senso-concept-Mcs (material)

McsHitp-creation:: {2019-12-28},

overview of material

· material is an-atom, a-molecule, or a-system-of-molecules. {2020-04-21},
· material-body is a-material-atom[a] and any system of it[a]. {2020-03-31}

· material-body is a-body (= not relation or doing) which is-composed of matter.

* McsEngl.McsNtr000002.last.html//dirNtr//dirMcs!⇒material,
* McsEngl.dirMcs/dirNtr/McsNtr000002.last.html!⇒material,
* McsEngl.bodyMaterial!⇒material,
* McsEngl.bodyMtr!⇒material,
* McsEngl.material,
* McsEngl.material!=McsNtr000002,
* McsEngl.material!=material-body,
* McsEngl.material-body!⇒material,
* McsEngl.physical-body!⇒material,
* McsEngl.physical-object!⇒material,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.υλικό-σώμα!=material,

· material-body is a-material-atom[a] and any system of it[a]. {2020-03-31},
· material-body is a-body (= not relation or doing) which is a-system of matter.
"In chemistry, matter is defined as anything that has rest mass and volume (it takes up space) and is made up of particles. The particles that make up matter have rest mass as well – not all particles have rest mass, such as the photon. Matter can be a pure chemical substance or a mixture of substances.[16]"
[{2021-12-29 retrieved}]

01_mass of material

"mass-of-material" is a-measure of the-particles of the-material.
"Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in a substance or an object."
"Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.[1] An object's mass also determines the strength of its gravitational attraction to other bodies.
The basic SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg). In physics, mass is not the same as weight, even though mass is often determined by measuring the object's weight using a spring scale, rather than balance scale comparing it directly with known masses. An object on the Moon would weigh less than it does on Earth because of the lower gravity, but it would still have the same mass. This is because weight is a force, while mass is the property that (along with gravity) determines the strength of this force."

* McsEngl.material'mass!⇒mass,
* McsEngl.mass,
* McsEngl.mass-of-material!⇒mass,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.μάζα!=mass,

matter-relation-to-mass of material

· matter is the-elementary-particles and any system of them, PART of a-material-body.
"matter has an "opposite" called antimatter, but mass has no opposite—there is no such thing as "anti-mass" or negative mass, so far as is known, although scientists do discuss the concept. Antimatter has the same (i.e. positive) mass property as its normal matter counterpart."
"1.As we all know, “matter” is defined as “anything that occupies space and has mass,” and “mass” is defined as “something that represents the amount of matter in a particular space, particle, or object.”
2.In terms of features, matter can be seen while mass is only quantifiable.
3.The unit of mass is kilogram while matter can be measured using different forms of units of measurement such as weight, mass, or volume."

* McsEngl.material'att005-matter-relation-to-mass,
* McsEngl.material'matter-relation-to-mass-att005,
* McsEngl.matter'relation-to-mass,
* McsEngl.mass'relation-to-matter,


"The dalton or unified atomic mass unit (symbols: Da or u) is a unit of mass widely used in physics and chemistry. It is defined as 1/12 of the mass of an unbound neutral atom of carbon-12 in its nuclear and electronic ground state and at rest.[1][2] The atomic mass constant, denoted mu, is defined identically, giving mu = m(12C)/12 = 1 Da.[3]
This unit is commonly used in physics and chemistry to express the mass of atomic-scale objects, such as atoms, molecules, and elementary particles, both for discrete instances and multiple types of ensemble averages. For example, an atom of helium-4 has a mass of 4.0026 Da. This is an intrinsic property of the isotope and all helium-4 have the same mass. Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), C9H8O4, has an average mass of approximately 180.157 Da. However, there are no acetylsalicylic acid molecules with this mass. The two most common masses of individual acetylsalicylic acid molecules are 180.04228 Da and 181.04565 Da.
The molecular masses of proteins, nucleic acids, and other large polymers are often expressed with the units kilodaltons (kDa), megadaltons (MDa), etc.[4] Titin, one of the largest known proteins, has a molecular mass of between 3 and 3.7 megadaltons.[5] The DNA of chromosome 1 in the human genome has about 249 million base pairs, each with an average mass of about 650 Da, or 156 GDa total.[6]
The mole is a unit of amount of substance, widely used in chemistry and physics, which was originally defined so that the mass of one mole of a substance, measured in grams, would be numerically equal to the average mass of one of its constituent particles, measured in daltons. That is, the molar mass of a chemical compound was meant to be numerically equal to its average molecular mass. For example, the average mass of one molecule of water is about 18.0153 daltons, and one mole of water is about 18.0153 grams. A protein whose molecule has an average mass of 64 kDa would have a molar mass of 64 kg/mol. However, while this equality can be assumed for almost all practical purposes, it is now only approximate, because of the way mole was redefined on 20 May 2019.[4][1]
In general, the mass in daltons of an atom is numerically close, but not exactly equal to the number of nucleons A contained in its nucleus. It follows that the molar mass of a compound (grams per mole) is numerically close to the average number of nucleons contained in each molecule. By definition, the mass of an atom of carbon-12 is 12 daltons, which corresponds with the number of nucleons that it has (6 protons and 6 neutrons). However, the mass of an atomic-scale object is affected by the binding energy of the nucleons in its atomic nuclei, as well as the mass and binding energy of its electrons. Therefore, this equality holds only for the carbon-12 atom in the stated conditions, and will vary for other substances. For example, the mass of one unbound atom of the common hydrogen isotope (hydrogen-1, protium) is 1.007825032241(94) Da, the mass of one free neutron is 1.00866491595(49) Da,[7] and the mass of one hydrogen-2 (deuterium) atom is 2.014101778114(122) Da.[8] In general, the difference (mass defect) is less than 0.1%; exceptions include hydrogen-1 (about 0.8%), helium-3 (0.5%), lithium (0.25%) and beryllium (0.15%).
The unified atomic mass unit and the dalton should not be confused with the unit of mass in the atomic units systems, which is instead the electron rest mass (me)."

