuum distinguish between dental–laminal alveolar stops and apical alveolar stops. In Upper Assamese, they have merged and leave only the apical alveolar stops. In Western Bengali apical alveolars are replaced by apical post-alveolars.
In the International Phonetic Alphabet, the diacritic for apical consonants is U+033A ◌̺ COMBINING INVERTED BRIDGE BELOW."
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apical_consonant]

* McsEngl.apical-consonantSpch,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.apical,


"οδοντικό σύμφωνο [dental consonant]
Όρος που αναφέρεται στην ταξινόμηση των συμφώνων με βάση τον τόπο άρθρωσής τους. Πρόκειται για μια κατηγορία συμφώνων στην άρθρωση των οποίων συμμετέχουν τα (πάνω) δόντια ως τουλάχιστον ένας αρθρωτής. Διακρίνουμε τα μεσοδοντικά [interdental] ή γλωσσοδοντικά ή ακροδοντικά [apico-dental] εξακολουθητικά [ð θ], τα οποία παράγονται όταν η άκρη της γλώσσας (που βρίσκεται μεταξύ των επάνω και κάτω δοντιών) ακουμπήσει στα επάνω δόντια. Τα σύμφωνα αυτά απαντούν στα ελληνικά αλλά και στα αγγλικά και τα ισπανικά. Όταν η άκρη της γλώσσας ακουμπήσει στο πίσω μέρος των πάνω δοντιών ή στα φατνία παράγονται αντίστοιχα τα οδοντικά ή φατνιακά κλειστά σύμφωνα [t d]. Οδοντικά είναι τα σχετικά σύμφωνα της ελληνικής στις λέξεις τότε, ντύνω, ενώ ως φατνιακά προφέρονται τα αντίστοιχα σύμφωνα της αγγλικής στις λέξεις tell, do. Kαι για τις δύο κατηγορίες συμφώνων χρησιμοποιούνται συνήθως αδιακρίτως τα παραπάνω σύμβολα του Διεθνούς Φωνητικού Αλφαβήτου , ενώ όταν υπάρχει ανάγκη να διακριθούν τα οδοντικά χρησιμοποιούνται τα σύμβολα [t̪ d̪].
Μ. Αραποπούλου"
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://www.greek-language.gr/greekLang/modern_greek/tools/lexica/glossology/show.html?id=367]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.dental,
* McsEngl.dental-consonantSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.οδοντικό-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=dental,
* McsElln.σύμφωνοΠρφκ.οδοντικό!=dental,


"φατνιακό σύμφωνο [alveolar consonant]
Όρος που αναφέρεται στην ταξινόμηση των συμφώνων με βάση τον τόπο άρθρωσής τους. Πρόκειται για τα σύμφωνα που παράγονται όταν η άκρη της γλώσσας ακουμπήσει στα (επάνω συνήθως) φατνία, δηλαδή στα οστέινα κοιλώματα των σαγονιών μέσα στα οποία είναι στερεωμένα τα δόντια. Φατνιακά είναι τα κλειστά σύμφωνα [t d], όπως αυτά προφέρονται στην αγγλική (βλ. και οδοντικό σύμφωνο), τα εξακολουθητικά συριστικά [s z], τα υγρά [l r] και το έρρινο [n]. (Βλ. και μεταφατνιακό σύμφωνο).
Μ. Αραποπούλου"
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://www.greek-language.gr/greekLang/modern_greek/tools/lexica/glossology/show.html?id=370]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.alveolar,
* McsEngl.alveolar-consonantSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.σύμφωνοΠρφκ.φατνιακό!=alveolar,
* McsElln.φατνιακό-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=alveolar,


"μεταφατνιακό σύμφωνο [post-alveolar consonant]
Όρος που αναφέρεται στην ταξινόμηση των συμφώνων με βάση τον τόπο άρθρωσής τους. Πρόκειται για τα σύμφωνα που παράγονται όταν η άκρη της γλώσσας πλησιάζει στο πάνω μέρος των φατνίων κοντά στον ουρανίσκο. Σε αυτή την κατηγορία ανήκουν τα φατνοουρανικά , τα ουρανικοφατνιακά και τα ανακεκαμμένα . (Βλ. φατνιακό σύμφωνο)."
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://www.greek-language.gr/greekLang/modern_greek/tools/lexica/glossology/show.html?id=363]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.post-alveolar,
* McsEngl.post-alveolar-consonantSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.μεταφατνιακό-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=post-alveolar,
* McsElln.σύμφωνοΠρφκ-μεταφατνιακό!=post-alveolar,


"ανακεκαμμένο σύμφωνο [retroflex consonant]
Όρος που αναφέρεται στη διάκριση των συμφώνων με βάση τον τόπο άρθρωσής τους. Κατά την άρθρωση των ανακεκαμμένων η άκρη της γλώσσας, που είναι ένας εξαιρετικά ευκίνητος αρθρωτής, τοποθετείται πίσω από τα φατνία και μπορεί να στρίψει τόσο ώστε να ακουμπήσει στον ουρανίσκο. Τα σύμφωνα αυτά λοιπόν αρθρώνονται στην μεταφατνιακή προς ουρανική περιοχή του στόματος, χωρίς όμως να μπορούν να χαρακτηριστούν ουρανικά . Τα ανακεκαμμένα μπορούν να εμφανίσουν όλους τους τρόπους άρθρωσης: κλειστά [ʈ ɖ], εξακολουθητικά [ʂ ʐ], ρινικά [ɳ], παλλόμενα ή flap [ɽ ɻ ]και πλευρικά [ɭ]. Τα κλειστά ανακεκαμμένα απαντούν σε πολλές ινδικές γλώσσες όπως η χίντι, ενώ η κατηγορία των r εμφανίζεται σε πολλές ποικιλίες της αμερικάνικης και βρετανικής αγγλικής.
Μ. Αραποπούλου"
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://www.greek-language.gr/greekLang/modern_greek/tools/lexica/glossology/show.html?id=383]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.retroflex,
* McsEngl.retroflex-consonantSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ανακεκαμμένο-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=retroflex,
* McsElln.σύμφωνοΠρφκ.ανακεκαμμένο!=retroflex,


"ουρανικό σύμφωνο [palatal consonant]
Όρος που αναφέρεται στην ταξινόμηση των συμφώνων με βάση τον τόπο άρθρωσής τους. Τα σύμφωνα αυτά παράγονται όταν η ράχη της γλώσσας πλησιάζει ή ακουμπάει στο μπροστινό, σκληρό, μέρος τους ουρανίσκου. Ουρανικά σύμφωνα της νέας ελληνικής είναι τα κλειστά [c ɟ] (π.χ. κερί [ˈceri], γκιλοτίνα [ɟiloˈtina]), τα εξακολουθητικά [ç ʝ] (π.χ. χιόνι [ˈçoni], γιατρός [ʝaˈtros]), το έρρινο [ɲ] (π.χ. εννιά [eˈɲa]και το υγρό [ʎ] (π.χ. ήλιος [ˈiʎios]. Οι φθόγγοι αυτοί δεν έχουν στα ελληνικά φωνηματική αξία αλλά πρόκειται για αλλόφωνα των αντίστοιχων υπερωικών , υγρών ή έρρινων συμφώνων.
Μ. Αραποπούλου"
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://www.greek-language.gr/greekLang/modern_greek/tools/lexica/glossology/show.html?id=368]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.palatal,
* McsEngl.palatal-consonantSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ουρανικό-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=palatal,
* McsElln.σύμφωνοΠρφκ.ουρανικό!=palatal,


"υπερωικό σύμφωνο [velar consonant]
Όρος που αναφέρεται στην ταξινόμηση των συμφώνων με βάση τον τόπο άρθρωσής τους. Τα σύμφωνα αυτά παράγονται όταν το πίσω μέρος της γλώσσας ακουμπάει στην υπερώα, δηλαδή στο πίσω, μαλακό, μέρος τους ουρανίσκου. Υπερωικά σύμφωνα της νέας ελληνικής είναι τα κλειστά [k g], τα εξακολουθητικά [x γ] και το έρρινο [ŋ] της λέξης άγχος [ˈaŋxos].
Μ. Αραποπούλου"
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://www.greek-language.gr/greekLang/modern_greek/tools/lexica/glossology/show.html?id=140]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.velar,
* McsEngl.velar-consonantSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.σύμφωνοΠρφκ.υπερωικό!=velar,
* McsElln.υπερωικό-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=velar,


