senso-concept-Mcs (economy)

McsHitp-creation:: {2020-07-11}

overview of Socecon

· the-system of a-society that manages its satisfiers.

· the-economy is the-society from a-satisfier's view. [hmnSngo.{2020-12-21}]
· The-economy contains ALL the-organizations (the-households, the-companies and the-state) of a-society, but see only the-production and consumption of satisfiers among them.

* McsEngl.McsStn000012.last.html//dirStn//dirMcs!⇒Socecon,
* McsEngl.dirMcs/dirStn/McsStn000012.last.html!⇒Socecon,
* McsEngl.Socnode.satisfiers!⇒Socecon,
* McsEngl.SocndSfrs!⇒Socecon,
* McsEngl.Socecon!=McsStn000012,
* McsEngl.Socecon!=human-economy,
* McsEngl.economic-system-of-society!⇒Socecon,
* McsEngl.economy!⇒Socecon,
* McsEngl.human-economy!⇒Socecon,
* McsEngl.mode-of-production!⇒Socecon,
* McsEngl.nodeSocSatisfier!⇒Socecon,
* McsEngl.node.society.economy!⇒Socecon,
* McsEngl.satisfiers-system!⇒Socecon,
* McsEngl.society'03_satisfiers-node!⇒Socecon,
* McsEngl.society'att007-satisfiers-system!⇒Socecon,
* McsEngl.society'economy!⇒Socecon,
* McsEngl.society'economic-system!⇒Socecon,
* McsEngl.society'satisfiers-node!⇒Socecon,
* McsEngl.society'satisfiers-system!⇒Socecon,
* McsEngl.sysSatisfiers!⇒Socecon,
* McsEngl.sysSfrs!⇒Socecon,
* nodeSatisfier!⇒Socecon, {2020-10-23},
* nodeSatisfier'(human-economy)!⇒Socecon,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.jīngjì-经济!=Socecon,
* McsZhon.经济-jīngjì!=Socecon,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.οικονομία!=Socecon,

"An economic system, or economic order,[1] is a system of production, resource allocation, and distribution of goods and services within a society. It includes the combination of the various institutions, agencies, entities, decision-making processes, and patterns of consumption that comprise the economic structure of a given community."
[{2023-12-09 retrieved}]

"An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution and trade, as well as consumption of goods and services by different agents. Understood in its broadest sense, 'The economy is defined as a social domain that emphasize the practices, discourses, and material expressions associated with the production, use, and management of resources'.[1] A given economy is the result of a set of processes that involves its culture, values, education, technological evolution, history, social organization, political structure and legal systems, as well as its geography, natural resource endowment, and ecology, as main factors. These factors give context, content, and set the conditions and parameters in which an economy functions. In other words, the economic domain is a social domain of human practices and transactions. It does not stand alone.
Economic agents can be individuals, businesses, organizations, or governments. Economic transactions occur when two groups or parties agree to the value or price of the transacted good or service, commonly expressed in a certain currency. However, monetary transactions only account for a small part of the economic domain.
Economic activity is spurred by production which uses natural resources, labor and capital. It has changed over time due to technology (automation, accelerator of process, reduction of cost functions), innovation (new products, services, processes, expanding markets, diversification of markets, niche markets, increases revenue functions) such as, that which produces intellectual property and changes in industrial relations (most notably child labor being replaced in some parts of the world with universal access to education).
A market-based economy is one where goods and services are produced and exchanged according to demand and supply between participants (economic agents) by barter or a medium of exchange with a credit or debit value accepted within the network, such as a unit of currency. A command-based economy is one where political agents directly control what is produced and how it is sold and distributed. A green economy is low-carbon, resource efficient and socially inclusive. In a green economy, growth in income and employment is driven by public and private investments that reduce carbon emissions and pollution, enhance energy and resource efficiency, and prevent the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services.[2] A gig economy is one in which short-term jobs are assigned or chosen via online platforms.[3] New economy is a term referred to the whole emerging ecosystem where new standards and practices were introduced, usually as a result of technological innovations."

01_node of Socecon

· any subsystem of economy.

* McsEngl.Socecon'01_node,
* McsEngl.Socecon'att005-node,
* McsEngl.Socecon'node,

02_satisfier (link) of Socecon

money (link) of Socecon

03_organization (link) of Socecon

04_producing-sys of Socecon

· the-node with the-producing-satisfiers-nodes.

* McsEngl.Socecon'04_production-node!⇒sysProduction,
* McsEngl.Socecon'att004-production-node!⇒sysProduction,
* McsEngl.Socecon'production-node!⇒sysProduction,
* McsEngl.nodeProduction!⇒sysProduction,
* McsEngl.production-node--of-economy!⇒sysProduction,
* McsEngl.sysProduction,

organization (link) of sysProduction

worker (link) of sysProduction

05_consuming-sys of Socecon

· the-consuming subsystem of the-economy.

* McsEngl.consumption-node--of-economy!⇒sysConsumption,
* McsEngl.Socecon'05_consumption-node!⇒sysConsumption,
* McsEngl.Socecon'att006-consumption-node!⇒sysConsumption,
* McsEngl.Socecon'consumption-node!⇒sysConsumption,
* McsEngl.Socecon'node.consumption!⇒sysConsumption,
* McsEngl.household-node--of-society!⇒sysConsumption,
* McsEngl.nodeConsumption!⇒sysConsumption,
* McsEngl.nodeHousehold!⇒sysConsumption,
* McsEngl.society'att018-household-node!⇒sysConsumption,
* McsEngl.society'household-node!⇒sysConsumption,
* McsEngl.society'node.household!⇒sysConsumption,
* McsEngl.sysConsumption,

oznHousehold (link) of sysConsumption

06_financial-sys of Socecon

">financial-system vs transacting-system:
The financial system and the transacting system are integral components of an economy, but they serve distinct purposes and functions.

1. **Financial System:**
- The financial system refers to the broader framework of institutions, markets, and intermediaries that facilitate the flow of funds and capital within an economy.
- It includes institutions such as banks, financial markets (stock markets, bond markets), insurance companies, and regulatory bodies.
- The financial system plays a crucial role in mobilizing savings, allocating capital, facilitating investments, and providing various financial services.

2. **Transacting System:**
- The transacting system, on the other hand, is more focused on the day-to-day transactions and exchange of goods and services within the economy.
- It involves the mechanisms through which individuals and businesses conduct transactions, such as buying and selling goods and services.
- Payment systems, currency, and methods of transferring value are essential components of the transacting system.

**Key Differences:**
1. **Scope and Function:**
- The financial system has a broader scope, encompassing institutions and mechanisms that deal with savings, investments, capital allocation, and risk management.
- The transacting system is more specific, dealing with the immediate exchange of economic value through transactions.

2. **Components:**
- The financial system includes institutions like banks and financial markets that facilitate the movement of money and capital.
- The transacting system involves the mechanisms and instruments used for everyday transactions, such as cash, checks, credit cards, and electronic payment systems.

3. **Long-Term vs. Short-Term:**
- The financial system is often associated with long-term financial activities, such as investment and capital formation.
- The transacting system is more focused on short-term, day-to-day economic transactions.

4. **Regulation:**
- The financial system is subject to extensive regulation to ensure stability, integrity, and fair practices in financial markets.
- The transacting system may also be subject to regulations, particularly in terms of payment systems and consumer protection, but the scope is generally narrower.

5. **Purpose:**
- The financial system's primary purpose is to facilitate the efficient allocation of resources, promote economic growth, and manage financial risks.
- The transacting system's primary purpose is to enable the exchange of goods and services, supporting the functioning of the economy on a daily basis.

In summary, while the financial system focuses on the broader aspects of financial activities, investment, and capital allocation, the transacting system deals with the immediate exchange of economic value in day-to-day transactions. Both systems are interconnected and essential for the overall functioning of an economy."
[{2023-12-07 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Socecon'06_financial-system!⇒sysFin,
* McsEngl.Socecon'financial-system!⇒sysFin,
* McsEngl.sysFin!=financial-system,

law of sysFin

">financial law:
"Financial law" is a broad term that encompasses a range of legal principles, regulations, and statutes that govern financial transactions and activities. It is a specialized field of law that addresses the legal aspects of financial markets, institutions, and instruments. Key areas within financial law include:

1. **Banking Law:** Governs the activities of banks and financial institutions, including regulations related to lending, deposits, and other banking operations.

2. **Securities Law:** Regulates the issuance and trading of securities such as stocks and bonds. It aims to ensure transparency and protect investors from fraud and market manipulation.

3. **Investment Law:** Focuses on the regulation of investment activities, including rules for investment funds, investment advisers, and the protection of investors.

4. **Insurance Law:** Deals with the legal aspects of insurance contracts, the operation of insurance companies, and the rights and obligations of policyholders.

5. **Corporate Finance Law:** Involves regulations related to corporate fundraising, mergers and acquisitions, and other financial transactions undertaken by corporations.

6. **Consumer Finance Law:** Addresses the legal framework for consumer lending, including regulations to protect consumers from unfair or deceptive practices.

7. **Tax Law:** Encompasses regulations related to the taxation of individuals, businesses, and financial transactions. Tax law is closely linked to financial law, as it influences the structuring of financial transactions.

8. **International Finance Law:** Deals with legal issues arising in the context of cross-border financial transactions and activities, including international banking and finance regulations.

9. **Financial Regulation:** Encompasses a broad set of rules and regulations aimed at maintaining the stability and integrity of financial markets. Regulatory bodies, such as central banks and financial regulatory agencies, play a crucial role in overseeing financial institutions and ensuring compliance with the law.

10. **Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Know Your Customer (KYC) Regulations:** Focus on preventing illegal financial activities such as money laundering and terrorist financing by imposing obligations on financial institutions to verify and monitor their customers.

