senso-concept-Mcs (ogmAnimal)

McsHitp-creation:: {2020-04-21},

overview of ogmAnimal

"Animals (also referred to as metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft). They have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The kingdom Animalia includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal often refers only to non-human animals. The scientific study of animals is known as zoology.
Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan. The Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes, arthropods, and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing both the echinoderms as well as the chordates, the latter containing the vertebrates. Life forms interpreted as early animals were present in the Ediacaran biota of the late Precambrian. Many modern animal phyla became clearly established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion, which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified; these may have arisen from a single common ancestor that lived 650 million years ago.
Historically, Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa (synonymous for Animalia) and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa.
Humans make use of many other animal species, such as for food (including meat, milk, and eggs), for materials (such as leather and wool), and also as pets, and for transports, as working animals. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many terrestrial and aquatic animals were hunted for sports. Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion."
· ogmNeural is an-organism with neurons.
"It[neuron] is the main component of nervous tissue in all animals except sponges and placozoa. Plants and fungi do not have nerve cells."

* McsEngl.McsOgm000009.last.html//dirOgm//dirMcs!⇒ogmAnimal,
* McsEngl.dirMcs/dirOgm/McsOgm000009.last.html!⇒ogmAnimal,
* McsEngl.animal!⇒ogmAnimal,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal!=McsOgm000009,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal!=organism.animal,
* McsEngl.ogm.030-neural!⇒ogmAnimal,
* McsEngl.ogm.neural-030!⇒ogmAnimal,
* McsEngl.neural-ogm-030!⇒ogmAnimal,
* McsEngl.ogmNeural!⇒ogmAnimal,
* McsEngl.organism.animal!⇒ogmAnimal,
* McsEngl.metazoa!⇒ogmAnimal,
====== langoSinago:
* McsSngo.zo-tongo!=ogmAnimal,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.dòngwù-动物-(動物)!=ogmAnimal,
* McsZhon.动物-(動物)-dòngwù!=ogmAnimal,
====== langoEsperanto:
* McsEspo.besto!=ogmAnimal,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ζώο!το!=ogmAnimal,
====== langoTurkish:
* McsTurk.hayvan!=ogmAnimal,

"are there animals without neurons?
As far as our current scientific understanding goes, all animals possess some form of neural tissue or neurons. Neurons are specialized cells that are fundamental to the functioning of nervous systems, which are responsible for processing information and coordinating various activities within an organism.
Neurons are the primary functional units of the nervous system, and they transmit electrical and chemical signals to facilitate communication between different parts of the organism's body. While the complexity and organization of nervous systems can vary widely among different animal species, neurons are a fundamental feature.
Even the simplest multicellular animals, like sponges and jellyfish, have specialized cells that can transmit electrical signals and are considered a type of neural tissue. These primitive neural cells are not as organized or complex as the neurons found in more advanced animals like vertebrates, but they still serve basic sensory and motor functions.
In summary, while the degree of neural complexity varies greatly among animals, all animals, to the best of our knowledge, possess some form of neural tissue or neurons, which are essential for various sensory, motor, and coordination functions."
[{2023-09-02 retrieved}]

"are there animals without neurons?
Yes, there are animals without neurons. The only multicellular animals that do not have a nervous system at all are sponges and microscopic bloblike organisms called placozoans and mesozoans.
* Sponges are simple animals that live in water. They do not have any organs or tissues, and they do not have a brain or any other nervous system. Sponges feed by filtering food particles from the water.
* Placozoans are the simplest known animals. They are flat, leaf-like organisms that live in the ocean. Placozoans do not have any organs or tissues, and they do not have a brain or any other nervous system. They feed by absorbing nutrients from the water.
* Mesozoans are a group of animals that are closely related to sponges. They are even simpler than sponges, and they do not have any cells that are specialized for movement or feeding. Mesozoans feed by absorbing nutrients from the water.
These animals are able to survive and function without neurons because they have evolved to rely on other mechanisms to control their behavior. For example, sponges use their pores to filter food particles from the water. Placozoans and mesozoans move by gliding through the water.
The discovery of animals without neurons has challenged our understanding of what it means to be an animal. These animals show that a nervous system is not essential for life, and that other parts of the body can be adapted to perform the same functions."
[{2023-09-02 retrieved}]

01_disease of ogmAnimal


* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'01_disease,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'att001-disease,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'disease-att001,

02_governance-system of ogmAnimal


* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'02_governance-sys,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'att002-governance-sys,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'governance-sys-att002,

03_health of ogmAnimal


* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'03_health,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'att003-health,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'health-att003,

04_organ-sys of ogmAnimal


* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'04_organ-sys,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'att004-organ-sys,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'organ-sys-att004,

05_organ of ogmAnimal


* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'05_organ,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'att005-organ,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'organ-att005,

06_tissue of ogmAnimal


* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'06_tissue,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'att006-tissue,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'tissue-att006,

07_cell of ogmAnimal


* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'07_cell,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'att007-cell,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'cell-att007,

08_material-system of ogmAnimal


* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'08_material-system,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'att008-material-system,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'material-systematt008,

body of ogmAnimal

· body-of-animal is the-outermost material-system of it.

* McsEngl.bodyAnimal,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'att016-body!⇒bodyAnimal,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'body!⇒bodyAnimal,

09_material of ogmAnimal

· materialAnimal is any material (atom, molecule, sys-of-molecules) part of an-animal.

* McsEngl.materialAnimal,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'09_material,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'att009-material,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'material-att009,

10_nervous-sys of ogmAnimal

* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'10_nervous-sys!⇒sysNervousAnml,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'att010-nervous-sys!⇒sysNervousAnml,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'nervous-sys-att010!⇒sysNervousAnml,
* McsEngl.nervous-sys-of-ogmAnimal!⇒sysNervousAnml,
* McsEngl.sysNervousAnml,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.νευρικό-σύστημα-οργανισμού!=sysNervousAnml,


cellNeuronOgm (link) of sysNervousAnml

ephaptic-coupling of sysNervousAnml

* McsEngl.sysNervousAnml'ephaptic-coupling,
* McsEngl.sysNervousAnml'att002-ephaptic-coupling,
* McsEngl.ephaptic-coupling-of-sysNervousAnml,

"Ephaptic coupling is a form of communication within the nervous system and is distinct from direct communication systems like electrical synapses and chemical synapses. It may refer to the coupling of adjacent (touching) nerve fibers caused by the exchange of ions between the cells, or it may refer to coupling of nerve fibers as a result of local electric fields.[1] In either case ephaptic coupling can influence the synchronization and timing of action potential firing in neurons. Myelination is thought to inhibit ephaptic interactions.[2]"


* McsEngl.sysNervousAnml.001-brain!⇒sysNervousAnmlBrain,
* McsEngl.sysNervousAnml.brain-001!⇒sysNervousAnmlBrain,
* McsEngl.sysNervousAnmlBrain,



* McsEngl.sysNervousAnml.002-brainNo!⇒sysNervousAnmlBrainNo,
* McsEngl.sysNervousAnml.brainNo-002!⇒sysNervousAnmlBrainNo,
* McsEngl.sysNervousAnml.nerve-net-002!⇒sysNervousAnmlBrainNo,
* McsEngl.nerve-net!⇒sysNervousAnmlBrainNo,
* McsEngl.sysNervousAnmlBrainNo,


11_genome of ogmAnimal

* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'11_genome,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'att011-genome,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'genome-att011,


12_nutrient of ogmAnimal

* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'12_nutrient,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'att012-nutrient,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'nutrient-att012,


13_food of ogmAnimal

* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'13_food,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'att013-food,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'food-att013,


14_shape of ogmAnimal

· the-shape of the-body of the-animal.

* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'14_shape,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'att014-shape,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'shape,
* McsEngl.shape-of-ogmAnimal,
* McsEngl.shapeAnimal,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.σωματότυπος!ο!=shapeAnimal,

shape.thin of ogmAnimal

"(adj) thin, lean (lacking excess flesh) "you can't be too rich or too thin"; "Yon Cassius has a lean and hungry look"-Shakespeare"
[{2021-12-07 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'thin-shape,
* McsEngl.thin,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.shòu-瘦!=thin,
* McsZhon.瘦-shòu!=thin,

shape.fat of ogmAnimal

=== pàng-胖:
· stxZhon: 你 胖 了。 :: _stxSbj:[Nǐ] _stxSbjc:[pàng] {le}. != You've gotten fat. (You used to not be fat.)

* McsEngl.fat!~adjeEngl,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'fat-shape,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.pàng-胖!=fat,
* McsZhon.胖-pàng!=fat,
====== langoGreek:
* McsEngl.adjeElln.χοντρός!-ός-ή-ό!=fat,
* McsElln.χοντρός!-ός-ή-ό!~adjeElln!=fat,

15_size of ogmAnimal

* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'15_size,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'att015-size,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'size-att015,


resource of ogmAnimal

* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'attResource,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'Infrsc,


DOING of ogmAnimal

* acting,
* functing,
* behavior,

* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'attDoing,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'doing,

defecating of ogmAnimal

· "(v) stool, defecate, shit, take a shit, take a crap, ca-ca, crap, make (have a bowel movement) "The dog had made in the flower beds""
[{2023-08-12 retrieved}]

· "verb defecate 3rd person present defecates past tense defecated past participle defecated gerund or present participle defecating verb defaecate 3rd person present defaecates past tense defaecated past participle defaecated gerund or present participle defaecating
discharge feces from the body.
synonyms: excrete pass/discharge/excrete feces have a bowel movement have a BM evacuate one's bowels open one's bowels void excrement relieve oneself go to the lavatory do number two do a pooh do a whoopsie crap have a crap shit have a shit dump have a dump"
[{2023-08-12 retrieved} Google dict]

* McsEngl.defecating-functing,
* McsEngl.fctDefecating,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'defecating!⇒fctDefecating,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.verbElln.αφοδεύω!=fctDefecating,
* McsElln.αφοδεύω!~verbElln!=fctDefecating,

evoluting of ogmAnimal

"So almost from the start, the cells within early animals had the potential to communicate with each other using electrical pulses and chemical signals. From there, it was not a big leap for some cells to become specialised for carrying messages.
These nerve cells evolved long, wire-like extensions – axons – for carrying electrical signals over long distances. They still pass signals on to other cells by releasing chemicals such as glutamate, but they do so where they meet them, at synapses. That means the chemicals only have to diffuse across a tiny gap, greatly speeding things up. And so, very early on, the nervous system was born.
The first neurons were probably connected in a diffuse network across the body (see diagram). This kind of structure, known as a nerve net, can still be seen in the quivering bodies of jellyfish and sea anemones"

* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'attEvoluting,
* McsEngl.evoluting-of-ogmAnimal,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'evoluting,

=== McsHitp-creation:
· creation of current concept.

MISC-attribute of ogmAnimal

politeness of ogmAnimal

· "(adj) polite (showing regard for others in manners, speech, behavior, etc.)"
[{2023-07-20 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.politeness,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'att017-politeness,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'politeness,

rudeness of ogmAnimal

· "(adj) ill-mannered, bad-mannered, rude, unmannered, unmannerly (socially incorrect in behavior) "resentment flared at such an unmannered intrusion""
[{2023-07-20 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'att018-rudeness,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'rudeness,
* McsEngl.rudeness,


* ,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'parent-tree,

* ,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'child-tree,

WHOLE-PART-TREE of ogmAnimal


* ... Sympan.
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'whole-tree,

* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'part-tree,


* ,
* ... entity.
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'generic-tree,

* brain-ogmAnimal,
* brainNo-ogmAnimal,

* McsEngl.ogmAnimal'specific-tree,


* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.001-aggregate,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.aggregate-001,



* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.002-generic,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.generic-002,



* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.003-individual,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.individual-003,



* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.004-vertebrate!⇒animalVerbebrate,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.vertebrate-004!⇒animalVerbebrate,
* McsEngl.animalVerbebrate,

"Vertebrates /ˈvɜːrtəˌbrəts/ comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata /-ə/ (chordates with backbones). Vertebrates represent the overwhelming majority of the phylum Chordata, with currently about 69,963 species described.[4] Vertebrates include such groups as the following:
* jawless fishes
* jawed vertebrates, which include the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays, and ratfish)
* tetrapods, which include amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals
* bony fishes
Extant vertebrates range in size from the frog species Paedophryne amauensis, at as little as 7.7 mm (0.30 in), to the blue whale, at up to 33 m (108 ft). Vertebrates make up less than five percent of all described animal species; the rest are invertebrates, which lack vertebral columns.
The vertebrates traditionally include the hagfish, which do not have proper vertebrae due to their loss in evolution,[5] though their closest living relatives, the lampreys, do.[6] Hagfish do, however, possess a cranium. For this reason, the vertebrate subphylum is sometimes referred to as "Craniata" when discussing morphology. Molecular analysis since 1992 has suggested that hagfish are most closely related to lampreys,[7] and so also are vertebrates in a monophyletic sense. Others consider them a sister group of vertebrates in the common taxon of craniata.[8]"


* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.005-vertebrateNo!⇒animalVertebrateNo,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.vertebrateNo-005!⇒animalVertebrateNo,
* McsEngl.animalVertebrateNo,
* McsEngl.invertebrate!⇒animalVertebrateNo,

"Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord. This includes all animals apart from the subphylum Vertebrata. Familiar examples of invertebrates include arthropods (insects, arachnids, crustaceans, and myriapods), mollusks (chitons, snails, bivalves, squids, and octopuses), annelids (earthworms and leeches), and cnidarians (hydras, jellyfishes, sea anemones, and corals).
The majority of animal species are invertebrates; one estimate puts the figure at 97%.[1] Many invertebrate taxa have a greater number and variety of species than the entire subphylum of Vertebrata.[2] Invertebrates vary widely in size, from 50 μm (0.002 in) rotifers[3] to the 9–10 m (30–33 ft) colossal squid.[4]
Some so-called invertebrates, such as the Tunicata and Cephalochordata are more closely related to vertebrates than to other invertebrates. This makes the invertebrates paraphyletic, so the term has little meaning in taxonomy."

GENERIC-SPECIFIC-TREE of animalVertebrateNo

* McsEngl.animalVertebrateNo'generic-specific-tree,

GENERIC-TREE of animalVertebrateNo


* ,

· :
* ,

* ,

SPECIFIC-TREE of animalVertebrateNo

"Invertebrates can be classified into several main categories, some of which are taxonomically obsolescent or debatable, but still used as terms of convenience. Each however appears in its own article at the following links.[52]
* Sponges (Porifera)
* Comb jellies (Ctenophora)
* Hydras, jellyfishes, sea anemones, and corals (Cnidaria)
* Starfishes, sea urchins, sea cucumbers (Echinodermata)
* Flatworms (Platyhelminthes)
* Round or threadworms (Nematoda)
* Earthworms and leeches (Annelida)
* Insects, arachnids, crustaceans, and myriapods (Arthropoda)
* Chitons, snails, bivalves, squids, and octopuses (Mollusca)"


* McsEngl.bilateral-animal!⇒animalBilateria,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.006-bilateria!⇒animalBilateria,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.bilateria-006!⇒animalBilateria,
* McsEngl.animalBilateria,

"The bilateria /ˌbaɪləˈtɪəriə/ or bilaterians are animals with bilateral symmetry as an embryo, i.e. having a left and a right side that are mirror images of each other. This also means they have a head and a tail (anterior-posterior axis) as well as a belly and a back (ventral-dorsal axis).[2] Nearly all are bilaterally symmetrical as adults as well; the most notable exception is the echinoderms, which achieve secondary pentaradial symmetry as adults, but are bilaterally symmetrical during embryonic development.
Most animals are bilaterians, excluding sponges, ctenophores, placozoans and cnidarians. For the most part, bilateral embryos are triploblastic, having three germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Except for a few phyla (i.e. flatworms and gnathostomulids), bilaterians have complete digestive tracts with a separate mouth and anus. Some bilaterians lack body cavities (acoelomates, i.e. Platyhelminthes, Gastrotricha and Gnathostomulida), while others display primary body cavities (deriving from the blastocoel, as pseudocoeloms) or secondary cavities (that appear de novo, for example the coelom)."


* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.007-bilateriaNo!⇒animalBilateriaNo,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.bilateriaNo-007!⇒animalBilateriaNo,
* McsEngl.animalBilateriaNo,

"Several animal phyla lack bilateral symmetry. Among these, the sponges (Porifera) probably diverged first, representing the oldest animal phylum.[105] Sponges lack the complex organization found in most other animal phyla;[106] their cells are differentiated, but in most cases not organised into distinct tissues.[107] They typically feed by drawing in water through pores.[108]
The Ctenophora (comb jellies) and Cnidaria (which includes jellyfish, sea anemones, and corals) are radially symmetric and have digestive chambers with a single opening, which serves as both mouth and anus.[109] Animals in both phyla have distinct tissues, but these are not organised into organs.[110] They are diploblastic, having only two main germ layers, ectoderm and endoderm.[111] The tiny placozoans are similar, but they do not have a permanent digestive chamber."


* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.008-amphibian!⇒animalAmphibian,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.amphibian-008!⇒animalAmphibian,
* McsEngl.animalAmphibian,

"Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia. Modern amphibians are all Lissamphibia. They inhabit a wide variety of habitats, with most species living within terrestrial, fossorial, arboreal or freshwater aquatic ecosystems. Thus amphibians typically start out as larvae living in water, but some species have developed behavioural adaptations to bypass this.
The young generally undergo metamorphosis from larva with gills to an adult air-breathing form with lungs. Amphibians use their skin as a secondary respiratory surface and some small terrestrial salamanders and frogs lack lungs and rely entirely on their skin. They are superficially similar to lizards but, along with mammals and birds, reptiles are amniotes and do not require water bodies in which to breed. With their complex reproductive needs and permeable skins, amphibians are often ecological indicators; in recent decades there has been a dramatic decline in amphibian populations for many species around the globe.
The earliest amphibians evolved in the Devonian period from sarcopterygian fish with lungs and bony-limbed fins, features that were helpful in adapting to dry land. They diversified and became dominant during the Carboniferous and Permian periods, but were later displaced by reptiles and other vertebrates. Over time, amphibians shrank in size and decreased in diversity, leaving only the modern subclass Lissamphibia.
The three modern orders of amphibians are Anura (the frogs and toads), Urodela (the salamanders), and Apoda (the caecilians). The number of known amphibian species is approximately 8,000, of which nearly 90% are frogs. The smallest amphibian (and vertebrate) in the world is a frog from New Guinea (Paedophryne amauensis) with a length of just 7.7 mm (0.30 in). The largest living amphibian is the 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in) South China giant salamander (Andrias sligoi), but this is dwarfed by the extinct 9 m (30 ft) Prionosuchus from the middle Permian of Brazil. The study of amphibians is called batrachology, while the study of both reptiles and amphibians is called herpetology."


· animalBrain is an-animal with a-brain.
"Cephalization is an evolutionary trend in which, over many generations, the mouth, sense organs, and nerve ganglia become concentrated at the front end of an animal, producing a head region. This is associated with movement and bilateral symmetry, such that the animal has a definite head end. This led to the formation of a highly sophisticated brain in three groups of animals, namely the arthropods, cephalopod molluscs, and vertebrates."

* McsEngl.animalBrain,
* McsEngl.animal-with-brain!⇒animalBrain,
* McsEngl.anmlBrain!⇒animalBrain,
* McsEngl.brain-animal!⇒animalBrain,
* McsEngl.brain-organism!⇒animalBrain,
* McsEngl.brainNatural'att002-animal!⇒animalBrain,
* McsEngl.brainNatural'animal!⇒animalBrain,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.brain!⇒animalBrain,
* McsEngl.ogmBrain!⇒animalBrain,
* McsEngl.organism.brain!⇒animalBrain,
* McsEngl.ogm.032-brain!⇒animalBrain,
* McsEngl.ogm.brain-032!⇒animalBrain,
* McsEngl.ogm.neural.brain!⇒animalBrain,
* McsEngl.ogmNeural.brain-001!⇒animalBrain,

brain (link) of animalBrain


· an-ogmNeural without brain.
"are there animals without brain?
Yes, there are many animals that do not have a brain. Some of the most common examples include:
* Jellyfish: Jellyfish are the most well-known animals without a brain. They have a diffuse nervous system that allows them to respond to stimuli, but they do not have a centralized brain.
* Sea anemones: Sea anemones are also animals without a brain. They have a simple nervous system that allows them to sense their surroundings and respond to touch.
* Sea cucumbers: Sea cucumbers are marine invertebrates that also do not have a brain. They have a nerve net that allows them to sense their surroundings and respond to stimuli.
* Sponges: Sponges are simple animals that do not have a brain or any other organs. They filter food particles from the water using their porous bodies.
* Coral: Corals are marine invertebrates that form colonies. They do not have a brain, but they do have a nervous system that allows them to sense their surroundings and respond to stimuli.
These animals are able to survive and function without a brain because they have evolved to rely on other parts of their bodies to control their behavior. For example, jellyfish use their tentacles to sense their surroundings and their muscles to move around. Sea anemones use their tentacles to catch food and their muscles to move around. Sea cucumbers use their tube feet to move around and their skin to absorb nutrients. Sponges use their pores to filter food particles from the water. Corals use their tentacles to catch food and their muscles to move around.
These animals are a fascinating example of how evolution has allowed different organisms to survive and thrive in different environments. They show that a brain is not essential for life, and that other parts of the body can be adapted to perform the same functions."
[{2023-09-02 retrieved}]
"non brain animal definition
There is no such thing as a "non-brain animal". All animals have a brain, even if it is not as complex as the brain of a human or other vertebrate. The simplest animals, such as jellyfish, have a nerve net that functions as a brain. More complex animals, such as insects, have a centralized brain that is responsible for coordinating their movements and behavior.
However, there are some animals that have a very small or rudimentary brain. For example, the planarian is a flatworm that has a brain that is only about the size of a pinhead. Despite its small size, the planarian's brain is still capable of controlling its movements and behavior.
So, while there is no such thing as an animal that does not have a brain, there are some animals that have a very small or rudimentary brain. These animals are still able to survive and reproduce, even though they do not have a complex brain like humans or other vertebrates."
[{2023-09-02 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.animalBrainNo,
* McsEngl.anmlBrainNo!⇒animalBrainNo,
* McsEngl.brainNo-ogmAnimal,
* McsEngl.non-brain-ogmAnimal,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.023-brainNo,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.brainNo,
* McsEngl.brainNo-ogmNeural!⇒animalBrainNo,
* McsEngl.ogmNeural.brainNo-002!⇒animalBrainNo,

"are all neural-organisms animals?
No, not all neural-organisms are animals. The term "neural-organism" refers to an organism that has a nervous system. While all animals have a nervous system, there are some organisms that have a nervous system but are not considered animals. For example, sponges and placozoans are multicellular organisms that have a nervous system, but they are not classified as animals.
Here are some examples of neural-organisms that are not animals:
* Sponges: Sponges are simple, multicellular organisms that live in water. They do not have a brain or a central nervous system, but they do have a network of nerve cells that helps them to sense their environment and respond to stimuli.
* Placozoans: Placozoans are microscopic, flat organisms that live in the ocean. They have a simple nervous system that consists of a network of nerve cells that runs along the surface of their body.
* Ctenophores: Ctenophores are also known as comb jellies. They are marine organisms that have a simple nervous system that consists of a network of nerve cells that runs throughout their body.
* Cnidarians: Cnidarians are a group of animals that includes jellyfish, corals, and sea anemones. They have a simple nervous system that consists of a network of nerve cells that runs throughout their body.
So, while all animals have a nervous system, not all neural-organisms are animals."
[{2023-09-02 retrieved}]

