senso-concept-Mcs (ogm)

McsHitp-creation:: {2019-12-19},

overview of ogm

* organism is a-material-system capable of reproduction.
· organism is a-bio-system which is NOT a-system of biosystems.

* McsEngl.McsOgm000003.last.html//dirOgm//dirMcs!⇒ogm,
* McsEngl.dirMcs/dirOgm/McsOgm000003.last.html!⇒ogm,
* McsEngl.creature!⇒ogm,
* McsEngl.ognm!⇒ogm,
* McsEngl.ogm!=McsOgm000003,
* McsEngl.ogm!=organism,
* McsEngl.organism!⇒ogm,
* McsEngl.organismOne!⇒ogm,
* McsEngl.orgm!⇒ogm,
====== langoSinago:
* McsSngo.zo-fo!=organism,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.shēngwù-生物!=organism,
* McsZhon.生物-shēngwù!=organism,
====== langoEsperanto:
* McsEspo.organismo!=organism,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.οργανισμός!ο!=organism,

01_disease (link) of ogm

02_managing-sys (link) of ogm

03_health (link) of ogm

04_material-node of ogm

· nodeOgmMtrl is a-material-system part of an-organism.
· it is a-system MORE COMPLEX than a-system-of-molecules.

* McsEngl.ogm'04_material-node!⇒nodeOgmMtrl,
* McsEngl.ogm'att004-material-system!⇒nodeOgmMtrl,
* McsEngl.ogm'material-node!⇒nodeOgmMtrl,
* McsEngl.ogm'material-system!⇒nodeOgmMtrl,
* McsEngl.ogm'nodeMtrl!⇒nodeOgmMtrl,
* McsEngl.ogm'sysMtrl!⇒nodeOgmMtrl,
* McsEngl.sysMaterialOgm!⇒nodeOgmMtrl,
* McsEngl.sysMaterial-of-organism!⇒nodeOgmMtrl,
* McsEngl.sysMtrlOgm!⇒nodeOgmMtrl, {2020-05-13},
* McsEngl.nodeOgmMtrl, {2020-10-22},


* body,
* body-region,
* organ-system,
* organ,
* cell,
"Organisms are typically made up of different parts or structures that have specific functions in the body. Here are some examples of parts of organisms:
* Cells: The basic unit of life, cells are the smallest structural and functional units of an organism.
* Tissues: A group of cells that perform a specific function or functions.
* Organs: A group of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or functions. For example, the heart is an organ that pumps blood throughout the body.
* Organ systems: A group of organs that work together to perform a specific function or functions. For example, the digestive system is made up of organs such as the stomach, intestines, and liver that work together to break down food and absorb nutrients.
* Body regions: Different regions of the body that have specific functions or contain specific organs. For example, the head contains the brain, eyes, and ears, while the limbs are used for movement."
[{2023-04-08 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.nodeOgmMtrl.specific,


* McsEngl.nodeOgmMtrl.body!⇒bodyOgm,
* McsEngl.nodeOgmMtrl.001-body!⇒bodyOgm,
* McsEngl.ogm'att013-body!⇒bodyOgm,
* McsEngl.ogm'body-att013!⇒bodyOgm,
* McsEngl.body-of-ogm-att013!⇒bodyOgm,
* McsEngl.bodyOgm,

· an-organism is a-whole-part-tree of material-systems.
· body-of-ogm is the-outermost material-system of it.


* McsEngl.nodeOgmMtrl.lipoprotein,
* McsEngl.nodeOgmMtrl.002-lipoprotein,
* McsEngl.lipoprotein-particle,

"A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly whose primary purpose is to transport hydrophobic lipid (also known as fat) molecules in water, as in blood plasma or other extracellular fluids. They have a single-layer phospholipid and cholesterol outer shell, with the hydrophilic portions oriented outward toward the surrounding water and lipophilic portions oriented inward toward the lipids molecules within the particles. Thus, the complex serves to emulsify the fats in extracellular fluids. A special kind of protein, called apolipoprotein, is embedded in the outer shell, both stabilising the complex and giving it a functional identity that determines its fate.
Many enzymes, transporters, structural proteins, antigens, adhesins, and toxins are lipoproteins. Examples include plasma lipoprotein particles (HDL, LDL, IDL, VLDL and chylomicrons). Subgroups of these plasma particles are primary drivers or modulators of atherosclerosis.[1]"


* McsEngl.lipoprotein.HDL,
* McsEngl.lipoprotein.001-HDL,
* McsEngl.HDL-high-density-lipoprotein,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.καλή-xοληστερίνη,

"High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.[1] Lipoproteins are complex particles composed of multiple proteins which transport all fat molecules (lipids) around the body within the water outside cells. They are typically composed of 80–100 proteins per particle (organized by one, two or three ApoA; more as the particles enlarge picking up and carrying more fat molecules) and transporting up to hundreds of fat molecules per particle.
Lipoproteins have long been divided into 5 subgroups, by density/size (an inverse relationship), which also correlates with function and incidence of cardiovascular events. Unlike the larger lipoprotein particles which deliver fat molecules to cells, HDL particles remove fat molecules from cells which need to export fat molecules. The lipids carried include cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides; amounts of each are quite variable.
Increasing concentrations of HDL particles are strongly associated with decreasing accumulation of atherosclerosis within the walls of arteries. This is important because atherosclerosis eventually results in sudden plaque ruptures, cardiovascular disease, stroke and other vascular diseases. HDL particles are sometimes referred to as "good cholesterol" because they can transport fat molecules out of artery walls, reduce macrophage accumulation, and thus help prevent or even regress atherosclerosis, but studies have shown that HDL-lacking mice still have the ability to transport cholesterol to bile, suggesting that there are alternative mechanisms for cholesterol removal."
HDL and cholesterol: life after the divorce?1
Kasey C. Vickers2,*,† and Alan T. Remaley†
For decades, HDL and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were viewed as synonymous, and modulation of HDL-C levels by drug therapy held great promise for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, recent failures of drugs that raise HDL-C to reduce cardiovascular risk and the now greater understanding of the complexity of HDL composition and biology have prompted researchers in the field to redefine HDL. As such, the focus of HDL has now started to shift away from a cholesterol-centric view toward HDL particle number, subclasses, and other alternative metrics of HDL. Many of the recently discovered functions of HDL are, in fact, not strictly conferred by its ability to promote cholesterol flux but by the other molecules it transports, including a diverse set of proteins, small RNAs, hormones, carotenoids, vitamins, and bioactive lipids. Based on HDL's ability to interact with almost all cells and transport and deliver fat-soluble cargo, HDL has the remarkable capacity to affect a wide variety of endocrine-like systems. In this review, we characterize HDL's unique cargo and address the functional relevance and consequences of HDL transport and delivery of noncholesterol molecules to recipient cells and tissues.

relation-to-memory of HDL

* McsEngl.HDL'relation-to-memory,
* McsEngl.memory'relation-to-HDL,

"Fasting serum lipids have been associated with short term verbal memory. In a large sample of middle aged adults, low HDL cholesterol was associated with poor memory and decreasing levels over a five-year follow-up period were associated with decline in memory.[28]"


* McsEngl.lipoprotein.LDL,
* McsEngl.lipoprotein.002-LDL,
* McsEngl.LDL-low-density-lipoprotein,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.κακή-xοληστερίνη,

LDL = ALL - (TG/5) - HDL
"Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoprotein which transport all fat molecules around the body in the extracellular water.[1] These groups, from least dense to most dense, are chylomicrons (aka ULDL by the overall density naming convention), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). LDL delivers fat molecules to cells. LDL can contribute to atherosclerosis if it is oxidized within the walls of arteries."