"γλωσσιδικό σύμφωνο [glottal consonant]
Όρος που αναφέρεται στην ταξινόμηση των συμφώνων με βάση τον τόπο άρθρωσης . Πρόκειται για το σύμφωνο που παράγεται στον λάρυγγα με σχετική στένωση ή κλείσιμο της γλωσσίδας . Διακρίνουμε ανάμεσα σε τριβόμενο [glottal fricative] και κλειστό γλωσσιδικό φθόγγο [glottal stop]. Ο εξακολουθητικός [h] παράγεται με το πέρασμα του αέρα ανάμεσα από τις φωνητικές χορδές χωρίς να δημιουργείται κανένα εμπόδιο. O φθόγγος αυτός είναι πολύ κοινός στα αγγλικά και τα γερμανικά και εμφανίζεται συνήθως σε αρχή λέξης (ή μορφήματος ), π.χ. head. Yπήρχε και στα αρχαία ελληνικά (δασύ σύμφωνο ) και στον πολυτονικό γραπτό λόγο αποτυπώνεται με το σύμβολο της δασείας. Ο γλωσσιδικός κλειστός [ʔ] παράγεται με το κλείσιμο των φωνητικών χορδών και το απότομο άνοιγμά τους για τη δίοδο του αέρα. Ο φθόγγος αυτός υπάρχει στα αγγλικά (thea'er για το theater), ενώ από τους έλληνες ομιλητές μπορεί να παραχθεί στην αρχή λέξης πριν από φωνήεν για μεγάλη έμφαση: π.χ. ʔάκου να σου πω.
Μ. Αραποπούλου"
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://www.greek-language.gr/greekLang/modern_greek/tools/lexica/glossology/show.html?id=5]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.glottal,
* McsEngl.glottal-consonantSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.γλωσσιδικό-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=glottal,
* McsElln.σύμφωνοΠρφκ.γλωσσιδικό!=glottal,


"An oral consonant is a consonant sound in speech that is made by allowing air to escape from the mouth, as opposed to the nose, as in a nasal consonant. To create an intended oral consonant sound, the entire mouth plays a role in modifying the air's passageway. This rapid modification of the air passageway using the tongue and lips makes changes to the waveform of the sound by compressing and expanding the air. In addition to the nose and mouth, the vocal cords and lungs also make a contribution to producing speech by controlling the volume (amplitude) and pitch (frequency) of the sound. The use of the vocal cords will also determine whether the consonant is voiced or voiceless. The vast majority of consonants are oral, such as, for example [p], [w], [v] and [x]. The others are nasal, such as the nasal occlusives [m] or [ɲ].
Before there appeared the consonantal opposition nasal/oral, consonant was distinguished from vowel as closed tract from open tract. Once the nasal consonant has been opposed to the oral as presence to absence of the open tract, the contrast consonant/vowel is revalued as presence vs. absence of a closed tract.[1]"
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oral_consonant]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.oral,
* McsEngl.oral-consonantSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.στοματικό-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=oral,


"In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive or nasal stop in contrast with an oral stop or nasalized consonant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. The vast majority of consonants are oral consonants. Examples of nasals in English are [n], [ŋ] and [m], in words such as nose, bring and mouth. Nasal occlusives are nearly universal in human languages. There are also other kinds of nasal consonants in some languages."
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nasal_consonant]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.nasal,
* McsEngl.nasal-consonantSpch,

====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.έρρινο-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=nasal,
* McsElln.ρινικό-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=nasal,
* McsElln.σύμφωνοΠρφκ.ρινικό!=nasal,

* nasal,
* stop,
* sibilant-fricative,
* non-sibilant-fricative,
* approximant,
* tap/flap,
* trill,
* lateral fricative,
* lateral approximant,
* lateral tap/flap,

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.specifics-division.mode,


"In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. The vast majority of consonants are oral consonants. Examples of nasals in English are [n], [ŋ] and [m], in words such as nose, bring and mouth. Nasal occlusives are nearly universal in human languages. There are also other kinds of nasal consonants in some languages."
[{2019-08-10} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nasal_consonant]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.nasal,
* McsEngl.nasal-consonant--of-lagSpch,


"In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
The occlusion may be made with the tongue blade ([t], [d]) tongue body ([k], [ɡ]), lips ([p], [b]), or glottis ([ʔ]). Stops contrast with nasals, where the vocal tract is blocked but airflow continues through the nose, as in /m/ and /n/, and with fricatives, where partial occlusion impedes but does not block airflow in the vocal tract."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stop_consonant]
"Τα κλειστά ή έκκροτα σύμφωνα στην φωνητική είναι σύμφωνα κατά την προφορά των οποίων φράζεται η φωνητική οδός, φαινόμενο το οποίο αναφέρεται ως συμφωνική φραγή. Αντιτίθενται με τα έρρινα και τα τριβόμενα διότι μεν στα πρώτα παρότι η στοματική κοιλότητα παραμένει κλειστή ο αέρας διαφεύγει από τη μύτη ενώ στα δεύτερα το στοματικό κανάλι δεν κλείνει απόλυτα. Ως κλειστή φάση αναφέρεται το διάστημα κατά το οποίο διατηρείται η φραγή, ενώ ως έκρηξη η λήξη της φραγής με την απελευθέρωση του αέρα.[1]
Όλες οι γλώσσες του κόσμου διαθέτουν κλειστά σύμφωνα με τα πιο κοινά να είναι τα [p], [t] και [k]. Τα κλειστά σύμφωνα των ελληνικών είναι τα διχειλικά [b] και [p], τα οδοντικά [d] και [t], τα ουρανικά [c] και [ɟ] και τα υπερωικά [g] και [k], με όλα τους να αποτελούν φωνήματα πέραν των δύο ουρανικών.[2]"
[{2022-08-25 retrieved} https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/Κλειστά_σύμφωνα]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.stop,
* McsEngl.plosive-consonant--of-lagSpch,
* McsEngl.stop-consonant--of-lagSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.έκκροτο-σύμφωνο,
* McsElln.κλειστό-σύμφωνο,


"Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow. Therefore, approximants fall between fricatives, which do produce a turbulent airstream, and vowels, which produce no turbulence. This class is composed of sounds like [ɹ] (as in rest) and semivowels like [j] and [w] (as in yes and west, respectively), as well as lateral approximants like [l] (as in less)."
[{2019-08-10} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Approximant_consonant]
"Οι προσεγγιστικά φθόγγοι είναι φθόγγοι που παρότι επιτρέπουν την ελεύθερη έλευση του αέρα από τους αρθρωτές, αυτοί δεν βρίσκονται σε τόσο στενή επαφή και επομένως δεν παράγουν την τριβή που χαρακτηρίζει τα τριβόμενα. Ακουστικά ομοιάζουν αρκετά τα φωνήεντα καθώς στα φασματογραφήματα παρουσιάζουν φωνητικές δομές. Ο όρος προσεγγιστικό (approximant) αποτέλεσε δημιούργημα του γλωσσολόγου Πίτερ Λέιντιφογκιντ τη δεκαετία του 1960.[1]
Είδη προσεγγιστικών είναι τα εξακολουθητικά προσεγγιστικά (π.χ. [β̞]), τα ημίφωνα (π.χ. το [j]) και ορισμένα πλάγια και παλλόμενα.[2] Στο ΔΦΑ τα εξακολουθητικά προσεγγιστικά συγχέονται με τα ημίφωνα, με αποτέλεσμα να είναι συνήθης η μεταγραφή π.χ. του προσεγγιστικού ουρανικού ως ημίφωνου, παρότι ηχητικά είναι δύο διαφοροποιημένες κατηγορίες.[3]"
[{2022-08-27 retrieved} https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/Προσεγγιστικά_σύμφωνα]