"is the brain that makes an organism animal?
No, the brain is not the only thing that makes an organism an animal. There are many other characteristics that define an animal, such as:
* Multicellularity: Animals are multicellular organisms, meaning they are made up of many cells.
* Heterotrophy: Animals are heterotrophs, meaning they obtain their food from other organisms.
* Motility: Animals are motile, meaning they can move around.
* Sensory perception: Animals have sensory organs that allow them to perceive their environment.
* Reproduction: Animals reproduce sexually.
* Homeostasis: Animals maintain a relatively constant internal environment.
The brain is a complex organ that is responsible for many of these functions, but it is not the only one. For example, some animals, such as jellyfish, have very simple brains, but they are still considered animals.
So, while the brain is an important part of what makes an animal an animal, it is not the only thing."
[{2023-09-02 retrieved}]


* ,
* ... entity,
* McsEngl.animalBrainNo'generic-tree,

* starfish,
* McsEngl.animalBrainNo.specific-tree,


"Cnidaria is a phylum of aquatic animals that includes a wide variety of species, many of which are found in marine environments. Here's an overview of Cnidaria:
* Basic Characteristics: Cnidarians are characterized by the presence of specialized cells called cnidocytes, which contain stinging structures called nematocysts. These cells are used for capturing prey and for defense.
* Body Structure: Cnidarians have a simple body structure, typically consisting of two main body forms:
- Polyps: These are typically sessile (attached to a substrate) and cylindrical in shape. Examples include sea anemones and coral polyps.
- Medusae: These are free-swimming, bell-shaped organisms. Examples include jellyfish.
* Gastrovascular Cavity: Cnidarians have a central gastrovascular cavity with a single opening that serves as both the mouth and anus. This cavity is used for digestion and circulation.
* Nervous System: Cnidarians have a simple nerve net that allows them to respond to their environment, but they lack a centralized brain.
* Reproduction: Cnidarians can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Asexual reproduction often involves budding, where new polyps or medusae form from the parent organism. Sexual reproduction typically involves the release of gametes (sperm and eggs) into the water.
* Habitats: Cnidarians can be found in various aquatic environments, from shallow coastal waters to the deep sea. Coral reefs are particularly well-known habitats for many cnidarian species.
* Diversity: Cnidaria includes a wide range of species, such as jellyfish, sea anemones, corals, and hydras. Each of these groups has its own unique adaptations and characteristics.
* Ecological Importance: Coral reefs, which are primarily composed of colonial cnidarians, are incredibly important ecosystems that provide habitat for numerous other marine species. They also help protect coastlines from erosion.
* Stinging Cells: Cnidarians are known for their stinging cells (nematocysts), which they use for capturing prey. These stinging cells can inject toxins into their prey, paralyzing or killing it.
* Feeding: Most cnidarians are carnivorous and feed on small prey, such as zooplankton and small fish. They use their tentacles and stinging cells to capture and immobilize their food.
* Conservation: Many cnidarian species, particularly coral reefs, are facing threats from climate change, ocean acidification, pollution, and overfishing. Conservation efforts are important to protect these fragile ecosystems.
Cnidarians are a diverse and fascinating group of animals that play important roles in marine ecosystems. Their unique adaptations, including their stinging cells, make them intriguing subjects for scientific study and observation."
[{2023-09-02 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.animalBrainNo.cnidarian,
* McsEngl.cnidarian-animal,


"animal coral overview
Coral animals, often referred to as corals, are marine invertebrates that belong to the phylum Cnidaria. Corals are known for their stunning and diverse forms, colors, and patterns, and they play a crucial role in the health and biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems. Here's an overview of coral animals:
* Classification:
- Phylum: Cnidaria
- Class: Anthozoa
- Subclass: Hexacorallia (also known as Zoantharia)
* Anatomy:
- Corals have a cylindrical body called a polyp, which is composed of a mouth surrounded by tentacles.
- The polyp typically attaches itself to a hard substrate, such as rocks or the skeletons of other corals.
- They have a simple nervous system but lack a centralized brain.
* Symbiotic Relationship:
- Many corals form a mutualistic relationship with photosynthetic microalgae called zooxanthellae. These algae live within the coral tissues and provide corals with essential nutrients through photosynthesis.
- In return, the coral provides the algae with protection and access to sunlight.
* Reproduction:
- Corals can reproduce both sexually and asexually.
- Sexual reproduction involves the release of gametes (eggs and sperm) into the water, where fertilization occurs. This process results in the formation of coral larvae.
- Asexual reproduction occurs through budding or fragmentation, where a new coral polyp forms from the parent coral. This is a common method for colony growth and recovery.
* Types of Corals:
- Hard Corals (Scleractinia): These corals secrete a calcium carbonate skeleton that forms the structure of coral reefs. They are the primary reef-building corals and come in various shapes and sizes.
- Soft Corals (Alcyonacea): Soft corals do not produce a hard skeleton but have a flexible, fleshy structure. They can be found swaying in ocean currents.
- Black Corals (Antipatharia): These corals have a black or dark-colored skeleton and are found in deep-sea environments.
- Gorgonians: Gorgonians, also known as sea fans or sea whips, are a type of soft coral with a branching, fan-like appearance.
* Importance of Coral Reefs:
- Coral reefs are among the most diverse ecosystems on Earth, providing habitat and shelter for numerous marine species.
- They protect coastlines from erosion and storm damage.
- Coral reefs are important for tourism, fisheries, and scientific research.
- They play a vital role in carbon and nutrient cycling in the oceans.
* Threats to Corals:
- Climate Change: Rising ocean temperatures and ocean acidification can lead to coral bleaching, where corals expel their zooxanthellae and become stressed or die.
- Pollution: Runoff of pollutants from land and marine pollution can harm coral reefs.
- Overfishing: Overfishing of herbivorous fish that help control algae growth can disrupt the balance on reefs.
- Physical Damage: Activities like anchor drops, trawling, and coral collection can physically damage coral reefs.
Efforts are being made worldwide to protect and conserve coral reefs, as they are highly vulnerable to various environmental threats and are crucial for the overall health of marine ecosystems."
[{2023-09-02 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.animalBrainNo.coral,
* McsEngl.coral-animal,