Given the complexity and constant evolution of financial markets, financial law is dynamic and subject to ongoing changes and updates. Legal professionals specializing in financial law often work closely with financial institutions, regulatory bodies, and other stakeholders to navigate and ensure compliance with these intricate regulations."
[{2023-12-07 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.lawEconomy.006-financial!⇒lawFin,
* McsEngl.lawFin!=financial-law,

evoluting of lawFin

">evolution of financial-law:
The evolution of financial law has been influenced by various factors, including changes in financial markets, advancements in technology, globalization, and the need for regulatory responses to financial crises. Here is an overview of the key stages in the evolution of financial law:

1. **Early Regulatory Frameworks:**
- **19th Century:** The development of modern financial law can be traced back to the 19th century when industrialization and the growth of capital markets led to the establishment of early regulatory frameworks. Banking laws and regulations started to emerge to address issues related to bank solvency and customer protection.

2. **Great Depression and Securities Regulation:**
- **1920s-1930s:** The stock market crash of 1929 and the subsequent Great Depression prompted the need for more comprehensive securities regulation. In the United States, the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 were enacted to regulate the issuance and trading of securities and to restore confidence in financial markets.

3. **Bretton Woods System:**
- **1944:** The Bretton Woods Agreement established a new international monetary system. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank were created to promote stability in exchange rates and international trade. This era marked increased international cooperation in financial matters.

4. **Deregulation and Innovation:**
- **Late 20th Century:** In the latter half of the 20th century, there was a trend toward financial deregulation in some countries, aiming to foster innovation and competition. This period saw the emergence of new financial instruments and the growth of derivatives markets.

5. **Financial Crises and Regulatory Reforms:**
- **Late 20th Century to Early 21st Century:** Financial crises, such as the Savings and Loan Crisis in the 1980s and the global financial crisis of 2008, prompted a reevaluation of regulatory frameworks. In response, regulatory reforms were introduced, including the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in the United States.

6. **Technology and Fintech Regulation:**
- **21st Century:** The rise of financial technology (fintech) has introduced new challenges and opportunities. Regulators have had to adapt to the digitalization of financial services, addressing issues like cybersecurity, data protection, and the regulation of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology.

7. **Globalization and International Cooperation:**
- **21st Century:** With the increasing interconnectedness of financial markets, there has been a growing emphasis on international cooperation in financial regulation. Organizations such as the Financial Stability Board (FSB) play a role in coordinating global regulatory efforts to ensure financial stability.

8. **Post-COVID-19 Challenges:**
- **2020s:** The COVID-19 pandemic has presented new challenges for financial law and regulation. Governments and regulators have implemented measures to stabilize economies, and issues such as business continuity, market volatility, and the impact on financial institutions have come to the forefront.

9. **Sustainable Finance and ESG:**
- **Current Trends:** There is a growing focus on integrating environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors into financial decision-making. Sustainable finance and responsible investing are gaining prominence, leading to discussions about how financial law can support these initiatives.

The evolution of financial law is an ongoing process, shaped by the dynamic nature of financial markets, economic developments, technological advancements, and regulatory responses to emerging challenges. It reflects the continuous effort to strike a balance between promoting financial innovation and ensuring the stability and integrity of financial systems."
[{2023-12-07 retrieved}]

">evolution of financial-law:
Financial law, the legal framework governing financial transactions and institutions, has evolved significantly throughout history, adapting to changing economic landscapes, technological advancements, and social norms. Its historical trajectory can be broadly divided into four phases:

**1. Early Development (Pre-1900)**
In its early stages, financial law emerged from customary practices and common law principles, primarily focused on safeguarding merchants and facilitating trade. The Lex mercatoria, a set of merchant customs developed in Europe, played a significant role in establishing norms for commercial transactions. Contract law, bankruptcy law, and securities law were the primary areas of focus during this period.

**2. Regulatory Expansion (1900-1970)**
The early 20th century witnessed a surge in financial innovation and economic growth, leading to increased government involvement in regulating the financial sector. The rise of central banks, the establishment of stock exchanges, and the introduction of new financial instruments spurred the need for a more comprehensive regulatory framework. Antitrust laws, banking laws, and securities laws were among the key areas of regulatory development.

**3. Global Integration and Market Reforms (1970s-2000)**
The post-war era saw a period of accelerated globalization and financial liberalization, characterized by the expansion of cross-border trade, financial markets, and the rise of multinational corporations. This period necessitated further expansion of financial law, with a focus on international cooperation, risk management, and consumer protection. The establishment of the Basel Accords, the development of derivative markets, and the introduction of consumer protection regulations are notable examples.

**4. Post-Financial Crisis Era: Resilience and Innovation (2008-Present)**
The global financial crisis of 2008 highlighted the need for stronger financial regulation and a more resilient financial system. The crisis prompted reforms aimed at enhancing risk management practices, strengthening capital requirements, and improving regulatory oversight. Additionally, technological advancements in fintech and blockchain have spurred the development of new financial products and services, requiring ongoing adaptation of financial law to address emerging regulatory challenges.

The evolution of financial law has been a dynamic and ongoing process, responding to the ever-changing complexities of the financial landscape. As financial markets continue to evolve, financial law will undoubtedly adapt to safeguard investors, protect consumers, and promote economic stability."
[{2023-12-07 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.evoluting-of-lawFin,
* McsEngl.lawFin'evoluting,

07_transacting-sys of Socecon

">transacting subsystem of economy:
The economy can be divided into several subsystems, including the **transacting subsystem**. The transacting subsystem is responsible for facilitating the exchange of goods and services between producers and consumers. It includes all the activities involved in buying and selling goods and services, such as marketing, advertising, pricing, and distribution. The transacting subsystem is an essential part of any economy, as it ensures that goods and services are available to those who need them.

I hope this helps!

Source: Conversation with Bing, 12/7/2023
(1) Chapter 8 – The Economy as Subsystem: A Preliminary Analysis.
(2) Subsystem Model of the Economy | SpringerLink.
(3) The Human Social System Economy as Subsystem: A Preliminary ... - Springer."

* McsEngl.Socecon'att018-transacting-system,
* McsEngl.Socecon'07_transacting-system,
* McsEngl.Socecon'transacting-system,
* McsEngl.transacting-system--of-economy,

08_accounting-sys of Socecon

· any measuring subsystem of Socenon (ozn, sectors, nodes, Socecon).

* McsEngl.accounting-node--of-economy,
* McsEngl.Socecon'08_accounting-node,
* McsEngl.Socecon'att007-accounting-node,
* McsEngl.Socecon'accounting-node,

accounting-conceptual-model of Socecon

· the-conceptual-model that describes the-accounting-node-of-an-economy.

* McsEngl.accounting-conceptual-model--of-economy!⇒McaccgEcon,
* McsEngl.Socecon'accounting-conceptual-model!⇒McaccgEcon,
* McsEngl.modelConceptualAccountingEconomy!⇒McaccgEcon,
* McsEngl.system-of-national-accounts!⇒McaccgEcon,


"The System of National Accounts (SNA) is the internationally agreed standard set of recommendations on how to compile measures of economic activity. The SNA describes a coherent, consistent and integrated set of macroeconomic accounts in the context of a set of internationally agreed concepts, definitions, classifications and accounting rules.
In addition, the SNA provides an overview of economic processes, recording how production is distributed among consumers, businesses, government and foreign nations. It shows how income originating in production, modified by taxes and transfers, flows to these groups and how they allocate these flows to consumption, saving and investment. Consequently, the national accounts are one of the building blocks of macroeconomic statistics forming a basis for economic analysis and policy formulation.
The SNA is intended for use by all countries, having been designed to accommodate the needs of countries at different stages of economic development. It also provides an overarching framework for standards in other domains of economic statistics, facilitating the integration of these statistical systems to achieve consistency with the national accounts"

* McsEngl.McaccgEcon.Sna!⇒Sna,
* McsEngl.Sna,
* McsEngl.Sna!=System-of-National-Accounts,
* McsEngl.System-of-National-Accounts-(Sna)!⇒Sna,
* McsEngl.Unsna!⇒Sna,

info-resource of Sna

* histroric-verstions:,

* McsEngl.Sna'Infrsc,

evoluting of Sna

* McsEngl.evoluting-of-Sna,
* McsEngl.Sna'evoluting,

* McsEngl.{2008}-Sna-version,
"The 2008 SNA, which is an update of the 1993 SNA, addresses issues brought about by changes in the economic environment, advances in methodological research and the needs of users."

* McsEngl.{1993}-Sna-version,
"The 1993 SNA represents a major advance in national accounting and embodies the result of harmonizing the SNA and other international statistical standards more completely than in previous versions."

* McsEngl.{1968}-Sna-version,
"The 1968 SNA extended the scope of the national accounts substantially by; adding input-output accounts and balance sheets; giving more attention to estimates at constant prices; and making a comprehensive effort to bring the SNA and the Material Product System (MPS) closer together."

* McsEngl.{1953}-Sna-version,
"The 1953 SNA was published under the auspices of the UNSC. It consisted of a set of six standard accounts and a set of 12 standard tables presenting detail and alternative classifications of the flows in the economy. The concepts and definitions of the accounts were widely applicable for most countries, including developing countries. Two slightly modified editions of the 1953 SNA were published."


"The 2008 SNA, which is an update of the 1993 SNA, addresses issues brought about by changes in the economic environment, advances in methodological research and the needs of users."

* McsEngl.2008-SNA-version!⇒Sna2008,
* McsEngl.Sna.{2008}-version!⇒Sna2008,
* McsEngl.Sna2008,
* McsEngl.Sna2008!=system-of-national-accounts-2008,

info-resource of Sna2008

* manual-lagHitp:,
* manual-Pdf:,
* compilation in brief:,

* McsEngl.Sna2008'Infrsc,


"The 1993 SNA represents a major advance in national accounting and embodies the result of harmonizing the SNA and other international statistical standards more completely than in previous versions."

* McsEngl.1993-SNA-version!⇒Sna1993,
* McsEngl.Sna.{1993}-version!⇒Sna1993,
* McsEngl.Sna1993,


"The European System of Accounts (ESA) is the system of national accounts and regional accounts used by members of the European Union. It was most recently updated in 2010 (ESA 2010).
The ESA 95 is fully consistent with the United Nations System of National Accounts (1993 SNA) in definitions, accounting rules and classifications.[1] However, it incorporates certain differences, particularly in its presentation, that are more in line with use within the European Union. The ESA 95 is undergoing a revision to meet the requirements of the update of the SNA 1993 launched in 2003 under the auspices of the United Nations."