* McsEngl.approximant-consonant--of-lagSpch,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.approximant,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.προσεγγιστικό-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=approximant,
* McsElln.σύμφωνοΠρφκ.προσεγγιστικό!=approximant,


"An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal). It is often difficult to decide if a stop and fricative form a single phoneme or a consonant pair. English has two affricate phonemes, /t͡ʃ/ and /d͡ʒ/, often spelled ch and j, respectively."
[{2019-08-10} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affricate_consonant]

* McsEngl.affricat-consonant--of-lagSpch,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.affricat,


"Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. These may be the lower lip against the upper teeth, in the case of [f]; the back of the tongue against the soft palate, in the case of German [x] (the final consonant of Bach); or the side of the tongue against the molars, in the case of Welsh [ɬ] (appearing twice in the name Llanelli). This turbulent airflow is called frication.
A particular subset of fricatives are the sibilants. When forming a sibilant, one still is forcing air through a narrow channel, but in addition, the tongue is curled lengthwise to direct the air over the edge of the teeth[1]. English [s], [z], [ʃ], and [ʒ] are examples of sibilants.
The usage of two other terms is less standardized: "Spirant" is an older term for fricatives used by some American and European phoneticians and phonologists. "Strident" could mean just "sibilant", but some authors[who?] include also labiodental and uvular fricatives in the class."
[{2019-08-10} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fricative_consonant]
"τριβόμενο σύμφωνο [fricative consonant]
Όρος που αναφέρεται στη διάκριση των συμφώνων με βάση τον τρόπο άρθρωσής τους. Τριβόμενο είναι το σύμφωνο που παράγεται όταν οι αρθρωτές που συμμετέχουν στην άρθρωσή του δεν δημιουργούν απόλυτο κλείσιμο, οπότε θα είχαμε κλειστό σύμφωνο, αλλά αφήνουν μεταξύ τους ένα μικρό άνοιγμα που επιτρέπει τη δίοδο του αέρα, με αποτέλεσμα να δημιουργείται ακουστή τριβή. Τα τριβόμενα ονομάζονται και εξακολουθητικά , επειδή η εκφορά τους μπορεί να διαρκεί όσο θέλουμε. Ο τριβόμενος τρόπος άρθρωσης παράγει το ευρύτερο φάσμα φθόγγων από οποιονδήποτε άλλο τρόπο.
Τριβόμενα σύμφωνα της νέας ελληνικής είναι τα [v γ ð θ x s z].
Μ. Αραποπούλου"
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://www.greek-language.gr/greekLang/modern_greek/tools/lexica/glossology/show.html?id=27]
"εξακολουθητικό σύμφωνο [continuant]
Όρος που αναφέρεται στην ταξινόμηση των συμφώνων με βάση τον τρόπο άρθρωσης . Πρόκειται για τα σύμφωνα που παράγονται όταν οι αρθρωτές που συμμετέχουν στην πραγμάτωσή τους δεν δημιουργούν απόλυτο κλείσιμο αλλά επιτρέπουν ως ένα βαθμό τη δίοδο του αέρα και η εκφορά τους μπορεί να διαρκέσει όσο θέλουμε ανάλογα με τον ρυθμό της ομιλίας μας ή τις αναπνευστικές μας ικανότητες. Στη νέα ελληνική εξακολουθητικά είναι τα σύμφωνα [f v θ ð x ɣ s z]. Tα σύμφωνα αυτά ονομάζονται και τριβόμενα .
Μ. Αραποπούλου"
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://www.greek-language.gr/greekLang/modern_greek/tools/lexica/glossology/show.html?id=13]

* McsEngl.continuant-consonant--of-lagSpch,
* McsEngl.fricative-consonant--of-lagSpch,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.fricative,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.εξακολουθητικό-σύμφωνο!=fricative,
* McsElln.τριβόμενο-σύμφωνο!=fricative,


"Sibilants are fricative consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the teeth.[1] Examples of sibilants are the consonants at the beginning of the English words sip, zip, ship, and genre. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet used to denote the sibilant sounds in these words are, respectively, [s] [z] [ʃ] [ʒ]. Sibilants have a characteristically intense sound, which accounts for their paralinguistic use in getting one's attention (e.g. calling someone using "psst!" or quieting someone using "shhhh!").
In the alveolar hissing sibilants [s] and [z], the back of the tongue forms a narrow channel (is grooved) to focus the stream of air more intensely, resulting in a high pitch. With the hushing sibilants (occasionally termed shibilants), such as English [ʃ], [tʃ], [ʒ], and [dʒ], the tongue is flatter, and the resulting pitch lower.[2][3]
A broader category is stridents, which include more fricatives than sibilants such as uvulars. Because all sibilants are also stridents, the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. However, the terms do not mean the same thing. The English stridents are /f, v, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ/. Sibilants are a higher pitched subset of the stridents. The English sibilants are /s, z, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ/. On the other hand, /f/ and /v/ are stridents, but not sibilants, because they are lower in pitch.[4][5][6]
"Stridency" refers to the perceptual intensity of the sound of a sibilant consonant, or obstacle fricatives or affricates, which refers to the critical role of the teeth in producing the sound as an obstacle to the airstream. Non-sibilant fricatives and affricates produce their characteristic sound directly with the tongue or lips etc. and the place of contact in the mouth, without secondary involvement of the teeth.[citation needed]
The characteristic intensity of sibilants means that small variations in tongue shape and position are perceivable, with the result that there are many sibilant types that contrast in various languages."
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sibilant]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.sibilant,
* McsEngl.sibilant-consonantSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.συριστικό-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=sibilant,
* McsElln.σύμφωνοΠρφκ-συριστικό!=sibilant,


"πλευρικό σύμφωνο [lateral consonant]
Όρος που αναφέρεται στη διάκριση των συμφώνων με βάση τον τρόπο άρθρωσής τους. Κατά την άρθρωση των πλευρικών συμφώνων ο αέρας περνά από τη μία ή και τις δύο πλευρές της γλώσσας και όχι από τον κέντρο της στοματικής κοιλότητας. Συνήθως η άκρη της γλώσσα ακουμπά στα δόντια ή τα φατνία. Τα πιο συνηθισμένα πλευρικά σύμφωνα είναι προσεγγιστικά και ανήκουν στην κατηγορία των υγρών και συγκεκριμένα είναι η ομάδα των διάφορων [l]. Το Διεθνές Φωνητικό Αλφάβητο περιλαμβάνει μεταξύ άλλων τα εξής (αναφέρουμε τα πιο συνηθισμένα και οικεία στους ομιλητές της ελληνικής): [l] , [ʎ] (ουρανικό , όπως στην ελλ. λέξη ελιά), [ɫ] (υπερωικοποιημένο, όπως το «παχύ λ» κάποιων νεοελληνικών διαλέκτων).
Μ. Αραποπούλου"
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://www.greek-language.gr/greekLang/modern_greek/tools/lexica/glossology/show.html?id=540]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.lateral,
* McsEngl.lateral-consonantSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.πλευρικό-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=lateral,
* McsElln.σύμφωνοΠρφκ.πλευρικό!=lateral,


