McsHitp-creation:: {2020-04-11},

overview of ogmPlant

* McsEngl.McsOgm000010.last.html//dirOgm//dirMcs!⇒ogmPlant,
* McsEngl.dirMcs/dirOgm/McsOgm000010.last.html!⇒ogmPlant,
* McsEngl.plant!⇒ogmPlant,
* McsEngl.organism.plant!⇒ogmPlant,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant!=McsOgm000010,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant!=organism.plant,
====== langoSinago:
* McsSngo.zo-fito!=ogmPlant,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.zhíwù-植物!=ogmPlant,
* McsZhon.植物-zhíwù!=ogmPlant,
====== langoEsperanto:
* McsEspo.planto!=ogmPlant,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.φυτό!=ogmPlant,

"Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin name for "green plants"), a group that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns and their allies, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae.
Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common.
There are about 320,000 species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, produce seeds.[5] Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen,[6] and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems. Plants that produce grain, fruit and vegetables also form basic human foods and have been domesticated for millennia. Plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs. The scientific study of plants is known as botany, a branch of biology."

01_disease (link) of ogmPlant

02_governance-system (link) of ogmPlant

03_health (link) of ogmPlant

04_material-system of ogmPlant

* McsEngl.ogmPlant'04_material-system,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant'att004-material-system,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant'material-system-att004,


05_material of ogmPlant

* McsEngl.ogmPlant'05_material,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant'att005-material,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant'material-att005,


sysMolecules of ogmPlant

molecule of ogmPlant

atom of ogmPlant

06_genome of ogmPlant

* McsEngl.ogmPlant'06_genome,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant'att013-genome,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant'genome-att013,


07_nutrient of ogmPlant

* McsEngl.ogmPlant'07_nutrient,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant'att009-nutrient,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant'nutrient-att009,
* McsEngl.nutrient.plant,


08_food (link) of ogmPlant

09_shape of ogmPlant

* McsEngl.ogmPlant'09_shape,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant'att011-shape,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant'shape-att011,


10_size of ogmPlant

* McsEngl.ogmPlant'10_size,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant'att012-size,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant'size-att012,


info-resource of ogmPlant

* McsEngl.ogmPlant'Infrsc,


structure of ogmPlant

* McsEngl.ogmPlant'structure,


DOING of ogmPlant

* any doing of a-plant.

* McsEngl.ogmPlant'behavior,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant'doing,

* communication,
* harvesting,
* use,

11_communication of ogmPlant

· communication between plants and insects, mammals, fungi, microorganisms, other plants and itself.

* McsEngl.ogmPlant'11_communication,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant'att018_communication,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant'communication,
* McsEngl.plant-communication,

12_use of ogmPlant

· any use of a-plant by humans.

* McsEngl.ogmPlant'12_use!⇒plant'use,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant'att017-usage!⇒plant'use,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant'usage!⇒plant'use,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant'use!⇒plant'use,
* McsEngl.plant'use,

* medicinal-use,
* culinary-use,
* ornament-use,
* materials-use (building, writing),

harvesting of ogmPlant

"Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields. Reaping is the cutting of grain or pulse for harvest, typically using a scythe, sickle, or reaper.[1] On smaller farms with minimal mechanization, harvesting is the most labor-intensive activity of the growing season. On large mechanized farms, harvesting utilizes the most expensive and sophisticated farm machinery, such as the combine harvester. Process automation has increased the efficiency of both the seeding and harvesting process. Specialized harvesting equipment utilizing conveyor belts to mimic gentle gripping and mass transport replaces the manual task of removing each seedling by hand.[2] The term "harvesting" in general usage may include immediate postharvest handling, including cleaning, sorting, packing, and cooling.
The completion of harvesting marks the end of the growing season, or the growing cycle for a particular crop, and the social importance of this event makes it the focus of seasonal celebrations such as harvest festivals, found in many religions."

* McsEngl.ogmPlant'att016-harvesting,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant'harvesting-att016,
* McsEngl.harvesting-of-plant-att016,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.συγκομιδή!=harvesting,

evoluting of ogmPlant

* McsEngl.ogmPlant'evoluting,

=== McsHitp-creation:
· creation of current concept.


* McsEngl.ogmPlant'whole-part-tree,

* ... Sympan.



* McsEngl.ogmPlant'generic-specific-tree,

GENERIC-TREE of ogmPlant

* organism,

* ,

· :
* ,

* ,


* ,

* McsEngl.ogmPlant.specific,


* annual,
* biennial,
* perennial,

* McsEngl.ogmPlant.specs-division.lifetime,


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.003-aggregate,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.aggregate-003,



* McsEngl.ogmPlant.004-generic,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.generic-004,



* McsEngl.ogmPlant.005-instance,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.instance-005,



* McsEngl.ogmPlant.001-cultivated!⇒plantCultivated,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.cultivated-001!⇒plantCultivated,
* McsEngl.plantCultivated,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.καλλιεργημένο-φυτό!=plantCultivated,


companion-planting of plantCultivated

* McsEngl.plantCultivated'companion-planting,
* McsEngl.companion-planting,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.συγκαλλιέργεια,

"Companion planting in gardening and agriculture is the planting of different crops in proximity for any of a number of different reasons, including pest control, pollination, providing habitat for beneficial insects, maximizing use of space, and to otherwise increase crop productivity.[1] Companion planting is a form of polyculture.
Companion planting is used by farmers and gardeners in both industrialized and developing countries for many reasons. Many of the modern principles of companion planting were present many centuries ago in cottage gardens in England and forest gardens in Asia, and thousands of years ago in Mesoamerica."

cultivation of plantCultivated

"Horticulture is the agriculture of plants, mainly for food, materials, comfort and beauty for decoration.[1] Horticulturists apply knowledge, skills, and technologies to grow intensively produced plants for human food and non-food uses and for personal or social needs. Their work involves plant propagation and cultivation with the aim of improving plant growth, yields, quality, nutritional value and resistance to insects, diseases and environmental stresses. They work as gardeners, growers, therapists, designers, and technical advisors in the food and non-food sectors of horticulture."

* McsEngl.cultivationPlant,
* McsEngl.horticulture,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant'cultivation,
* McsEngl.plantCultivated'cultivation,


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.002-cultivatedNo!⇒plantWild,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.cultivatedNo-002!⇒plantWild,
* McsEngl.plantWild,



* McsEngl.ogmPlant.006-vascular!⇒plantVascular,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.vascular-006!⇒plantVascular,
* McsEngl.vascular-plant-006!⇒plantVascular,
* McsEngl.plantVascular,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.αγγειώδες-φυτό!=plantVascular,
* McsElln.τραχειόφυτο!=plantVascular,

"Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea), form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species[5]) that are defined as land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant. They also have a specialized non-lignified tissue (the phloem) to conduct products of photosynthesis. Vascular plants include the clubmosses, horsetails, ferns, gymnosperms (including conifers) and angiosperms (flowering plants). Scientific names for the group include Tracheophyta,[6][2]:251 Tracheobionta[7] and Equisetopsida sensu lato. Some early land plants (the rhyniophytes) had less developed vascular tissue; the term eutracheophyte has been used for all other vascular plants."

stem of plantVascular

* McsEngl.plantVascular'att001-stem,
* McsEngl.plantVascular'stem-att001,
* McsEngl.stem-of-plantVascular-att001,

"A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root. It supports leaves, flowers and fruits, transports fluids between the roots and the shoots in the xylem and phloem, stores nutrients, and produces new living tissue.
The stem is normally divided into nodes and internodes:
* The nodes hold one or more leaves, as well as buds which can grow into branches (with leaves, conifer cones, or inflorescences (flowers)). Adventitious roots may also be produced from the nodes.
* The internodes distance one node from another.
The term "shoots" is often confused with "stems"; "shoots" generally refers to new fresh plant growth including both stems and other structures like leaves or flowers. In most plants stems are located above the soil surface but some plants have underground stems.
Stems have four main functions which are:[1]
* Support for and the elevation of leaves, flowers and fruits. The stems keep the leaves in the light and provide a place for the plant to keep its flowers and fruits.
* Transport of fluids between the roots and the shoots in the xylem and phloem(see below)
* Storage of nutrients
* Production of new living tissue. The normal lifespan of plant cells is one to three years. Stems have cells called meristems that annually generate new living tissue.
Stems have two pipe-like tissues called xylem and phloem. The xylem tissue transports water by the action of transpiration pull, capillary action and root pressure. The phloem tissue consists of sieve tubes and their companion cells. The two tissues are separated by cambium which is a tissue that divides to form xylem or phloem cells."