* McsEngl.Esa,
* McsEngl.Esa-European-system-of-accounts!⇒Esa,
* McsEngl.European-system-of-accounts-(Esa)!⇒Esa,
* McsEngl.McaccgEcon.Esa!⇒Esa,

info-resource of Esa


* McsEngl.Esa'Infrsc,

evoluting of Esa

* McsEngl.evoluting-of-Esa,
* McsEngl.Esa'evoluting,

* McsEngl.{2014-09}-Esa2010-compalsory,
"The European System of Regional and National Accounts (ESA 2010) was published in the Official Journal on 26 June 2013 and compulsory for data transmissions from September 2014 onwards.
It is complemented by an implementing decision granting temporary derogations and an implementing regulation specifying the interchange standard for the transmission of data required (SDMX) as well as an implementing regulation on the modalities, structure, periodicity and assessment indicators of the quality reports on data transmitted under the ESA 2010 Transmission Programme."


"The European system of national and regional accounts (ESA 2010) is the newest internationally compatible European Union's accounting framework for a systematic and detailed description of an economy. It is implemented as from September 2014; from that date onwards the data transmission from the EU Member States to Eurostat follows ESA 2010 rules.
The ESA 2010 differs in scope as well as in concepts from its predecessor ESA 95 reflecting developments in measuring modern economies, advances in methodological research and the needs of users. The structure of the ESA 2010 is consistent with the worldwide guidelines on national accounting set out in the System of national accounts 2008 (2008 SNA)."

* McsEngl.ESA-2010!⇒Esa2010,
* McsEngl.Esa2010,
* McsEngl.Esa2010!=European-system-of-regioanal-and-national-accounts-2010,
* McsEngl.Esa.2010!⇒Esa2010,


"The European System of National and Regional Accounts 2010 (ESA2010) was published in the Official Journal on 26 June 2013 and implemented as from September 2014; i.e. from that date onwards the data transmissions from Member States to Eurostat have to follow ESA 2010 rules (see also the dedicated section on the Eurostat website).
The ESA 2010 is broadly consistent with the System of National Accounts 2008 (SNA2008), the world-level harmonised reference methodology for national accounts.
Formally, the ESA is a legal act, it has more precise definitions and it is intended as reference guide, whereas the SNA includes more explanations and background information, and it can be used as a teaching handbook for statisticians worldwide."

* McsEngl.Esa2010'relation-to-SNA2008,
* McsEngl.Sna2008'relation-to-Esa2010,


"Material Product System (MPS) refers to the system of national accounts used by 16 Leninist countries for different lengths of time, including the former Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc countries (until around 1990), Cuba, China (1952-1992) and several other Asian countries[1] The MPS has now been replaced by the UNSNA accounts in most countries that used MPS, although some countries such as Cuba and North Korea have continued to use MPS alongside UNSNA-type accounts. Today it is difficult to obtain detailed information about accounting systems which are an alternative to UNSNA, and therefore few people know that such systems exist and have been used by various countries.[2]"

* McsEngl.McaccgEcon.Mps,
* McsEngl.Mps-material-product-system,
* McsEngl.material-product-system-(Mps),


"National Transfer Accounts: Understanding the Generational Economy
The goal of the National Transfer Accounts (NTA) project is to improve understanding of how population growth and changing population age structure influence economic growth, gender and generational equity, public finances, and other important features of the macro-economy. Research teams in more than 60 countries are constructing accounts that measure how people at each age produce, consume, and share resources, and save for the future. These accounts are designed to complement the UN System of National Accounts, population data, and other important economic and demographic indicators.
The NTA project is shedding light on many areas of importance to policymakers:
* Public policy on pensions, health care, education, and reproductive health
* Social institutions, such as the extended family
* The full economic contribution of women
* Social, political, and economic implications of population aging"

* McsEngl.McaccgEcon.Nta,
* McsEngl.National-transfer-accounts-(Nta),
* McsEngl.Nta-national-transfer-accounts,

09_governance-sys of Socecon

">economic role of governance:
Governance plays a crucial role in shaping and influencing economic outcomes within a country or organization. The economic role of governance encompasses a wide range of activities and functions that impact the overall economic health and development. Here are some key aspects of the economic role of governance:

1. **Policy Formulation and Implementation:**
- Governance structures, including government institutions, formulate and implement economic policies that influence factors such as fiscal, monetary, and trade policies.
- Sound economic policies contribute to stability, growth, and development.

2. **Regulation and Rule of Law:**
- Governance ensures the establishment and enforcement of rules and regulations that create a conducive environment for economic activities.
- Rule of law promotes fairness, transparency, and protection of property rights, which are essential for economic growth.

3. **Infrastructure Development:**
- Governance is responsible for planning and executing infrastructure projects such as transportation, energy, and communication networks.
- Adequate infrastructure is crucial for economic activities and can enhance productivity and competitiveness.

4. **Institutional Framework:**
- Governance establishes and maintains institutions that are essential for economic development, such as central banks, regulatory bodies, and legal systems.
- Strong institutions foster confidence among investors and contribute to economic stability.

5. **Public Sector Management:**
- Governance influences the efficiency and effectiveness of public sector management, including public administration, public finance, and public service delivery.
- Effective public sector management is critical for the provision of public goods and services.

6. **Corruption Control:**
- Good governance plays a role in controlling corruption, which can have significant economic consequences.
- Corruption undermines economic efficiency, distorts resource allocation, and deters investment.

7. **Investor Confidence:**
- Governance practices influence investor confidence and perceptions of a country's economic environment.
- Transparent and accountable governance can attract foreign direct investment and promote domestic investment.

8. **Social Equity and Inclusion:**
- Economic governance also addresses issues of social equity and inclusion to ensure that economic benefits are distributed fairly across society.
- Inclusive economic policies can contribute to social stability and sustainable development.

9. **Risk Management:**
- Governance structures are responsible for managing economic risks and crises, such as financial market instability or natural disasters.
- Effective governance can contribute to resilience and the ability to navigate economic challenges.

In summary, the economic role of governance involves creating a framework that supports economic activities, encourages investment, ensures fairness and transparency, and promotes sustainable development. A well-functioning governance system is essential for fostering a healthy and thriving economy."
[{2023-12-09 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Socecon'09_governance-sys,
* McsEngl.Socecon'governance-sys,
* McsEngl.governance-sys--of-Socecon,

econometric-model of Socecon

">econometric-models vs computational-economic-models:
Econometric models and computational economic models are both tools used to analyze and understand economic phenomena. However, they differ in their approaches and applications.

**Econometric models** are statistical models that are used to analyze economic data and test economic theories. They are typically constructed using linear or nonlinear regression techniques, and they are used to estimate relationships between economic variables. Econometric models are often used to forecast economic trends, evaluate policy interventions, and test the validity of economic theories.

**Computational economic models** are computer simulations that are used to represent and analyze economic systems. They are typically based on mathematical equations or agent-based techniques, and they are used to study the behavior of complex economic systems under different conditions. Computational economic models are often used to explore the effects of policy changes, simulate economic shocks, and develop new economic theories.

Here is a table summarizing the key differences between econometric models and computational economic models:
| Feature | Econometric Models | Computational Economic Models |
| Approach | Statistical | Computational |
| Data | Historical data | Synthetic data |
| Application | Forecasting, policy evaluation, theory testing | Understanding complex systems, exploring policy effects, developing new theories |
| Strengths | Strong ability to analyze statistical relationships | Flexibility to model complex systems |
| Weaknesses | Limited ability to model nonlinear relationships | Difficulty in establishing causal relationships |
| Examples | Regression models, time series models | Agent-based models, dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) models |

In general, econometric models are better suited for analyzing relatively simple economic relationships, while computational economic models are better suited for analyzing complex economic systems. However, there is some overlap between the two approaches, and researchers often use a combination of econometric and computational methods to study economic phenomena.

Here are some examples of how econometric models and computational economic models have been used:
* **Econometric models:**
* Forecasting inflation
* Analyzing the impact of tax cuts on economic growth
* Testing the validity of the rational expectations hypothesis
* **Computational economic models:**
* Studying the effects of trade liberalization on industry structure
* Simulating the impact of monetary policy on asset prices
* Developing new theories of economic growth

As computational methods continue to develop, it is likely that computational economic models will become even more important for understanding and analyzing economic phenomena."
[{2023-12-09 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Socecon'econometric-model,
* McsEngl.econometric-model,

evaluation of Socecon


* McsEngl.Socecon'evaluation,


digital-economy of Socecon

· the-digital portion of the-economy.

* McsEngl.Socecon'digital!⇒Econdigi,
* McsEngl.Econdigi,
* McsEngl.e-economy!⇒Econdigi,
* McsEngl.information-economy!⇒Econdigi,
* McsEngl.knowledge-economy!⇒Econdigi,

info-resource of Econdigi

* {2021-08-02},

* McsEngl.Econdigi'Infrsc,

law of Socecon

">economic law:
Economic law is a broad and dynamic field that encompasses a wide range of legal rules, regulations, and institutions that govern economic activity. It aims to promote competition, protect consumers, ensure fair and efficient markets, and regulate specific industries, such as banking, securities, and telecommunications. Economic law is constantly evolving in response to changing economic conditions and technological advancements.

**Key Principles of Economic Law**
1. **Efficiency:** Economic law strives to promote efficient allocation of resources, ensuring that goods and services are produced and consumed in the most cost-effective manner.
2. **Competition:** Economic law prohibits anti-competitive practices such as price fixing, collusion, and monopolization, fostering a competitive market environment that benefits consumers.
3. **Consumer Protection:** Economic law safeguards consumer rights and interests, ensuring fair treatment, informed choices, and adequate redress for consumer grievances.
4. **Transparency:** Economic law mandates transparency in business practices, disclosure of relevant information, and fair and equitable treatment of all market participants.
5. **Regulatory Reform:** Economic law is subject to ongoing evaluation and improvement, adapting to changing economic circumstances and technological innovations.