* McsEngl.Da-UomMass!⇒UomDa,
* McsEngl.UomDa,
* McsEngl.UomDa!=UomMass.dalton,
* McsEngl.UomMass.dalton!⇒UomDa,
* McsEngl.dalton-UomMass!⇒UomDa,
* McsEngl.mass.dalton-Uom!⇒UomDa,
* McsEngl.unified-atomic-mass-unit!⇒UomDa,

02_physical-property of material

* McsEngl.material'02_physical-property,
* McsEngl.material'att008-physical-property,
* McsEngl.material'physical-property-att008,

"Physical properties are contrasted with chemical properties which determine the way a material behaves in a chemical reaction."

* space,
** size,
** location,
* temperature,
* weight,


"the degree or intensity of heat present in a substance or object, especially as expressed according to a comparative scale and shown by a thermometer or perceived by touch."
[{2021-10-26 retrieved} Google-dict]
· heat: form of energy
· temperature: measurement of hotness or coldness
Units of Measurement:
· heat: joule, calorie
· temperature: Celsius, Kelvin, Fahrenheit
· heat: positive
· temperature: positive and negative
· heat: goes from hot to cold
· temperature: rises when heated; falls when cooled
· heat: calorimeter
· temperature: thermometer"
[{2021-10-26 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.physical-property.temperature,
* McsEngl.temperature,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.wēndù-温度-(溫度)!=temperature,
* McsZhon.温度-(溫度)-wēndù!=temperature,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.θερμοκρασία!=temperature,

· high temperature.

· stxZhon: 北京夏天不热。 Běijīng xiàtiān bú rè. != It is not hot in summer in Beijing.

* McsEngl.hotness,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.rè-热!=hot,
* McsZhon.热-rè!=hot,
====== langoGreek:
* McsEngl.adjeElln.ζεστός-ή-ό!=hot,
* McsElln.ζεστός-ή-ό!~adjeElln!=hot,
* McsElln.ζέστη!η!=hotness,


· low temperature.

_txtZhon: 这儿冬天很冷。 [Zhèr dōngtiān] [hěn lěng]. != Winter here is cold.

* McsEngl.cold!~adjeEngl,
* McsEngl.coldness,
* McsEngl.temperature.cold,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.lěng-冷!=coldness,
* McsZhon.冷-lěng!=coldness,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.κρύο!το!=coldness,
* McsEngl.adjeElln.κρύος-α!ο!=cold,
* McsElln.κρύος-α!ο!~adjeElln!=cold,

03_chemical-property of material

* McsEngl.material'03_chemical-property,
* McsEngl.material'att009-chemical-property,
* McsEngl.material'chemical-property-att009,
* McsEngl.chemical-property--of-material,

"A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.[1] Simply speaking, chemical properties cannot be determined just by viewing or touching the substance; the substance's internal structure must be affected greatly for its chemical properties to be investigated. When a substance goes under a chemical reaction, the properties will change drastically, resulting in chemical change. However, a catalytic property would also be a chemical property.
Chemical properties can be contrasted with physical properties, which can be discerned without changing the substance's structure. However, for many properties within the scope of physical chemistry, and other disciplines at the boundary between chemistry and physics, the distinction may be a matter of researcher's perspective. Material properties, both physical and chemical, can be viewed as supervenient; i.e., secondary to the underlying reality. Several layers of superveniency[clarification needed] are possible.
Chemical properties can be used for building chemical classifications. They can also be useful to identify an unknown substance or to separate or purify it from other substances. Materials science will normally consider the chemical properties of a substance to guide its applications."