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.007-vascularNo!⇒plantVascularNo,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.vascularNo-007!⇒plantVascularNo,
* McsEngl.nov-vascular-plant-007!⇒plantVascularNo,
* McsEngl.plantVascularNo,

"Non-vascular plants are plants without a vascular system consisting of xylem and phloem. Although non-vascular plants lack these particular tissues, many possess simpler tissues that are specialized for internal transport of water.
Non-vascular plants include two distantly related groups:
* Bryophytes, an informal group that is now treated as three separate land plant Divisions, namely Bryophyta (mosses), Marchantiophyta (liverworts), and Anthocerotophyta (hornworts). In all bryophytes, the primary plants are the haploid gametophytes, with the only diploid portion being the attached sporophyte, consisting of a stalk and sporangium. Because these plants lack lignified water-conducting tissues, they can't become as tall as most vascular plants.
* Algae - especially the green algae. Recent studies have demonstrated that the algae consist of several unrelated groups. It turns out that the common features of living in water and photosynthesis were misleading as indicators of close relationship. Only those groups of algae included in the Viridiplantae are still considered relatives of land plants.[1]:6[2]
These groups are sometimes referred to as "lower plants", referring to their status as the earliest plant groups to evolve, but the usage is imprecise, since both groups are polyphyletic and may be used to include vascular cryptogams, such as the ferns and fern allies that reproduce using spores. Non-vascular plants are often among the first species to move into new and inhospitable territories, along with prokaryotes and protists, and thus function as pioneer species.
Non-vascular plants do not have a wide variety of specialized tissue types.[citation needed] Mosses and leafy liverworts have structures called phyllids that look like leaves, but are not true leaves because they are single sheets of cells with no internal air spaces, no cuticle or stomata and no xylem or phloem. Consequently, phyllids are unable to control the rate of water loss from their tissues and are said to be poikilohydric. Some liverworts, such as Marchantia have a cuticle and the sporophytes of mosses have both cuticles and stomata, which were important in the evolution of land plants.[3]
All land plants have a life cycle with an alternation of generations between a diploid sporophyte and a haploid gametophyte, but in all non-vascular land plants the gametophyte generation is dominant. In these plants, the sporophytes grow from and are dependent on gametophytes for taking in water and mineral nutrients and for provision of photosynthate, the products of photosynthesis."


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.008-annual!⇒plantAnnual,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.annual-008!⇒plantAnnual,
* McsEngl.annual-plant-008!⇒plantAnnual,
* McsEngl.plantAnnual,

"An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one growing season, and then dies. The length of growing seasons and period in which they take place vary according to geographical location, and may not correspond to the four traditional seasonal divisions of the year. With respect to the traditional seasons annual plants are generally categorized into summer annuals and winter annuals. Summer annuals germinate during spring or early summer and mature by autumn of the same year. Winter annuals germinate during the autumn and mature during the spring or summer of the following calendar year.[1]
One seed-to-seed life cycle for an annual can occur in as little as a month in some species, though most last several months. Oilseed rapa can go from seed-to-seed in about five weeks under a bank of fluorescent lamps. This style of growing is often used in classrooms for education. Many desert annuals are therophytes,[2] because their seed-to-seed life cycle is only weeks and they spend most of the year as seeds to survive dry conditions."


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.009-biennial!⇒plantBiennial,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.biennial-009!⇒plantBiennial,
* McsEngl.biennial-plant!⇒plantBiennial,
* McsEngl.plantBiennial,

"A biennial plant is a flowering plant that takes two years to complete its biological lifecycle.[1][2] In the first year, the plant grows leaves, stems, and roots (vegetative structures), then it enters a period of dormancy over the colder months. Usually the stem remains very short and the leaves are low to the ground, forming a rosette. Many biennials require a cold treatment, or vernalization, before they will flower. During the next spring or summer, the stem of the biennial plant elongates greatly, or "bolts".[3] The plant then flowers, producing fruits and seeds before it finally dies. There are far fewer biennials than either perennial plants or annual plants.
Under extreme climatic conditions, a biennial plant may complete its life cycle rapidly (e.g., in three months instead of two years). This is quite common in vegetable or flower seedlings that were vernalized before they were planted in the ground. This behavior leads to many normally biennial plants being treated as annuals in some areas. Conversely, an annual grown under extremely favorable conditions may have highly successful seed propagation, giving it the appearance of being biennial or perennial. Some short-lived perennials may appear to be biennial rather than perennial. True biennials flower only once, while many perennials will flower every year once mature.
From a gardener's perspective, a plant's status as annual, biennial, or perennial often varies based on location or purpose. Biennials grown for flowers, fruits, or seeds need to be grown for two years. Biennials that are grown for edible leaves or roots are grown for just one year (and not grown on a second year to run to seed).
Examples of biennial plants are members of the onion family including leek,[3] some members of the cabbage family,[3] common mullein, parsley, fennel,[3] Lunaria, silverbeet, Black-eyed Susan, Sweet William, colic weed, carrot,[3] and some hollyhocks. Plant breeders have produced annual cultivars of several biennials that will flower the first year from seed, for example, foxglove and stock."


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.010-perennial!⇒plantPerennial,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.perennial-010!⇒plantPerennial,
* McsEngl.perennial-plant-010!⇒plantPerennial,
* McsEngl.plantPerennial,

"A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years.[1] Some sources cite perennial plants being plants that live more than three years.[2] The term (per- + -ennial, "through the years") is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived annuals and biennials. The term is also widely used to distinguish plants with little or no woody growth from trees and shrubs, which are also technically perennials.[3]
Perennials—especially small flowering plants—that grow and bloom over the spring and summer, die back every autumn and winter, and then return in the spring from their rootstock, are known as herbaceous perennials. However, depending on the rigors of local climate, a plant that is a perennial in its native habitat, or in a milder garden, may be treated by a gardener as an annual and planted out every year, from seed, from cuttings or from divisions. Tomato vines, for example, live several years in their natural tropical/subtropical habitat but are grown as annuals in temperate regions because they don't survive the winter.
There is also a class of evergreen, or non-herbaceous, perennials, including plants like Bergenia which retain a mantle of leaves throughout the year. An intermediate class of plants is known as subshrubs, which retain a vestigial woody structure in winter, e.g. Penstemon. The local climate may dictate whether plants are treated as shrubs or perennials. For instance, many varieties of Fuchsia are shrubs in warm regions, but in colder temperate climates may be cut to the ground every year as a result of winter frosts.
The symbol for a perennial plant, based on Species Plantarum by Linnaeus, is ♃, which is also the astronomical symbol for the planet Jupiter.[4]"


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.011-tree!⇒plantTree,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.tree-011!⇒plantTree,
* McsEngl.tree-plant-011!⇒plantTree,
* McsEngl.plantTree,

"In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. In wider definitions, the taller palms, tree ferns, bananas, and bamboos are also trees. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. It is estimated that there are just over 3 trillion mature trees in the world.[1]
A tree typically has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground by the trunk. This trunk typically contains woody tissue for strength, and vascular tissue to carry materials from one part of the tree to another. For most trees it is surrounded by a layer of bark which serves as a protective barrier. Below the ground, the roots branch and spread out widely; they serve to anchor the tree and extract moisture and nutrients from the soil. Above ground, the branches divide into smaller branches and shoots. The shoots typically bear leaves, which capture light energy and convert it into sugars by photosynthesis, providing the food for the tree's growth and development.
Trees usually reproduce using seeds. Flowers and fruit may be present, but some trees, such as conifers, instead have pollen cones and seed cones. Palms, bananas, and bamboos also produce seeds, but tree ferns produce spores instead.
Trees play a significant role in reducing erosion and moderating the climate. They remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store large quantities of carbon in their tissues. Trees and forests provide a habitat for many species of animals and plants. Tropical rainforests are among the most biodiverse habitats in the world. Trees provide shade and shelter, timber for construction, fuel for cooking and heating, and fruit for food as well as having many other uses. In parts of the world, forests are shrinking as trees are cleared to increase the amount of land available for agriculture. Because of their longevity and usefulness, trees have always been revered, with sacred groves in various cultures, and they play a role in many of the world's mythologies."