**Subfields of Economic Law**
Economic law encompasses a diverse range of subfields, each addressing specific aspects of economic activity and market regulation:
1. **Antitrust Law:** Prohibits anti-competitive business practices that harm consumers and stifle market competition.
2. **Contract Law:** Governs the formation, interpretation, and enforcement of contracts, ensuring fairness and legal certainty in commercial transactions.
3. **Bankruptcy Law:** Provides a framework for the reorganization or liquidation of financially distressed businesses, protecting creditors' interests and ensuring orderly readjustment of debts.
4. **Intellectual Property Law:** Protects inventions, creative works, and other intangible assets, fostering innovation and rewarding creators' contributions.
5. **Securities Law:** Regulates the issuance, trading, and disclosure of securities, ensuring investor protection and market integrity.
6. **Regulating Specific Industries:** Economic law encompasses specific statutes and regulations governing industries such as energy, telecommunications, healthcare, and finance, addressing unique market dynamics and public policy considerations.

**Impact of Economic Law**
Economic law plays a crucial role in shaping the economic landscape, influencing the allocation of resources, the conduct of businesses, and the protection of consumer interests. It contributes to economic stability, growth, and fairness by promoting competition, ensuring transparency, and protecting consumers from unfair practices. Economic law also addresses specific market failures and externalities, addressing environmental concerns and ensuring the equitable distribution of societal costs.

Economic law is an ever-evolving field that adapts to changing economic conditions and technological advancements. It plays a vital role in promoting efficient markets, protecting consumers, and ensuring fair competition. Understanding the principles and subfields of economic law is essential for navigating the complexities of modern economies."
[{2023-12-07 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Soceconomy'law!⇒lawEconomy,
* McsEngl.economic-law!⇒lawEconomy,
* McsEngl.economy's-law!⇒lawEconomy,
* McsEngl.lawEconomy,


* antitrust-law,
* bankruptcy-law,
* commerce-law,
* contract-law,
* corporate-law,
* financial-law,
* intellectual-property-law,
* international-economic-law,
* macroeconomic-law,
* microeconomic-law,
* property-law,
* securites-law,
* trade-law,

* McsEngl.lawEconomy.specific,


Antitrust law, also known as competition law in some jurisdictions, is a set of legal rules and regulations designed to promote fair competition in the marketplace and prevent anticompetitive behavior by businesses. The primary goal of antitrust laws is to ensure that businesses operate in a way that benefits consumers, rather than engaging in practices that harm competition, limit consumer choice, or lead to the concentration of economic power in the hands of a few.

Key elements and objectives of antitrust laws include:

1. **Preventing Monopolies:** Antitrust laws aim to prevent the formation and abuse of monopolies, where a single company dominates a particular market and is able to control prices, reduce output, and limit consumer choice.

2. **Prohibiting Anticompetitive Practices:** Antitrust laws prohibit various anticompetitive practices, such as price fixing, bid rigging, market allocation, and other collusive activities that undermine competition.

3. **Regulating Mergers and Acquisitions:** Antitrust laws often require regulatory approval for mergers and acquisitions to prevent the creation of dominant market players that could stifle competition.

4. **Ensuring Fair Competition:** Antitrust laws seek to foster an environment where businesses compete fairly, encouraging innovation, efficiency, and better products and services for consumers.

5. **Consumer Protection:** Antitrust laws ultimately aim to protect consumers by promoting competition, which can lead to lower prices, higher quality products, and greater innovation.

In the United States, for example, the primary federal antitrust laws include the Sherman Antitrust Act, the Clayton Antitrust Act, and the Federal Trade Commission Act. Additionally, various countries around the world have their own antitrust laws and regulatory bodies to enforce them.

Enforcement of antitrust laws typically involves government agencies, such as the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in the United States, as well as private parties who may bring civil lawsuits against companies engaged in anticompetitive behavior. Penalties for violating antitrust laws can include fines, injunctions, and, in some cases, criminal charges against individuals involved in the anticompetitive conduct."
[{2023-12-07 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.antitrust-law,
* McsEngl.competition-law,
* McsEngl.lawEconomy.001-antitrust,
* McsEngl.lawEconomy.antitrust,


">bankruptcy law:
Bankruptcy law is a complex area of law that governs the process of dealing with debts that cannot be paid. It is designed to help individuals and businesses get a fresh start by either liquidating their assets to pay their debts or creating a repayment plan.

**Types of Bankruptcy**
There are two main types of bankruptcy:
* **Chapter 7:** This is the most common type of bankruptcy, and it is used for individuals and businesses who cannot pay their debts and who have few assets to liquidate. In a Chapter 7 bankruptcy, a trustee is appointed to sell the debtor's nonexempt assets and distribute the proceeds to the creditors. The debtor's remaining debts are then discharged, which means that they are no longer legally obligated to repay them.
* **Chapter 13:** This type of bankruptcy is used for individuals who have regular income and who want to repay their debts over a period of three to five years. In a Chapter 13 bankruptcy, the debtor creates a repayment plan that outlines how they will pay their debts to their creditors. The court will approve the plan if it is fair and equitable to all creditors.

**Eligibility Requirements**
There are a number of eligibility requirements for filing for bankruptcy. These requirements vary depending on the type of bankruptcy filed, but some of the general requirements include:
* The debtor must be insolvent, which means that they must not be able to pay their debts as they become due.
* The debtor must have filed a tax return for the most recent tax year.
* The debtor must not have filed a bankruptcy petition in the past 180 days.
* The debtor must not have been convicted of a felony debt offense.

**The Bankruptcy Process**
The bankruptcy process typically involves the following steps:
* **Filing the petition:** The debtor files a bankruptcy petition with the bankruptcy court. The petition contains information about the debtor's assets, liabilities, and income.
* **Meeting of creditors:** The debtor must attend a meeting of creditors where they will answer questions about their finances.
* **Confirmation hearing:** The debtor and their creditors will appear before the bankruptcy judge at a confirmation hearing. The judge will approve or deny the debtor's repayment plan (in Chapter 13) or will discharge the debtor's debts (in Chapter 7).

**Debt Discharge**
One of the most important benefits of bankruptcy is that it can discharge debts. This means that the debtor is no longer legally obligated to repay the debts. However, not all debts are dischargeable. Some examples of nondischargeable debts include:
* Child support payments
* Alimony payments
* Student loans
* Debts arising from fraud or other criminal activity

**Debt Relief Alternatives**
There are a number of debt relief alternatives to bankruptcy, such as:
* **Debt consolidation:** This involves combining multiple debts into a single, lower-interest loan.
* **Debt settlement:** This involves negotiating with creditors to settle debts for less than the full amount owed.
* **Debt management plans:** These are formal plans that involve making regular payments to a credit counseling agency, which will then distribute the payments to creditors.

**Seeking Professional Help**
If you are considering bankruptcy, it is important to seek professional help from an attorney who specializes in bankruptcy law. An attorney can help you determine if bankruptcy is right for you and can guide you through the bankruptcy process.

Bankruptcy law can be a complex and confusing area of law. However, it can be a valuable tool for individuals and businesses who are struggling with debt. If you are considering bankruptcy, it is important to seek professional help and to understand the potential consequences of filing for bankruptcy."
[{2023-12-07 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.bankruptcy-law,
* McsEngl.lawEconomy.002-bankruptcy,
* McsEngl.lawEconomy.bankruptcy,
* McsEngl.lawBankruptcy,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.νομοθεσία-χρεωκοπίας!η!=lawBankruptcy,


Commercial law, also known as mercantile law or trade law, is the body of law that applies to the rights, relations, and conduct of persons and businesses engaged in commerce, merchandising, trade, and sales. It is a broad field of law that encompasses a wide range of topics, including:
* **Contracts:** Commercial law governs the formation, validity, interpretation, and enforcement of contracts. This includes contracts for the sale of goods, services, and other commercial transactions.
* **Sales law:** Sales law governs the sale of goods and related issues, such as warranties, damages, and remedies.
* **Commercial paper:** Commercial paper is a type of negotiable instrument, such as checks, promissory notes, and drafts, that is used in commercial transactions. Commercial law governs the issuance, transfer, and enforcement of commercial paper.
* **Negotiable instruments:** Negotiable instruments are a type of security that can be transferred from one person to another. Commercial law governs the rights and obligations of parties to negotiable instruments.
* **Agency:** Agency law governs the relationship between an agent and a principal. An agent is a person who acts on behalf of another person, called a principal. Agency law governs the authority of an agent to act on behalf of a principal, the liability of an agent for the principal's actions, and the termination of an agency relationship.
* **Creditors' rights:** Creditors' rights law governs the rights of creditors to collect debts from debtors. This includes the right to file bankruptcy, the right to garnish wages, and the right to obtain liens.
* **Uniform Commercial Code (UCC):** The UCC is a set of laws that governs commercial transactions in the United States. The UCC is a uniform law, which means that it is the same law in all 50 states.

Commercial law is an important area of law for businesses of all sizes. Businesses need to understand and comply with commercial law in order to protect themselves from legal liability and ensure the success of their business ventures.
[{2023-12-07 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.commerce-law,
* McsEngl.commercial-law,
* McsEngl.mercantile-law,
* McsEngl.lawEconomy.003-commerce,
* McsEngl.lawEconomy.commerce, (link)


">macroeconomy legal-framework:
The legal framework in a macroeconomy refers to the set of laws, regulations, and institutions that govern economic activities at a national level. This framework plays a crucial role in shaping the overall economic environment, influencing the behavior of individuals, businesses, and government entities. Here are key aspects of the legal framework in a macroeconomy:

1. **Constitutional Law:**
- The constitution of a country establishes the basic legal structure and defines the powers and limitations of government entities. It may include provisions related to property rights, contract enforcement, and individual liberties.

2. **Property Rights:**
- Clear and enforceable property rights are essential for a functioning macroeconomy. Laws related to property ownership, transfer, and protection against infringement provide the foundation for economic transactions.

3. **Contract Law:**
- The legal framework includes laws governing contracts, which are crucial for economic transactions. These laws define the rights and obligations of parties entering into agreements and provide mechanisms for dispute resolution.

4. **Business and Commercial Law:**
- Regulations governing the formation, operation, and dissolution of businesses contribute to the legal framework. Commercial laws may cover areas such as corporate governance, bankruptcy, and antitrust regulations.