04_space of material

· every material-body occupies some space.

* McsEngl.material'04_space,
* McsEngl.material'att002-space,
* McsEngl.material'space-att00002,

size of material

* McsEngl.material'att003-size,
* McsEngl.material'size-att003,
* McsEngl.size-of-material,

· size is a-measure of a-material-body's space:
* distance (length, wide, hight) (1-dimention),
* area (2-dimentions),
* volume (3-dimentions).

location of material

* McsEngl.material'att004-location,
* McsEngl.material'location-att004,
* McsEngl.location-of-material,

· location is a-specific-space of the-universe, relative (eg east) or relativeNot (africa).

06_weight of material

* McsEngl.material'06_weight,
* McsEngl.material'att007-weight,
* McsEngl.material'weight-att007,

· weight of material is the-gravitation-force acting on it.
· the-unit-of-measurement for weight is that of force, which in the-International-System-of-Units-(SI) is the-newton.

* material'physical-property,

07_info-resource of material

* McsEngl.material'07_resource,
* McsEngl.material'attResource,
* McsEngl.material'Infrsc,


physics of material

">physics overview:
Physics is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy. Over the course of its history, physics has developed into a vast and complex discipline, but its foundation remains the same: a desire to understand the physical world and how it works.

**Major Branches of Physics**
Physics is often divided into several major branches, each of which is concerned with a specific aspect of the physical world. These branches include:
1. **Mechanics:** Mechanics is the study of motion and forces. It is the oldest branch of physics and is divided into three main subfields: **classical mechanics**, which describes the motion of macroscopic objects; **quantum mechanics**, which describes the motion of microscopic objects such as atoms and particles; and **relativistic mechanics**, which describes the motion of objects moving at speeds close to the speed of light.
2. **Electromagnetism:** Electromagnetism is the study of electric and magnetic fields. It is one of the most important branches of physics because it underlies many of the phenomena that we observe in our everyday lives, such as electricity, magnetism, and light.
3. **Thermodynamics:** Thermodynamics is the study of heat and its relationship to other forms of energy. It is concerned with the transfer of energy between systems, the conversion of energy from one form to another, and the relationship between energy and entropy.
4. **Optics:** Optics is the study of light. It is concerned with the behavior of light waves, the propagation of light through various media, and the interaction of light with matter.
5. **Atomic physics and nuclear physics:** Atomic physics is the study of the structure and behavior of atoms. Nuclear physics is the study of the nucleus of the atom, including its structure, composition, and interactions.
6. **Particle physics:** Particle physics is the study of the smallest known particles, such as electrons, quarks, and gluons. It is concerned with the fundamental forces that govern the behavior of these particles and the processes that create and destroy them.

**Applications of Physics**
Physics has a wide range of applications in our everyday lives. Some of the most important applications include:
1. **Electricity and electronics:** The development of electricity and electronics has revolutionized our world, from powering our homes and businesses to enabling communication and information technology.
2. **Transportation:** Physics is essential to the development of vehicles such as cars, airplanes, and trains. It is also important to the design and operation of transportation systems.
3. **Medicine:** Physics plays a vital role in medicine, from the use of X-rays and MRIs to the development of new medical treatments.
4. **Construction:** Physics is used in the construction of buildings, bridges, and other structures. It is also used to study the behavior of materials and to design structures that are strong and safe.
5. **The environment:** Physics is used to study the environment and to understand the effects of human activities on the planet. It is also used to develop technologies that can help to protect the environment.

**The Future of Physics**
Physics is a constantly evolving field of study, and there are many exciting new discoveries to be made. Some of the most important challenges facing physicists in the future include:
1. **Understanding the universe:** One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand the origin and evolution of the universe. This includes understanding the Big Bang, the formation of galaxies and stars, and the nature of dark matter and dark energy.
2. **Developing new technologies:** Physics is essential to the development of new technologies that can improve our lives. These technologies include new sources of energy, new materials, and new medical treatments.
3. **Solving global challenges:** Physics can be used to address some of the most pressing global challenges, such as climate change, pollution, and poverty.