* McsEngl.lipoprotein.IDL,
* McsEngl.lipoprotein.003-IDL,
* McsEngl.IDL-intermediate-density-lipoprotein,

"Intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs) belong to the lipoprotein particle family and are formed from the degradation of very low-density lipoproteins as well as high-density lipoproteins.[1] IDL is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL) that enable fats and cholesterol to move within the water-based solution of the bloodstream. Each native IDL particle consists of protein that encircles various lipids, enabling, as a water-soluble particle, these lipids to travel in the aqueous blood environment as part of the fat transport system within the body. Their size is, in general, 25 to 35 nm in diameter, and they contain primarily a range of triacylglycerols and cholesterol esters. They are cleared from the plasma into the liver by receptor-mediated endocytosis, or further degraded by hepatic lipase to form LDL particles.
Although one might intuitively assume that "intermediate-density" refers to a density between that of high-density and low-density lipoproteins, it in fact refers to a density between that of low-density and very-low-density lipoproteins.
In general, IDL, somewhat similar to low-density lipoprotein (LDL), transports a variety of triglyceride fats and cholesterol and, like LDL, can also promote the growth of atheroma.[citation needed]
VLDL is a large, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein secreted by the liver that transports triglyceride to adipose tissue and muscle. The triglycerides in VLDL are removed in capillaries by the enzyme lipoprotein lipase, and the VLDL returns to the circulation as a smaller particle with a new name, intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL). The IDL particles have lost most of their triglyceride, but they retain cholesteryl esters. Some of the IDL particles are rapidly taken up by the liver; others remain in circulation, where they undergo further triglyceride hydrolysis by hepatic lipase and are converted to LDL. A distinguishing feature of the IDL particle is their content of multiple copies of the receptor ligand ApoE in addition to a single copy of ApoB-100. The multiple copies of ApoE allow IDL to bind to the LDL receptor with a very high affinity. When IDL is converted to LDL, the ApoE leaves the particle and only the ApoB-100 remains. Thereafter, the affinity for the LDL receptor is much reduced.[2]"


* McsEngl.lipoprotein.VLDL,
* McsEngl.lipoprotein.004-VLDL,
* McsEngl.VLDL-very-low-density-lipoprotein,

"Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), density relative to extracellular water, is a type of lipoprotein made by the liver.[1] VLDL is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein) that enable fats and cholesterol to move within the water-based solution of the bloodstream. VLDL is assembled in the liver from triglycerides, cholesterol, and apolipoproteins. VLDL is converted in the bloodstream to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL). VLDL particles have a diameter of 30–80 nm. VLDL transports endogenous products, whereas chylomicrons transport exogenous (dietary) products. In the early 2010s both the lipid composition [2] and protein composition [3] of this lipoprotein were characterised in great detail."


* McsEngl.lipoprotein.ULDL,
* McsEngl.lipoprotein.005-ULDL,
* McsEngl.chylomicron, /kailomáikron/,
* McsEngl.ULDL-ultra-low-density-lipoprotein,

"Chylomicrons (from the Greek χυλός, chylos, meaning juice (of plants or animals), and micron, meaning small particle), also known as ultra low-density lipoproteins (ULDL), are lipoprotein particles that consist of triglycerides (85–92%), phospholipids (6–12%), cholesterol (1–3%), and proteins (1–2%). They transport dietary lipids from the intestines to other locations in the body. ULDLs are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins (sorted by density) that enable fats and cholesterol to move within the water-based solution of the bloodstream.[1] A protein specific to chylomicrons is ApoB48.
There is an inverse relationship in the density and size of lipoprotein particles: the larger particles, which have a higher ratio of internal fat molecules with respect to the outer emulsifying protein molecules in the shell, and fats, are always lower density than water or smaller protein molecules. ULDLs, if in the region of 1,000 nm or more, are the only lipoprotein particles that can be seen using a light microscope, at maximum magnification. All the other classes are submicroscopic."

body-region of ogm

"Organisms can have a variety of body regions depending on their anatomy and classification. Here are some examples of body regions in different organisms:
* Insects: Insects have three main body regions - the head, thorax, and abdomen. The head contains the eyes, antennae, and mouthparts, while the thorax contains the wings and legs, and the abdomen contains the digestive and reproductive organs.
* Fish: Fish have a head, trunk, and tail. The head contains the eyes, mouth, and gills, while the trunk contains the internal organs, and the tail contains the fins.
* Reptiles: Reptiles have a head, neck, trunk, and tail. The head contains the brain, eyes, ears, and mouth, while the neck connects the head to the trunk, which contains the internal organs. The tail varies depending on the species, but can be used for balance or defense.
* Birds: Birds have a head, neck, trunk, wings, and tail. The head contains the brain, eyes, and beak, while the neck connects the head to the trunk, which contains the internal organs. The wings are used for flight, and the tail helps with steering.
* Mammals: Mammals have a head, neck, trunk, and limbs. The head contains the brain, eyes, ears, nose, and mouth, while the neck connects the head to the trunk, which contains the internal organs. The limbs are used for movement, and can be further divided into regions such as the upper arm, forearm, hand, thigh, leg, and foot.
* These are just a few examples of the body regions that can be found in different organisms. The specific regions and their functions can vary widely depending on the species."
[{2023-04-08 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogm'att026-body-region,
* McsEngl.ogm'body-region,

sys-of-organs of ogm

"An organ system is a biological system consisting of a group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions. Each organ has a specialized role in a plant or animal body, and is made up of distinct tissues."
[{2023-04-08 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.body-system!⇒sysOgnOgm,
* McsEngl.ogm'att027-sys-of-organs!⇒sysOgnOgm,
* McsEngl.ogm'sys-of-organs!⇒sysOgnOgm,
* McsEngl.ogm'sysOgnOgm,
* McsEngl.organ-system!⇒sysOgnOgm,

organ of ogm

"In a multicellular organism, an organ is a collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function.[1] In the hierarchy of life, an organ lies between tissue and an organ system. Tissues are formed from same type cells to act together in a function. Tissues of different types combine to form an organ which has a specific function. The intestinal wall for example is formed by epithelial tissue and smooth muscle tissue.[2] Two or more organs working together in the execution of a specific body function form an organ system, also called a biological system or body system.
An organ's tissues can be broadly categorized as parenchyma, the functional tissue, and stroma, the structural tissue with supportive, connective, or ancillary functions. For example, the gland's tissue that makes the hormones is the parenchyma, whereas the stroma includes the nerves that innervate the parenchyma, the blood vessels that oxygenate and nourish it and carry away its metabolic wastes, and the connective tissues that provide a suitable place for it to be situated and anchored. The main tissues that make up an organ tend to have common embryologic origins, such as arising from the same germ layer. Organs exist in most multicellular organisms. In single-celled organisms such as bacteria, the functional analogue of an organ is known as an organelle. In plants, there are three main organs.[3]
In the study of anatomy, viscera (singular viscus) refers to the internal organs of the abdominal, thoracic, and pelvic cavities.[4] The abdominal organs may be classified as solid organs, or hollow organs. The solid organs are the liver, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, and adrenal glands. The hollow organs of the abdomen are the stomach, intestines, gallbladder, bladder, and rectum.[5] In the thoracic cavity the heart is a hollow, muscular organ.[6]
The number of organs in any organism depends on the definition used. By one widely adopted definition, 79 organs have been identified in the human body.[7]"
[{2023-04-08 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogm'att028-organ!⇒organOmg,
* McsEngl.ogm'organ!⇒organOmg,
* McsEngl.organOmg,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.όργανο!=organOmg,

tissue (link) of ogm

cell (link) of ogm

05_material of ogm

* McsEngl.ogm'05_material,
* McsEngl.ogm'att005-material,
* McsEngl.ogm'material-att005,
* McsEngl.materialOgm,

· materialOgm is any material (atom, molecule, sys-of-molecules) part of an-organism.

sysMolecules (link) of ogm

molecule (link) of ogm

atom (link) of ogm

waste-product of ogm

* McsEngl.ogm'att020-waste-product,
* McsEngl.ogm'waste-product-att020,
* McsEngl.excrement,
* McsEngl.metabolic-waste,
* McsEngl.waste-product-of-ogm-att020,

· waste-product-of-organism is any material excreted by an-organism as not needed.
"Metabolic wastes or excrements are substances left over from metabolic processes (such as cellular respiration) which cannot be used by the organism (they are surplus or toxic), and must therefore be excreted. This includes nitrogen compounds, water, CO2, phosphates, sulphates, etc. Animals treat these compounds as excretes. Plants have chemical "machinery" which transforms some of them (primarily the nitrogen compounds) into useful substances.
All the metabolic wastes are excreted in a form of water solutes through the excretory organs (nephridia, Malpighian tubules, kidneys), with the exception of CO2, which is excreted together with the water vapor throughout the lungs. The elimination of these compounds enables the chemical homeostasis of the organism."