5. **Labor Laws:**
- Regulations related to employment, including wages, working hours, and employee rights, are part of the legal framework. Labor laws influence the dynamics of the job market and impact overall economic productivity.

6. **Taxation and Fiscal Policy:**
- Laws related to taxation and government spending are integral to the legal framework. These laws determine how the government raises revenue, allocates resources, and manages fiscal policy to influence economic conditions.

7. **Financial Regulations:**
- The legal framework includes regulations overseeing financial institutions, markets, and instruments. Financial laws aim to maintain stability, protect investors, and ensure the integrity of financial transactions.

8. **Monetary Policy:**
- Laws governing the central bank and its mandate to control the money supply and interest rates are crucial components of the legal framework. These laws influence inflation, interest rates, and overall economic stability.

9. **Consumer Protection:**
- Laws protecting consumers from fraudulent or unfair business practices contribute to a fair and transparent marketplace. Consumer protection laws can impact trust and confidence in the economy.

10. **Environmental and Regulatory Laws:**
- Regulations related to environmental protection, health and safety standards, and other industry-specific rules contribute to the legal framework. These laws balance economic development with social and environmental considerations.

11. **International Trade and Treaties:**
- Laws governing international trade, as well as treaties and agreements with other nations, shape a country's economic relations with the global community.

A well-functioning legal framework provides a stable and predictable environment for economic activities, fostering trust and confidence among participants. It also allows for the resolution of disputes and ensures that economic interactions occur within a set of rules that promote fairness and justice. The specific legal framework varies from country to country, reflecting different legal traditions, economic systems, and social priorities."
[{2023-12-07 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.lawEconomy.009-macroeconomy,
* McsEngl.lawEconomy.macroeconomy,
* McsEngl.macroeconomy-law,


">microeconomy legal-framework:
The legal framework for the microeconomy refers to the set of laws, regulations, and policies that govern the behavior and interactions of individual businesses, consumers, and other economic agents within a specific market or industry. This framework is essential for ensuring fair competition, protecting consumers, and establishing the rules under which businesses operate. Here are some key components of the legal framework for the microeconomy:

1. **Business Formation and Registration:**
- Laws that dictate the process of establishing and registering businesses. This includes regulations related to business structures, registration requirements, and the legal rights and responsibilities of business owners.

2. **Contract Law:**
- Fundamental laws that govern the creation, enforcement, and interpretation of contracts. These laws provide the legal basis for agreements between businesses, consumers, and other parties, ensuring that contractual obligations are met.

3. **Consumer Protection Laws:**
- Regulations designed to safeguard the rights of consumers. These laws address issues such as product safety, fair advertising, pricing transparency, and protection against fraudulent or deceptive business practices.

4. **Employment and Labor Laws:**
- Legislation that outlines the rights and responsibilities of employers and employees. This includes laws related to wages, working hours, workplace safety, anti-discrimination measures, and employee benefits.

5. **Intellectual Property Laws:**
- Legal protections for intellectual property, including patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets. These laws encourage innovation by providing creators and inventors with exclusive rights to their intellectual creations.

6. **Antitrust and Competition Laws:**
- Laws that promote fair competition and prevent anticompetitive practices. These regulations aim to ensure that markets remain open and competitive, preventing monopolies and protecting consumers from unfair business practices.

7. **Tax Laws:**
- Regulations that govern the taxation of businesses and individuals. Tax laws dictate the rates, deductions, and reporting requirements for income, sales, and other taxes, impacting the financial decisions of businesses and individuals.

8. **Environmental Regulations:**
- Laws that address the impact of business activities on the environment. These regulations may include standards for emissions, waste disposal, and sustainable business practices to minimize the environmental footprint of businesses.

9. **Banking and Finance Laws:**
- Regulations governing financial institutions, banking activities, and financial markets. These laws aim to maintain the stability of the financial system, protect consumers, and prevent fraudulent financial practices.

10. **Data Protection and Privacy Laws:**
- Laws that regulate the collection, use, and protection of personal data. With the increasing reliance on technology, data protection laws are crucial for safeguarding the privacy rights of individuals and establishing trust in digital transactions.

A well-functioning legal framework for the microeconomy is essential for creating a business environment that is fair, transparent, and conducive to economic growth. It provides the necessary rules and safeguards to facilitate transactions, resolve disputes, and protect the interests of all stakeholders involved in economic activities at the micro level."
[{2023-12-08 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.lawEconomy.010-microeconomy,
* McsEngl.lawEconomy.microeconomy,
* McsEngl.microeconomy-law,

">property law:
Property law is a branch of civil law that deals with the rights and interests in real and personal property. It governs the various forms of ownership and tenancy in land and personal property, as well as the relationships between individuals and their property. Property law encompasses a wide range of legal principles and rules that regulate the acquisition, use, and disposition of property. Here are some key concepts within property law:

1. **Real Property and Personal Property:**
- **Real Property:** Refers to land, as well as anything permanently attached to it, such as buildings and fixtures. Ownership of real property is often transferred through deeds.
- **Personal Property:** Includes movable items, such as goods, vehicles, and intellectual property. Ownership of personal property is typically transferred through a bill of sale or other transfer documents.

2. **Ownership and Possession:**
- **Ownership:** The right to possess, use, and dispose of property. Ownership can be sole or shared (joint tenancy, tenancy in common).
- **Possession:** Physical control and occupancy of property. Possession doesn't always imply ownership.

3. **Transfer of Property:**
- Property can be transferred through sale, gift, inheritance, or other legal means. The process often involves a formal transfer document, such as a deed for real property or a bill of sale for personal property.

4. **Landlord-Tenant Law:**
- Governs the legal relationships between landlords and tenants. It includes issues such as lease agreements, rent payments, property maintenance, and eviction.

5. **Easements and Servitudes:**
- **Easement:** A right to use another person's land for a specific purpose, such as access or utilities.
- **Servitude:** A broader term that includes both easements and other restrictions on land use.

6. **Adverse Possession:**
- A legal doctrine that allows someone who openly occupies and uses another person's property for a certain period to potentially acquire legal ownership.

7. **Zoning and Land Use Regulation:**
- Government regulations that control how land can be used and developed. Zoning laws divide areas into different zones (residential, commercial, industrial) with specific allowable uses.

8. **Intellectual Property:**
- While intellectual property primarily falls under its own legal category, there are intersections with property law, especially concerning rights to intangible assets like patents, trademarks, and copyrights.

9. **Nuisance and Trespass:**
- **Nuisance:** Unreasonable interference with the use and enjoyment of another person's property.
- **Trespass:** Unauthorized entry onto another person's property.

10. **Eminent Domain:**
- The government's power to take private property for public use, with compensation to the owner. This is often used for public infrastructure projects.

Property law can vary significantly between jurisdictions, and legal systems may have different approaches to property rights and regulations. Legal professionals specializing in real estate law, land use law, and related fields help individuals and businesses navigate property-related issues."
[{2023-12-07 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.lawEconomy.007-property,


"intellectual-property law:
Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind, such as inventions, literary and artistic works, designs, symbols, names, and images used in commerce. Intellectual property is protected by law through patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets, which enable individuals or businesses to earn recognition or financial benefit from what they invent or create. Intellectual property law encompasses a set of legal principles and regulations that aim to safeguard the rights of creators and innovators.

Here are some key aspects of intellectual property law:

1. **Patents:**
- A patent is a form of intellectual property that provides exclusive rights for an invention.
- It grants the inventor the right to exclude others from making, using, selling, and importing the patented invention for a limited period, usually 20 years.

2. **Copyrights:**
- Copyright protects original works of authorship, such as literary, artistic, and musical works.
- It gives the creator the exclusive right to reproduce, distribute, perform, and display their work for a specific duration, typically the author's lifetime plus 70 years.

3. **Trademarks:**
- Trademarks protect symbols, names, and slogans used to identify and distinguish goods or services in the marketplace.
- Trademark registration provides the owner with exclusive rights to use the mark in connection with specified goods or services.

4. **Trade Secrets:**
- Trade secrets are valuable and confidential business information, such as manufacturing processes, formulas, and customer lists.
- Unlike patents, trade secrets are not publicly disclosed and can be protected indefinitely as long as they remain secret.

5. **Trade Dress:**
- Trade dress refers to the visual appearance of a product or its packaging that distinguishes it in the marketplace.
- It can be protected under intellectual property law to prevent others from using similar designs that may cause confusion among consumers.

6. **Intellectual Property Enforcement:**
- Intellectual property owners can enforce their rights through legal actions, such as filing lawsuits for infringement.
- Remedies for infringement may include injunctive relief, damages, and, in some cases, criminal penalties.

7. **International Protection:**
- Intellectual property rights are often protected internationally through treaties and agreements such as the Paris Convention, the Berne Convention, and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).

8. **Fair Use and Exceptions:**
- Most intellectual property laws include provisions for fair use or exceptions, allowing limited use of copyrighted material for purposes such as criticism, commentary, news reporting, teaching, and research.

Intellectual property law is a complex and evolving field, and its application can vary between jurisdictions. Legal professionals specializing in intellectual property, including patent attorneys, trademark attorneys, and IP litigators, play a crucial role in helping individuals and businesses navigate the intricacies of IP protection and enforcement."
[{2023-12-07 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.intellectual-property-law,
* McsEngl.lawEconomy.008-intellectual-property,
* McsEngl.lawEconomy.intellectual-property,


* McsEngl.Socecon'misc-attribute,

GDP of Socecon

"GDP: The sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data is in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used."

* McsEngl.GDP//Socecon,
* McsEngl.Socecon'att010-GDP,
* McsEngl.Socecon/GDP,
* McsEngl.society'GDP,

GDP-at-parity of Socecon

"GDP at parity: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars."

* McsEngl.Socecon'att011-GDP-at-parity,
* McsEngl.Socecon'GDP-at-parity,
* McsEngl.society'GDP-at-parity,

real-GDP of Socecon

"real GDP: The sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data is in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used."

* McsEngl.Socecon'att012-real-GDP,
* McsEngl.Socecon'real-GDP,
* McsEngl.society'real-GDP,

GDP-per-capita of Socecon

"GDP per capita: Gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data is in current U.S. dollars."