"animal ctenophore overview
Ctenophores, commonly known as "comb jellies" or "sea gooseberries," are fascinating marine animals that belong to the phylum Ctenophora. They are often mistaken for jellyfish due to their gelatinous, translucent appearance, but they are a distinct group of animals with unique characteristics. Here's an overview of ctenophores:
* Appearance:
- Ctenophores come in various shapes and sizes, with most species being transparent or bioluminescent.
- They are named after their distinctive feature, the comb rows. These are rows of cilia, tiny hair-like structures, that run in longitudinal rows along their body. Comb jellies use these cilia for locomotion, creating shimmering, rainbow-like patterns as they move.
* Distribution:
- Ctenophores are primarily found in marine environments, ranging from shallow coastal waters to the deep ocean. Some species inhabit the open ocean, while others are found near the ocean floor.
* Body Structure:
- They have a simple, gelatinous body composed of two cell layers: an outer epidermis and an inner gastrodermis, separated by a gelatinous layer called the mesoglea.
- Many ctenophores possess two long, retractable tentacles lined with specialized cells called colloblasts. Colloblasts secrete sticky threads to capture prey, primarily small planktonic organisms.
* Feeding:
- Ctenophores are carnivorous and primarily feed on small zooplankton, small fish, and other tiny marine organisms.
- They use their tentacles to capture prey and then transport it to their mouth, which is located at the center of their body.
* Bioluminescence:
- Many ctenophore species are bioluminescent, producing their own light through a chemical reaction. This bioluminescence is used for various purposes, including attracting prey and deterring predators.
* Reproduction:
- Ctenophores can reproduce both sexually and asexually.
- In sexual reproduction, they release eggs and sperm into the water, where fertilization occurs.
- Asexual reproduction can involve the budding of new individuals from existing ones.
* Predators and Defense:
- Ctenophores have relatively few natural predators due to their transparent and potentially toxic bodies.
- Some species have nematocysts (stinging cells), similar to those found in jellyfish, which they use for defense.
- Some are also equipped with bioluminescent displays that may serve to confuse or deter predators.
* Evolutionary History:
- Ctenophores are ancient animals with a long evolutionary history, predating many other marine phyla, including cnidarians (jellyfish, corals).
- Their evolutionary relationships have been a subject of debate, with some scientists suggesting they might be one of the earliest branching animal lineages.
Ctenophores are a diverse and enigmatic group of marine animals that continue to be a subject of scientific research and discovery. Their unique characteristics and evolutionary history make them a fascinating group to study in the field of marine biology."
[{2023-09-02 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.animalBrainNo.ctenophore,
* McsEngl.ctenophore-animal,


"animal jellyfish overview
Jellyfish are fascinating marine creatures that belong to the phylum Cnidaria. They are known for their gelatinous, translucent bodies and often strikingly beautiful, flowing tentacles. Here's an overview of jellyfish:
* Physical Characteristics:
- Jellyfish come in a wide range of sizes, from tiny, nearly invisible species to giants with bell diameters exceeding 6 feet (1.8 meters).
- Their bodies consist of a soft, gelatinous substance that is more than 95% water. This gives them their characteristic translucent appearance.
- Many species have tentacles that trail beneath their bell. These tentacles are covered in specialized cells called cnidocytes, which contain stinging nematocysts used for capturing prey.
* Habitat:
- Jellyfish can be found in oceans all over the world, from the surface to the deep sea, and from polar regions to tropical waters.
- They are often seen near the water's surface, where they drift with ocean currents.
* Diet and Feeding:
- Jellyfish are carnivorous and primarily feed on small fish, zooplankton, and other tiny marine organisms.
- They use their tentacles to capture prey by injecting toxins from their nematocysts, immobilizing or killing their prey. Afterward, they transport the prey to their central body cavity for digestion.
* Reproduction:
- Most jellyfish have a complex life cycle that involves both sexual and asexual reproduction stages.
- The adult medusa form produces eggs and sperm, which fertilize in the water to form a free-swimming larval stage called a planula.
- The planula eventually settles on a substrate and develops into a polyp, which can reproduce asexually by budding off new medusae.
* Predators and Defense:
- Jellyfish have relatively few natural predators due to their stinging tentacles. Some species of sea turtles, certain fish, and specialized predators like the ocean sunfish can consume them.
- To protect themselves, jellyfish rely on their stinging cells for defense against potential threats.
* Human Interaction:
- Contact with jellyfish tentacles can result in painful stings, with some species having venomous tentacles that can be dangerous to humans. Treatment often involves rinsing with vinegar and using heat to inactivate the toxins.
- Some jellyfish, like the box jellyfish and the Portuguese man-of-war, are particularly notorious for their potent stings.
* Conservation:
- The population dynamics of jellyfish can be influenced by human activities, such as overfishing, pollution, and climate change.
- In some regions, jellyfish blooms (sudden population increases) have become more common and are considered an environmental concern.
Jellyfish are a diverse and ecologically important group of marine organisms. While they may not be the most well-loved creatures due to their stinging capabilities, they play significant roles in marine ecosystems and are important subjects of scientific research."
[{2023-09-02 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.animalBrainNo.jellyfish,
* McsEngl.jellyfish-animal,


"animal placozoan overview
Placozoans are simple, tiny, and enigmatic marine organisms that belong to the phylum Placozoa. They are among the simplest multicellular animals known, characterized by their flattened, disk-like shape and lack of distinct tissues and organs. Here's an overview of placozoans:
* Morphology:
- Placozoans are among the simplest metazoans (multicellular animals). They are typically less than 1 millimeter in diameter and have a flattened, round or oval shape, resembling a tiny disk or placoid structure, which gives them their name "placozoan" (placo = flat, zoa = animal).
* Lack of Tissues and Organs:
- Placozoans lack complex tissue structures and organs found in more advanced animals. They consist of just a few different types of cells organized into layers. They have an outer epithelial layer and an inner layer of similarly undifferentiated cells.
* Reproduction:
- Placozoans reproduce both sexually and asexually. Asexual reproduction occurs through fission, where an individual divides into two daughter cells. Sexual reproduction involves the release of gametes (sperm and eggs) into the surrounding water, where fertilization occurs.
* Feeding:
- Placozoans are filter feeders. They use cilia on their ventral surface to generate water currents, which bring in small particles and microorganisms that they feed on. Their simple body structure allows them to absorb nutrients directly through their cell layers.
* Habitat:
- Placozoans are exclusively marine organisms and are found in shallow coastal waters, often living on the undersides of rocks or other substrates.
* Taxonomy:
- Placozoans belong to the phylum Placozoa, which is a small and unique group of animals. Until relatively recently, they were considered a mystery in the animal kingdom due to their simplicity and rarity.
* Evolutionary Significance:
- Placozoans are of great interest to scientists studying the early evolution of animals. They are thought to be among the most primitive extant metazoans and may offer insights into the evolutionary origins of more complex animal groups.
* Research:
- Placozoans have been the subject of ongoing research to better understand their biology and phylogenetic position within the animal kingdom. They have a very simple genome, making them valuable for studying the basic genetic and cellular processes shared by all animals.
In summary, placozoans are extremely simple marine animals with a flattened body structure and minimal differentiation of cells. They are of interest to scientists for their evolutionary significance and their potential to shed light on the origins of more complex animals."
[{2023-09-02 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.animalBrainNo.placozoan,
* McsEngl.placozoan-animal,


"animal sea anemone overview
Sea anemones are fascinating marine creatures belonging to the class Anthozoa, which is a subgroup of cnidarians. These creatures are often found in oceans all over the world, from shallow coastal waters to the deep sea, and they are known for their stunning appearance and unique predatory behavior. Here's an overview of sea anemones:
* Appearance:
- Sea anemones come in a variety of colors and sizes. They can be found in shades of red, orange, green, blue, and more.
- Typically, they have a cylindrical body with a central mouth surrounded by tentacles. These tentacles are often armed with stinging cells called cnidocytes, which they use to capture prey and defend themselves.
* Habitat:
- Sea anemones are primarily found in saltwater environments, although some species can tolerate brackish water conditions.
- They are commonly found attached to rocks, shells, or submerged surfaces on the ocean floor.
* Feeding Behavior:
- Sea anemones are carnivorous and use their tentacles to capture prey, such as small fish and invertebrates, that come into contact with their stinging cells.
- Once prey is captured, they use their tentacles to immobilize it and then transport it to their central mouth, where digestion occurs.
* Symbiotic Relationships:
- Some species of sea anemones have mutually beneficial relationships with other marine organisms, such as clownfish. These relationships involve protection and food sharing.
- Clownfish are known to live among the tentacles of sea anemones, benefiting from protection against predators while providing food scraps to the anemone.
* Reproduction:
- Sea anemones can reproduce both sexually and asexually.
- Sexual reproduction involves the release of eggs and sperm into the water, where fertilization occurs. The resulting larvae settle and develop into new anemones.
- Asexual reproduction can occur through methods like budding or fission, where a new individual grows from a part of the parent anemone.
* Adaptations:
- Sea anemones have evolved various adaptations for survival, including their stinging tentacles for capturing prey and deterring predators.
- They can retract their tentacles and close their mouth to protect themselves from threats.
* Importance:
- Sea anemones play a vital role in marine ecosystems as both predators and prey. They contribute to the overall balance of these ecosystems.
- They are also of scientific interest due to their unique biology and their relationship with other organisms like clownfish.
* Conservation:
- Sea anemones face threats from pollution, habitat destruction, and climate change, which can lead to coral bleaching and impact their health.
- Conservation efforts are in place to protect marine ecosystems, which indirectly benefit sea anemones.
Sea anemones are captivating creatures with a complex and delicate beauty. Their role in marine ecosystems highlights their significance in understanding and preserving the health of our oceans."
[{2023-09-02 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.animalBrainNo.sea-anemone,
* McsEngl.sea-anemone-animal,