06_genome of ogm

* McsEngl.ogm'06_genome,
* McsEngl.ogm'att018-genome,
* McsEngl.ogm'genome-att018,
* McsEngl.genome-ogm-att018,

"In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism. It consists of DNA (or RNA in RNA viruses). The genome includes both the genes (the coding regions) and the noncoding DNA,[1] as well as mitochondrial DNA[2] and chloroplast DNA. The study of the genome is called genomics."

satisfier (link) of ogm

09_shape of ogm

* McsEngl.ogm'09_shape,
* McsEngl.ogm'att007-shape,
* McsEngl.ogm'shape-att007,
* McsEngl.shape-of-ogm-att007,

· an-organism is a-material-object as its body has a-shape.

symmetry of ogm

* McsEngl.ogm'att021-symmetry,
* McsEngl.ogm'symmetry-att021,
* McsEngl.symmetry-of-ogm-att021,

"Symmetry in biology refers to the symmetry observed in organisms, including plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria. External symmetry can be easily seen by just looking at an organism. For example, take the face of a human being which has a plane of symmetry down its centre, or a pine cone with a clear symmetrical spiral pattern. Internal features can also show symmetry, for example the tubes in the human body (responsible for transporting gases, nutrients, and waste products) which are cylindrical and have several planes of symmetry.
Biological symmetry can be thought of as a balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes within the body of an organism. Importantly, unlike in mathematics, symmetry in biology is always approximate. For example, plant leaves – while considered symmetrical – rarely match up exactly when folded in half. Symmetry is one class of patterns in nature whereby there is near-repetition of the pattern element, either by reflection or rotation.
While sponges and placozoans represent two groups of animals which don't show any symmetry (i.e. are asymmetrical), the body plans of most multicellular organisms exhibit, and are defined by, some form of symmetry. There are only a few types of symmetry which are possible in body plans. These are radial (cylindrical), bilateral, biradial and spherical symmetry.[1] While the classification of viruses as an 'organism' remains controversial, viruses also contain icosahedral symmetry.
The importance of symmetry is illustrated by the fact that groups of animals have traditionally been defined by this feature in taxonomic groupings. The Radiata, animals with radial symmetry, formed one of the four branches of Georges Cuvier's classification of the animal kingdom.[2][3][4] Meanwhile, Bilateria is a taxonomic grouping still used today to represent organisms with embryonic bilateral symmetry."

10_size of ogm

* McsEngl.ogm'10_size,
* McsEngl.ogm'att014-size,
* McsEngl.ogm'size-att014,
* McsEngl.size-of-ogm-att014,

· size-of-ogm is any measure of its body like length, width, height, or volume.

info-resource of ogm

* McsEngl.ogm'Infrsc,


science of bio

"The study of living things is called biology (also called biological science). An expert in this field is called a biologist. Several areas of biological studies include morphology, anatomy, cytology, histology, physiology, ecology, evolution, taxonomy, and pathology."

* McsEngl.biological-science!⇒sciBio,
* McsEngl.biology!⇒sciBio,
* McsEngl.sciBio,
====== langoSinago:
* McsSngo.sio-zo-fo!=sciBio,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.shēngwùxué-生物学!=sciBio,
* McsZhon.生物学-shēngwùxué!=sciBio,
====== langoEsperanto:
* McsEspo.biologio!=sciBio,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.βιολογία!η!=sciBio,

info-resource of sciBio

* McsEngl.sciBio'Infrsc,


structure of ogm

* McsEngl.ogm'structure,


DOING of ogm

· any doing of organism.

* McsEngl.behavior-of-organism,
* McsEngl.ogm'behavior,
* McsEngl.ogm'doing,

* function,
* action,
* communication,
* metabolism,
* reproduction,

influence of behavior

· actions to change the-behavior of organisms.

* McsEngl.influence-of--organism's-behavior,
* McsEngl.ogm'att031-influence-of-behavior,
* McsEngl.ogm'influence-of-behavior,
* McsEngl.ogm'behavior'influence,

reward of behavior

"reward penalty:
Rewards and penalties are two commonly used mechanisms to influence behavior. Rewards are positive incentives that are given to encourage desired behavior, while penalties are negative consequences that are imposed to discourage undesired behavior.

* **Positive reinforcement:** This is when a desired behavior is followed by a reward, making the behavior more likely to be repeated in the future. For example, a child may be given a sticker for completing their homework, making them more likely to complete their homework in the future.
* **Intrinsic rewards:** These are rewards that are self-motivating, such as the satisfaction of completing a task or learning a new skill.
* **Extrinsic rewards:** These are rewards that are external to the behavior itself, such as money, prizes, or praise.

* **Negative reinforcement:** This is when an undesired behavior is followed by the removal of a negative stimulus, making the behavior less likely to be repeated in the future. For example, a child may be allowed to leave the table earlier if they finish their dinner, making them more likely to finish their dinner in the future.
* **Positive punishment:** This is when an undesired behavior is followed by the introduction of a negative stimulus, making the behavior less likely to be repeated in the future. For example, a child may be grounded for getting a bad grade in school, making them less likely to get bad grades in the future.
* **Negative punishment:** This is when an undesired behavior is followed by the removal of a positive stimulus, making the behavior less likely to be repeated in the future. For example, a child may lose their allowance for not doing their chores, making them more likely to do their chores in the future.

**Effectiveness of rewards and penalties**
The effectiveness of rewards and penalties depends on a number of factors, including the individual, the behavior, and the context. In general, rewards are more effective than penalties in promoting desired behavior. However, penalties can be effective in deterring undesired behavior, especially when other methods have failed.

**Ethical considerations**
There are a number of ethical considerations to be aware of when using rewards and penalties. For example, it is important to make sure that the rewards and penalties are fair and proportional to the behavior. It is also important to avoid using rewards and penalties in a way that could harm or exploit the individual.

**Ultimately, the decision of whether to use rewards or penalties should be made on a case-by-case basis, taking into account all of the relevant factors.**"
[{2023-11-25 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogm'att032-reward,
* McsEngl.ogm'reward,
* McsEngl.reward-on-organism,

penalty of behavior

Rewards and penalties are two commonly used mechanisms to influence behavior. Rewards are positive incentives that are given to encourage desired behavior, while penalties are negative consequences that are imposed to discourage undesired behavior.
[{2023-11-25 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogm'att033-penalty,
* McsEngl.ogm'penalty,
* McsEngl.penalty-on-organism,

function of ogm

· a-functing-(internal-doing) of an-organism.

* McsEngl.ogm'att015-functing,
* McsEngl.ogm'functing-att015,
* McsEngl.ogm'doing.functing,
* McsEngl.biological-process,

action of ogm

· external doing of ogm.

* McsEngl.action-of-ogm,
* McsEngl.ogm'att024-action,
* McsEngl.ogm'action,

reproduction of ogm

"Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents". Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life; each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction. There are two forms of reproduction: asexual and sexual.
In asexual reproduction, an organism can reproduce without the involvement of another organism. Asexual reproduction is not limited to single-celled organisms. The cloning of an organism is a form of asexual reproduction. By asexual reproduction, an organism creates a genetically similar or identical copy of itself. The evolution of sexual reproduction is a major puzzle for biologists. The two-fold cost of sexual reproduction is that only 50% of organisms reproduce[1] and organisms only pass on 50% of their genes.[2]
Sexual reproduction typically requires the sexual interaction of two specialized organisms, called gametes, which contain half the number of chromosomes of normal cells and are created by meiosis, with typically a male fertilizing a female of the same species to create a fertilized zygote. This produces offspring organisms whose genetic characteristics are derived from those of the two parental organisms."

* McsEngl.ogm'att025-reproduction!⇒reproductionOgm,
* McsEngl.ogm'reproduction!⇒reproductionOgm,
* McsEngl.reproduction-of-ogm!⇒reproductionOgm,
* McsEngl.reproductionOgm,


"sexual reproduction:
Sexual reproduction is a biological process where two organisms, typically from opposite sexes within a species, combine genetic material to produce offspring with genetic variation. This process involves several key steps and characteristics:

1. **Gamete Formation**: Sexual reproduction starts with the formation of gametes, or sex cells. In most species, males produce sperm, and females produce eggs. These gametes are formed through a process called meiosis, which reduces the number of chromosomes in each gamete to half the normal amount found in other cells of the organism. This ensures that when an egg and sperm combine, the resulting offspring has the correct number of chromosomes.

2. **Fertilization**: This is the union of the male and female gametes. In fertilization, the genetic material from the sperm and egg merge to form a zygote, the first cell of the new organism. This zygote contains a full set of chromosomes, half from each parent.

3. **Genetic Variation**: Sexual reproduction introduces genetic variation in the offspring. Since gametes carry different combinations of genes, each offspring is genetically unique. This genetic diversity is crucial for the survival and evolution of a species, as it enables populations to adapt to changing environments and resist diseases more effectively.

4. **Development and Growth**: After fertilization, the zygote undergoes numerous cell divisions and begins the process of development and growth. This leads to the formation of a new individual with characteristics inherited from both parents.

5. **Types of Sexual Reproduction**: There are various forms of sexual reproduction across different species. In higher animals, it usually involves internal or external fertilization and the development of the offspring inside or outside the mother's body. In plants, sexual reproduction can involve complex pollination mechanisms.