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.012-flowering!⇒plantFlowering,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.flowering-012!⇒plantFlowering,
* McsEngl.angiosperm-plant-012!⇒plantFlowering,
* McsEngl.flowering-plant-012!⇒plantFlowering,
* McsEngl.magnoliophyta!⇒plantFlowering,
* McsEngl.plantFlowering,

"The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae,[6][7] or Magnoliophyta,[8] are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families, approximately 13,000 known genera and 300,000 known species.[9] Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. They are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure; in other words, a fruiting plant. The term comes from the Greek words angeion ("case" or "casing") and sperma ("seed").
The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, 245 to 202 million years ago (mya), and the first flowering plants are known from ~140 mya. They diversified extensively during the Early Cretaceous, became widespread by 120 mya, and replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya."

flower of plantFlowering

* McsEngl.plantFlowering'att001-flower!⇒flowerPlant,
* McsEngl.plantFlowering'flower-att001!⇒flowerPlant,
* McsEngl.blossom!⇒flowerPlant,
* McsEngl.flowerPlant,
* McsEngl.flower-of-plantFlowering!⇒flowerPlant,

"A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to affect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) resulting from cross pollination or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower) when self pollination occurs. Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen. After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into fruit containing seeds.
In addition to facilitating the reproduction of flowering plants, flowers have long been admired and used by humans to bring beauty to their environment, and also as objects of romance, ritual, religion, medicine and as a source of food."

01_perianth of flowerPlant

* McsEngl.flowerPlant'01_perianth,
* McsEngl.flowerPlant'att001-perianth,
* McsEngl.flowerPlant'perianth-att001,
* McsEngl.perianth-of-flowerPlant,

"The perianth (perigonium, perigon or perigone) is the non-reproductive part of the flower, and structure that forms an envelope surrounding the sexual organs, consisting of the calyx (sepals) and the corolla (petals). The term perianth is derived from the Greek περί, peri, meaning around, and άνθος, anthos, meaning flower, while perigonium is derived from gonos, meaning seed, i.e. sexual organs. In the mosses and liverworts (Marchantiophyta), the perianth is the sterile tubelike tissue that surrounds the female reproductive structure (or developing sporophyte)."

corolla of flowerPlant

* McsEngl.flowerPlant'att002-corolla,
* McsEngl.flowerPlant'corolla-att002,

· the-set of petals.

petal of flowerPlant

* McsEngl.flowerPlant'att003-petal,
* McsEngl.flowerPlant'petal-att003,
* McsEngl.petal-flowerPlant-att003,

"Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers. They are often brightly colored or unusually shaped to attract pollinators. Together, all of the petals of a flower are called a corolla. Petals are usually accompanied by another set of special leaves called sepals, that collectively form the calyx and lie just beneath the corolla. The calyx and the corolla together make up the perianth. When the petals and sepals of a flower are difficult to distinguish, they are collectively called tepals. Examples of plants in which the term tepal is appropriate include genera such as Aloe and Tulipa. Conversely, genera such as Rosa and Phaseolus have well-distinguished sepals and petals. When the undifferentiated tepals resemble petals, they are referred to as "petaloid", as in petaloid monocots, orders of monocots with brightly coloured tepals. Since they include Liliales, an alternative name is lilioid monocots.
Although petals are usually the most conspicuous parts of animal-pollinated flowers, wind-pollinated species, such as the grasses, either have very small petals or lack them entirely."

calyx of flowerPlant

* McsEngl.flowerPlant'att004-calyx,
* McsEngl.flowerPlant'calyx-att004,
* McsEngl.calyx-of-flowerPlant,

· the-set of sepals.

sepal of flowerPlant

* McsEngl.flowerPlant'att005-sepal,
* McsEngl.flowerPlant'sepal-att005,
* McsEngl.sepal-of-flowerPlant-att005,

"A sepal (/ˈsɛpəl/ or /ˈsiːpəl/)[1][2][3] is a part of the flower of angiosperms (flowering plants). Usually green, sepals typically function as protection for the flower in bud, and often as support for the petals when in bloom.[4] The term sepalum was coined by Noël Martin Joseph de Necker in 1790, and derived from the Greek σκέπη (skepē), a covering.[5][6]
Collectively the sepals are called the calyx (plural calyces),[7] the outermost whorl of parts that form a flower. The word calyx was adopted from the Latin calyx,[8] not to be confused with calix, a cup or goblet.[9] Calyx derived from the Greek κάλυξ (kalyx), a bud, a calyx, a husk or wrapping, (cf Sanskrit kalika, a bud)[10] while calix derived from the Greek κύλιξ (kylix), a cup or goblet, and the words have been used interchangeably in botanical Latin.[11]
After flowering, most plants have no more use for the calyx which withers or becomes vestigial. Some plants retain a thorny calyx, either dried or live, as protection for the fruit or seeds. Examples include species of Acaena, some of the Solanaceae (for example the Tomatillo, Physalis philadelphica), and the water caltrop, Trapa natans. In some species the calyx not only persists after flowering, but instead of withering, begins to grow until it forms a bladder-like enclosure around the fruit. This is an effective protection against some kinds of birds and insects, for example in Hibiscus trionum and the Cape gooseberry. In other species, the calyx grows into an accessory fruit.
Morphologically, both sepals and petals are modified leaves. The calyx (the sepals) and the corolla (the petals) are the outer sterile whorls of the flower, which together form what is known as the perianth.[12]
The term tepal is usually applied when the parts of the perianth are difficult to distinguish,[13] e.g. the petals and sepals share the same color, or the petals are absent and the sepals are colorful. When the undifferentiated tepals resemble petals, they are referred to as "petaloid", as in petaloid monocots, orders of monocots with brightly coloured tepals. Since they include Liliales, an alternative name is lilioid monocots. Examples of plants in which the term tepal is appropriate include genera such as Aloe and Tulipa. In contrast, genera such as Rosa and Phaseolus have well-distinguished sepals and petals.[citation needed]
The number of sepals in a flower is its merosity. Flower merosity is indicative of a plant's classification. The merosity of a eudicot flower is typically four or five. The merosity of a monocot or palaeodicot flower is three, or a multiple of three.
The development and form of the sepals vary considerably among flowering plants.[14] They may be free (polysepalous) or fused together (gamosepalous).[15] Often, the sepals are much reduced, appearing somewhat awn-like, or as scales, teeth, or ridges. Most often such structures protrude until the fruit is mature and falls off.
Examples of flowers with much reduced perianths are found among the grasses.
In some flowers, the sepals are fused towards the base, forming a calyx tube (as in the family Lythraceae,[16] and Fabaceae). In other flowers (e.g., Rosaceae, Myrtaceae) a hypanthium includes the bases of sepals, petals, and the attachment points of the stamens."

02_reproductive-part of flowerPlant

* McsEngl.flowerPlant'02_reproductive-part,
* McsEngl.flowerPlant'att006-reproductive-part,
* McsEngl.flowerPlant'reproductive-part-att006,

"The essential parts of a flower can be considered in two parts: the vegetative part, consisting of petals and associated structures in the perianth, and the reproductive or sexual parts."

androecium of flowerPlant

* McsEngl.flowerPlant'att007-androecium,
* McsEngl.flowerPlant'androecium-att007,
* McsEngl.androecium-of-flowerPlant-att007,

"Androecium (from Greek andros oikia: man's house): the next whorl (sometimes multiplied into several whorls), consisting of units called stamens. Stamens consist of two parts: a stalk called a filament, topped by an anther where pollen is produced by meiosis and eventually dispersed."

stamen of flowerPlant

* McsEngl.flowerPlant'att008-stamen,
* McsEngl.flowerPlant'stamen-att008,
* McsEngl.stamen-of-flowerPlant-att008,

"The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. Collectively the stamens form the androecium.[1]"

gynoecium of flowerPlant

* McsEngl.flowerPlant'att009-gynoecium,
* McsEngl.flowerPlant'gynoecium-att009,
* McsEngl.gynoecium-of-flowerPlant-att009,

"Gynoecium (from Greek gynaikos oikia: woman's house): the innermost whorl of a flower, consisting of one or more units called carpels. The carpel or multiple fused carpels form a hollow structure called an ovary, which produces ovules internally. Ovules are megasporangia and they in turn produce megaspores by meiosis which develop into female gametophytes. These give rise to egg cells. The gynoecium of a flower is also described using an alternative terminology wherein the structure one sees in the innermost whorl (consisting of an ovary, style and stigma) is called a pistil. A pistil may consist of a single carpel or a number of carpels fused together. The sticky tip of the pistil, the stigma, is the receptor of pollen. The supportive stalk, the style, becomes the pathway for pollen tubes to grow from pollen grains adhering to the stigma. The relationship to the gynoecium on the receptacle is described as hypogynous (beneath a superior ovary), perigynous (surrounding a superior ovary), or epigynous (above inferior ovary)."