"εμποδιστικό σύμφωνο [obstruent]
Όρος που αναφέρεται στην ταξινόμηση των συμφώνων με βάση τον τρόπο άρθρωσης . Tα εμποδιστικά (ή αποφρακτικά) σύμφωνα παράγονται όταν τα αρθρωτικά όργανα πλησιάζουν το ένα το άλλο αρκετά, ώστε να περιορίζεται ή να παρεμποδίζεται η έξοδος του αέρα. Όταν οι αρθρωτές δεν δημιουργούν απόλυτο κλείσιμο και αφήνουν ένα μικρό άνοιγμα, επιτρέποντας έτσι τη συνεχή δίοδο του αέρα, παράγονται σύμφωνα που η εκφορά τους μπορεί να διαρκέσει όσο θέλουμε: πρόκειται για τα εξακολουθητικά ή τριβόμενα σύμφωνα, π.χ. [f v]. Όταν οι αρθρωτές δημιουργούν απόλυτο κλείσιμο, παρεμποδίζοντας τη δίοδο του αέρα, με το άνοιγμα του στόματος παράγεται κάτι σαν έκρηξη και έτσι έχουμε τα έκκροτα στοματικά σύμφωνα [plosives], π.χ. [p b t d]. Αυτά ονομάζονται και στιγμικά, επειδή η διάρκεια της εκφοράς τους είναι μικρή, ή κλειστά . Στην κατηγορία των εμποδιστικών ανήκουν και τα προστριβόμενα , π.χ. [ts dz].
Μ. Αραποπούλου"
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://www.greek-language.gr/greekLang/modern_greek/tools/lexica/glossology/show.html?id=12]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.obstruent,
* McsEngl.obstruent-consonantSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.εμποδιστικό-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=obstruent,
* McsElln.σύμφωνοΠρφκ.εμποδιστικό!=obstruent,


"In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages. Vowels are sonorants, as are nasals like [m] and [n], liquids like [l] and [r], and semivowels like [j] and [w]. This set of sounds contrasts with the obstruents (stops, affricates and fricatives).[1]
For some authors, only the term resonant is used with this broader meaning, while sonorant is restricted to consonants, referring to nasals and liquids but not vocoids (vowels and semivowels).[2]"
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonorant]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.sonorant,
* McsEngl.sonorant-consonantSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ένηχο-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=sonorant,
* McsElln.σύμφωνοΠρφκ.ένηχο!=sonorant,


"υγρό σύμφωνο [liquid consonant]
Ο όρος αναφέρεται στην κατηγορία συμφώνων που με βάση μια πρώτη, γενική, ταξινόμηση διακρίνονται από τα κυρίως σύμφωνα . Κατά την πραγμάτωση των υγρών ο αέρας περνά ελεύθερα (ή σχετικά ελεύθερα) από τη στοματική κοιλότητα, καθώς δεν υπάρχει κάποιο εμπόδιο που να δημιουργεί αναταραχή ή έντονη διακοπή στην εκφορά τους. Ως προς το χαρακτηριστικό αυτό μοιάζουν με τα φωνήεντα αλλά και με τα έρρινα σύμφωνα , τα οποία πραγματώνονται μέσω της διόδου του αέρα από τη ρινική κοιλότητα. Ο όρος υγρά προέρχεται από τους αλεξανδρινούς φιλολόγους και είναι αρκετά ιμπρεσιονιστικός. Στη σύγχρονη γλωσσολογική περιγραφή, για την ταξινόμηση των ποικίλων πραγματώσεων των «λ» και «ρ» στις διάφορες γλώσσες, χρησιμοποιούνται οι όροι πλευρικό [lateral] και παλλόμενο [trill] (με βάση τον τρόπο άρθρωσης ) και ακροφατνιακό [apico-dental] (με βάση τον τόπο άρθρωσης ).
Πλευρικά υγρά της νέας ελληνικής είναι το φατνιακό [l] καθώς και το ουρανικό [ʎ] και παλλόμενο το [r]. Άλλα πλευρικά υγρά είναι το ηχηρό υπερωικοποιημένο >φατνιακό, (φατνιακό σύμφωνο) [ɫ] (το «παχύ λ» κάποιων νεοελληνικών διαλέκτων) και το [ƚ ή ɬ] (άηχο φατνιακό πλευρικό τριβόμενο «ll» της ουαλικής όπως στη λέξη Lloyd). Ανάμεσα στα (παλλόμενα) υγρά αναφέρουμε το [ʀ] της γαλλικής, το [ɾ] της ισπανικής και το περίφημο γαλλικό (παρισινό) [ʁ], το οποίο ωστόσο έχει χάσει την παλλόμενη εκφορά του και έχει εξελιχθεί σε τριβόμενο.
Ιδιαίτερη αναφορά πρέπει να γίνει στην ιδιότητα των υγρών συμφώνων να αναλαμβάνουν τον ρόλο φωνήεντος στο πλαίσιο της συλλαβής , λόγω ακριβώς της ομοιότητάς τους με αυτά ως προς τον τρόπο άρθρωσης. Στην περίπτωση αυτή ονομάζονται συλλαβικά ή φωνηεντικά υγρά: [l̩ r̩] (IPA) ή [l̥ r̥] (από τους ινδοευρωπαϊστές) (βλ. και συλλαβικό ένηχο)."
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://www.greek-language.gr/greekLang/modern_greek/tools/lexica/glossology/show.html?id=139]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.liquid,
* McsEngl.liquid-consonantSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.σύμφωνοΠρφκ.υγρό!=liquid,
* McsElln.υγρό-σύμφωνο!=liquid,


"παλλόμενο σύμφωνο [trill consonant]
Όρος που αναφέρεται στη διάκριση των συμφώνων με βάση τον τρόπο άρθρωσής τους. Παλλόμενα είναι τα σύμφωνα που παράγονται όταν ένας κινητός ενεργός αρθρωτής πάλλεται από το ρεύμα του αέρα και ακουμπά γρήγορα και επαναλαμβανόμενα σε έναν άλλο αρθρωτή, π.χ. η άκρη της γλώσσας πάλλεται προς τα φατνία, ή η σταφυλή προς τη ρίζα της γλώσσας. Στο Διεθνές Φωνητικό Αλφάβητο περιλαμβάνονται τα εξής παλλόμενα σύμφωνα: [r], [ʙ] (διχειλικό παλλόμενο, σπάνιος φθόγγος που μοιάζει με τον ήχο που παράγουμε όταν θέλουμε να δείξουμε ότι κάνει κρύο, Μπρρ!) και [ʀ] (σταφυλικό παλλόμενο, το παρισινό r). Τα παλλόμενα διακρίνονται από τα flaps ('απότομο χτύπημα'), καθώς στα δεύτερα παράγεται κατά κανόνα μία μόνο κίνηση του ενεργού αρθρωτή προς τον παθητικό. (Βλ. και υγρό σύμφωνο).
Μ. Αραποπούλου"
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://www.greek-language.gr/greekLang/modern_greek/tools/lexica/glossology/show.html?id=530]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.trill,
* McsEngl.trill-consonantSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.παλλόμενο-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=trill,
* McsElln.σύμφωνοΠρφκ.παλλόμενο!=trill,


* aspirated-consonantSpch,
* aspiratedNo-consonantSpch,

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.sd.aspiration,


· with aspiration.

* McsEngl.aspirated-consonantSpch,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.aspirated,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.δασύ-σύμφωνοΠρφκ!=aspirated,
* McsElln.σύμφωνοΠρφκ.δασύ!=aspirated,


"Πόσα φωνήεντα βρίσκουμε στις γλώσσες του κόσμου; Το λιγότερο τρία και το περισσότερο είκοσι τέσσερα. Το πιο συχνό είναι να έχει μια γλώσσα γύρω στα πέντε φωνήεντα και το πιο κοινό φωνήεν είναι το [a]. Τα σύμφωνα όμως (οι φθόγγοι που παράγονται από τη συνάντηση του αέρα που ξεκινάει από τα πνευμόνια με διάφορα «εμπόδια» στο φωνητικό κανάλι) είναι περισσότερα. Όπως λέγαμε νωρίτερα, στις γλώσσες του κόσμου , βρίσκουμε περίπου εξακόσια είδη συμφώνων. Στις δέκα πιο ομιλούμενες (με τους περισσότερους ομιλητές, δηλαδή) γλώσσες του κόσμου βρίσκουμε περίπου εκατό είδη συμφώνων. Αυτό δεν σημαίνει ότι η καθεμιά τους έχει εκατό σύμφωνα. Το πιο συνηθισμένο είναι να έχει γύρω στις δύο δεκάδες. Και τα πιο συχνά σύμφωνα είναι το [p], το [t] και το [k]. Αυτό δεν είναι παράξενο. Το [p] σχηματίζεται από την κίνηση των χειλιών - είναι διχειλικό, όπως λέγαμε· το [t] από την επαφή της άκρης της γλώσσας με τα δόντια - είναι οδοντικό· το [k] από την κίνηση του πίσω μέρους της γλώσσας προς το μαλακό τμήμα του ουρανίσκου, την υπερώα - είναι υπερωικό. Αυτές οι κινήσεις είναι οι πιο εύκολες για την άρθρωση συμφωνικών φθόγγων. Γι' αυτό και τα σύμφωνα αυτά είναι τα πιο συχνά στις γλώσσες του κόσμου. "
[{2022-04-16 retrieved} https://www.greek-language.gr/Resources/ancient_greek/history/ag_history/browse.html?start=23]