"animal sea cucumber overview
Sea cucumbers are marine animals that belong to the class Holothuroidea, which is a part of the phylum Echinodermata. These fascinating creatures are found in oceans all over the world, from shallow coastal waters to the deep sea. Here's an overview of sea cucumbers:
* Appearance:
- Sea cucumbers have a distinctive cylindrical or elongated shape, resembling cucumbers, hence their name.
- They are usually soft-bodied and have a tough, leathery skin covered in tiny, button-like structures called ossicles.
- Some sea cucumbers are colorful, while others are more drab in appearance, depending on the species.
* Habitat:
- Sea cucumbers inhabit a wide range of marine environments, from sandy seabeds to coral reefs and rocky shores.
- They can be found in both shallow waters and the deep sea, with some species living at extreme depths, as deep as 10,000 meters (33,000 feet).
* Diet:
- Sea cucumbers are detritivores, meaning they feed on organic matter that has settled on the ocean floor.
- They ingest sediment and organic particles, digesting the organic material and excreting clean sediment.
* Unique Feeding Adaptation:
- Sea cucumbers have a specialized feeding apparatus called a "feeding tentacle" or "modified tube foot" that they extend from their mouth. This tentacle collects food particles and transports them to the mouth for consumption.
* Defense Mechanisms:
- Sea cucumbers have several defense mechanisms to protect themselves from predators.
- Many species can expel their internal organs, such as their respiratory tree and digestive tract, as a form of self-defense. These organs can be regenerated later.
- Some sea cucumbers have spines or other structures on their body that deter predators.
* Importance to Ecosystems:
- Sea cucumbers play a crucial role in marine ecosystems by recycling nutrients and helping to maintain the health of the ocean floor.
- They are often referred to as "ecosystem engineers" because their feeding and burrowing activities can influence the composition of the sediment and the distribution of other organisms.
* Human Use:
- Sea cucumbers are harvested in some regions for culinary and medicinal purposes.
- They are a delicacy in certain Asian cuisines and are believed to have health benefits, although scientific evidence for these claims is limited.
- Overexploitation due to the demand for sea cucumbers has led to concerns about their conservation in some areas.
* Reproduction:
- Sea cucumbers reproduce both sexually and asexually.
- Sexual reproduction involves the release of eggs and sperm into the water, where fertilization occurs. Larvae then develop and settle on the ocean floor.
- Asexual reproduction can occur through a process called fission, where a sea cucumber splits into two or more individuals.
Sea cucumbers are ecologically important and intriguing creatures that contribute to the biodiversity and functioning of marine ecosystems. However, their populations in some regions face threats from overharvesting, making conservation efforts and sustainable management crucial for their survival."
[{2023-09-02 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.animalBrainNo.sea-cucumber,
* McsEngl.sea-cucumber-animal,


"animal sponge overview
An animal sponge, also known simply as a sponge or a sea sponge, is a unique and primitive aquatic organism belonging to the phylum Porifera within the animal kingdom. Here's an overview of animal sponges:
1. Basic Characteristics:
* Phylum: Porifera
* Habitat: Mostly marine environments, although some freshwater species exist.
* Body Structure: Sponges have a simple and asymmetrical body structure. They lack true tissues and organs.
* Porous Body: Sponges are known for their porous bodies, which are riddled with tiny openings called ostia and larger openings called oscula. Water flows through these openings, facilitating respiration and nutrient intake.
2. Feeding and Nutrition:
* Sponges are filter feeders. They passively pump water through their bodies, trapping tiny particles, such as bacteria and plankton, on specialized cells called choanocytes.
* Choanocytes have flagella that create water currents and capture food particles for digestion.
3. Reproduction:
* Sponges can reproduce both sexually and asexually.
* Asexual reproduction can occur through budding or by breaking off a fragment of the sponge, which can grow into a new individual.
* Sexual reproduction involves the release of sperm and eggs into the water. Fertilization occurs externally, leading to the development of larvae that eventually settle and grow into adult sponges.
4. Diversity:
* There are thousands of species of sponges, and they vary widely in size, shape, and color.
* Sponges can be found in a range of marine ecosystems, from shallow coastal waters to deep-sea environments.
5. Ecological Roles:
* Sponges play important roles in marine ecosystems. They help filter and clean water by removing particulate matter and bacteria.
* Some species have mutualistic relationships with other organisms, such as certain shrimp and small fish, which find shelter within sponge structures.
6. Commercial and Cultural Use:
* Historically, natural sponges harvested from the sea were used for bathing and cleaning.
* Today, synthetic sponges are commonly used for cleaning and other household tasks, but natural sponges are still available.
* Sponges have also been used in various scientific studies due to their unique biological features.
7. Evolutionary Significance:
* Sponges are considered one of the most primitive and ancient animal groups, with a lineage dating back over 600 million years.
* They offer insights into the early evolution of multicellular animals.
Overall, animal sponges are fascinating organisms that provide valuable insights into the diversity of life on Earth and the evolution of complex animal forms. Their unique biology and ecological roles continue to be subjects of scientific research and exploration."
[{2023-09-02 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.animalBrainNo.sponge,
* McsEngl.sponge-animal,


· "Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea (/ˌæstəˈrɔɪdiə/). Common usage frequently finds these names being also applied to ophiuroids, which are correctly referred to as brittle stars or basket stars. Starfish are also known as asteroids due to being in the class Asteroidea. About 1,900 species of starfish live on the seabed in all the world's oceans, from warm, tropical zones to frigid, polar regions. They are found from the intertidal zone down to abyssal depths, at 6,000 m (20,000 ft) below the surface."
[{2023-06-23 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.animalBrainNo.starfish,
* McsEngl.animalStarfish,

· "Even in the strange world of marine invertebrates, the starfish is undoubtedly one of the ocean's most surprising creatures. The hundreds of little tubular feet on their underbellies are just one of many anatomical marvels. Starfish are particularly unique in that they lack brains and blood – instead, they have a decentralized nervous system spread out through their arms and rely on filtered seawater for transporting nutrients.
There are nearly 2,000 species of starfish spread across the world's oceans, and they come in a variety of shapes, colors, and sizes. You'll find them in tropical seas as well as polar regions, and at a huge range of depths. Starfish are not actually fish, so scientists prefer to refer to them as "sea stars." Like sea urchins, sea cucumbers, and sand dollars, starfish are echinoderms.
Rather than a centralized brain, a starfish has a nerve ring surrounding its mouth which connects to nerves throughout its arms. This nervous system design puts the sea star’s arms in charge. Every sea star has a dominant arm that communicates which way the organism should move. Its tubular feet follow the orders, establishing a rhythm of movement. Researchers believe that the complexity of a sea star’s nervous system could one day lead to advancements in robotics."
[{2023-06-23 retrieved}]


· with 2 legs.

* McsEngl.animalBipedal,
* McsEngl.bipedal-animal!⇒animalBipedal,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.010-bipedal!⇒animalBipedal,


· with 4 legs.