carpel of flowerPlant

* McsEngl.flowerPlant'att010-carpel,
* McsEngl.flowerPlant'carpel-att010,
* McsEngl.carpel-of-flowerPlant-att010,

"The pistils of a flower are considered to be composed of carpels.[note 1] A carpel is the female reproductive part of the flower, interpreted as modified leaves that bear structures called ovules, inside which the egg cells ultimately form and composed of ovary, style and stigma. A pistil may consist of one carpel, with its ovary, style and stigma, or several carpels may be joined together with a single ovary, the whole unit called a pistil. The gynoecium may consist of one or more uni-carpellate (with one carpel) pistils, or of one multi-carpellate pistil. The number of carpels is described by terms such as tricarpellate (three carpels).
Carpels are thought to be phylogenetically derived from ovule-bearing leaves or leaf homologues (megasporophylls), which evolved to form a closed structure containing the ovules. This structure is typically rolled and fused along the margin.
Although many flowers satisfy the above definition of a carpel, there are also flowers that do not have carpels according to this definition because in these flowers the ovule(s), although enclosed, are borne directly on the shoot apex.[5][10] Different remedies have been suggested for this problem. An easy remedy that applies to most cases is to redefine the carpel as an appendage that encloses ovule(s) and may or may not bear them.[6][7][11]"

planting of plantFlowering

* McsEngl.plantFlowering'att003-planting,
* McsEngl.plantFlowering'planting-att003,


blossoming of plantFlowering

* McsEngl.plantFlowering'att002-blossoming,
* McsEngl.plantFlowering'blossoming-att002,
* McsEngl.blossoming-of-plantFlowering-att002,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ανθοφορία!=blossoming,

· the-process of developing flowers, its time etc.


* McsEngl.plantFlowering'generic-specific-tree,

GENERIC-TREE of plantFlowering


* ,

· :
* ,

* ,

SPECIFIC-TREE of plantFlowering

* monocot,
* dicot,
* flower-plant,
* fruit-plant,


* McsEngl.plantFlowering.specifics-division.mono-di-cot,

"The history behind the classes.
Traditionally, the flowering plants have been divided into two major groups, or classes,: the Dicots (Magnoliopsida) and the Monocots (Liliopsida). Many people take this separation into two classes for granted, because it is "plainly obvious", but botanists have not always recognized these as the two fundamental groups of angiosperms. Although Theophrastus (circa 370 BC) is credited with first recognizing differences between the two groups, classification of plants was based upon overall growth form -- trees, herbs, vines -- until the 1600s.
In 1682, John Ray published his Methodus Plantarum Nova, in which Dicotyledones and Monocotyledones were first given formal taxonomic standing. This system was popularized by the French botanist Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in his Genera Plantarum of 1789, a work which improved upon, and gradually replaced, the system of plant classification devised by Linnaeus.
The fuzzy distinction between the classes.
Even after the general acceptance of Monocots and Dicots as the primary groups of flowering plants, botanists did not always agree upon the placement of families into one or the other class. Even in this century some plants called paleoherbs have left problems for taxonomy of angiosperms. These plants have a mix of characters which do not occur together in most other flowering plants. For instance, the Nymphaeales, or water lilies, have reticulate venation in their leaves, and what may be a single cotyledon in the embryo. It is not clear whether it is a single lobed cotyledon, or two which have been fused. The water lilies also have a vascular arrangement in their stem similar to that of monocots.
There are also monocots which posses characters more typical of dicots. The Dioscoreales and Smilacaceae have broad reticulate-veined leaves; the Alismataceae have acropetal leaf development; and Potamogeton is one of several monocots to have floral parts in multiples of four.
This "fuzziness" in the definitions of Monocotyledonae and Dicotyledonae is not simply the result of poor botany. Rather, it is a real phenomenon resulting from the shared ancestry of the two groups. It is now believed that some of the dicots are more closely related to monocots than to the other dicots, and that the angiosperms do not all fit neatly into two clades. In other words, the dicots include a basal paraphyletic group from which the monocots evolved. Click here for a cladogram which illustrates our current understanding of basal angiosperm relations.
The characters which distinguish the classes.
Despite the problems in recognizing basal angiosperm taxa, the standard distinctions between dicots and monocots are still quite useful. It must be pointed out, however, that there are many exceptions to these characters in both groups, and that no single character in the list below will infallibly identify a flowering plant as a monocot or dicot.
The table summarizes the major morphological differences between monocots and dicots; each character is dicussed in more detail below. For more information, refer to the page on monocot morphology.
Embryo with single cotyledon Embryo with two cotyledons
Pollen with single furrow or pore Pollen with three furrows or pores
Flower parts in multiples of three Flower parts in multiples of four or five
Major leaf veins parallel Major leaf veins reticulated
Stem vacular bundles scattered Stem vascular bundles in a ring
Roots are adventitious Roots develop from radicle
Secondary growth absent Secondary growth often present
Number of cotyledons -- The number of cotyledons found in the embryo is the actual basis for distinguishing the two classes of angiosperms, and is the source of the names Monocotyledonae ("one cotyledon") and Dicotyledonae ("two cotyledons"). The cotyledons are the "seed leaves" produced by the embryo. They serve to absorb nutrients packaged in the seed, until the seedling is able to produce its first true leaves and begin photosynthesis.
Pollen structure -- The first angiosperms had pollen with a single furrow or pore through the outer layer (monosulcate). This feature is retained in the monocots, but most dicots are descended from a plant which developed three furrows or pores in its pollen (triporate).
Number of flower parts -- If you count the number of petals, stamens, or other floral parts, you will find that monocot flowers tend to have a number of parts that is divisible by three, usually three or six. Dicot flowers on the other hand, tend to have parts in multiples of four or five (four, five, ten, etc.). This character is not always reliable, however, and is not easy to use in some flowers with reduced or numerous parts.
Leaf veins -- In monocots, there are usually a number of major leaf veins which run parallel the length of the leaf; in dicots, there are usually numerous auxillary veins which reticulate between the major ones. As with the number of floral parts, this character is not always reliable, as there are many monocots with reticulate venation, notably the aroids and Dioscoreales.
Stem vascular arrangement -- Vascular tissue occurs in long strands called vascular bundles. These bundles are arranged within the stem of dicots to form a cylinder, appearing as a ring of spots when you cut across the stem. In monocots, these bundles appear scattered through the stem, with more of the bundles located toward the stem periphery than in the center. This arrangement is unique to monocots and some of their closest relatives among the dicots.
Root development -- In most dicots (and in most seed plants) the root develops from the lower end of the embryo, from a region known as the radicle. The radicle gives rise to an apical meristem which continues to produce root tissue for much of the plant's life. By contrast, the radicle aborts in monocots, and new roots arise adventitiously from nodes in the stem. These roots may be called prop roots when they are clustered near the bottom of the stem.
Secondary growth -- Most seed plants increase their diameter through secondary growth, producing wood and bark. Monocots (and some dicots) have lost this ability, and so do not produce wood. Some monocots can produce a substitute however, as in the palms and agaves."


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.018floweringNo,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.floweringNo-018,
* McsEngl.non-flowering-plant-018,

"not flowering plants (green algae, mosses, liverworts, hornworts, ferns and gymnosperms such as conifers)"


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.019-flower!⇒plantFlower,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.flower-019!⇒plantFlower,
* McsEngl.flower-plant-019!⇒plantFlower,
* McsEngl.plantFlower,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.λουλούδι!=plantFlower,

· plantFlower is a-plantFlowering, not tree, we cultivate for its flowers.


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.018-fruit!⇒plantFruit,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.fruit-018!⇒plantFruit,
* McsEngl.fruit-plant-018!⇒plantFruit,
* McsEngl.plantFruit,

"All fruits come from flowers, but not all flowers become fruits. Fruits are typically derived from the ovaries of a flower and contain seeds. This means all parts of a plant that flower (including most culinary nuts and berries) are “fruits” and all non-flowering parts of plants are “vegetables”.
How we classify a food often depends on if we are talking botanically, culinarily, and sometimes politically."


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.013-evergreen!⇒plantEvergreen,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.evergreen-013!⇒plantEvergreen,
* McsEngl.evergreen-plant-013!⇒plantEvergreen,
* McsEngl.plantEvergreen,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.αειθαλές-φυτό!=plantEvergreen,

"In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year that are always green. This is true even if the plant retains its foliage only in warm climates, and contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season."