6. **Costs and Benefits**: Sexual reproduction is more energy-intensive and complex compared to asexual reproduction. It requires finding a mate, which can be risky and resource-consuming. However, the genetic variation it produces is beneficial for the long-term survival of species, especially in changing environments.

Overall, sexual reproduction is a fundamental process in nature that drives biodiversity, adaptation, and evolution across a vast array of species."
[{2023-12-16 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.reproductionOgm.sexual,
* McsEngl.sexual-reproductionOgm,


">asexual organisms:
Asexual reproduction in organisms is a fascinating biological process where a single organism can reproduce without the involvement of another organism of its species. This method of reproduction can occur in various ways, depending on the species. Here are some common forms:

1. **Binary Fission**: This is typical in many single-celled organisms like bacteria. The cell divides into two identical cells, each with a copy of the original cell's DNA.

2. **Budding**: Seen in organisms like yeasts and some invertebrates (like hydras), budding involves the growth of a new organism as a small bud on the body of the parent. This bud eventually detaches to live independently.

3. **Fragmentation**: Certain organisms, such as starfish and some annelid worms, can regenerate into a new individual from a fragment or part of their body. If a starfish's arm is cut off, for instance, it can grow into a whole new starfish under the right conditions.

4. **Parthenogenesis**: This is a form of reproduction where an egg develops into a complete organism without being fertilized. It is seen in some insects, reptiles, and even some bird species. The offspring are usually clones of the parent.

5. **Vegetative Reproduction**: Common in plants, this involves new individuals growing from parts of the parent plant, such as runners in strawberries or tubers in potatoes.

Asexual reproduction offers certain advantages, such as rapid population growth and the ability to reproduce without a mate. However, it also has downsides, like reduced genetic diversity, which can make a population more vulnerable to diseases and changing environmental conditions."
[{2023-12-16 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.asexual-reproductionOgm,
* McsEngl.reproductionOgm.sexualNo,
* McsEngl.sexualNo-reproductionOgm,

biosynthesis of ogm

"Biosynthesis is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms. In biosynthesis, simple compounds are modified, converted into other compounds, or joined together to form macromolecules. This process often consists of metabolic pathways. Some of these biosynthetic pathways are located within a single cellular organelle, while others involve enzymes that are located within multiple cellular organelles. Examples of these biosynthetic pathways include the production of lipid membrane components and nucleotides. Biosynthesis is usually synonymous with anabolism.
The prerequisite elements for biosynthesis include: precursor compounds, chemical energy (e.g. ATP), and catalytic enzymes which may require coenzymes (e.g.NADH, NADPH). These elements create monomers, the building blocks for macromolecules. Some important biological macromolecules include: proteins, which are composed of amino acid monomers joined via peptide bonds, and DNA molecules, which are composed of nucleotides joined via phosphodiester bonds."

* McsEngl.biosythesis,
* McsEngl.ogm'att022-biosythesis,
* McsEngl.ogm'biosythesis,

metabolism of ogm

* McsEngl.ogm'att016-metabolism,
* McsEngl.ogm'metabolism-att016,
* McsEngl.metabolism-of-ogm-att016,

"Viruses do not have their own metabolism, and require a host cell to make new products. They therefore cannot naturally reproduce outside a host cell[66]—although bacterial species such as rickettsia and chlamydia are considered living organisms despite the same limitation."
"Metabolism (/məˈtæbəlɪzəm/, from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are: the conversion of food to energy to run cellular processes; the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates; and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. (The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the above described set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism).
Metabolic reactions may be categorized as catabolic – the breaking down of compounds (for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate by cellular respiration); or anabolic – the building up (synthesis) of compounds (such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids). Usually, catabolism releases energy, and anabolism consumes energy.
The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in which one chemical is transformed through a series of steps into another chemical, each step being facilitated by a specific enzyme. Enzymes are crucial to metabolism because they allow organisms to drive desirable reactions that require energy that will not occur by themselves, by coupling them to spontaneous reactions that release energy. Enzymes act as catalysts – they allow a reaction to proceed more rapidly – and they also allow the regulation of the rate of a metabolic reaction, for example in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells.
The metabolic system of a particular organism determines which substances it will find nutritious and which poisonous. For example, some prokaryotes use hydrogen sulfide as a nutrient, yet this gas is poisonous to animals.[1] The basal metabolic rate of an organism is the measure of the amount of energy consumed by all of these chemical reactions.
A striking feature of metabolism is the similarity of the basic metabolic pathways among vastly different species.[2] For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants.[3] These similarities in metabolic pathways are likely due to their early appearance in evolutionary history, and their retention because of their efficacy.[4][5]"

photosynthesis of ogm

* McsEngl.ogm'att019-photosynthesis,
* McsEngl.ogm'photosynthesis-att019,
* McsEngl.photosynthesis-of-ogm-att019,


evoluting of ogm

* McsEngl.evoluting-of-ogm,
* McsEngl.ogm'evoluting,

=== McsHitp-creation:
· creation of current concept.

"The last universal common ancestor (LUCA) is the most recent organism from which all organisms now living on Earth descend.[32] Thus it is the most recent common ancestor of all current life on Earth. The LUCA is estimated to have lived some 3.5 to 3.8 billion years ago (sometime in the Paleoarchean era).[33][34] The earliest evidence for life on Earth is graphite found to be biogenic in 3.7 billion-year-old metasedimentary rocks discovered in Western Greenland[35] and microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone discovered in Western Australia.[36][37] Although more than 99 percent of all species that ever lived on the planet are estimated to be extinct,[6][7] there are currently 2 million to 1 trillion species of life on Earth.[3]"
* McsEngl.{BpK3x3.8..K3x3.5}-ogm-first,

life-cycle of ogm

* McsEngl.ogm'att017-life-cycle,
* McsEngl.ogm'life-cycle-att017,


lifetime of ogm

* McsEngl.ogm'att012-lifetime!⇒ogm'lifetime,
* McsEngl.ogm'lifetime,
* McsEngl.lifespan-of-ogm-att012!⇒ogm'lifetime,
* McsEngl.lifetime-of-ogm-att012!⇒ogm'lifetime,

"noun lifespan: the length of time for which a person or animal lives or a thing functions."
[Google dict]

last-universal-common-ancestor of ogm

"The last universal common ancestor (LUCA) or universal most recent common ancestor (UMRCA) is the most recent population from which all organisms now living on Earth share common descent—the most recent common ancestor of all current life on Earth. This includes all cellular organisms; the origins of viruses are unclear but they share the same genetic code. LUCA probably harboured a variety of viruses. The LUCA is not the first life on Earth, but rather the latest form ancestral to all existing life.
While no specific fossil evidence of the LUCA exists, the detailed biochemical similarity of all current life confirms its existence. Its characteristics can be inferred from shared features of modern genomes. These genes describe a complex life form with many co-adapted features, including transcription and translation mechanisms to convert information from DNA to RNA to proteins. The LUCA probably lived in the high-temperature water of deep sea vents near ocean-floor magma flows around 4 billion years ago."
[{2023-04-13 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.LUCA-last-universal-common-ancestor!⇒ogmUmrca,
* McsEngl.UMRCA-universal-most-recent-common-ancestor!⇒ogmUmrca,
* McsEngl.last-universal-common-ancestor!⇒ogmUmrca,
* McsEngl.ogm.038-last-universal-common-ancestor!⇒ogmUmrca,
* McsEngl.ogm.last-universal-common-ancestor!⇒ogmUmrca,
* McsEngl.universal-most-recent-common-ancestor!⇒ogmUmrca,


· we can classify the-same organisms, as all entities, with 3 methods:
* in a-parent-child-tree,
* in a-generic-specific-tree,
* in a-whole-part-tree,

* McsEngl.ogm'parent-child-tree,


* McsEngl.ogm'whole-part-tree,


* McsEngl.ogm'generic-specific-tree,

* biosystem,
* dynamic-system,
* system,
* whole-entity,
* body,
* entity,


* McsEngl.ogm.specific,

* generic-ogm,
* genericNo-ogm,
* cell-ogm,
* cellNo-ogm,
* extinct-ogm,
* extinctNo-ogm,
* free-ogm,
* freeNo-ogm,
* microscopic-ogm,
* microscopicNo-ogm,


"In biology, taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of naming, defining (circumscribing) and classifying groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus, and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the founder of the current system of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorizing organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms.
With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics, cladistics, and systematics, the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct."