The future of physics is bright, and we can expect to see many new discoveries and breakthroughs in the years to come.
[{2023-11-29 retrieved}]

=== wùlǐ-物理!=sciPhys:
· stxZhon: 我在中学学了物理。 :: Wǒ zài zhōngxué xué le wùlǐ. != I studied physics in middle school.

* McsEngl.physics-science!⇒sciPhys,
* McsEngl.sciPhys!=physics-science,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.wùlǐ-物理!=sciPhys,
* McsZhon.物理-wùlǐ!=sciPhys,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.φυσική-επιστήμη!=sciPhys,

evoluting of sciPhys

">evolution of physics:
The evolution of physics is a long and fascinating journey, spanning millennia of scientific inquiry and marked by groundbreaking discoveries that have fundamentally altered our understanding of the universe. From the ancient Greeks' formulation of the laws of motion to the modern era's exploration of quantum mechanics and relativity, physics has transformed our perception of reality and paved the way for technological advancements that have reshaped our world.

**Ancient Greece: Laying the Foundations**
The roots of physics can be traced back to ancient Greece, where philosophers like Aristotle and Archimedes made significant contributions to our understanding of nature. Aristotle, in particular, developed a comprehensive system of physics that encompassed mechanics, optics, and astronomy. His ideas, while not always accurate by modern standards, laid a foundation for future generations of scientists.

**The Rise of Classical Mechanics**
In the 17th and 18th centuries, physics underwent a remarkable transformation with the emergence of classical mechanics. Isaac Newton, the father of classical mechanics, formulated the laws of motion and gravitation, which provided a rigorous mathematical framework for understanding the motion of objects on Earth and in the heavens. This new understanding of motion led to groundbreaking developments in astronomy, engineering, and technology.

**Unveiling the Mysteries of Electricity and Magnetism**
The 19th century saw the rise of electromagnetism, a field that explores the interactions between electric and magnetic fields. Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell made seminal contributions to electromagnetism, culminating in Maxwell's equations, which unified the electric and magnetic forces into a single theory. This breakthrough had profound implications for our understanding of light as an electromagnetic wave and paved the way for the development of modern electronics.

**The Dawn of Modern Physics: Quantum Mechanics and Relativity**
The early 20th century witnessed the emergence of two revolutionary theories that challenged the very foundations of classical physics: quantum mechanics and relativity. Quantum mechanics, developed by physicists like Max Planck, Albert Einstein, and Niels Bohr, revolutionized our understanding of matter and energy at the atomic and subatomic levels. It introduced concepts like quantum mechanics, wave-particle duality, and uncertainty, which revolutionized our understanding of the physical world at the smallest scales.
Relativity, developed by Albert Einstein, introduced new concepts of time, space, and gravity. His theories of special relativity and general relativity showed that time and space are not absolute but are relative to the observer's motion. This revolutionized our understanding of the universe and had profound implications for cosmology, astrophysics, and navigation.

**The Quest for a Unified Theory: String Theory and Beyond**
Modern physics is engaged in a quest to unify the two great pillars of the 20th century: quantum mechanics and general relativity. String theory, a theoretical framework that attempts to reconcile the two theories, has emerged as a leading contender for a unified theory of physics. String theory postulates that the fundamental building blocks of the universe are not point-like particles but tiny vibrating strings. While still under development, string theory has the potential to provide a complete and consistent description of the universe from the smallest scales to the largest, bridging the gap between quantum mechanics and general relativity.

The evolution of physics is a continuous process, with new discoveries and theories emerging regularly. As we delve further into the mysteries of the universe, we can expect physics to continue to transform our understanding of reality and pave the way for even greater technological advancements."
[{2023-11-29 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.evoluting-of-sciPhys,
* McsEngl.sciPhys'evoluting,