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.014-deciduous!⇒plantDeciduous,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.deciduous-014!⇒plantDeciduous,
* McsEngl.deciduous-plant-014!⇒plantDeciduous,
* McsEngl.plantDeciduous,

"In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdjuːəs/; US: /dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/)[1] means "falling off at maturity"[2] and "tending to fall off",[3] in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit. The antonym of deciduous in the botanical sense is evergreen.
Generally, the term deciduous means "the dropping of a part that is no longer needed or useful to the plant" and the "falling away [just a part] after its purpose is finished". In plants, it is the result of natural processes. "Deciduous" has a similar meaning when referring to animal parts, such as deciduous antlers in deer,[4] deciduous teeth (baby teeth) in some mammals (including humans); or decidua, the uterine lining that sheds off after birth."


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.015-tomato!⇒plantTomato,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.tomato-015!⇒plantTomato,
* McsEngl.plantTomato,
* McsEngl.tomato-plant-015!⇒plantTomato,

"The tomato is the edible, often red, berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum,[2][1] commonly known as a tomato plant. The species originated in western South America and Central America.[2][3] The Nahuatl (the language used by the Aztecs) word tomatl gave rise to the Spanish word tomate, from which the English word tomato derived.[3][4] Its domestication and use as a cultivated food may have originated with the indigenous peoples of Mexico.[2][5] The Aztecs used tomatoes in their cooking at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, and after the Spanish encountered the tomato for the first time after their contact with the Aztecs, they brought the plant to Europe. From there, the tomato was introduced to other parts of the European-colonized world during the 16th century.[2]
Tomatoes are a significant source of umami flavor.[6] The tomato is consumed in diverse ways, raw or cooked, in many dishes, sauces, salads, and drinks. While tomatoes are fruits—botanically classified as berries—they are commonly used as a vegetable ingredient or side dish.[3]
Numerous varieties of the tomato plant are widely grown in temperate climates across the world, with greenhouses allowing for the production of tomatoes throughout all seasons of the year. Tomato plants typically grow to 1–3 meters (3–10 ft) in height. They are vines that have a weak stem that sprawls and typically needs support.[2] Indeterminate tomato plants are perennials in their native habitat, but are cultivated as annuals. Determinate, or bush, plants are annuals that stop growing at a certain height and produce a crop all at once. The size of the tomato varies according to the cultivar, with a range of 0.5–4 inches (1.3–10.2 cm) in width.[2]"


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.016-pepper!⇒plantPepper,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.pepper-016!⇒plantPepper,
* McsEngl.pepper-plant-016!⇒plantPepper,
* McsEngl.plantPepper,

"Capsicum (/ˈkæpsɪkəm/[3]), the pepper, is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae. Its species are native to America, where they have been cultivated for thousands of years. Peppers are cultivated worldwide and used in many cuisines."


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.017-cucumber!⇒plantCucumber,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.cucumber-017!⇒plantCucumber,
* McsEngl.cucumber-plant-017!⇒plantCucumber,
* McsEngl.plantCucumber,

"Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae. It is a creeping vine that bears cucumiform fruits that are used as vegetables. There are three main varieties of cucumber: slicing, pickling, and seedless. Within these varieties, several cultivars have been created. In North America, the term "wild cucumber" refers to plants in the genera Echinocystis and Marah, but these are not closely related. The cucumber is originally from South Asia, but now grows on most continents. Many different types of cucumber are traded on the global market."

fruit (link) of plantCucumber


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.020-herb!⇒plantHerb,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.herb-020!⇒plantHerb,
* McsEngl.herb-plant-020!⇒plantHerb,
* McsEngl.plantHerb,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.βότανο!=plantHerb,

"In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, for medicinal purposes, or for fragrances; excluding vegetables and other plants consumed for macronutrients. Culinary use typically distinguishes herbs from spices. Herbs generally refers to the leafy green or flowering parts of a plant (either fresh or dried), while spices are usually dried and produced from other parts of the plant, including seeds, bark, roots and fruits.
Herbs have a variety of uses including culinary, medicinal, and in some cases, spiritual. General usage of the term "herb" differs between culinary herbs and medicinal herbs; in medicinal or spiritual use, any parts of the plant might be considered as "herbs", including leaves, roots, flowers, seeds, root bark, inner bark (and cambium), resin and pericarp.
The word "herb" is pronounced /hɜːrb/ in Commonwealth English,[1] but /ɜːrb/ is common among North American English speakers and those from other regions where h-dropping occurs. In botany, the word "herb" is used as a synonym for "herbaceous plant"."



* McsEngl.culinary-herb!⇒plantHerbCulinary,
* McsEngl.herb.culinary!⇒plantHerbCulinary,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.040-herb.culinary!⇒plantHerbCulinary,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.herb.culinary!⇒plantHerbCulinary,
* McsEngl.plantHerbCulinary,



* McsEngl.herb.medicinal!⇒plantHerbMedicinal,
* McsEngl.medicinal-herb!⇒plantHerbMedicinal,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.041-herb.medicinal!⇒plantHerbMedicinal,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.herb.medicinal!⇒plantHerbMedicinal,
* McsEngl.plantHerbMedicinal,


* McsEngl.herb.spiritual!⇒plantHerbSpiritual,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.042-herb.spiritual!⇒plantHerbSpiritual,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.herb.spiritual!⇒plantHerbSpiritual,
* McsEngl.plantHerbSpiritual,
* McsEngl.spiritual-herb!⇒plantHerbSpiritual,


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.021-cactus!⇒plantCactus,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.cactus-021!⇒plantCactus,
* McsEngl.cactus-plant-021!⇒plantCactus,
* McsEngl.plantCactus,

"A cactus (plural cacti, cactuses, or less commonly, cactus)[3] is a member of the plant family Cactaceae,[Note 1] a family comprising about 127 genera with some 1750 known species of the order Caryophyllales.[4] The word "cactus" derives, through Latin, from the Ancient Greek κάκτος, kaktos, a name originally used by Theophrastus for a spiny plant whose identity is now not certain.[5] Cacti occur in a wide range of shapes and sizes. Most cacti live in habitats subject to at least some drought. Many live in extremely dry environments, even being found in the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth. Cacti show many adaptations to conserve water. Almost all cacti are succulents, meaning they have thickened, fleshy parts adapted to store water. Unlike many other succulents, the stem is the only part of most cacti where this vital process takes place. Most species of cacti have lost true leaves, retaining only spines, which are highly modified leaves. As well as defending against herbivores, spines help prevent water loss by reducing air flow close to the cactus and providing some shade. In the absence of leaves, enlarged stems carry out photosynthesis. Cacti are native to the Americas, ranging from Patagonia in the south to parts of western Canada in the north—except for Rhipsalis baccifera, which also grows in Africa and Sri Lanka.
Cactus spines are produced from specialized structures called areoles, a kind of highly reduced branch. Areoles are an identifying feature of cacti. As well as spines, areoles give rise to flowers, which are usually tubular and multipetaled. Many cacti have short growing seasons and long dormancies, and are able to react quickly to any rainfall, helped by an extensive but relatively shallow root system that quickly absorbs any water reaching the ground surface. Cactus stems are often ribbed or fluted, which allows them to expand and contract easily for quick water absorption after rain, followed by long drought periods. Like other succulent plants, most cacti employ a special mechanism called "crassulacean acid metabolism" (CAM) as part of photosynthesis. Transpiration, during which carbon dioxide enters the plant and water escapes, does not take place during the day at the same time as photosynthesis, but instead occurs at night. The plant stores the carbon dioxide it takes in as malic acid, retaining it until daylight returns, and only then using it in photosynthesis. Because transpiration takes place during the cooler, more humid night hours, water loss is significantly reduced.
Many smaller cacti have globe-shaped stems, combining the highest possible volume for water storage, with the lowest possible surface area for water loss from transpiration. The tallest[Note 2] free-standing cactus is Pachycereus pringlei, with a maximum recorded height of 19.2 m (63 ft),[6] and the smallest is Blossfeldia liliputiana, only about 1 cm (0.4 in) in diameter at maturity.[7] A fully grown saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) is said to be able to absorb as much as 200 U.S. gallons (760 l; 170 imp gal) of water during a rainstorm.[8] A few species differ significantly in appearance from most of the family. At least superficially, plants of the genus Pereskia resemble other trees and shrubs growing around them. They have persistent leaves, and when older, bark-covered stems. Their areoles identify them as cacti, and in spite of their appearance, they, too, have many adaptations for water conservation. Pereskia is considered close to the ancestral species from which all cacti evolved. In tropical regions, other cacti grow as forest climbers and epiphytes (plants that grow on trees). Their stems are typically flattened, almost leaf-like in appearance, with fewer or even no spines, such as the well-known Christmas cactus or Thanksgiving cactus (in the genus Schlumbergera).
Cacti have a variety of uses: many species are used as ornamental plants, others are grown for fodder or forage, and others for food (particularly their fruit). Cochineal is the product of an insect that lives on some cacti.
Many succulent plants in both the Old and New World – such as some Euphorbiaceae (euphorbias) – bear a striking resemblance to cacti, and may incorrectly be called "cactus" in common usage."