* McsEngl.ogm.specifics-division,
* McsEngl.ogm.taxonomy,
* McsEngl.taxonomy.biology,


"Evolutionary taxonomy, evolutionary systematics or Darwinian classification is a branch of biological classification that seeks to classify organisms using a combination of phylogenetic relationship (shared descent), progenitor-descendant relationship (serial descent), and degree of evolutionary change. This type of taxonomy may consider whole taxa rather than single species, so that groups of species can be inferred as giving rise to new groups.[1] The concept found its most well-known form in the modern evolutionary synthesis of the early 1940s.
Evolutionary taxonomy differs from strict pre-Darwinian Linnaean taxonomy (producing orderly lists only), in that it builds evolutionary trees. While in phylogenetic nomenclature each taxon must consist of a single ancestral node and all its descendants, evolutionary taxonomy allows for groups to be excluded from their parent taxa (e.g. dinosaurs are not considered to include birds, but to have given rise to them), thus permitting paraphyletic taxa.[2][3]"

* McsEngl.ogm.spec-div.evolution,


"A clade (from Ancient Greek: κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".[1] Rather than the English term, the equivalent Latin term cladus (plural cladi) is often used in taxonomical literature.
The common ancestor may be an individual, a population, a species (extinct or extant), and so on right up to a kingdom and further. Clades are nested, one in another, as each branch in turn splits into smaller branches. These splits reflect evolutionary history as populations diverged and evolved independently. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups.
Over the last few decades, the cladistic approach has revolutionized biological classification and revealed surprising evolutionary relationships among organisms.[2] Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic. Some of the relationships between organisms that the molecular biology arm of cladistics has revealed are that fungi are closer relatives to animals than they are to plants, archaea are now considered different from bacteria, and multicellular organisms may have evolved from archaea.[3]"

* McsEngl.ogm.clade,
* McsEngl.ogm.monophyletic-group,


* McsEngl.ogm.spec-div.two-empire,

"The two-empire system (two-superkingdom system) was the top-level biological classification system in general use before the establishment of the three-domain system. It classified life into Prokaryota and Eukaryota. When the three-domain system was introduced, some biologists preferred the two-superkingdom system, claiming that the three-domain system overemphasized the division between Archaea and Bacteria. However, given the current state of knowledge and the rapid progress in biological scientific advancement, especially due to genetic analyses, that view has all but vanished.
Some prominent scientists, such as Thomas Cavalier-Smith, still hold to the two-empire system.[1] The late Ernst Mayr, one of the 20th century's leading evolutionary biologists, wrote dismissively of the three-domain system, "I cannot see any merit at all in a three empire cladification."[2] Additionally, the scientist Radhey Gupta argues for a return to the two-empire system, claiming that the primary division within prokaryotes should be among those surrounded by a single membrane (monoderm), including gram-positive bacteria and archaebacteria, and those with an inner and outer cell membrane (diderm), including gram-negative bacteria.[3]"
* life,
** acellular-life,
** cellular-life,
*** prokaryota,
**** bakteria,
**** archea,
*** eukaryota,
**** protista,
**** fungi,
**** plantae,
**** animalia,

ogm.specs-div.three-domain {1990}

* McsEngl.3-domain-system--of-organisms,
* McsEngl.ogm.spec-div.three-domain,
* McsEngl.ogmDiv3domain,
* McsEngl.three-domain-system--of-organisms,

"The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese et al. in 1990[1][2] that divides cellular life forms into archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote domains. In particular, it emphasizes the separation of prokaryotes into two groups, originally called Eubacteria (now Bacteria) and Archaebacteria (now Archaea). Woese argued that, on the basis of differences in 16S rRNA genes, these two groups and the eukaryotes each arose separately from an ancestor with poorly developed genetic machinery, often called a progenote. To reflect these primary lines of descent, he treated each as a domain, divided into several different kingdoms. Woese initially used the term "kingdom" to refer to the three primary phylogenic groupings, and this nomenclature was widely used until the term "domain" was adopted in 1990.[2]
Parts of the three-domain theory have been challenged by scientists such as Radhey Gupta, who argues that the primary division within prokaryotes should be between those surrounded by a single membrane, and those with two membranes.[citation needed]"

domain of three-domain-system

">domain in 3 domain system of organisms:
The three-domain system is a biological classification system that divides all living organisms into three major domains based on molecular and cellular features. The three domains are:

1. **Bacteria:** This domain includes prokaryotic microorganisms, which are single-celled organisms lacking a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Bacteria are diverse and can be found in various environments.

2. **Archaea:** Like bacteria, archaea are also prokaryotic microorganisms. However, they differ from bacteria in terms of genetic and biochemical characteristics. Archaea are often found in extreme environments such as hot springs, acidic environments, and deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

3. **Eukarya:** This domain includes all organisms with eukaryotic cells, which have a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotes encompass a wide range of organisms, including protists, fungi, plants, and animals.

The three-domain system represents a broad classification scheme that reflects the evolutionary relationships among organisms based on molecular and genetic data."
[{2023-11-13 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.domain@ogmDiv3domain,

kingdom of three-domain-system

* McsEngl.kingdom@ogmDiv3domain,

"In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain. Kingdoms are divided into smaller groups called phyla.
Traditionally, some textbooks from the United States and Canada used a system of six kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Archaea/Archaebacteria, and Bacteria/Eubacteria) while textbooks in countries like Great Britain, India, Greece, Brazil and other countries used five kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista and Monera).
Some recent classifications based on modern cladistics have explicitly abandoned the term "kingdom", noting that the traditional kingdoms are not monophyletic, i.e., do not consist of all the descendants of a common ancestor."

phylum of three-domain-system

* McsEngl.phylum@ogmDiv3domain,

"In biology, a phylum (/ˈfaɪləm/; plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below kingdom and above class. Traditionally, in botany the term division has been used instead of phylum, although the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants accepts the terms as equivalent.[1][2][3] Depending on definitions, the animal kingdom Animalia or Metazoa contains approximately 35 phyla, the plant kingdom Plantae contains about 14, and the fungus kingdom Fungi contains about 8 phyla. Current research in phylogenetics is uncovering the relationships between phyla, which are contained in larger clades, like Ecdysozoa and Embryophyta."

class of three-domain-system

* McsEngl.class@ogmDiv3domain,

"In biological classification, class (Latin: classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.[a] Other well-known ranks in descending order of size are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, order, family, genus, and species, with class fitting between phylum and order."

order of three-domain-system

* McsEngl.order@ogmDiv3domain,

"In biological classification, the order (Latin: ordo) is
1. a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, superorder, may be added directly above order, while suborder would be a lower rank.
2. a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes
What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist, as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order. Some taxa are accepted almost universally, while others are recognised only rarely.[1]
For some groups of organisms, consistent suffixes are used to denote that the rank is an order. The Latin suffix -(i)formes meaning "having the form of" is used for the scientific name of orders of birds and fishes, but not for those of mammals and invertebrates. The suffix -ales is for the name of orders of plants, fungi, and algae.[2]"

family of three-domain-system


"Family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks between the ranks of family and genus. The official family names are Latin in origin; however, popular names are often used: for example, walnut trees and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, but that family is commonly referred to as being the "walnut family".
What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time. The publishing of new data and opinions often enables adjustments and consensus."

genus of three-domain-system

* McsEngl.genus@ogmDiv3domain,

"A genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses,[1] in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family."

species of three-domain-system

* McsEngl.species@ogmDiv3domain,

"In biology, a species (/ˈspiːʃiːz/ (About this soundlisten)) is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. The total number of species is estimated to be between 8 and 8.7 million.[1][2] However the vast majority of them are not studied or documented and it may take over 1000 years to fully catalog all of them.[3]
All species (except viruses) are given a two-part name, a "binomial". The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs. The second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet (in botanical nomenclature, also sometimes in zoological nomenclature). For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the genus Boa."

ogm.specs-div.Linnaeus {1735}

"the particular form of biological classification (taxonomy) set up by Carl Linnaeus, as set forth in his Systema Naturae (1735) and subsequent works. In the taxonomy of Linnaeus there are three kingdoms, divided into classes, and they, in turn, into orders, genera (singular: genus), and species (singular: species)[1], with an additional rank lower than species."

* McsEngl.Linnaeus-taxonomy,
* McsEngl.ogm.spec-div.Linnaeus,


* McsEngl.ogm.spec-div.shape,

* symmetric-ogm:
* symmetricNo-ogm:
** bilateral-ogm,
** biradial-ogm,
** icosahedral-ogm,
** radial-ogm,
** spherical-ogm,


* McsEngl.ogm.021-aggregate,
* McsEngl.ogm.aggregate-021,

· all the-organisms past and present.