* McsEngl.Socecon'att013-GDP-per-capita,
* McsEngl.Socecon'GDP-per-capita,
* McsEngl.society'GDP-per-capita,

GDP-real-growth of Socecon

"GDP real growth: The sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars."

* McsEngl.Socecon'att014-GDP-real-growth,
* McsEngl.Socecon'GDP-real-growth,
* McsEngl.society'GDP-real-growth,

HDI of Socecon

"The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy, education (literacy rate, gross enrollment ratio at different levels and net attendance ratio), and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the gross national income GNI (PPP) per capita is higher. It was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq and was further used to measure a country's development by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)'s Human Development Report Office.[1][2][3]"

* McsEngl.HDI//Socecon,
* McsEngl.Socecon'att017-HDI,
* McsEngl.Socecon/HDI,

Gini-index of Socecon

"Gini index: The extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a fraction of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 1 implies perfect inequality."

* McsEngl.Socecon'att015-Gini-index,
* McsEngl.Socecon'Gini-index,
* McsEngl.society'Gini-index,

consumer-price-inflation of Socecon

"The annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used."

* McsEngl.Socecon'att016-consumer-price-inflation,
* McsEngl.Socecon'consumer-price-inflation,
* McsEngl.society'consumer-price-inflation,

info-resource of Socecon

* McsEngl.Socecon'Infrsc,


structure of Socecon

* McsEngl.Socecon'structure,


DOING of Socecon

* McsEngl.Socecon'doing,


evoluting of Socecon

">evolution of economy:
The evolution of the economy is a complex and multifaceted process that has taken place over centuries. It has been influenced by various factors, including technological advancements, political developments, social changes, and global events. Here's a broad overview of the evolution of the economy:

1. **Agrarian Economy (Pre-Industrial Revolution):** In the pre-industrial era, economies were primarily agrarian, with the majority of the population engaged in agriculture. The economic output was limited, and societies were generally rural and self-sufficient.

2. **Industrial Revolution (18th to 19th centuries):** The Industrial Revolution marked a significant shift from agrarian economies to industrialized ones. Advances in technology, such as steam engines and mechanized production, led to the rise of factories and mass production. This period saw rapid urbanization, increased productivity, and the emergence of a working class.

3. **Post-World War II (Mid-20th century):** After World War II, many Western countries experienced an economic boom. This period, known as the post-war economic expansion, was characterized by increased consumerism, the growth of suburbs, and the rise of multinational corporations. The Bretton Woods Agreement established a framework for international economic cooperation.

4. **Globalization (Late 20th century):** The latter half of the 20th century saw increased globalization, facilitated by advancements in transportation and communication. Trade barriers were reduced, leading to the expansion of international trade and investment. Technological innovations, such as the internet, further accelerated the pace of globalization.

5. **Information Age (Late 20th century to present):** The rise of information technology and the internet ushered in the Information Age. This period has been characterized by the rapid exchange of information, increased automation, and the growth of the service sector. The knowledge economy emerged, with a greater emphasis on intellectual capital and innovation.

6. **Financialization (Late 20th century to present):** The economy has become increasingly financialized, with a growing role for financial markets and institutions. The expansion of financial services, the rise of complex financial instruments, and the globalization of financial markets have all contributed to this trend.

7. **Challenges and Crises (21st century):** The 21st century has seen various economic challenges, including the global financial crisis of 2008, which had far-reaching consequences on the world economy. Additionally, issues such as income inequality, environmental sustainability, and the impact of automation on employment have become central economic concerns.

8. **Green Economy and Sustainability (21st century):** In response to environmental challenges, there is a growing emphasis on sustainable development and a transition to a green economy. Efforts are being made to address climate change, reduce carbon emissions, and promote environmentally friendly practices.

It's important to note that economic evolution is ongoing, and the future trajectory of the global economy will be shaped by a combination of technological advancements, geopolitical developments, social changes, and policy decisions."
[{2023-12-06 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.evoluting-of-Socecon,
* McsEngl.Socecon'evoluting,

=== McsHitp-creation:
· creation of current concept.


* McsEngl.Socecon'whole-part-tree,

* human-society,
* ... Sympan.



* McsEngl.Socecon'generic-specific-tree,

* ,
* ... entity.


* eco-economy,
* ecoNo-economy,
* capitalism-economy,

* McsEngl.Socecon.specific,

">global economy overview:
Sure, here is an overview of the global economy as of December 2023:

The global economy is facing a number of challenges, including rising inflation, supply chain disruptions, and the war in Ukraine. These challenges have led to a moderation in economic growth expectations, with most major forecasters predicting global GDP growth of around 2.5% in 2023 and 2024.

**Key Challenges**
* **Rising inflation:** Inflation is a major concern for policymakers around the world. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) for the United States rose to 8.6% in May 2023, the highest level in four decades. Inflation is also high in many other developed and emerging market economies.
* **Supply chain disruptions:** The COVID-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine have disrupted global supply chains, leading to shortages of goods and higher prices. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimates that global trade growth will slow to 3.4% in 2023, down from 6.8% in 2021.
* **The war in Ukraine:** The war in Ukraine has had a significant impact on the global economy, causing energy prices to soar and disrupting agricultural production. The IMF estimates that the war will reduce global GDP growth by 0.6% in 2023.

**Economic Outlook**
Despite the challenges, there are some reasons to be optimistic about the global economy. The labor market is strong in many countries, and consumer spending is holding up better than expected. Additionally, central banks are taking steps to address inflation, which could help to bring prices down in the medium term.

**Outlook for 2023 and 2024**
The IMF forecasts global GDP growth of 2.9% in 2023 and 2.5% in 2024. This is down from its previous forecast of 3.6% and 3.3%, respectively. The IMF expects inflation to peak in 2023 before gradually declining in 2024.

**Risks to the Outlook**
There are a number of risks to the global economic outlook, including:
* **A further escalation of the war in Ukraine:** A prolonged war could lead to a more severe global recession.
* **A more aggressive tightening of monetary policy by central banks:** Higher interest rates could lead to a sharp slowdown in economic growth.
* **A sharp rise in energy prices:** Energy prices could rise further if the war in Ukraine continues or if there are other disruptions to supply.
* **A new COVID-19 variant:** A new pandemic could disrupt global supply chains and economic activity.

The global economy is facing a number of challenges, but there are also some reasons for optimism. The labor market is strong, consumer spending is holding up, and central banks are taking steps to address inflation. However, there are also a number of risks to the outlook, including a further escalation of the war in Ukraine, a more aggressive tightening of monetary policy, and a sharp rise in energy prices.

I will continue to monitor the global economy and provide updates as needed."
[{2023-12-09 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Socecon.009-global!⇒econGlbl,
* McsEngl.econGlbl!=global-economy,
* McsEngl.econIntl!⇒econGlbl,
* McsEngl.socIntl'03_node-of-satisfiers,
* McsEngl.socIntl'att005-node-of-satisfiers,
* McsEngl.socIntl'node-of-satisfiers,

">make a model of global economy:
Creating a comprehensive model of the global economy is a complex task that involves considering various economic, political, social, and technological factors. However, I can provide a simplified framework that captures some essential elements. Keep in mind that this is a high-level overview and doesn't account for all possible nuances.

1. **Economic Sectors:**
- **Primary Sector:** Involves the extraction of raw materials, such as agriculture, mining, and forestry.
- **Secondary Sector:** Encompasses manufacturing and industrial activities.
- **Tertiary Sector:** Involves services, including finance, healthcare, education, and technology.

2. **Global Economic Players:**
- **Countries:** Classify nations based on their economic development level (developed, developing, and underdeveloped).
- **Multinational Corporations (MNCs):** Large companies that operate in multiple countries, influencing global trade and investment.

3. **Trade and Commerce:**
- **Global Trade Networks:** Consider major trade routes and partnerships.
- **International Trade Organizations:** Such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) and regional trade agreements.

4. **Monetary System:**
- **Global Currencies:** Recognize key currencies like the US Dollar, Euro, Chinese Yuan, and their roles in global trade.
- **Central Banks:** Understand how central banks influence monetary policy.

5. **Financial Markets:**
- **Stock Markets:** Track global stock exchanges and indices.
- **Currency Markets:** Examine foreign exchange rates.
- **Commodity Markets:** Monitor prices of essential commodities like oil, gold, and agricultural products.

6. **Labor Market:**
- **Global Workforce:** Analyze trends in international migration and labor movements.

7. **Technological Innovation:**
- **Technological Advancements:** Consider the impact of emerging technologies on productivity and economic growth.

8. **Government Policies:**
- **Fiscal Policies:** Government taxation and spending.
- **Monetary Policies:** Central bank decisions on interest rates and money supply.

9. **Environmental and Social Factors:**
- **Sustainability:** Evaluate the impact of economic activities on the environment.
- **Social Welfare:** Consider factors like income inequality and poverty.

10. **Global Risks:**
- **Geopolitical Risks:** Assess potential conflicts and political instability.
- **Economic Risks:** Analyze factors such as recessions, financial crises, and pandemics.

11. **Emerging Markets and Technologies:**
- **Identify new and growing markets.**
- **Analyze the impact of technological advancements on various sectors.**

Remember, this is a simplified model, and the real-world global economy is much more intricate. It's also important to consider that economic models are constantly evolving due to changing circumstances and events."
[{2023-12-09 retrieved}]


· capitalist-economy is an-economy with employers and employees.

* McsEngl.Socecon.005-capitalism!⇒econCptl,
* McsEngl.Socecon.capitalism!⇒econCptl,
* McsEngl.econCptl,
* McsEngl.capitalism-economy!⇒econCptl,
* McsEngl.capitalist-economy!⇒econCptl,

wage-worker (link) of econCptl

info-resource of econCptl


* McsEngl.econCptl.Infrsc,


">feudalism vs serfdom:
Feudalism and serfdom are related concepts that were prevalent in medieval societies, particularly in Europe, during the Middle Ages. While they are closely connected, they refer to different aspects of the social and economic structure of feudal societies.