* McsEngl.consonantSpch.aggregate,


· example: pin,
· Greek: π,
· pinyin: b,
"The voiceless bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound used in most spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨p⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is p."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_bilabial_stop]

* McsEngl./p/-Pin-(pinyin'b),
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.p!⇒phoneme.p,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-p!⇒phoneme.p,
* McsEngl.phoneme.p,


· example: bubble,
· Greek: μπ,
· GreekAncient: Β,
"The voiced bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨b⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is b. The voiced bilabial stop occurs in English, and it is the sound denoted by the letter ⟨b⟩ in obey."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_bilabial_stop]

* McsEngl./b/-Bubble,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.b!⇒phoneme.b,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-b!⇒phoneme.b,
* McsEngl.phoneme.b,


· example: five,
"The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in a number of spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨f⟩."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_labiodental_fricative]

* McsEngl./f/-Five,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.f!⇒phoneme.f,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-f!⇒phoneme.f,
* McsEngl.phoneme.f,


· example: vine,
"The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨v⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is v.
The sound is similar to voiced alveolar fricative /z/ in that it is familiar to most European speakers, but cross-linguistically it is a fairly uncommon sound, being only a quarter as frequent as [w]. Moreover, Most languages that have /z/ also have /v/ and similarly to /z/, the overwhelming majority of languages with [v] are languages of Europe, Africa, or Western Asia, although the similar labiodental approximant /ʋ/ is also common in India. The presence of [v] and absence of [w], is a very distinctive areal feature of European languages and those of adjacent areas of Siberia and Central Asia. Speakers of East Asian languages that lack this sound tend to pronounce it as [b] (Korean and Japanese), or [f]/[w] (Cantonese and Mandarin), thus failing to distinguish a number of English minimal pairs.[citation needed]
In certain languages, such as Danish, Faroese, Icelandic or Norwegian the voiced labiodental fricative is in a free variation with the labiodental approximant."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_labiodental_fricative]

* McsEngl./v/-Vine,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.v!⇒phoneme.v,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-v!⇒phoneme.v,
* McsEngl.phoneme.v,


· example: thanks,
· Greek: θ,
· char.952'θ'
"The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. It is familiar to English speakers as the 'th' in thing. Though rather rare as a phoneme in the world's inventory of languages, it is encountered in some of the most widespread and influential (see below). The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨θ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is T. The IPA symbol is the Greek letter theta, which is used for this sound in post-classical Greek, and the sound is thus often referred to as "theta".
The dental non-sibilant fricatives are often called "interdental" because they are often produced with the tongue between the upper and lower teeth, and not just against the back of the upper or lower teeth, as they are with other dental consonants.
This sound and its voiced counterpart are rare phonemes occurring in 4% of languages in a phonological analysis of 2155 languages. Among the more than 60 languages with over 10 million speakers, only English, various dialects of Arabic, Standard European Spanish, Swahili (in words derived from Arabic), Burmese, and Greek have the voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative.[citation needed] Speakers of languages and dialects without the sound sometimes have difficulty producing or distinguishing it from similar sounds, especially if they have had no chance to acquire it in childhood, and typically replace it with a voiceless alveolar fricative (/s/) (as in Indonesian), voiceless dental stop (/t/), or a voiceless labiodental fricative (/f/); known respectively as th-alveolarization, th-stopping, and th-fronting.
The sound is known to have disappeared from a number of languages, e.g. from most of the Germanic languages or dialects, where it is retained only in Scots, English, Elfdalian, and Icelandic, but it is alveolar in the last of these. Among non-Germanic Indo-European languages as a whole, the sound was also once much more widespread, but is today preserved in a few languages including the Brythonic languages, Castilian Spanish, Venetian, Albanian, few Occitan dialects and Greek. It has likewise disappeared from many Semitic languages, such as Hebrew (excluding Yemenite Hebrew) and many modern varieties of Arabic (excluding Tunisian, Mesopotamian Arabic and various dialects in the Arabian Peninsula which still include it)."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_dental_fricative]

* McsEngl./th/-(θ)-THanks,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.th!⇒phoneme.th,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-th!⇒phoneme.th,
* McsEngl.phoneme.th,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.θ!⇒phoneme.th,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-θ!⇒phoneme.th,


· example: this,
· Greek: δ,
· char.948'δ' char.240'ð'
"The voiced dental fricative is a consonant sound used in some spoken languages. It is familiar to English-speakers, as the th sound in father. Its symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is eth, or [ð] and was taken from the Old English and Icelandic letter eth, which could stand for either a voiced or unvoiced interdental non-sibilant fricative.
The letter ⟨ð⟩ is sometimes used to represent the dental approximant, a similar sound, which no language is known to contrast with a dental non-sibilant fricative,[1] but the approximant is more clearly written with the lowering diacritic: ⟨ð̞⟩. Very rarely used variant transcriptions of the dental approximant include ⟨ʋ̠⟩ (retracted [ʋ]), ⟨ɹ̟⟩ (advanced [ɹ]) and ⟨ɹ̪⟩ (dentalized [ɹ]). It has been proposed that either a turned ⟨ð⟩ or reversed ⟨ð⟩ be used as a dedicated symbol for the dental approximant, but despite occasional usage this has not gained general acceptance. Dental non-sibilant fricatives are often called "interdental" because they are often produced with the tongue between the upper and lower teeth (as in English), and not just against the back of the upper teeth, as they are with other dental consonants.
This sound and its unvoiced counterpart are rare phonemes. Almost all languages of Europe and Asia, such as German, French, Persian, Japanese, and Mandarin, lack the sound. Native speakers of languages without the sound often have difficulty enunciating or distinguishing it, and they replace it with a voiced alveolar sibilant [z], a voiced dental stop or voiced alveolar stop [d], or a voiced labiodental fricative [v]; known respectively as th-alveolarization, th-stopping, and th-fronting. As for Europe, there seems to be a great arc where the sound (and/or its unvoiced variant) is present. Most of Mainland Europe lacks the sound. However, some "periphery" languages as Gascon, Welsh, English, Icelandic, Elfdalian, Kven, Northern Sami, Inari Sami, Skolt Sami, Ume Sami, Mari, Greek, Albanian, Sardinian, some dialects of Basque and most speakers of Spanish have the sound in their consonant inventories, as phonemes or allophones.
Within Turkic languages, Bashkir and Turkmen have both voiced and voiceless dental non-sibilant fricatives among their consonants. Among Semitic languages, they are used in Turoyo, Modern Standard Arabic, albeit not by all speakers of modern Arabic dialects, as well as in some dialects of Hebrew and Assyrian Neo-Aramaic."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_dental_fricative]

* McsEngl./dh/-(δ)-THis,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.dh!⇒phoneme.dh,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-dh!⇒phoneme.dh,
* McsEngl.phoneme.dh,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.δ!⇒phoneme.dh,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-δ!⇒phoneme.dh,


· example: tip,
· Greek: τ,
· pinyin: d,
"The voiceless alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiceless dental, alveolar, and postalveolar stops is ⟨t⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is t. The dental stop can be distinguished with the underbridge diacritic, ⟨t̪⟩, the postalveolar with a retraction line, ⟨t̠⟩, and the Extensions to the IPA have a double underline diacritic which can be used to explicitly specify an alveolar pronunciation, ⟨t͇⟩.
The [t] sound is a very common sound cross-linguistically; the most common consonant phonemes of the world's languages are [t], [k] and [p]. Most languages have at least a plain [t], and some distinguish more than one variety. Some languages without a [t] are Hawaiian (except for Niʻihau; Hawaiian uses a voiceless velar stop [k] for loanwords with [t]), colloquial Samoan (which also lacks an [n]), Abau, and Nǁng of South Africa."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_dental_and_alveolar_stops]