chemistry of material

"Chemistry is the scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter.[1] It is a natural science that covers the elements that make up matter to the compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances.[2][3][4][5]
In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology.[6] It is sometimes called the central science because it provides a foundation for understanding both basic and applied scientific disciplines at a fundamental level.[7] For example, chemistry explains aspects of plant chemistry (botany), the formation of igneous rocks (geology), how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded (ecology), the properties of the soil on the moon (cosmochemistry), how medications work (pharmacology), and how to collect DNA evidence at a crime scene (forensics).
Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are two types of chemical bonds: 1. primary chemical bonds e.g covalent bonds, in which atoms share one or more electron(s); ionic bonds, in which an atom donates one or more electrons to another atom to produce ions (cations and anions); metallic bonds and 2. secondary chemical bonds e.g. hydrogen bonds; Van der Waals force bonds, ion-ion interaction, ion-dipole interaction etc."
[{2021-12-28 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.chemistry!⇒sciChem,
* McsEngl.sciChem!=chemistry-science,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.huàxué-化学-(化學)!=sciChem,
* McsZhon.化学-(化學)-huàxué!=sciChem,
====== langoEsperanto:
* McsEspo.kemio!=sciChem,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.χημεία!η!=sciChem,

evoluting of sciChem

">evolution of chemistry:
The evolution of chemistry is a fascinating journey that spans thousands of years. Here is a brief overview of key developments in the history of chemistry:

1. **Ancient Alchemy (circa 300 BCE - 1600 CE):** The roots of chemistry can be traced back to ancient civilizations such as Egypt, China, India, and Greece. Alchemists sought to transform base metals into gold and discover the elixir of life. Although their goals were often mystical, alchemists made important contributions to experimental techniques and the discovery of new substances.

2. **Emergence of Scientific Method (17th Century):** The 17th century marked a shift from mystical to scientific approaches. Robert Boyle's Boyle's law (1662) and Antoine Lavoisier's work on the conservation of mass (late 18th century) laid the foundation for modern chemistry. Lavoisier is often considered the "Father of Modern Chemistry" for his role in establishing a systematic chemical nomenclature and developing the law of conservation of mass.

3. **Dalton's Atomic Theory (1803):** John Dalton proposed the atomic theory, suggesting that matter is composed of indivisible atoms. This theory provided a framework for understanding chemical reactions and the nature of elements.

4. **Avogadro's Hypothesis (1811):** Amedeo Avogadro proposed that equal volumes of gases, at the same temperature and pressure, contain the same number of molecules. This idea led to the concept of the mole and greatly contributed to the development of stoichiometry.

5. **Discovery of the Periodic Table (1869):** Dmitri Mendeleev organized the known elements into the periodic table based on their atomic masses, predicting the properties of missing elements. The modern periodic table, arranged by atomic number, was later developed by Henry Moseley.

6. **Discovery of Subatomic Particles (late 19th - early 20th centuries):** J.J. Thomson's discovery of the electron (1897) and Ernest Rutherford's gold foil experiment (1909) led to the understanding of the atomic structure, with a nucleus containing protons and neutrons.

7. **Quantum Mechanics (early 20th century):** The development of quantum mechanics by scientists like Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrödinger provided a new understanding of the behavior of electrons within atoms and molecules.

8. **Modern Chemistry and Advances in Organic Chemistry (20th century):** The 20th century saw significant advances in organic chemistry, biochemistry, and materials science. The discovery of the structure of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953 was a milestone in biochemistry.

9. **Green Chemistry and Nanotechnology (late 20th century - present):** In recent decades, the focus has shifted towards sustainable and environmentally friendly practices in chemistry. Green chemistry aims to minimize the environmental impact of chemical processes. Nanotechnology has also opened new frontiers with applications in medicine, electronics, and materials science.

The evolution of chemistry continues with ongoing research and discoveries, expanding our understanding of the fundamental principles governing matter and reactions."
[{2023-11-29 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.evoluting-of-sciChem,
* McsEngl.sciChem'evoluting,

The discovery of the structure of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953 was a milestone in biochemistry. []
* McsEngl.{science'1953}-sciChem--electron-discovery,

J.J. Thomson discovered electron. []
* McsEngl.{science'1897}-sciChem--electron-discovery,

Discovery of the Periodic Table (1869): Dmitri Mendeleev organized the known elements into the periodic table based on their atomic masses, predicting the properties of missing elements. The modern periodic table, arranged by atomic number, was later developed by Henry Moseley. []
* McsEngl.{science'1869}-sciChem--periodic-table,

Dalton's Atomic Theory (1803): John Dalton proposed the atomic theory, suggesting that matter is composed of indivisible atoms. This theory provided a framework for understanding chemical reactions and the nature of elements. []
* McsEngl.{science'1803}-sciChem--Dalton-atomic-theory,

08_structure of material

* McsEngl.material'08_structure,
* McsEngl.material'attStructure,
* McsEngl.material'structure,


09_doing of material


* McsEngl.material'09_doing,
* McsEngl.material'attDoing,
* McsEngl.material'doing,

10_EVOLUTING of material

* McsEngl.material'10_evoluting,
* McsEngl.material'attEvoluting,
* McsEngl.evoluting-of-material,
* McsEngl.material'evoluting,

=== matter a-constituent of material-body:
· and mass a-measure of matter.