Feudalism was a political and social system that dominated medieval Europe. It was characterized by a hierarchical structure of land ownership and obligations. At the top of the hierarchy was the monarch (king or queen), who granted land (fiefs) to nobles (lords or vassals) in exchange for loyalty, military service, and other forms of support. In turn, these nobles could further subdivide their land and grant portions of it to lower-ranking nobles or knights.
The key features of feudalism include:
1. **Decentralized Authority:** Political power was decentralized, with local lords holding significant authority over their territories.
2. **Land Ownership:** Land was the primary source of wealth and power. The king owned the ultimate authority over all land, but he granted land to nobles in exchange for services.
3. **Hierarchy:** Society was organized into a hierarchical structure, with the king at the top, followed by nobles, knights, and peasants.

Serfdom, on the other hand, refers specifically to the condition of the peasant class within the feudal system. Serfs were bound to the land they worked and were subject to the authority of the local lord. Unlike slaves, serfs were not considered the property of the lord; however, they were not free to leave the land or choose their occupation. Serfs worked the land, paid rent to the lord in the form of goods or labor, and were often subject to various feudal obligations.
Key features of serfdom include:
1. **Tied to the Land:** Serfs were attached to the land and couldn't leave without the lord's permission.
2. **Limited Rights:** While not slaves, serfs had limited personal freedoms and rights. They were subject to the authority of the lord.
3. **Economic Dependency:** Serfs were economically dependent on the land and the protection of the lord. Their lives were closely tied to agricultural production.

In summary, feudalism is the broader social and political system characterized by the exchange of land for services and the hierarchical structure of authority, while serfdom is a specific condition of the peasant class within that system, involving their attachment to the land and their obligations to the local lord."
[{2023-12-10 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Socecon.011-feudal!⇒econFeudal,
* McsEngl.Socecon.feudal!⇒econFeudal,
* McsEngl.econFeudal!=feudal-economy,
* McsEngl.feudal-economy!⇒econFeudal,

serf-worker (link) of econFeudal


">overview of slave-economy:
The term "slave economy" typically refers to an economic system that is heavily dependent on the institution of slavery, where enslaved individuals are a central component of the workforce. Historically, many societies have engaged in slave economies, with the most well-known example being the transatlantic slave trade and the plantation economies of the Americas during the 16th to 19th centuries.
Here is an overview of key aspects of a slave economy:

1. **Labor Force:** Enslaved individuals form a significant portion of the labor force. They are often forced to work in agriculture, mining, construction, and other physically demanding activities. Plantation economies, in particular, were heavily reliant on slave labor for cultivating crops like tobacco, sugar, cotton, and indigo.

2. **Social Hierarchy:** Slave economies are characterized by a rigid social hierarchy, where enslaved individuals occupy the lowest strata. Owners, usually landowners or wealthy individuals, hold significant power and wealth.

3. **Economic Dependency:** The economy becomes highly dependent on the institution of slavery. Profits generated from slave labor contribute significantly to the economic prosperity of the society or region. The slave trade itself becomes a lucrative business.

4. **Legal Framework:** The legal system is often structured to support and maintain the institution of slavery. Laws are enacted to control and regulate the lives of enslaved individuals, ensuring their subservience and limiting their rights.

5. **Resistance and Rebellion:** Enslaved individuals often resist their conditions through various means, including acts of rebellion, escape, or forming communities to preserve their cultural practices. Slave revolts and uprisings have been a recurring feature throughout history.

6. **Impact on Culture and Society:** The pervasive use of slave labor can have a profound impact on the culture and society of the time. It may contribute to the dehumanization of enslaved individuals, fostering racism and prejudice.

7. **Abolition Movements:** Over time, various abolition movements have sought to challenge and dismantle the institution of slavery. These movements are driven by moral, ethical, religious, and humanitarian considerations.

It's important to note that while the transatlantic slave trade and plantation economies are among the most infamous examples, slavery has existed in various forms throughout history and in different parts of the world. The consequences of past slave economies continue to shape social, economic, and cultural dynamics in many regions today. The legacy of slavery often includes persistent inequalities and challenges in achieving social justice and equality.
[{2023-12-10 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Socecon.012-slave!⇒econSlave,
* McsEngl.Socecon.slave!⇒econSlave,
* McsEngl.econSlave!=slave-economy,
* McsEngl.slave-economy!⇒econSlave,

slave-worker (link) of econSlave

· an-economy that incorporates and its ecosystem.

* McsEngl.econEco,
* McsEngl.Socecon.001-eco!⇒econEco,

info-resource of econEco


* McsEngl.econEco'Infrsc,


"The circular economy is a way of building a world with no waste."
"A circular economy (often referred to simply as "circularity"[1]) is an economic system aimed at eliminating waste and the continual use of resources. Circular systems employ reuse, sharing, repair, refurbishment, remanufacturing and recycling to create a closed-loop system, minimising the use of resource inputs and the creation of waste, pollution and carbon emissions.[2] The circular economy aims to keep products, equipment and infrastructure[3] in use for longer, thus improving the productivity of these resources. All "waste" should become "food" for another process: either a by-product or recovered resource for another industrial process or as regenerative resources for nature (e.g., compost). This regenerative approach is in contrast to the traditional linear economy, which has a "take, make, dispose" model of production.[4]"

* McsEngl.circular-economy!⇒econCircular,
* McsEngl.econCircular,
* McsEngl.econEcon.circular!⇒econCircular,
* McsEngl.Socecon.003-circular!⇒econCircular,
* McsEngl.Socecon.circular!⇒econCircular,

info-resource of econCircular


* McsEngl.econCircular'Infrsc,


"Nature provides us with resources, we should give back to nature in our business models."

* McsEngl.econRegenerative,
* McsEngl.econEco.regenerative!⇒econRegenerative,
* McsEngl.Socecon.004-regenerative!⇒econRegenerative,
* McsEngl.Socecon.regenerative!⇒econRegenerative,
* McsEngl.regenerative-economy!⇒econRegenerative,


· an-economy that does-not-incorporate its ecosystem.

* McsEngl.Socecon.002-ecoNo,
* McsEngl.Socecon.ecoNo,


"A macroeconomic model is an analytical tool designed to describe the operation of the problems of economy of a country or a region. These models are usually designed to examine the comparative statics and dynamics of aggregate quantities such as the total amount of goods and services produced, total income earned, the level of employment of productive resources, and the level of prices.
Macroeconomic models may be logical, mathematical, and/or computational; the different types of macroeconomic models serve different purposes and have different advantages and disadvantages.[1] Macroeconomic models may be used to clarify and illustrate basic theoretical principles; they may be used to test, compare, and quantify different macroeconomic theories; they may be used to produce "what if" scenarios (usually to predict the effects of changes in monetary, fiscal, or other macroeconomic policies); and they may be used to generate economic forecasts. Thus, macroeconomic models are widely used in academia in teaching and research, and are also widely used by international organizations, national governments and larger corporations, as well as by economic consultants and think tanks."
[{2023-12-09 retrieved}]

">types of macroeconomic models:
Macroeconomic models are mathematical representations of the economy that are used to explain economic phenomena and make forecasts about future economic conditions. There are several different types of macroeconomic models, each with its own strengths and weaknesses.

**Simple Theoretical Models**
Simple theoretical models are often used to illustrate basic economic concepts. They are typically based on a small number of assumptions and can be easily understood by non-economists. Examples of simple theoretical models include the IS-LM model and the Mundell-Fleming model.

**Empirical Forecasting Models**
Empirical forecasting models are statistical models that are used to forecast future economic conditions. They are based on historical data and are typically used by central banks and other policymakers. Examples of empirical forecasting models include vector autoregression (VAR) models and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models.

**Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) Models**
DSGE models are the most complex type of macroeconomic model. They are based on microeconomic foundations and are designed to capture the dynamic interactions of households, firms, and the government. DSGE models are often used to study the effects of economic policies and other shocks to the economy.

**Agent-Based Computational Macroeconomic Models**
Agent-based computational macroeconomic models are a relatively new type of model that has gained popularity in recent years. They are based on the idea that the economy is made up of a large number of individual agents, such as households and firms, who make decisions based on their own perceptions and motivations. Agent-based models are often used to study the emergence of complex economic phenomena, such as business cycles and financial crises.

**Examples of Macroeconomic Models**
Here are some examples of specific macroeconomic models:
* **IS-LM model:** This model describes the relationship between investment, savings, and the money supply.
* **Monetary policy transmission mechanism:** This model describes how changes in the money supply can affect economic activity.
* **Real business cycle model:** This model argues that economic fluctuations are driven by supply shocks, such as technological change or natural disasters.
* **New Keynesian model:** This model combines insights from both Keynesian and neoclassical economics to explain economic fluctuations.
* **Dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model:** This is the most complex type of macroeconomic model, and it is used to study the effects of economic policies and other shocks to the economy.

**Applications of Macroeconomic Models**
Macroeconomic models are used for a variety of purposes, including:
* **Understanding the causes of economic fluctuations**
* **Forecasting future economic conditions**
* **Developing and evaluating economic policies**
* **Educating students about macroeconomics**

**Limitations of Macroeconomic Models**
Macroeconomic models are only approximations of the real economy, and they can be inaccurate for a variety of reasons. For example, they may not take into account all of the factors that affect the economy, or they may make assumptions that are not realistic. As a result, it is important to be aware of the limitations of macroeconomic models and to use them with caution."
[{2023-12-09 retrieved}]

">types of macroeconomic models:
Macroeconomic models are analytical tools used by economists to study and understand the behavior of an economy as a whole. These models aim to capture the relationships among various economic variables at the aggregate level. There are several types of macroeconomic models, each with its own set of assumptions and methodologies. Here are some common types:

1. **Classical Macroeconomic Models:**
- **Classical Aggregate Supply-Aggregate Demand Model:** This model is based on the classical economic principles of Say's Law and assumes that markets clear and the economy quickly adjusts to full employment.
- **Classical Growth Models:** These models focus on the long-term growth of the economy, often incorporating factors such as capital accumulation and technological progress.