* McsEngl./t/-Tip-(pinyin'd),
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.t!⇒phoneme.t,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-t!⇒phoneme.t,
* McsEngl.phoneme.t,


· example: dad,
· Greek: ντ,
· GreekAncient: Δ,
"The voiced alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiced dental, alveolar, and postalveolar stops is ⟨d⟩ (although the symbol ⟨d̪⟩ can be used to distinguish the dental stop, and ⟨d̠⟩ the postalveolar), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_dental_and_alveolar_stops]

* McsEngl./d/-Dad,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.d!⇒phoneme.d,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-d!⇒phoneme.d,
* McsEngl.phoneme.d,


· example: sit,
· Greek: σ,ς,
"The voiceless alveolar sibilant is a common consonant sound in vocal languages. It is the sound in English words such as sea and pass, and is represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨s⟩. It has a characteristic high-pitched, highly perceptible hissing sound. For this reason, it is often used to get someone's attention, using a call often written as sssst! or psssst!.
The voiceless alveolar sibilant [s] is one of the most common sounds cross-linguistically. If a language has fricatives, it will most likely have [s].[2] However, some languages have a related sibilant sound, such as [ʃ], but no [s]. In addition, sibilants are absent from Australian Aboriginal languages, in which fricatives are rare; even the few indigenous Australian languages that have developed fricatives do not have sibilants.[citation needed]
The voiceless alveolar retracted sibilant (commonly termed the voiceless apico-alveolar sibilant) is a fricative that is articulated with the tongue in a hollow shape, usually with the tip of the tongue (apex) against the alveolar ridge. It is a sibilant sound and is found most notably in a number of languages in a linguistic area covering northern and central Iberia. It is most well known from its occurrence in the Spanish of this area. In the Middle Ages, it occurred in a wider area, covering Romance languages spoken throughout France, Portugal, and Spain, as well as Old High German and Middle High German."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_alveolar_fricative#Voiceless_alveolar_sibilant]

* McsEngl./s/-Sit,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.s!⇒phoneme.s,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-s!⇒phoneme.s,
* McsEngl.phoneme.s,


· example: zed,
· Greek: ζ,
"The voiced alveolar sibilant is common across European languages, but is relatively uncommon cross-linguistically compared to the voiceless variant. Only about 28% of the world's languages contain a voiced dental or alveolar sibilant. Moreover, 85% of the languages with some form of [z] are languages of Europe, Africa, or Western Asia."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_alveolar_fricative#Voiced_alveolar_sibilant]

* McsEngl./z/-Zed,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.z!⇒phoneme.z,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-z!⇒phoneme.z,
* McsEngl.phoneme.z,


· example: tsunami,
· Greek: τσ,
· pinyin: z,
"A voiceless alveolar affricate is a type of affricate consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth. This refers to a class of sounds, not a single sound. There are several types with significant perceptual differences:
The voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate [t͡s] is the most common type and has an abrupt hissing sound, as the ts in English cats.
The voiceless alveolar retracted sibilant affricate [t͡s̺], also called apico-alveolar or grave, has a weak hushing sound reminiscent of retroflex affricates. It is found e.g. in Basque, where it contrasts with a more conventional non-retracted laminal alveolar affricate.
The voiceless alveolar non-sibilant affricate [t͡θ̠] or [t͡θ͇], using the alveolar diacritic from the Extended IPA, is somewhat similar to the th in some pronunciations of English eighth. It is found as a regional realization of the sequence /tr/ in some Sicilian dialects of Standard Italian.
The voiceless alveolar lateral affricate [t͡ɬ] is found in certain languages, such as Cherokee, Icelandic and Nahuatl."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_alveolar_affricate]

* McsEngl./c/-(ts)-TSunami-(pinyin'z),
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.c!⇒phoneme.c,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-c!⇒phoneme.c,
* McsEngl.phoneme.c,


· example: lads,
· Greek: τζ, ντζ,
"The voiced alveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨d͡z⟩ or ⟨d͜z⟩ (formerly ⟨ʣ⟩)."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_alveolar_affricate]

* McsEngl./j/-(dz)-laDS,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.j!⇒phoneme.j,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-j!⇒phoneme.j,
* McsEngl.phoneme.j,


· example: kit,
· pinyin: g,
"The voiceless velar stop or voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨k⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is k.
The [k] sound is a very common sound cross-linguistically. Most languages have at least a plain [k], and some distinguish more than one variety. Most Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindi and Bengali, have a two-way contrast between aspirated and plain [k]. Only a few languages lack a voiceless velar stop, e.g. Tahitian.
Some languages have the voiceless pre-velar stop,[1] which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless velar stop, though not as front as the prototypical voiceless palatal stop.
Conversely, some languages have the voiceless post-velar stop,[2] which is articulated slightly behind the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless velar stop, though not as back as the prototypical voiceless uvular stop."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_velar_stop]

* McsEngl./k/-Kit-(pinyin'g),
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.k!⇒phoneme.k,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-k!⇒phoneme.k,
* McsEngl.phoneme.k,

consonantSpch.g of lagSpch

· example: gun,
· Greek: γκ, γγ,
· GreekAncient: γ,
"The voiced velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.
Some languages have the voiced pre-velar stop, which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiced velar stop, though not as front as the prototypical voiced palatal stop.
Conversely, some languages have the voiced post-velar stop, which is articulated slightly behind the place of articulation of the prototypical voiced velar stop, though not as back as the prototypical voiced uvular stop."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_velar_stop]

* McsEngl./g/-Gun,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.g!⇒phoneme.g,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-g!⇒phoneme.g,
* McsEngl.phoneme.g,


· example: hear,
· Greek: χ,
"The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate,[1][2] is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨h⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is h, although [h] has been described as a voiceless vowel because in many languages, it lacks the place and manner of articulation of a prototypical consonant as well as the height and backness of a prototypical vowel:
[h and ɦ] have been described as voiceless or breathy voiced counterparts of the vowels that follow them [but] the shape of the vocal tract […] is often simply that of the surrounding sounds. […] Accordingly, in such cases it is more appropriate to regard h and ɦ as segments that have only a laryngeal specification, and are unmarked for all other features. There are other languages [such as Hebrew and Arabic] which show a more definite displacement of the formant frequencies for h, suggesting it has a [glottal] constriction associated with its production.[3]
Lamé contrasts voiceless and voiced glottal fricatives.[4]"
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_glottal_fricative]

* McsEngl./h/-Hear,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.h!⇒phoneme.h,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-h!⇒phoneme.h,
* McsEngl.phoneme.h,


· example: yes,
· Greek: γ,
· char.121'y' char.947'γ'
"The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages. It is not found in Modern English but it existed in Old English {Baker, 2012, P. 15}.[full citation needed] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɣ⟩, a Latinized variant of the Greek letter gamma, ⟨γ⟩, which has this sound in Modern Greek. It should not be confused with the graphically similar ⟨ɤ⟩, the IPA symbol for a close-mid back unrounded vowel, which some writings[1] use for the voiced velar fricative.
The symbol ⟨ɣ⟩ is also sometimes used to represent the velar approximant, though that is more accurately written with the lowering diacritic: [ɣ̞] or [ɣ˕]. The IPA also provides a dedicated symbol for a velar approximant, [ɰ], though there can be stylistic reasons to not use it in phonetic transcription.
There is also a voiced post-velar fricative (also called pre-uvular) in some languages. For voiced pre-velar fricative (also called post-palatal), see voiced palatal fricative."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_velar_fricative]

* McsEngl./y/-Yes,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.y!⇒phoneme.y,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-y!⇒phoneme.y,
* McsEngl.phoneme.y,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.γ!⇒phoneme.y,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-y!⇒phoneme.y,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-γ!⇒phoneme.y,