info-resource of plantCactus

* McsEngl.plantCactus'Infrsc,



* McsEngl.ogmPlant.022-grass!⇒plantGrass,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.grass-022!⇒plantGrass,
* McsEngl.grass-plant-022!⇒plantGrass,
* McsEngl.plantGrass,

"Poaceae (/poʊˈeɪsiaɪ/) or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass. Poaceae includes the cereal grasses, bamboos and the grasses of natural grassland and cultivated lawns and pasture.
The Poaceae are the most important source of the world's dietary energy supply. They provide, through direct human consumption, just over one-half (51%) of all dietary energy; rice provides 20%, wheat supplies 20%, maize (corn) 5.5%, and other grains 6%.[4]
Grasses have stems that are hollow except at the nodes and narrow alternate leaves borne in two ranks. The lower part of each leaf encloses the stem, forming a leaf-sheath. With around 780 genera and around 12,000 species,[5] Poaceae are the fifth-largest plant family, following the Asteraceae, Orchidaceae, Fabaceae and Rubiaceae.[6]
Grasslands such as savannah and prairie where grasses are dominant are estimated to constitute 40.5% of the land area of the Earth, excluding Greenland and Antarctica.[7] Grasses are also an important part of the vegetation in many other habitats, including wetlands, forests and tundra.
The Poaceae are the most economically important plant family, providing staple foods from domesticated cereal crops such as maize, wheat, rice, barley, and millet as well as feed for meat-producing animals. They are used as building materials (bamboo, thatch, and straw). They are a source of biofuel, primarily via the conversion of maize to ethanol.
Though they are commonly called "grasses", seagrasses, rushes, and sedges fall outside this family. The rushes and sedges are related to the Poaceae, being members of the order Poales, but the seagrasses are members of order Alismatales."


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.023-climber!⇒plantClimber,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.climber-023!⇒plantClimber,
* McsEngl.climber-plant-023!⇒plantClimber,
* McsEngl.plantClimber,
* McsEngl.vine-plant-023!⇒plantClimber,

"A vine (Latin vīnea "grapevine", "vineyard", from vīnum "wine") is any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent (that is, climbing) stems, lianas or runners. The word vine can also refer to such stems or runners themselves, for instance, when used in wicker work.[1][2]
In parts of the world, including the British Isles, the term "vine" usually applies exclusively to grapevines (Vitis),[3] while the term "climber" is used for all climbing plants.[4]"


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.024-bush!⇒plantBush,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.bush-024!⇒plantBush,
* McsEngl.bush-plant-024!⇒plantBush,
* McsEngl.plantBush,
* McsEngl.shrub-plant-024!⇒plantBush,

"A shrub or bush is a small- to medium-sized perennial woody plant. Unlike herbaceous plants, shrubs have persistent woody stems above the ground. They are distinguished from trees by their multiple stems and shorter height, less than 6 m-10 m (20 ft–33 ft) tall.[1][2] Small shrubs, less than 2 m (6.6 ft) tall are sometimes termed subshrubs.[3]"

* McsEngl.ogmPlant.025-land!⇒plantLand,
* McsEngl.embryophyta-025!⇒plantLand,
* McsEngl.plantLand,

"The Embryophyta, or land plants, are the most familiar group of green plants that form vegetation on earth. Embryophyta is a clade within the Phragmoplastophyta, a larger clade that also includes several green algae groups (including the Charophyceae and Coleochaetales), and within this large clade the embryophytes are sister to the Zygnematophyceae/Mesotaeniaceae and consist of the bryophytes plus the polysporangiophytes.[12] Living embryophytes therefore include hornworts, liverworts, mosses, ferns, lycophytes, gymnosperms and flowering plants. The Embryophyta are informally called land plants because they live primarily in terrestrial habitats, while the related green algae are primarily aquatic. Embryophytes are complex multicellular eukaryotes with specialized reproductive organs. The name derives from their innovative characteristic of nurturing the young embryo sporophyte during the early stages of its multicellular development within the tissues of the parent gametophyte. With very few exceptions, embryophytes obtain their energy by photosynthesis, that is by using the energy of sunlight to synthesize their food from carbon dioxide and water."

soil of plantLand

* McsEngl.plantLand'att001-soil,
* McsEngl.plantLand'soil-att001,
* McsEngl.soil-plantLand-att001,



* McsEngl.ogmPlant.026-aquatic!⇒plantAquatic,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.aquatic-026!⇒plantAquatic,
* McsEngl.aquatic-plant-026!⇒plantAquatic,
* McsEngl.plantAquatic,

"Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments (saltwater or freshwater). They are also referred to as hydrophytes or macrophytes to distinguish them from algae and other microphytes. A macrophyte is a plant that grows in or near water and is either emergent, submergent, or floating. In lakes and rivers macrophytes provide cover for fish , substrate for aquatic invertebrates, produce oxygen, and act as food for some fish and wildlife.[1]
Macrophytes are primary producers and are the basis of the food web for many organisms.[2] They have a significant effect on soil chemistry and light levels [3] as they slow down the flow of water and capture pollutants and trap sediments. Excess sediment will settle into the benthos aided by the reduction of flow rates caused by the presence of plant stems, leaves and roots. Some plants have the capability of absorbing pollutants into their tissue. [4][5] Seaweeds are multicellular marine algae and, although their ecological impact is similar to other larger water plants, they are not typically referred to as macrophytes[5].
Aquatic plants require special adaptations for living submerged in water, or at the water's surface. The most common adaptation is the presence of lightweight internal packing cells, aerenchyma, but floating leaves and finely dissected leaves are also common.[6][7][8] Aquatic plants can only grow in water or in soil that is frequently saturated with water. They are therefore a common component of wetlands.[9]One of the largest aquatic plants in the world is the Amazon water lily; one of the smallest is the minute duckweed. Many small aquatic animals use plants such as duckweed for a home, or for protection from predators. Some other familiar examples of aquatic plants might include floating heart, water lily, lotus, and water hyacinth."


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.027-seed!⇒plantSeed,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.seed-027!⇒plantSeed,
* McsEngl.phanerogam-plant-027!⇒plantSeed,
* McsEngl.seed-plant-027!⇒plantSeed,
* McsEngl.spermatophyte-plant-027!⇒plantSeed,
* McsEngl.plantSeed,

"The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants. They are a subset of the embryophytes or land plants. The term phanerogams or phanerogamae is derived from the Greek φανερός, phanerós meaning "visible", in contrast to the cryptogamae from Greek κρυπτός kryptós = "hidden" together with the suffix γαμέω, gameo, "to marry". These terms distinguished those plants with hidden sexual organs (cryptogamae) from those with visible sexual organs (phanerogamae)."

seed of plantSeed

* McsEngl.plantSeed'att001-seed,
* McsEngl.plantSeed'seed-att001,
* McsEngl.seed-of-plantSeed-att001,

"A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants.
Seeds are the product of the ripened ovule, after fertilization by pollen and some growth within the mother plant. The embryo is developed from the zygote and the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule.
Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants, relative to more primitive plants such as ferns, mosses and liverworts, which do not have seeds and use water-dependent means to propagate themselves. Seed plants now dominate biological niches on land, from forests to grasslands both in hot and cold climates.
The term "seed" also has a general meaning that antedates the above – anything that can be sown, e.g. "seed" potatoes, "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds". In the case of sunflower and corn "seeds", what is sown is the seed enclosed in a shell or husk, whereas the potato is a tuber.
Many structures commonly referred to as "seeds" are actually dry fruits. Plants producing berries are called baccate. Sunflower seeds are sometimes sold commercially while still enclosed within the hard wall of the fruit, which must be split open to reach the seed. Different groups of plants have other modifications, the so-called stone fruits (such as the peach) have a hardened fruit layer (the endocarp) fused to and surrounding the actual seed. Nuts are the one-seeded, hard-shelled fruit of some plants with an indehiscent seed, such as an acorn or hazelnut."