* McsEngl.animalQuandrupedal,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.011-quandrupedal!⇒animalQuandrupedal,
* McsEngl.quandrupedal-animal!⇒animalQuandrupedal,


"Mammals (from Latin mamma "breast") are vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia (/məˈmeɪliə/), and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding (nursing) their young, a neocortex (a region of the brain), fur or hair, and three middle ear bones. These characteristics distinguish them from reptiles and birds, from which they diverged in the late Carboniferous, approximately 300 million years ago. Around 6,400 extant species of mammals have been described. The largest orders are the rodents, bats and Eulipotyphla (hedgehogs, moles, shrews, and others). The next three are the Primates (apes including humans, monkeys, and others), the Cetartiodactyla (cetaceans and even-toed ungulates), and the Carnivora (cats, dogs, seals, and others)."
[{2020-08-24} ]

* McsEngl.animalMammal,
* McsEngl.mammal!⇒animalMammal,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.012-mammal!⇒animalMammal,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.mammal!⇒animalMammal,
* McsEngl.vertebrate.mammal!⇒animalMammal,

evoluting of animalMammal

"The findings fit in beautifully with the widely held idea that early mammals were nocturnal, hiding during the day and scurrying around in the undergrowth at night when there were fewer hungry dinosaurs running around.
After the dinosaurs were wiped out, about 65 million years ago, some of the mammals that survived took to the trees – the ancestors of the primates."
* McsEngl.{BpK2x065}-animalMammal'on-trees,

"By 360 million years ago, our ancestors had colonised the land, eventually giving rise to the first mammals about 200 million years ago."
* McsEngl.{BpK2x200}-animalMammal'first,

* McsEngl.evoluting-of-animalMammal,
* McsEngl.animalMammal'evoluting,


"Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives. The study of these traditional reptile orders, historically combined with that of modern amphibians, is called herpetology.
Because some reptiles are more closely related to birds than they are to other reptiles (e.g., crocodiles are more closely related to birds than they are to lizards), the traditional groups of "reptiles" listed above do not together constitute a monophyletic grouping or clade (consisting of all descendants of a common ancestor). For this reason, many modern scientists prefer to consider the birds part of Reptilia as well, thereby making Reptilia a monophyletic class, including all living diapsids.[1][2][3][4] The term reptiles is sometimes used as shorthand for 'non-avian Reptilia'.[5][6]"

* McsEngl.animalReptile,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.013-reptile!⇒animalReptile,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.reptile!⇒animalReptile,
* McsEngl.reptile!⇒animalReptile,


"Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Aves, characterized by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. There are about ten thousand living species, more than half of which are passerine, or "perching" birds. Birds have wings whose development varies according to species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in some birds, including ratites, penguins, and diverse endemic island species. The digestive and respiratory systems of birds are also uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments, particularly seabirds and some waterbirds, have further evolved for swimming."

* McsEngl.animalBird,
* McsEngl.bird!⇒animalBird,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.014-bird!⇒animalBird,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.bird!⇒animalBird,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.niǎo-鸟!=animalBird,
* McsZhon.鸟-niǎo!=animalBird,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.πουλί!το!=animalBird,
* McsElln.πτηνό!το!=animalBird,
====== langoTurkish:
* McsTurk.kuş!=animalBird,


"Carnivora is an order of placental mammals that have specialized in primarily eating flesh. Its members are formally referred to as carnivorans, though some species are omnivorous, like raccoons and bears, and quite a few species like pandas are specialized herbivores. The word 'carnivore' is derived from Latin carō (stem carn-) "flesh" and vorāre "to devour", it refers to any meat-eating organism. The order Carnivora is the fifth largest order of mammals and one of the more successful members of the group; it comprises at least 279 species living on every major landmass and in a variety of habitats, ranging the cold polar regions to the hyper-arid region of the Sahara Desert to the open seas. They come in a huge array of different body plans in contrasting shapes and sizes. The smallest carnivoran is the least weasel (Mustela nivalis) with a body length of about 11 cm (4.3 in) and a weight of about 25 g (0.88 oz). The largest is the southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina), with adult males weighing up to 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) and measuring up to 6.7 m (22 ft). All species of carnivorans are descended from a group of mammals which were related to today's pangolins, having appeared in North America 6 million years after the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event.[3][4] These early ancestors of carnivorans would have resembled small weasel or genet-like mammals, occupying a nocturnal shift on the forest floor or in the trees, as other groups of mammals like the mesonychians and creodonts were occupying the top faunivorous niche. However, by the time Miocene epoch appeared, most if not all of the major lineages and families of carnivorans had diversified and took over this niche."

* McsEngl.animalCarnivora,
* McsEngl.carnivora!⇒animalCarnivora,
* McsEngl.mammal.carnivora!⇒animalCarnivora,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.015-carnivora!⇒animalCarnivora,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.carnivora!⇒animalCarnivora,


"A primate (/ˈpraɪmeɪt/ (About this soundlisten) PRY-mayt) (from Latin primat-, from primus: "prime, first rank") is a eutherian mammal constituting the taxonomic order Primates. Primates arose 85–55 million years ago first from small terrestrial mammals, which adapted to living in the trees of tropical forests: many primate characteristics represent adaptations to life in this challenging environment, including large brains, visual acuity, color vision, altered shoulder girdle, and dextrous hands. Primates range in size from Madame Berthe's mouse lemur, which weighs 30 g (1 oz), to the eastern gorilla, weighing over 200 kg (440 lb). There are 190–448 species of living primates, depending on which classification is used. New primate species continue to be discovered: over 25 species were described in the first decade of the 2000s, and eleven since 2010."

* McsEngl.animalPrimate,
* McsEngl.mammal.primate!⇒animalPrimate,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.016-primate!⇒animalPrimate,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.primate!⇒animalPrimate,
* McsEngl.primate!⇒animalPrimate,


"The Hominidae (/hɒˈmɪnɪdiː/), whose members are known as great apes[note 1] or hominids (/ˈhɒmɪnɪdz/), are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, of which only modern humans remain.[1]
Several revisions in classifying the great apes have caused the use of the term "hominid" to vary over time. The original meaning of "hominid" referred only to humans (Homo) and their closest extinct relatives. However, by the 1990s both humans, apes, and their ancestors were considered to be "hominids". The earlier restrictive meaning has now been largely assumed by the term "hominin", which comprises all members of the human clade after the split from the chimpanzees (Pan). The current, 21st-century meaning of "hominid" includes all the great apes including humans. Usage still varies, however, and some scientists and laypersons still use "hominid" in the original restrictive sense; the scholarly literature generally shows the traditional usage until around the turn of the 21st century.[4]"

* McsEngl.animalHominid,
* McsEngl.great-ape!⇒animalHominid,
* McsEngl.hominid!⇒animalHominid,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.017-hominid!⇒animalHominid,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.hominid!⇒animalHominid,
* McsEngl.primate.hominid!⇒animalHominid,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ανθρωποειδές!το!=animalHominid,


">are hominids humans?
Hominids, in a broad sense, refer to a family of primates that includes all the great apes and humans. The term "hominid" has gone through various changes in its definition over time. Traditionally, it referred specifically to humans and their direct ancestors. However, in more recent scientific usage, the definition of "hominid" has been expanded to include great apes (like gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans) and their ancestors.

Humans, specifically, belong to the subgroup known as "hominins" within the hominid family. Hominins include all species that are more closely related to humans than to chimpanzees, including extinct species like Neanderthals and Australopithecines.

In summary, while all humans are hominids, not all hominids are humans. Humans are a specific branch within the larger hominid family, which encompasses a wider range of great apes and their ancestors."