· example: man,
· voiced bilabial nasal [m]

* McsEngl./m/-Man,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.m!⇒phoneme.m,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-m!⇒phoneme.m,
* McsEngl.phoneme.m,


· example: net,
· voiced alveolar nasal [n]

* McsEngl./n/-Net,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.n!⇒phoneme.n,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-n!⇒phoneme.n,
* McsEngl.phoneme.n,


· example: ring,
· Greek: ρ,
"The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the alveolar and postalveolar approximants is ⟨ɹ⟩, a lowercase letter r rotated 180 degrees. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r\.
There is no separate symbol for the dental approximant (as in Spanish nada) in the International Phonetic Alphabet, which most scholars transcribe with the symbol for a voiced dental fricative, ⟨ð⟩.
The most common sound represented by the letter r in English is the postalveolar approximant, pronounced a little more back and transcribed more precisely in IPA as ⟨ɹ̠⟩, but ⟨ɹ⟩ is often used for convenience in its place. For further ease of typesetting, English phonemic transcriptions might use the symbol ⟨r⟩ even though this symbol represents the alveolar trill in phonetic transcription."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alveolar_and_postalveolar_approximants]

* McsEngl./r/-Ring,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.r!⇒phoneme.r,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-r!⇒phoneme.r,
* McsEngl.phoneme.r,


· example: love,
· Greek: λ,
"The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar lateral approximants is ⟨l⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is l.
As a sonorant, lateral approximants are nearly always voiced. Voiceless lateral approximants, /l̥/ are common in Sino-Tibetan languages, but uncommon elsewhere. In such cases, voicing typically starts about halfway through the hold of the consonant. No language is known to contrast such a sound with a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative [ɬ].
In a number of languages, including most varieties of English, the phoneme /l/ becomes velarized ("dark l") in certain contexts. By contrast, the non-velarized form is the "clear l" (also known as: "light l"), which occurs before and between vowels in certain English standards.[1] Some languages have only clear l.[2] Others may not have a clear l at all, or only before front vowels (especially [i])."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dental,_alveolar_and_postalveolar_lateral_approximants]

* McsEngl./l/-Love,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.l!⇒phoneme.l,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-l!⇒phoneme.l,
* McsEngl.phoneme.l,


· example: chip,
· pinyin: zh,
· char.116't' char.643'ʃ'
"The voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant affricate or voiceless domed postalveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨t͡ʃ⟩, ⟨t͜ʃ⟩ or ⟨tʃ⟩ (formerly the ligature ⟨ʧ⟩). The alternative commonly used in American tradition is ⟨č⟩. It is familiar to English speakers as the "ch" sound in "chip".
Historically, this sound often derives from a former voiceless velar stop /k/ (as in English church; also in Gulf Arabic, Slavic languages, Indo-Iranian languages and Romance languages), or a voiceless dental stop /t/ by way of palatalization, especially next to a front vowel (as in English nature; also in Amharic, Portuguese etc.)."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_postalveolar_affricate]

* McsEngl./C/-(tʃ)-CHip-(pinyin'zh),
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.C!⇒phoneme.C,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-C!⇒phoneme.C,
* McsEngl.phoneme.C, {2022-03-04},


· example: jam,
· char.100'd' char.658'ʒ'
"The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate, voiced post-alveolar affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨d͡ʒ⟩ (formerly the ligature ⟨ʤ⟩), or in broad transcription ⟨ɟ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA representation is dZ. Alternatives commonly used in linguistic works, particularly in older or American literature, are ⟨ǰ⟩, ⟨ǧ⟩, ⟨ǯ⟩, and ⟨dž⟩. It is familiar to English speakers as the pronunciation of ⟨j⟩ in jump."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_postalveolar_affricate]

* McsEngl./J/-(dʒ)-Jam,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.J!⇒phoneme.J,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-J!⇒phoneme.J,
* McsEngl.phoneme.J, {2022-03-04},


· example: sure,
· char.643'ʃ'
"Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative [ʃ], the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative [ɹ̠̊˔], the voiceless retroflex fricative [ʂ], and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative [ɕ]. This article discusses the first two."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_postalveolar_fricative]

* McsEngl./S/-(ʃ)-Sure,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.S!⇒phoneme.S,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-S!⇒phoneme.S,
* McsEngl.phoneme.S, {2022-03-04},
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.ʃ!⇒phoneme.S,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-ʃ!⇒phoneme.S,


· example: treasure,
· char.658'ʒ'
"Voiced fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiced palato-alveolar fricative [ʒ], the voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative [ɹ̠˔], the voiced retroflex fricative [ʐ], and the voiced alveolo-palatal fricative [ʑ]. This article discusses the first two."
[{2019-08-11} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_postalveolar_fricative]

* McsEngl./Z/-(ʒ)-treaSure,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.Z!⇒phoneme.Z,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-Z!⇒phoneme.Z,
* McsEngl.phoneme.Z, {2022-03-04},
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.ʒ!⇒phoneme.Z,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-ʒ!⇒phoneme.Z,


· example: huge /hhudzz/.

* McsEngl./hh/-(hi)-Huge,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.hh!⇒phoneme.hh,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-hh!⇒phoneme.hh,
* McsEngl.phoneme.hh,


* McsEngl./yy/-(yi)-You,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.yy!⇒phoneme.yy,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-yy!⇒phoneme.yy,
* McsEngl.phoneme.yy,

· example: you /yyu/.


· IPA [ɲ].
· example: new /nnu/.

* McsEngl./nn/-(ni)-New,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.nn!⇒phoneme.nn,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-nn!⇒phoneme.nn,
* McsEngl.phoneme.nn,


· IPA [c].

* McsEngl./kk/-(ki)-cute,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch.kk!⇒phoneme.kk,
* McsEngl.phoneme.kk,


· Chinese, GreekAncient, Armenian, ...

* McsEngl.aspirated-p./pʰ/,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch./pʰ/,
* McsEngl.phoneme./pʰ/,


· Chinese, GreekAncient, Armenian, ...

* McsEngl.aspirated-t./tʰ/,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch./tʰ/,
* McsEngl.phoneme./tʰ/,


· Chinese, GreekAncient, Armenian, ...

* McsEngl.aspirated-k./kʰ/,
* McsEngl.consonantSpch./kʰ/,
* McsEngl.phoneme./kʰ/,

phoneme.vowelBo of speech

"It has long been recognised that most languages contain a class of sound that functions in a way similar to consonants but is phonetically similar to vowels"
[Peter Roach 2009 Glossary]
"ημίφωνο [semi-vowel / glide]
Φθόγγος ο οποίος βρίσκεται, ως προς τον τρόπο άρθρωσής του, ανάμεσα στα φωνήεντα και στα σύμφωνα χωρίς να μπορεί να υπαχθεί σε καμιά από τις δύο κατηγορίες. Τα ημίφωνα παράγονται με κλείσιμο της στοματικής κοιλότητας που δεν είναι ωστόσο ικανό να δημιουργήσει φραγμό ή τριβή (και επομένως δεν μπορούν να χαρακτηριστούν σύμφωνα) ούτε και επαρκές για την άρθρωση ενός καθαρού φωνήεντος. Θεωρούνται μεταβατικοί φθόγγοι, καθώς η γλώσσα μετακινείται, «γλιστρά» (glides) γρήγορα είτε από το προηγούμενο φωνήεν είτε προς το επόμενο. Τα συνηθέστερα ημίφωνα είναι το μπροστινό (ουρανικό ) [j] και το πίσω (υπερωικό ) [w]. H κοινή νέα ελληνική διαθέτει μόνο το μπροστινό ημίφωνο, για το οποίο υπάρχει πλέον η τάση να πραγματώνεται συμφωνικά: π.χ. παιδιά [pe'dja] > [ped'ʝa] (το σύμβολο [j] του ΔΦΑ χρησιμοποιόταν τόσο για το μπροστινό ημίφωνο όσο και για το αντίστοιχο ουρανικό σύμφωνο, μέχρι την καθιέρωση του [ʝ] για το δεύτερο). Τα αρχαία ελληνικά διέθεταν και το πίσω ημίφωνο στο οποίο αντιστοιχούσε το γράφημα Ϝ (δίγαμμα).
Μ. Αραποπούλου"
[{2022-08-28 retrieved} https://www.greek-language.gr/greekLang/modern_greek/tools/lexica/glossology/show.html?id=15]

* McsEngl.glide!⇒semivowelSpch,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-semivowel!⇒semivowelSpch,
* McsEngl.phoneme.vowelBo!⇒semivowelSpch,
* McsEngl.semivowelSpch,
* McsEngl.semivowel-of-lagSpch!⇒semivowelSpch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ημίφωνο-ομιλίας!=semivowelSpch,

unit.termNo of speech of lagSpch

· termNo-unit of lagSpch is any other unit except phonemes.