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.028-spore!⇒plantSpore,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.spore-028!⇒plantSpore,
* McsEngl.cryptogame-plant-028!⇒plantSpore,
* McsEngl.plantSpore,
* McsEngl.spore-plant-028!⇒plantSpore,

"A cryptogam (scientific name Cryptogamae) is a plant (in the wide sense of the word) that reproduces by spores, without flowers or seeds. "Cryptogamae" (Greek κρυπτός kryptos, "hidden" + γαμέω, gameein, "to marry") means "hidden reproduction", referring to the fact that no seed is produced, thus cryptogams represent the non-seed bearing plants. Other names, such as "thallophytes", "lower plants", and "spore plants" are also occasionally used. As a group, Cryptogamae are the opposite of the Phanerogamae (Greek φανερός, phaneros = "visible") or Spermatophyta (Greek σπέρμα, sperma = "seed" and φυτόν, phyton = "plant"), the seed plants. The best-known groups of cryptogams are algae, lichens, mosses and ferns,[1] but it also includes non-photosynthetic organisms traditionally classified as plants, such as fungi, slime molds, and bacteria.[2]The classification is now deprecated in Linnaean taxonomy.
At one time, the cryptogams were formally recognised as a group within the plant kingdom. In his system for classification of all known plants and animals, Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) divided the plant kingdom into 24 classes,[3] one of which was the "Cryptogamia". This included all plants with concealed reproductive organs. He divided Cryptogamia into four orders: Algae, Musci (bryophytes), Filices (ferns), and Fungi.
Not all cryptogams are treated as part of the plant kingdom; the fungi, in particular, are regarded as a separate kingdom, more closely related to animals than plants, while blue-green algae are now regarded as a phylum of bacteria. Therefore, in contemporary plant systematics, "Cryptogamae" is not a taxonomically coherent group, but is cladistically polyphyletic. However, all organisms known as cryptogams belong to the field traditionally studied by botanists and the names of all cryptogams are regulated by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.
During World War II, the British Government Code and Cypher School recruited Geoffrey Tandy, a marine biologist expert in cryptogams, to Station X, Bletchley Park when someone confused these with cryptograms.[4][5][6]"

spore of plantSpore

* McsEngl.plantSpore'att001-spore,
* McsEngl.plantSpore'spore-att001,
* McsEngl.spore-of-plantSpore,

"The main difference between spores and seeds as dispersal units is that spores are unicellular, the first cell of a gametophyte, while seeds contain within them a developing embryo (the multicellular sporophyte of the next generation), produced by the fusion of the male gamete of the pollen tube with the female gamete formed by the megagametophyte within the ovule. Spores germinate to give rise to haploid gametophytes, while seeds germinate to give rise to diploid sporophytes."


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.029-gymnosperm!⇒plantGymnosperm,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.gymnosperm-029!⇒plantGymnosperm,
* McsEngl.gymnosperm-plant-029!⇒plantGymnosperm,
* McsEngl.plantGymnosperm,

"The gymnosperms, also known as Acrogymnospermae,[1] are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes. The term "gymnosperm" comes from the composite word in Greek: γυμνόσπερμος (γυμνός, gymnos, 'naked' and σπέρμα, sperma, 'seed'), literally meaning "naked seeds". The name is based on the unenclosed condition of their seeds (called ovules in their unfertilized state). The non-encased condition of their seeds contrasts with the seeds and ovules of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are enclosed within an ovary. Gymnosperm seeds develop either on the surface of scales or leaves, which are often modified to form cones, or solitary as in yew, Torreya, Ginkgo.[2]
The gymnosperms and angiosperms together compose the spermatophytes or seed plants. The gymnosperms are divided into six phyla. Organisms that belong to the Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Gnetophyta, and Pinophyta (also known as Coniferophyta) phyla are still in existence while those in the Pteridospermales and Cordaitales phyla are now extinct.[3]
By far the largest group of living gymnosperms are the conifers (pines, cypresses, and relatives), followed by cycads, gnetophytes (Gnetum, Ephedra and Welwitschia), and Ginkgo biloba (a single living species).
Some genera have mycorrhiza, fungal associations with roots(Pinus), while in some others (Cycas) small specialised roots called coralloid roots are associated with nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria."

* McsEngl.ogmPlant.030-edible!⇒plantFood,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.edible-030!⇒plantFood,
* McsEngl.edible-plant-030!⇒plantFood,
* McsEngl.plantFood,
* McsEngl.vegetable!⇒plantFood,

"The exact definition of "vegetable" may vary simply because of the many parts of a plant consumed as food worldwide—roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds. The broadest definition is the word's use adjectivally to mean "matter of plant origin". More specifically, a vegetable may be defined as "any plant, part of which is used for food",[5] a secondary meaning then being "the edible part of such a plant".[5] A more precise definition is "any plant part consumed for food that is not a fruit or seed, but including mature fruits that are eaten as part of a main meal"."


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.031-ornamental!⇒plantOrnamental,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.ornamental-031!⇒plantOrnamental,
* McsEngl.ornamental-plant-031!⇒plantOrnamental,
* McsEngl.plantOrnamental,

"Ornamental plants are plants that are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as houseplants, cut flowers and specimen display. The cultivation of ornamental plants is called floriculture, which forms a major branch of horticulture."

* flower-plantOrnamental,
* grass-plantOrnamental,
* tree-plantOrnamental,

* McsEngl.ogmPlant.032-organic!⇒plantOrganic,
* McsEngl.plantOrganic,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.βιολογικό-φυτό!=plantOrganic,

"Organic has a slightly different definition when it’s applied to different things. For seeds and plants, it means they have been grown without synthetic fertilizers, genetic engineering, irradiation, or pesticides."


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.033-common-bean!⇒plantBean,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.common-bean-033!⇒plantBean,
* McsEngl.bean-plant!⇒plantBean,
* McsEngl.plantBean,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.φασολιά!plantBean,

"Phaseolus vulgaris, also known as the common bean,[2] is a herbaceous annual plant grown worldwide for its edible dry seeds or unripe fruit (both commonly called beans). The main categories of common beans, on the basis of use, are dry beans (seeds harvested at complete maturity), snap beans (tender pods with reduced fibre harvested before the seed development phase) and shell (shelled) beans (seeds harvested at physiological maturity). Its leaf is also occasionally used as a vegetable and the straw as fodder. Its botanical classification, along with other Phaseolus species, is as a member of the legume family Fabaceae. Like most members of this family, common beans acquire the nitrogen they require through an association with rhizobia, a species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
The common bean is a highly variable species that has a long history of cultivation. All wild members of the species have a climbing habit,[3] but many cultivars are classified either as bush beans or dwarf beans, or as pole beans or climbing beans, depending on their style of growth. These include the kidney bean, the navy bean, the pinto bean, and the wax bean.[4] The other major types of commercially grown bean are the runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus) and the broad bean (Vicia faba). Beans are grown on every continent except Antarctica. Worldwide, 27 million tonnes of dried beans and 24 million tonnes of green beans were grown in 2016.[5] In 2016, Myanmar was the largest producer of dried beans, while China produced 79% of the world total of green beans.
The wild P. vulgaris is native to the Americas. It was originally believed that it had been domesticated separately in Mesoamerica and in the southern Andes region, giving the domesticated bean two gene pools.[6] However, recent genetic analyses show that it was actually domesticated in Mesoamerica first, and traveled south, probably along with squash and maize (corn). The three Mesoamerican crops constitute the "Three Sisters" central to indigenous North American agriculture."