· generic-organism is an-organism with specifics.

* McsEngl.ogm.006-generic!⇒ogmGnrc,
* McsEngl.ogm.generic-006!⇒ogmGnrc,
* McsEngl.generic-organism!⇒ogmGnrc,
* McsEngl.ogmGnrc,


"Some 1.9 million species have been identified and described, out of some 8.7 million that may actually exist.[1] Millions more have become extinct."

* McsEngl.ogmGnrc.aggregate,


· individual-ogm is an-organism without specifics.

* McsEngl.ogm.007-genericNo,
* McsEngl.ogm.genericNo-007,
* McsEngl.individual-ogm,


"a solitary organism is one in which all individuals live independently and have all of the functions needed to survive and reproduce."

* McsEngl.ogm.008-solitary,
* McsEngl.ogm.solitary-008,
* McsEngl.solitary-ogm,



* McsEngl.ogm.009-solitaryNo,
* McsEngl.ogm.solitaryNo-009,
* McsEngl.solitaryNo-ogm,


· cellular-ogm is an-organism with cells.

* McsEngl.ogm.010-cell,
* McsEngl.ogm.cell-010,
* McsEngl.cellular-ogm,

ogm.cellNo-011 (link)

ogm.cellOne-003 (link)


* McsEngl.ogm.012-cellMany!⇒ogmCellMany,
* McsEngl.ogm.cellMany-012!⇒ogmCellMany,
* McsEngl.multicellular-organism!⇒ogmCellMany,
* McsEngl.ogmCellMany,

"Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.[1]
All species of animals, land plants and most fungi are multicellular, as are many algae, whereas a few organisms are partially uni- and partially multicellular, like slime molds and social amoebae such as the genus Dictyostelium.[2][3]
Multicellular organisms arise in various ways, for example by cell division or by aggregation of many single cells.[4][3] Colonial organisms are the result of many identical individuals joining together to form a colony. However, it can often be hard to separate colonial protists from true multicellular organisms, because the two concepts are not distinct; colonial protists have been dubbed "pluricellular" rather than "multicellular".[5][6]"

01_disease of ogmCellMany

* McsEngl.ogmCellMany'01_disease,
* McsEngl.ogmCellMany'att001-disease,
* McsEngl.ogmCellMany'disease,


02_governance-system of ogmCellMany

* McsEngl.ogmCellMany'02_governance-system,
* McsEngl.ogmCellMany'att002-governance-system,
* McsEngl.ogmCellMany'governance-system,


03_health of ogmCellMany

* McsEngl.ogmCellMany'03_health,
* McsEngl.ogmCellMany'att003-health,
* McsEngl.ogmCellMany'health,


04_tissue of ogmCellMany

* McsEngl.ogm'att029-tissue!⇒tissueOgm,
* McsEngl.ogm'tissue!⇒tissueOgm,
* McsEngl.ogmCellMany'04_tissue!⇒tissueOgm,
* McsEngl.ogmCellMany'att004-tissue!⇒tissueOgm,
* McsEngl.ogmCellMany'tissue!⇒tissueOgm,
* McsEngl.tissueOgm,

"In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ. A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues.
The English word "tissue" is derived from the French word "tissu", meaning that something that is "woven", from the verb tisser, "to weave".
The study of human and animal tissues is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology also not forgetting to add, archeology. For plants, the discipline is called plant anatomy. The classical tools for studying tissues are the paraffin block in which tissue is embedded and then sectioned, the histological stain, and the optical microscope. Developments in electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and the use of frozen tissue sections have enhanced the detail that can be observed in tissues. With these tools, the classical appearances of tissues can be examined in health and disease, enabling considerable refinement of medical diagnosis and prognosis."

engineering of tissueOgm

* McsEngl.tissueOgm'engineering,
* McsEngl.tissue-engineering,
* McsEngl.regenerative-medicine,

"Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering, and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues. Tissue engineering involves the use of a tissue scaffold for the formation of new viable tissue for a medical purpose. While it was once categorized as a sub-field of biomaterials, having grown in scope and importance it can be considered as a field in its own.
While most definitions of tissue engineering cover a broad range of applications, in practice the term is closely associated with applications that repair or replace portions of or whole tissues (i.e., bone, cartilage,[1] blood vessels, bladder, skin, muscle etc.). Often, the tissues involved require certain mechanical and structural properties for proper functioning. The term has also been applied to efforts to perform specific biochemical functions using cells within an artificially-created support system (e.g. an artificial pancreas, or a bio artificial liver). The term regenerative medicine is often used synonymously with tissue engineering, although those involved in regenerative medicine place more emphasis on the use of stem cells or progenitor cells to produce tissues."


* McsEngl.ogm.001-eukaryote, /yyukáriot/,
* McsEngl.ogm.eukaryote-001,
* McsEngl.eukaryote-ogm-001,

"Eukaryotes (/juːˈkærioʊt, -ət/) are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea), which have no membrane-bound organelles.[3][4][5] Eukaryotes belong to the domain Eukaryota or Eukarya. Their name comes from the Greek εὖ (eu, "well" or "true") and κάρυον (karyon, "nut" or "kernel").[6] Eukaryotic cells typically contain other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus, and in addition, some cells of plants and algae contain chloroplasts. Unlike unicellular archaea and bacteria, eukaryotes may also be multicellular and include organisms consisting of many cell types forming different kinds of tissue. Animals and plants are the most familiar eukaryotes.
Eukaryotes can reproduce both asexually through mitosis and sexually through meiosis and gamete fusion. In mitosis, one cell divides to produce two genetically identical cells. In meiosis, DNA replication is followed by two rounds of cell division to produce four haploid daughter cells. These act as sex cells (gametes). Each gamete has just one set of chromosomes, each a unique mix of the corresponding pair of parental chromosomes resulting from genetic recombination during meiosis.[citation needed]
The domain Eukaryota is monophyletic and makes up one of the domains of life in the three-domain system. The two other domains, Bacteria and Archaea, are prokaryotes[7] and have none of the above features. Eukaryotes represent a tiny minority of all living things.[8] However, due to their generally much larger size, their collective worldwide biomass is estimated to be about equal to that of prokaryotes.[8] Eukaryotes evolved approximately 1.6–2.1 billion years ago, during the Proterozoic eon."

ogm.prokaryote-002 (link)


· microorganism is an-organism we need a-MICROSCOPE to see it.

* McsEngl.ogm.013-microscopic!⇒ogmMicro,
* McsEngl.ogm.microscopic-013!⇒ogmMicro,
* McsEngl.microorganism!⇒ogmMicro,
* McsEngl.microscopic-ogm!⇒ogmMicro,
* McsEngl.ogmMicro,


* McsEngl.ogmMicro'generic-specific-tree,

GENERIC-TREE of ogmMicro


* ,

· :
* ,

* ,


* bacterium-ogmMicro,
* cellNo-ogmMicro,
* cellOne-ogmMicro,
* fungus-ogmMicro,
* strain-ogmMicro,
* virus-ogmMicro,


* McsEngl.ogmMicro.strain,
* McsEngl.strain-ogmMicro,

"A strain is a genetic variant or subtype of a microorganism (e.g., virus or bacterium or fungus). For example, a "flu strain" is a certain biological form of the influenza or "flu" virus. These flu strains are characterized by their differing isoforms of surface proteins. New viral strains can be created due to mutation or swapping of genetic components when two or more viruses infect the same cell in nature.[2] These phenomena are known respectively as antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Microbial strains can also be differentiated by their genetic makeup using metagenomic methods to maximize resolution within species.[3] This has become a valuable tool to analyze the microbiome."


· microscopicNo-ogm is an-organism we do-not-need a-MICROSCOPE to see it.

* McsEngl.ogm.014-microscopicNo,
* McsEngl.ogm.microscopicNo-014,
* McsEngl.microscopicNo-ogm,

· free-ogm is an-organism which is-not-depends on another one to function.

* McsEngl.ogm.015-free,
* McsEngl.freeOgm-015,


· freeNo-ogm is an-organism which depends on another one to function.