* McsEngl.lagSpch-unit.termNo,

unit-structure of speech of lagSpch

· speech-unit-structure of lagSpch is a-speech-node that is a-structure of units.

* McsEngl.lagSpch'unit-structurenit-structure,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-node.unit-structurenit-structure,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-unit-structure,
* McsEngl.speech-unit-structure--of-lagSpchnit-structure,
* McsEngl.unit-structure-of-lagSpchnit-structure,

* speech-word,

word of speech of lagSpch

· word of lagSpch is a-speech-node that is a-structure of units.

* McsEngl.lagSpch'word!⇒lagSpch-word,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-node.word!⇒lagSpch-word,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-word,
* McsEngl.word-of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-word,
* McsEngl.wordOrl!⇒lagSpch-word,

* logo-word,

stress of wordLogHmn

"Accent: There are three kinds of accent in world languages: stress accents, pitch accents, and tones. Here accent doesn't mean different varieties of pronunciation, such as in "His English has a Texan accent," but it means a way to distinguish words other than consonants and vowels.
English has stress accents, where the strong voice determines accents. For instance, the words subject in "the subject" and in "to subject" have different accents while they have the same consonants and vowels.
Japanese has pitch accents, where the high tone of voice determines accents. The strength of voice doesn't matter in Japanese to differentiate words.
Chinese has tones, where every syllable has either one of the four tones. Unlike Chinese, wrong accents don't make much trouble in Japanese, so you can skip this section if you want to master kana first."

* McsEngl.stress-of-word--of-lagSpch,
* McsEngl.wordOrl'stress,

mapping-unit-(speech-name) of speech of lagSpch

· speech-name of lagSpch is a-speech-node that denotes a-semaso-concept.

* McsEngl.lagSpch'semantic-unit!⇒lagSpch-name,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-node.semantic-unit!⇒lagSpch-name,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-name,
* McsEngl.mapping-unit--of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-name,
* McsEngl.semantic-unit--of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-name,
* McsEngl.speech-name--of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-name,

* lagHmnm-name,

sentence of speech of lagSpch

· sentence of lagSpch is a-speech-node that denotes a-semaso-sentence.
· sentences are the-main units of speech.

* McsEngl.lagSpch'sentence!⇒lagSpch-sentence,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-node.sentence!⇒lagSpch-sentence,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-sentence,
* McsEngl.sentence-of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-sentence,
* McsEngl.statement-of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-sentence,

section of speech of lagSpch

· section[a] of lagSpch is a-speech-node that denotes a-semaso-section.
· it[a] is a-whole-part-structure of sentences.

* McsEngl.lagSpch'section!⇒lagSpch-section,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-node.section!⇒lagSpch-section,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-section,
* McsEngl.section-of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-section,

root-node of speech of lagSpch

· root-node of lagSpch is the-outermost node of speech.

* McsEngl.lagSpch'root!⇒lagSpch-root,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-node.root!⇒lagSpch-root,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-root,
* McsEngl.root-node--of-lagSpch!⇒lagSpch-root,

info-resource of lagSpch

* McsEngl.lagSpch'Infrsc,

* http://www.cambridge.org/elt/peterroach/resources.htm,

ATTRIBUTE of lagSpch

knower of lagSpch

· knower of lagSpch is a-human or a-machine who knows the-language.
· the-knower has his own brain-worldview and understands the-brain-worldviews of others (= can-create the-mind-views of others when he senses the-speech of them).

* McsEngl.lagSpch'knower!⇒lagSpch-knower,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-knower,

knower.speaker of lagSpch

· speaker is the-creator of speech.

* McsEngl.lagSpch'speaker,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-knower.speaker,

knower.listener of lagSpch

· listener of lagSpch is the-knower who undertands the-speech.

* McsEngl.lagSpch'listener,
* McsEngl.lagSpch-knower.listener,

DOING of lagSpch

* McsEngl.lagSpch'doing,

* lagHmnm-doing,

* main-functing,
* evoluting,
* pronunciation,

doing.listening of lagSpch

· listening is the-decoding of a-lagSpch.

* McsEngl.lagSpch'listening!⇒listening,
* McsEngl.listen!~verbEnglA1:listen--s-ed-ing-ed!=listening,
* McsEngl.listening,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ακούω-ομιλία!~verbElln!=listening,

doing.speaking of lagSpch

· speaking is the-encoding of a-lagSpch.
· pronunciation of lagSpch is its lagHmnm-implementation.

_stxZhon: _stxSbj:[我] _stxVrb:{讲} _stxObj:[英文]。 Wǒ jiǎng yīngwén. != [I] {speak} [English].
_stxZhon: _stxSbj:[他] _stxVrb:{说} _stxObj:[德语]。 tā shuō déyǔ. != [he] {speaks} [German].

* McsEngl.functing.speaking!⇒speakingF,
* McsEngl.lagSpch'pronunciation!⇒speakingF,
* McsEngl.lagSpch'speaking!⇒speakingF,
* McsEngl.say!~verbEnglC:say-says-said-saying-said!=speakingF,
* McsEngl.speak!~verbEnglC:speak-speaks-spoke-speaking-spoken!=speakingF,
* McsEngl.speakingF,
* McsEngl.speakingFuncting!⇒speakingF,
* McsEngl.tell!~verbEnglC:tell-tells-told-telling-told!=speakingF,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.jiǎng-讲!=speakingF,
* McsZhon.shuō-说!=speakingF,
* McsZhon.讲-jiǎng!=speakingF,
* McsZhon.说-shuō!=speakingF,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.λέω!~verbElln:-ω-ομαι!=speakingF,
* McsElln.λέγω!~verbElln:-ω-ομαι!=speakingF,
* McsElln.μιλάω!~verbElln:-άω-ώ-ιέμαι!=speakingF,
* McsElln.ομιλώ!~verbElln:-ώ-ούμαι!=speakingF,

EVOLUTING of lagSpch

* McsEngl.lagSpch'evoluting,

=== :

GENERIC of lagSpch

* human-mind-language,
* language,
* mapping-method,
* method,
* info,
* model,
* entity,


* English-lagSpch,
* Greek-lagSpch,
* Sinago-lagSpch,

* McsEngl.lagSpch.specific,


this webpage was-visited times since {2019-08-02}

page-wholepath: synagonism.net / worldviewSngo / dirLag / lagSpch

· this page uses 'locator-names', names that when you find them, you find the-LOCATION of the-concept they denote.
· clicking on the-green-BAR of a-page you have access to the-global--locator-names of my-site.
· use the-prefix 'lagSpch' for structured-concepts related to current concept 'oral-language'.
· TYPE CTRL+F "McsLang.words-of-concept's-name", to go to the-LOCATION of the-concept.
· a-preview of the-description of a-global-name makes reading fast.

• author: Kaseluris.Nikos.1959
• email:
• edit on github: https://github.com/synagonism/McsWorld/blob/master/dirLag/McsLag000009.last.html,
• comments on Disqus,
• twitter: @synagonism

• version.last.dynamic: McsLag000009.last.html,
• version.1-0-0.2021-04-11: (0-18) ../../dirMiwMcs/dirLag/filMcsLagOral.1-0-0.2021-04-11.html,
• version.0-1-0.2019-08-02 draft creation,

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