>types of hominids:
"The term "hominid" has evolved in its usage over time, and in the current scientific context, it broadly includes all great apes and their ancestors. This family is known as Hominidae. Within this family, there are several types or genera, including:

1. **Homo**: This genus includes modern humans (Homo sapiens) and our closest extinct relatives and ancestors. Some notable members of this genus include:
- Homo neanderthalensis (Neanderthals)
- Homo erectus
- Homo habilis
- Homo heidelbergensis
- Homo luzonensis
- Homo floresiensis

2. **Pan**: This genus includes the chimpanzees and bonobos, our closest living relatives among the non-human great apes.
- Pan troglodytes (Common chimpanzee)
- Pan paniscus (Bonobo or Pygmy chimpanzee)

3. **Gorilla**: This genus includes the largest of the living apes.
- Gorilla gorilla (Western gorilla)
- Gorilla beringei (Eastern gorilla)

4. **Pongo**: This genus includes the orangutans.
- Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean orangutan)
- Pongo abelii (Sumatran orangutan)
- Pongo tapanuliensis (Tapanuli orangutan)

5. **Australopithecus**: This is an extinct genus of hominids that played a significant role in human evolution. Notable members include:
- Australopithecus afarensis (famous for the specimen known as "Lucy")
- Australopithecus africanus
- Australopithecus anamensis
- Australopithecus sediba

6. **Paranthropus**: This extinct genus is known for its robust cranial features and large molars, adapted for chewing hard food.
- Paranthropus boisei
- Paranthropus robustus
- Paranthropus aethiopicus

7. **Ardipithecus**: This is another extinct genus, significant for its very early place in the hominid family tree.
- Ardipithecus ramidus
- Ardipithecus kadabba

Each of these genera represents a branch in the evolutionary tree of the hominid family, showcasing a diverse range of adaptations and characteristics. The study of these hominids provides valuable insights into the evolution of humans and our closest relatives."
[{2023-12-16 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.animalHominid.specific,


"Do All Animals Need Oxygen to Live?
Last Modified Date: October 19, 2020
The discovery of the Henneguya salminicola parasite in 2020 has biologists worldwide scratching their heads. This blip of an organism, composed of fewer than 10 cells, doesn’t need oxygen to live. And since it doesn’t rely on aerobic respiration to create energy, it doesn’t need a mitochondrial genome or any respiratory genes, either.
Unique as H. salminicola appears to be, the researchers don’t think this is the only oxygen-free animal out there.
“We have shown that there is at least one multicellular animal that does not have the genetic toolkit to use oxygen,” says Oregon State University research associate Stephen Atkinson, part of the research team working at Tel Aviv University.
H. salminicola is a myxozoan cnidarian, an animal related to jellyfish and coral. It lives inside salmon and "steals ready-made nutrients" from the fish flesh, instead of consuming oxygen directly, Atkinson said.
The findings, he added, expand the definition of what an "animal" can be. Atkinson expects that future research will probably find a new spectrum of animals with ”even weirder modes of existence.”"

* McsEngl.animalOzygenNo,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.018-oxygenNo!⇒animalOzygenNo,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.oxygenNo!⇒animalOzygenNo,

=== māo-猫:只-zhī!=ogmCat:
· stxZhon: 这只小猫是黑的。 :: Zhè zhī xiǎomāo shì hēide. != This little cat is black.

* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.019-cat!⇒ogmCat,
* McsEngl.ogmCat,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.māo-猫:只-zhī!=ogmCat,
* McsZhon.猫-māo:只-zhī!=ogmCat,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.γάτα!η!=ogmCat,
====== langoTurkish:
* McsTurk.kedi!=ogmCat,

=== gǒu-狗!=ogmDog:
· stxZhon: 他家有一条狗。 :: Tā jiā yǒu yìtiáo gǒu. != His family has a dog.

* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.020-dog!⇒ogmDog,
* McsEngl.ogmDog,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.gǒu-狗!=ogmDog,
* McsZhon.狗-gǒu!=ogmDog,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.σκύλος!ο!=ogmDog,
====== langoTurkish:
* McsTurk.köpek!=ogmDog,


* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.021-horse!⇒ogmHorse,
* McsEngl.ogmHorse,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.mǎ-马!=ogmHorse,
* McsZhon.马-mǎ!=ogmHorse,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.άλογο!το!=ogmHorse,
====== langoTurkish:
* McsTurk.atış!=ogmHorse,

=== yú-鱼:条-tiáo!=ogmFish:
· stxZhon: 猫喜欢吃鱼。 :: Māo xǐhuan chī yú. != Cats like to eat fish.

* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.022-fish!=ogmFish,
* McsEngl.ogmFish,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.yú-鱼:条-tiáo!=ogmFish,
* McsZhon.鱼-yú:条-tiáo!=ogmFish,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ψάρι!το!=ogmFish,

food (link) of ogmFish


Elephants are the largest land animals on Earth, with African savanna elephants being the largest of all, weighing up to 13,000 kg (28,700 lb) and standing 3–4 meters (9.8–13.1 ft) tall at the shoulder. They are found in Africa and Asia, and there are two main species: the African bush elephant and the African forest elephant. The Asian elephant is the smallest of the three species, and there are three subspecies: the Indian elephant, the Sumatran elephant, and the Sri Lankan elephant.

Elephants are characterized by their long trunks, which are formed from their upper lip and nose, their large ears, their pillar-like legs, and their thick, wrinkled skin. They have tusks, which are elongated incisor teeth that grow throughout their lives. Only the males of African bush elephants and African forest elephants have tusks, while both male and female Asian elephants have tusks.

Elephants are highly social animals that live in large herds or family groups. Herds are led by a matriarch, the oldest and most experienced female in the group. Elephants are herbivores, and their diet consists mainly of grasses, leaves, fruits, and bark. They are also intelligent and highly communicative animals, and they use a variety of vocalizations and gestures to communicate with each other.

Elephants are important to the African and Asian ecosystems, and they play a vital role in seed dispersal and pollination. However, elephants are also threatened by habitat loss, poaching, and conflict with humans. The African savanna elephant is classified as endangered by the IUCN Red List, and the African forest elephant and the Sumatran elephant are classified as critically endangered.

Here are some interesting facts about elephants:
* Elephants can communicate with each other over long distances using infrasound, which is a low-frequency sound that humans cannot hear.
* Elephants can travel up to 50 kilometers (31 miles) per day in search of food and water.
* Elephants have a gestation period of 22 months, which is the longest of any mammal.
* Elephants can live for up to 70 years in the wild.
* Elephants are highly intelligent animals, and they have been shown to be able to recognize themselves in mirrors.

Elephants are truly amazing animals, and they play an important role in our planet's ecosystems. We must do everything we can to protect them and ensure their survival for future generations."
[{2023-12-20 retrieved}]

=== xiàng-象!=elephant:
· stxZhon: 大象想抢姜 :: Dà xiàng xiǎng qiǎng jiāng != The elephant wants to grab the ginger.

* McsEngl.elephant,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.024-elephant,
* McsEngl.ogmAnimal.elephant,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.xiàng-象!=elephant,
* McsZhon.象-xiàng!=elephant,


this webpage was-visited times since {2020-04-21}

page-wholepath: / worldviewSngo / dirOgm / ogmAnimal

· this page uses 'locator-names', names that when you find them, you find the-LOCATION of the-concept they denote.
· clicking on the-green-BAR of a-page you have access to the-global--locator-names of my-site.
· use the-prefix 'ogmAnimal' for sensorial-concepts related to current concept 'organism.animal'.
· TYPE CTRL+F "McsLag4.words-of-concept's-name", to go to the-LOCATION of the-concept.
· a-preview of the-description of a-global-name makes reading fast.

• author: Kaseluris.Nikos.1959
• email:
• edit on github:,
• comments on Disqus,
• twitter: @synagonism,

• version.last.dynamic: McsOgm000009.last.html,
• version.1-0-0.2021-04-15: (0-8) ../../dirMiwMcs/dirOgm/filMcsOgmAnml.1-0-0.2021-04-15.html,
• filMcsOgmAnml.0-1-0.2020-04-21.last.html: draft creation,

support (link)