* McsEngl.ogm.016-freeNo,
* McsEngl.ogm.freeNo-016,
* McsEngl.freeNoOgm-016,

ogm.time.present-017 (extant)

"(adj) extant (still in existence; not extinct or destroyed or lost) "extant manuscripts"; "specimens of graphic art found among extant barbaric folk"- Edward Clodd"
[{2023-11-13 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogm.017-extant,
* McsEngl.ogm.extant-017,
* McsEngl.extant-ogm,
* McsEngl.ogm.time.present,

ogm.time.past-018 (extinct)

"(adj) extinct, nonextant (no longer in existence; lost or especially having died out leaving no living representatives) "an extinct species of fish"; "an extinct royal family"; "extinct laws and customs""
[{2023-11-13 retrieved}]

"Extinction is the rule. Survival is the exception."
[Dr. Carl Sagan]

* McsEngl.ogm.018-extinct,
* McsEngl.ogm.extinct-018,
* McsEngl.extinct-ogm,
* McsEngl.ogm.livingNo,
* McsEngl.ogm.time.past,


* McsEngl.ogm.019-natural,
* McsEngl.ogm.natural-019,
* McsEngl.natural-ogm-019,

· natural-organism is an-organism created by Nature, evolutionarily.


* McsEngl.naturalNo-ogm-020!⇒ogmSynth,
* McsEngl.ogmSynth,
* McsEngl.ogm.020-naturalNo!⇒ogmSynth,
* McsEngl.ogm.naturalNo-020!⇒ogmSynth,
* McsEngl.synthetic-ogm-020!⇒ogmSynth,

· naturalNo-organism is an-organism created by bio-molecules, NOT machine.


"Xenobots, named after the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), are synthetic organisms that are automatically designed by computers to perform some desired function and built by combining together different biological tissues.[1][2][3][4][5][6]
Xenobots are less than a 1 millimeter (0.039 inches) wide and composed of just two things: skin cells and heart muscle cells, both of which are derived from stem cells harvested from early (blastula stage) frog embryos.[7] The skin cells provide rigid support and the heart cells act as small motors, contracting and expanding in volume to propel the xenobot forward. The shape of a xenobot's body, and its distribution of skin and heart cells, are automatically designed in simulation to perform a specific task, using a process of trial and error (an evolutionary algorithm). Xenobots have been designed to walk, swim, push pellets, carry payloads, and work together in a swarm to aggregate debris scattered along the surface of their dish into neat piles. They can survive for weeks without food and heal themselves after lacerations.[1]"

* McsEngl.ogmSynth.zenobot!⇒ogmXenobot,
* McsEngl.ogmXenobot,
* McsEngl.zenobot!⇒ogmXenobot,


* McsEngl.ogm.023-descendant,
* McsEngl.ogm.descendant-023,
* McsEngl.descendant-ogm-023,
* McsEngl.offspring-ogm-023,
* McsEngl.progeny-ogm-023,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.απόγονος-οργανισμός!=ogmDescendant,



* McsEngl.ogm.024-ancestor,
* McsEngl.ogm.ancestor-024,
* McsEngl.ancestor-ogm-024,
* McsEngl.antecedent-ogm-024,
* McsEngl.forebear-ogm-023,
* McsEngl.forefather-ogm-023,
* McsEngl.predecessor-ogm-023,
* McsEngl.primogenitor-ogm-023,
* McsEngl.progenitor-ogm-024,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.πρόγονος-οργανισμός!=ogmAncestor,



* McsEngl.ogm.025-alga!⇒ogmAlga,
* McsEngl.ogm.alga-025!⇒ogmAlga,
* McsEngl.algae!⇒ogmAlga,
* McsEngl.ogmAlga,

"Algae vs. Plants
Plants and algae are both photosynthetic. Both are also considered eukaryotes, consisting of cells with specialized components. They both also have the same life cycle called alternation of generations. However, algae are not plants. So, what are they? They are merely members of the Kingdom Protista. Plants compose their own kingdom, Kingdom Plantae. While plants and algae may sometimes appear to be quite similar visually, they in fact have a number of differences between them. In terms of where they live, how they survive and reproduce, and what composes them, plants and algae are vastly different.
Did you know that seaweed is not a plant? First of all, algae may be unicellular, colonial, or multi-cellular. Plants, on the other hand, are only multi-cellular. Holdfasts, stapes and blades compose multi-cellular algae. In comparison, plants have roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds and cones. The roots of plants not only hold them in place, they nourish them. Plants possess vascular systems, which allow for the uptake and transport of water and nutrients. In contrast, each cell in algae must obtain its own nutrients from water for survival.
Clearly, plants cannot move, as they are rooted to the ground. On some algae, holdfasts, which are comparable to the roots of plants, hold them in place. Some algae drift with the water currents. Some algae are actually actively mobile. Dinoflagellates, for instance, whip themselves through the water with a tail-like structures called flagella. Other algae may move by pushing their bodies forward in a crawling motion.
Typically algae are found in water; although, they may be found on land or snow and, strangely enough, even growing in rocks or marine animals or on the fur of some rainforest animals such as sloth. Plants are generally found on land; however, they can also live in water, such as eelgrass in marine systems and water lilies in fresh water.
Reproduction could not be more different for plants and algae. Plants have complex, multi-cellular reproductive systems and some even require the assistance of wind, birds, or bugs for pollination. Algae, comparatively, can reproduce through tiny spores or even by replication or the growth of broken pieces.
Despite all of their differences, algae and plants can often appear deceptively similar. So, next time you’re on the beach and you come across what appears to be a plant, take a second glance because it may in fact be algae.
~Elizabeth Gooding"


* McsEngl.ogm.028-autotroph,
* McsEngl.ogm.autotroph-028,
* McsEngl.autotroph-ogm-028,

"An autotroph or primary producer is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) using carbon from simple substances such as carbon dioxide,[1] generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).[2] Autotrophs do not need a living source of carbon or energy and are the producers in a food chain, such as plants on land or algae in water (in contrast to heterotrophs as consumers of autotrophs or other heterotrophs). Autotrophs can reduce carbon dioxide to make organic compounds for biosynthesis and as stored chemical fuel. Most autotrophs use water as the reducing agent, but some can use other hydrogen compounds such as hydrogen sulfide.
Some autotrophs, such as green plants and algae, are phototrophs, meaning that they convert electromagnetic energy from sunlight into chemical energy in the form of glucose. Others, including methanogens, are chemotrophs, which use organic or inorganic chemical compounds as a source of energy. Most chemoautotrophs are lithotrophs, using inorganic electron donors such as hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen gas, elemental sulfur, ammonium and ferrous oxide as reducing agents and hydrogen sources for biosynthesis and chemical energy release. Autotrophs use a portion of the ATP produced during photosynthesis or the oxidation of chemical compounds to reduce NADP+ to NADPH to form organic compounds.[3]"


* McsEngl.ogm.029-heterotroph,
* McsEngl.ogm.heterotroph-029,
* McsEngl.heterotroph-ogm-029,

"A heterotroph (/ˈhɛtərəˌtroʊf, -ˌtrɒf/;[1] Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros = "other" plus trophe = "nutrition") is an organism that cannot produce its own food, instead taking nutrition from other sources of organic carbon, mainly plant or animal matter. In the food chain, heterotrophs are primary, secondary and tertiary consumers, but not producers.[2][3] Living organisms that are heterotrophic include all animals and fungi, some bacteria and protists,[4] and many parasitic plants. The term heterotroph arose in microbiology in 1946 as part of a classification of microorganisms based on their type of nutrition.[5] The term is now used in many fields, such as ecology in describing the food chain.
Heterotrophs may be subdivided according to their energy source. If the heterotroph uses chemical energy, it is a chemoheterotroph (e.g., humans and mushrooms). If it uses light for energy, then it is a photoheterotroph (e.g., green non-sulfur bacteria).
Heterotrophs represent one of the two mechanisms of nutrition (trophic levels), the other being autotrophs (auto = self, troph = nutrition). Autotrophs use energy from sunlight (photoautotrophs) or oxidation of inorganic compounds (lithoautotrophs) to convert inorganic carbon dioxide to organic carbon compounds and energy to sustain their life. Comparing the two in basic terms, heterotrophs (such as animals) eat either autotrophs (such as plants) or other heterotrophs, or both.
Detritivores are heterotrophs which obtain nutrients by consuming detritus (decomposing plant and animal parts as well as feces).[6] Saprotrophs (also called lysotrophs) are chemoheterotrophs that use extracellular digestion in processing decayed organic matter; the term most often used to describe fungi. The process is most often facilitated through the active transport of such materials through endocytosis within the internal mycelium and its constituent hyphae.[7]"


* McsEngl.ogm.026-photoautotroph,
* McsEngl.ogm.photoautotroph-026,
* McsEngl.photoautotroph-ogm-026,

"Most of the well-recognized phototrophs are autotrophic, also known as photoautotrophs, and can fix carbon. They can be contrasted with chemotrophs that obtain their energy by the oxidation of electron donors in their environments. Photoautotrophs are capable of synthesizing their own food from inorganic substances using light as an energy source. Green plants and photosynthetic bacteria are photoautotrophs. Photoautotrophic organisms are sometimes referred to as holophytic.[3] Such organisms derive their energy for food synthesis from light and are capable of using carbon dioxide as their principal source of carbon.
Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms use chlorophyll for light-energy capture and oxidize water, "splitting" it into molecular oxygen. In contrast, anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria have a substance called bacteriochlorophyll – which absorbs predominantly at non-optical wavelengths – for light-energy capture, live in aquatic environments, and will, using light, oxidize chemical substances such as hydrogen sulfide rather than water."