* McsEngl.ogmPlant.034-parasitic!⇒plantParasitic,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.parasitic-034!⇒plantParasitic,
* McsEngl.plantParasitic,

"A parasitic plant is a plant that derives some or all of its nutritional requirement from another living plant. They make up about 1% of angiosperms and are found in almost every biome. All parasitic plants have modified roots, called haustoria, which penetrate the host plant, connecting them to the conductive system – either the xylem, the phloem, or both. For example, plants like Striga or Rhinanthus connect only to the xylem, via xylem bridges (xylem-feeding). Alternately, plants like Cuscuta and Orobanche connect only to the phloem of the host (phloem-feeding).[1][2] This provides them with the ability to extract water and nutrients from the host. Parasitic plants are classified depending as to the location where the parasitic plant latches onto the host and the amount of nutrients it requires.[3] Some parasitic plants are able to locate their host plants by detecting chemicals in the air or soil given off by host shoots or roots, respectively. About 4,500 species of parasitic plant in approximately 20 families of flowering plants are known.[4][3]"


"Urtica is a genus of flowering plants in the family Urticaceae. Many species have stinging hairs and may be called nettles or stinging nettles, although the latter name applies particularly to Urtica dioica.
Urtica species are food for the caterpillars of numerous Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), such as the tortrix moth Syricoris lacunana and several Nymphalidae, such as Vanessa atalanta, one of the red admiral butterflies.[2]"

* McsEngl.ogmPlant.035-urtica!⇒plantUrtica,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.urtica!⇒plantUrtica,
* McsEngl.plantUrtica,
* McsEngl.urtica-plant!⇒plantUrtica,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.τσουκνίδα!=plantUrtica,

* plantHerb,
* plantWeed,

usage of plantUrtica

* aphid control,
* food,
"Fabric woven of nettle fiber was found in burial sites dating to the Bronze Age, and in clothing fabric, sailcloth, fishing nets, and paper by undeveloped communities.[6] In New Zealand, U. ferox is classified among poisonous plants, most commonly upon skin contact.[7]
Urtica, called kopriva in Bulgarian and Slovenian, and urzica in Romanian, is an ingredient in soups, omelettes, banitsa, purée, and other dishes. In Mazandaran, northern Iran, a soup (Āsh) is made using this plant.[8] Nettles were used in traditional practices to make nettle tea, juice, and ale, and to preserve cheeses, such as in Cornish Yarg.[6]"

* McsEngl.plantUrtica'usage,


"A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, "a plant in the wrong place". Examples commonly are plants unwanted in human-controlled settings, such as farm fields, gardens, lawns, and parks."

* McsEngl.ogmPlant.036-weed!⇒plantWeed,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.weed!⇒plantWeed,
* McsEngl.plantWeed,
* McsEngl.weed!⇒plantWeed,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.αγριόχορτο!=plantWeed,
* McsElln.ζιζανιόχορτο!=plantWeed,


"Medicinal plants, also called medicinal herbs, have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times. Plants synthesise hundreds of chemical compounds for functions including defence against insects, fungi, diseases, and herbivorous mammals. Numerous phytochemicals with potential or established biological activity have been identified. However, since a single plant contains widely diverse phytochemicals, the effects of using a whole plant as medicine are uncertain. Further, the phytochemical content and pharmacological actions, if any, of many plants having medicinal potential remain unassessed by rigorous scientific research to define efficacy and safety.[2]"

* McsEngl.herbMedicinal!⇒plantMedicinal,
* McsEngl.medicinal-plant!⇒plantMedicinal,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.037-medicinal!⇒plantMedicinal,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.medicinal!⇒plantMedicinal,
* McsEngl.plantMedicinal,

relation-to-plantFood of plantMedicinal

"Ο αριθμός των φαρμακευτικών φυτών στη λαϊκή ιατρική, ακόμα και σήμερα, είναι μεγαλύτερος από εκείνον που χρησιμοποιούνται ως τροφή[εκκρεμεί παραπομπή]."

* McsEngl.plantFood'relation-to-plantMedicinal,
* McsEngl.plantMedicinal'relation-to-plantFood,


* Alfalfa,
* Aloe-vera,
* Anise,
* Asthma-plant,
* Astragalus,
* Cannabis medical use,
* Caraway,
* Cardamom,
* Chamomile,
* Chaparral,
* Fenugreek,
* Feverfew,
* Flaxseed,
* Ginger,
* Ginkgo,
* Ginseng,
* Goldenseal,
* Lemon-balm,
* Liquorice,
* Marigold,
* Marsh-mallow,
* Neem,
* Opium poppy,
* Oregano,
* Peppermint,
* Purple coneflower,
* Rosemary,
* Sage,
* Star anise,
* Summer savory,
* Tea tree oil,
* Thyme,
* Turmeric,
* Umckaloabo,
* Valerian,
* Verbena,
* White willow,
* Yarrow,
* Za'atar,

* McsEngl.plantMedicinal.specific,


"Salvia rosmarinus, commonly known as rosemary, is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native to the Mediterranean region.[3] Until 2017, it was known by the scientific name Rosmarinus officinalis, now a synonym.
It is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae, which includes many other herbs. The name "rosemary" derives from Latin ros marinus ("dew of the sea").[4][5] The plant is also sometimes called anthos, from the ancient Greek word ἄνθος, meaning "flower".[6] Rosemary has a fibrous root system.[3]"

* McsEngl.ogmPlant.038-rosemary!⇒plantRosemary,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.rosemary!⇒plantRosemary,
* McsEngl.plantRosemary,
* McsEngl.rosmarinus-officinalis!⇒plantRosemary,
* McsEngl.rosemary!⇒plantRosemary,
* McsEngl.salvia-rosemarinus!⇒plantRosemary,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.δενδρολίβανο!=plantRosemary,

use of plantRosemary

* culinary-use,
* medicinal-use,
* decorative-use,
* pest-control-use,
"Upon cultivation, the leaves, twigs, and flowering apices are extracted for use.[16] Rosemary is used as a decorative plant in gardens where it may have pest control effects. The leaves are used to flavor various foods, such as stuffing and roast meats."
"τα κλαδάκια δεντρολίβανου δίνουν θαυμάσιο άρωμα στο μπάρμπεκιου."

* McsEngl.plantRosemary'use,


"Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort,[1] common Saint John's wort and St John's wort,[note 1] is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae. St. John's wort has been used in alternative medicine as a likely effective aid in treating mild to moderate depression and related symptoms such as anxiety or insomnia.[3] [4] Study results on the effectiveness of St. John’s wort for depression have been mixed. Since St. John’s wort causes drug interactions, it might not be an appropriate choice for many people, particularly those who take other medications.[5] The plant is poisonous to livestock.[6] The primary phytochemical constituents of St John's wort are hyperforin and hypericin.[7]"

* McsEngl.St-John's-wort!⇒plantHypericum-perforatum,
* McsEngl.common-St-John's-wort!⇒plantHypericum-perforatum,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.039-hypericum-perforatum!⇒plantHypericum-perforatum,
* McsEngl.ogmPlant.hypericum-perforatum!⇒plantHypericum-perforatum,
* McsEngl.perforate-St-John's-wort!⇒plantHypericum-perforatum,
* McsEngl.plantHypericum-perforatum,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.βάλσαμο!=plantHypericum-perforatum,
* McsElln.βαλσαμόχορτο!=plantHypericum-perforatum,
* McsElln.σπαθόχορτο!=plantHypericum-perforatum,
* McsElln.υπερικόν-το-διάτρητον!=plantHypericum-perforatum,

* medicinal-herb,

use of plantHypericum-perforatum

* depression,
"St John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) is a plant with small yellow flowers. It grows wild in Australia and many parts of the world and has long been used as a herbal medicine. Now used in tablet form, St John’s Wort can be found at health food shops and also in some supermarkets. It is not known how St John’s Wort might work. However, it may increase the level of chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) in the brain that are in low supply in people with depression.
Many studies have compared the helpfulness of St John’s Wort with the effectiveness of inactive pills (sugar pills) and antidepressant medications. Overall these studies suggest that St John’s Wort works as well as antidepressant medications for people with mild to moderate depression. However, the benefit of the herb may be restricted to some groups of people. For example people with a long standing depression may not find it helpful.
Because it is extracted from a plant, it is not possible to precisely control the amount of active ingredient in St John’s Wort tablets. As a result, some products in the shops may contain little active ingredients. St John’s Wort can have side effects although usually not as many as for antidepressant drugs. St John’s Wort can interact with some medicines, so if you are taking other medical drugs, don't take St John’s Wort without checking with your doctor first. Do not take St John’s Wort if you are already taking medications prescribed by your doctor for depression.
If you do not have severe or chronic depression, and you don’t wish to take conventional antidepressants, St John’s Wort may be a useful alternative.
Key References
Kim, H. L., Streltzer, J. et al. (1999). "St. John's Wort for depression: A meta-analysis of well-defined clinical trials." Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 187: 532-538.
Linde, K., Mulrow, C. D. et al. (2006). St Johns Wort for depression (Cochrane review) The Cochrane Library Chichester, UK, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd."

* McsEngl.plantHypericum-perforatum'use,


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page-wholepath: / worldviewSngo / dirOgm / plant

· this page uses 'locator-names', names that when you find them, you find the-LOCATION of the-concept they denote.
· clicking on the-green-BAR of a-page you have access to the-global--locator-names of my-site.
· use the-prefix 'plant' for sensorial-concepts related to current concept 'organism.plant'.
· TYPE CTRL+F "McsLang.words-of-concept's-name", to go to the-LOCATION of the-concept.
· a-preview of the-description of a-global-name makes reading fast.

• author: Kaseluris.Nikos.1959
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• filMcsOgmPlnt.0-1-0.2020-04-11.last.html: draft creation,

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