=== matter ≡ material-body:
· working hypothesis.

=== McsHitp-creation:
· creation of current concept.

WHOLE-PART-TREE of material

* McsEngl.material'whole-part-tree,

* Sympan,

* density,
* mass,
* matter,
* space,
* surface,
* weight,


* McsEngl.material'generic-specific-tree,

* body-system,
* entity,

* substance-material,
* substanceNo-material,
* microscopic-material,
* microscopicNo-material,
* macroscopic-material,
* celestial-body,
* system-material,
* whole-material,


* McsEngl.material.specifics-division.eye,

· on eye:
* micro-material,
* mid-material,
* macro-material,


· substance,
· substanceNo,

* McsEngl.material.specifics-division.shape,


· natural-material,
· naturalNo-material,

* McsEngl.material.specifics-division.creator,


* McsEngl.material.009-atomic-scale,
* McsEngl.material.atomic-scale-009,
* McsEngl.atomic-level-material-009,
* McsEngl.atomic-scale-material-009,
* McsEngl.particle.atomic-scale-009,

"particles, which may be atoms, molecules, ions, or electrons."


* McsEngl.material.001-microscopic, /mikroskópic/,
* McsEngl.material.microscale-001,
* McsEngl.material.microscopic-001,
* McsEngl.mtrlMicroscopic,
* McsEngl.material-microscopic-001,
* McsEngl.micro-level-material-001,
* McsEngl.micro-scale-material-001,
* McsEngl.microscopic-material-001,
* McsEngl.microscopic-material-001,

· microscopic-material is a-very-small a-material-body that can-NOT-be-seen with our eyes.
· example: an-atom, a-mollecule, a-micro-organism.


* McsEngl.material.002-eyescopic,
* McsEngl.material.eyescale-002,
* McsEngl.material.eyescopic-002,
* McsEngl.mtrlEyescopic,
* McsEngl.eyes-level-material,
* McsEngl.eyes-scale-material,
* McsEngl.eyescopic-material,
* McsEngl.eyescopic-material,

· eyescopic-material is a-material-body that can-be-seen with our eyes.
· example: a-car, an-organism.


* McsEngl.material.003-macroscopic, /makroskópic/,
* McsEngl.material.macroscale-003,
* McsEngl.material.macroscopic-003,
* McsEngl.macro-scale-materila,
* McsEngl.macroscopic-material,

· macroscopic-material is a-material-body that can-NOT-be-seen with our eyes, directly.
· example: a-human-society, the-earth, our-solar-system.


· a-material made by nature, NOT by an-organism.

* McsEngl.material.007-natural!⇒mtrlNatural,
* McsEngl.material.natural!⇒mtrlNatural,
* McsEngl.mtrlNatural,


· a-material NOT made by nature, but by an-organism.

* McsEngl.constructed-material!⇒mtrlNaturalNo,
* McsEngl.material.008-naturalNo!⇒mtrlNaturalNo,
* McsEngl.material.naturalNo!⇒mtrlNaturalNo,
* McsEngl.mtrlNaturalNo,


* McsEngl.material.010-ion, /áion/,
* McsEngl.material.ion-010,
* McsEngl.ion-material-010,

"An ion (/ˈaɪɒn, -ən/)[1] is an atom or molecule that has a net electrical charge. Since the charge of the electron (considered negative by convention) is equal and opposite to that of the proton (considered positive by convention), the net charge of an ion is non-zero due to its total number of electrons being unequal to its total number of protons. A cation is a positively charged ion, with fewer electrons than protons, while an anion is negatively charged, with more electrons than protons. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds.
Ions consisting of only a single atom are termed atomic or monatomic ions, while two or more atoms form molecular ions or polyatomic ions. In the case of physical ionization in a fluid (gas or liquid), "ion pairs" are created by spontaneous molecule collisions, where each generated pair consists of a free electron and a positive ion.[2] Ions are also created by chemical interactions, such as the dissolution of a salt in liquids, or by other means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, dissolving an anode via ionization."

* atom-ion,
* molecule-ion,


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• author: Kaseluris.Nikos.1959
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