* McsEngl.ogm.027-photoheterotroph,
* McsEngl.ogm.photoheterotroph-027,
* McsEngl.photoheterotroph-ogm-027,

"Photoheterotrophs (Gk: photo = light, hetero = (an)other, troph = nourishment) are heterotrophic phototrophs – that is, they are organisms that use light for energy, but cannot use carbon dioxide as their sole carbon source. Consequently, they use organic compounds from the environment to satisfy their carbon requirements; these compounds include carbohydrates, fatty acids, and alcohols. Examples of photoheterotrophic organisms include purple non-sulfur bacteria, green non-sulfur bacteria, and heliobacteria.[1] Recent research has indicated that the oriental hornet and some aphids may be able to use light to supplement their energy supply.[2]"

ogm.neural-030 (link!=animal)


"It[neuron] is the main component of nervous tissue in all animals except sponges and placozoa. Plants and fungi do not have nerve cells."

* McsEngl.ogm.031-neuralNo!⇒ogmNeuralNo,
* McsEngl.ogm.neuralNo-031!⇒ogmNeuralNo,
* McsEngl.neuralNo-ogm-031!⇒ogmNeuralNo,
* McsEngl.ogmNeuralNo,

"non brain organism definition
There is no one definitive definition of a "non-brain organism" as the concept of a brain is still evolving. However, in general, a non-brain organism is an organism that does not have a centralized nervous system or brain. This includes organisms such as plants, fungi, and some protists.
Plants, for example, do not have a brain or a centralized nervous system. Instead, they have a distributed nervous system that is spread throughout the plant body. This system allows plants to respond to stimuli and to coordinate their growth and development.
Fungi also do not have a brain or a centralized nervous system. Instead, they have a network of hyphae that allows them to communicate and coordinate their activities.
Some protists, such as amoebas, do have a rudimentary nervous system. However, this system is much simpler than the nervous system of animals and does not include a brain.
It is important to note that the definition of a "non-brain organism" is still evolving. As our understanding of the nervous systems of different organisms grows, we may need to revise our definition of what constitutes a "brain."
Here are some examples of non-brain organisms:
* Plants
* Fungi
* Protists
* Sponges
* Corals
* Jellyfish
* Sea anemones
* Flatworms
* Nematodes
* Rotifers
* Sponges
These organisms all have different ways of responding to stimuli and coordinating their activities, but they do not have a centralized nervous system or brain."
[{2023-09-02 retrieved}]


"A protist (/ˈproʊtɪst/) is any eukaryotic organism (one with cells containing a nucleus) that is not an animal, plant, or fungus. The protists do not form a natural group, or clade, since they exclude certain eukaryotes with whom they share a common ancestor[a] i.e. some protists are more closely related to plants or animals than they are to other protists. However, like algae or invertebrates, the grouping is used for convenience. In some systems of biological classification, such as the popular five-kingdom scheme proposed by Robert Whittaker in 1969, the protists make up a kingdom called Protista, composed of eukaryotic "organisms which are unicellular or unicellular-colonial and which form no tissues".[2][3][b]
Besides their relatively simple levels of organization, protists do not necessarily have much in common.[6] When used, the term "protists" is now considered to mean a paraphyletic assemblage of similar-appearing but diverse taxa (biological groups); these taxa do not have an exclusive common ancestor beyond being composed of eukaryotes and have different life cycles, trophic levels, modes of locomotion and cellular structures.[7][8] In the classification system of Lynn Margulis, the term protist is reserved for microscopic organisms, while the more inclusive term Protoctista, or protoctist, is applied to a biological kingdom that includes certain large multicellular eukaryotes, such as kelp, red algae and slime molds.[9] Others use the term protist more broadly, to encompass both microbial eukaryotes and macroscopic organisms that do not fit into the other traditional kingdoms.
In cladistic systems (classifications based on common ancestry), there are no equivalents to the taxa Protista or Protoctista, both terms referring to a paraphyletic group that spans the entire eukaryotic tree of life. In cladistic classification, the contents of Protista are distributed among various supergroups (SAR, such as protozoa and some algae, Archaeplastida, such as land plants and some algae, Excavata, which are a group of unicellular organisms, and Opisthokonta, such as animals and fungi, etc.). "Protista", ''Protoctista'' and "Protozoa" are considered obsolete. However, the term "protist" continues to be used informally as a catch-all term for unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms. For example, the word "protist pathogen" may be used to denote any disease-causing microbe that is not bacteria, virus, viroid, prion, or metazoa.[10]
Examples of protists include:[11]
* Amoeba,
* Choanaflagellates,
* Ciliates,
* Diatoms,
* Dinoflagellates,
* Foraminifera,
* Giardia,
* Nucleariids,
* Oomycetes,
* Plasmodium (causes malaria),
* Phytophthora (cause of the Great Famine of Ireland),
* Slime molds",

* McsEngl.ogm.protist!⇒ogmProtist,
* McsEngl.ogm.033-protist!⇒ogmProtist,
* McsEngl.ogmProtist,
* McsEngl.protist-ogm!⇒ogmProtist,


* McsEngl.ogm.vertebrate!⇒ogmVertebrate,
* McsEngl.ogm.034-vertebrate!⇒ogmVertebrate,
* McsEngl.ogmVertebrate,
* McsEngl.vertebrate!⇒ogmVertebrate,

"There are about 50,000 species of animals that have a vertebral column.[2] The human vertebral column is one of the most-studied examples."
"Vertebrates /ˈvɜːrtəˌbrəts/ comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata /-ə/ (chordates with backbones). Vertebrates represent the overwhelming majority of the phylum Chordata, with currently about 69,963 species described.[4] Vertebrates include such groups as the following:
* jawless fishes
* jawed vertebrates, which include the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays, and ratfish)
* tetrapods, which include amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals
* bony fishes
Extant vertebrates range in size from the frog species Paedophryne amauensis, at as little as 7.7 mm (0.30 in), to the blue whale, at up to 33 m (108 ft). Vertebrates make up less than five percent of all described animal species; the rest are invertebrates, which lack vertebral columns.
The vertebrates traditionally include the hagfish, which do not have proper vertebrae due to their loss in evolution,[5] though their closest living relatives, the lampreys, do.[6] Hagfish do, however, possess a cranium. For this reason, the vertebrate subphylum is sometimes referred to as "Craniata" when discussing morphology. Molecular analysis since 1992 has suggested that hagfish are most closely related to lampreys,[7] and so also are vertebrates in a monophyletic sense. Others consider them a sister group of vertebrates in the common taxon of craniata.[8]
The populations of vertebrates have dropped in the past 50 years[9]."

· an-organism part of a-group.

* McsEngl.groupOgm'01_organism,
* McsEngl.groupOgm'att001-organism,
* McsEngl.groupOgm'member,
* McsEngl.groupOgm'organism,
* McsEngl.ogm.035-group,


· an-organism part of an-organization.

* McsEngl.ogm.036-organization,
* McsEngl.ogm.organization,


· an-organism part of a-society.

* McsEngl.ogm.037-society,
* McsEngl.ogm.society,


this webpage was-visited times since {2019-12-19}

page-wholepath: / worldviewSngo / dirOgm / ogm

· this page uses 'locator-names', names that when you find them, you find the-LOCATION of the-concept they denote.
· clicking on the-green-BAR of a-page you have access to the-global--locator-names of my-site.
· use the-prefix 'ogm' for sensorial-concepts related to current concept 'organism'.
· TYPE CTRL+F "McsLag4.words-of-concept's-name", to go to the-LOCATION of the-concept.
· a-preview of the-description of a-global-name makes reading fast.

• author: Kaseluris.Nikos.1959
• email:
• edit on github:,
• comments on Disqus,
• twitter: @synagonism,

• version.last.dynamic: McsOgm000003.last.html,
• version.1-0-0.2021-04-15: (0-44) ../../dirMiwMcs/dirOgm/filMcsOgm.1-0-0.2021-04-15.html,
• version.0-1-0.2019-12-19 draft creation,

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