2. **Keynesian Macroeconomic Models:**
- **Keynesian Cross Model:** Developed by John Maynard Keynes, this model focuses on the short run and introduces the concept of aggregate demand and the role of government intervention in managing the economy.
- **IS-LM Model:** This model combines the investment-savings (IS) curve with the liquidity-money (LM) curve to analyze the relationship between interest rates and output in the short run.

3. **Monetarist Models:**
- **Monetary Aggregate Targeting Models:** These models emphasize the role of money supply and its impact on inflation and economic activity. Monetarists often argue for a stable growth rate in the money supply.
- **Quantity Theory of Money Models:** Based on the equation of exchange, these models relate the money supply, velocity of money, and the price level to economic output.

4. **New Keynesian Models:**
- **New Keynesian Phillips Curve Models:** These models incorporate price and wage rigidities into the Phillips curve framework, allowing for a more nuanced analysis of inflation and output dynamics.
- **Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) Models:** DSGE models integrate microeconomic foundations into macroeconomic analysis, incorporating the behavior of individual agents and considering the impact of shocks on the economy.

5. **Real Business Cycle (RBC) Models:**
- **RBC Models:** These models focus on real shocks to the economy, such as changes in technology or productivity, to explain business cycle fluctuations. They emphasize the role of real factors in driving economic cycles.

6. **Agent-Based Models:**
- **Agent-Based Models (ABMs):** These models simulate the interactions of individual agents (households, firms) to understand how their decisions collectively shape macroeconomic outcomes. ABMs are useful for capturing heterogeneity and complex dynamics.

7. **Open Economy Models:**
- **Mundell-Fleming Model:** This model extends the IS-LM framework to analyze the interactions between exchange rates and interest rates in an open economy.
- **Small Open Economy Models:** These models consider the effects of international trade, capital flows, and exchange rate movements on a small open economy.

These are just a few examples, and there are many variations and extensions within each category. Macroeconomic modeling is an evolving field, and researchers continue to develop new models to better understand and address the complexities of the global economy."
[{2023-12-09 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Socecon.008-macroeconomic-model,
* McsEngl.Socecon.macroeconomic-model,
* McsEngl.macroeconomic-model,


">Agent-Based Computational Macroeconomic Models:
Agent-Based Computational Macroeconomic Models (ABCMMs) are a type of computational modeling approach used to study macroeconomic phenomena by simulating the interactions and behaviors of individual economic agents. In traditional macroeconomic models, such as Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) models, agents are often represented by representative agents or homogeneous groups. In contrast, ABCMMs focus on modeling the heterogeneity and adaptive behavior of individual agents, allowing for a more detailed and realistic representation of economic dynamics.

Key features of Agent-Based Computational Macroeconomic Models:

1. **Agent Heterogeneity:** In ABCMMs, economic agents are heterogeneous and have diverse characteristics, preferences, and decision-making rules. This reflects the real-world diversity observed in households, firms, and financial institutions.

2. **Adaptive Behavior:** Agents in ABCMMs typically adapt their behavior based on their experiences and the information available to them. This can lead to the emergence of complex and non-linear dynamics, allowing the model to capture phenomena such as market bubbles, crashes, and other macroeconomic patterns that arise from individual interactions.

3. **Interaction Networks:** Agents interact with each other through networks, representing various economic relationships. These networks can include trade connections, financial transactions, and other forms of economic linkages.

4. **Learning and Information Processing:** Agents in ABCMMs often have bounded rationality, limited information, and imperfect foresight. They learn from past experiences and adjust their strategies over time, which contributes to the evolving dynamics of the model.

5. **Emergent Properties:** ABCMMs aim to capture the emergence of macroeconomic phenomena as a result of interactions among heterogeneous agents. This approach allows researchers to explore how aggregate economic patterns, such as business cycles, unemployment, and inflation, emerge from the bottom-up interactions of individual agents.

6. **Policy Experiments:** ABCMMs provide a platform for conducting policy experiments to understand the effects of different policy interventions on the macroeconomy. Researchers can explore the consequences of changes in fiscal policy, monetary policy, or regulatory frameworks within a simulated environment.

While ABCMMs offer a more flexible and realistic representation of economic systems compared to traditional models, they also come with challenges, such as computational complexity and the need for substantial amounts of data to calibrate and validate the models. Nonetheless, they have become an important tool for researchers seeking to understand the dynamics of complex economic systems and the implications of various policy interventions."
[{2023-12-09 retrieved}]

">Agent-Based Computational Macroeconomic Models:
**What are Agent-Based Computational Macroeconomic Models?**

Agent-based computational macroeconomic (ACMM) models are a type of macroeconomic model that simulates the economy as a collection of interacting agents rather than as a system of equations. This approach allows for a more detailed and realistic representation of the economy, as it can capture the heterogeneity of agents and their complex interactions.

**Key Features of ACMM Models**
ACMM models typically have the following key features:
* **Heterogeneity of agents:** Agents in ACMM models are typically heterogeneous, meaning that they have different characteristics and behaviors. This heterogeneity can be in terms of factors such as income, wealth, preferences, and decision-making rules.
* **Limited rationality:** Agents in ACMM models are typically assumed to be limitedly rational, meaning that they do not have perfect information or the ability to fully optimize their decisions. This approach allows for more realistic behavior, as it captures the fact that real-world agents often make mistakes or have biases in their decision-making.
* **Dynamic interactions:** Agents in ACMM models interact with each other in real time, and these interactions can affect each agent's behavior and the overall economy. This dynamic nature of ACMM models allows for the emergence of complex phenomena, such as economic fluctuations and financial crises.

**Applications of ACMM Models**
ACMM models have been used to study a wide range of macroeconomic phenomena, including:
* **Business cycles:** ACMM models have been used to study the causes of business cycles, such as the factors that lead to recessions and expansions.
* **Financial crises:** ACMM models have been used to study the causes of financial crises, such as the role of contagion and herd behavior.
* **Economic policy:** ACMM models have been used to evaluate the effectiveness of different economic policies, such as monetary and fiscal policy.

**Advantages of ACMM Models**
ACMM models have several advantages over traditional macroeconomic models:
* **More realistic representation of the economy:** ACMM models can capture the complexity and heterogeneity of the real economy more realistically than traditional models.
* **Ability to study emergent phenomena:** ACMM models can be used to study complex phenomena that cannot be explained by traditional models.
* **Flexibility in model design:** ACMM models are relatively easy to modify to study different economic scenarios.

**Challenges of ACMM Models**
ACMM models also have some challenges:
* **Computational complexity:** ACMM models can be computationally expensive to run, which limits the size and complexity of the models that can be studied.
* **Data requirements:** ACMM models require a large amount of data to parameterize the models and evaluate their results.
* **Interpretability:** The results of ACMM models can be difficult to interpret, as they can be sensitive to the initial conditions of the model and the specific parameters used.

**Overall, ACMM models are a promising new approach to macroeconomic modeling that offers a more realistic and nuanced understanding of the economy. As computational power and data availability continue to increase, ACMM models are likely to play an increasingly important role in macroeconomic research and policy.**"
[{2023-12-09 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ABCMM!⇒agent-based-computational-macroeconomic-model,
* McsEngl.ACMM!⇒agent-based-computational-macroeconomic-model,
* McsEngl.Socecon.010-agent-based-computational-macroeconomic-model,
* McsEngl.Socecon.agent-based-computational-macroeconomic-model,
* McsEngl.agent-based-computational-macroeconomic-model,


">give me a conceptual model of an economy:
Economists use various models to conceptualize and understand the workings of an economy. One commonly used model is the Circular Flow Model, which provides a simplified representation of the interactions between different economic agents. Here's a basic overview of the Circular Flow Model:

1. **Households:** In the economy, households are the primary consumers of goods and services. They own factors of production (such as labor) and supply them to firms in exchange for income.

2. **Firms:** Firms are businesses that produce goods and services. They hire labor and purchase other inputs from households and, in return, pay wages and other forms of income.

3. **Product Market:** This is where goods and services are bought and sold. Firms sell their products to households in exchange for money, and households buy goods and services from firms.

4. **Factor Market:** This is where the factors of production (land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship) are bought and sold. Households provide these factors to firms, and in return, firms pay for these inputs.

5. **Government:** The government plays a role in the economy by collecting taxes from households and firms and providing goods and services (such as infrastructure, education, and defense). The government may also redistribute income through various social programs.

6. **Financial Market:** This is where households can save money and invest, and firms can borrow money for investment. Financial institutions, such as banks, facilitate the flow of funds between savers and borrowers.

7. **International Sector:** This represents the economic interactions with the rest of the world. Countries engage in international trade by exporting and importing goods and services, and there are flows of capital and investment across borders.

The Circular Flow Model illustrates how money, goods, and services circulate in the economy through various transactions. It's important to note that this model is a simplified representation and doesn't capture all the complexities of a real-world economy. For example, it doesn't account for government intervention, the role of central banks, or the impacts of economic fluctuations.

Other more advanced models, such as the Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply model or various macroeconomic models, delve into greater detail to analyze factors like inflation, unemployment, and overall economic output. These models are used by economists to make predictions, formulate policies, and understand the dynamics of different economic systems."
[{2023-12-08 retrieved}]

">Circular Flow Model of economy:
The circular flow model is a simplified representation of how money, goods, and services flow between different sectors of an economy. It is a useful tool for understanding how households, businesses, and governments interact in a market economy.

**Components of the Circular Flow Model**
The circular flow model consists of four main components:
1. **Households:** Households provide factors of production (labor, land, capital) to businesses in exchange for income (wages, rent, interest payments).
2. **Businesses:** Businesses use the factors of production to produce goods and services, which are then sold to households in exchange for revenue.
3. **Government:** The government collects taxes from households and businesses and then uses that money to provide public goods and services, such as education, healthcare, and infrastructure.
4. **Markets:** Markets are the places where goods and services are bought and sold. There are two types of markets: product markets, where goods and services are traded, and factor markets, where factors of production are traded.

**Flow of Money and Goods**
The circular flow model illustrates how money and goods flow between these four sectors:
1. **Flow of money from households to businesses:** Households spend their income on goods and services produced by businesses. This creates revenue for businesses, which they can use to pay wages to workers, rent to landowners, and interest to lenders.
2. **Flow of money from businesses to households:** Businesses use the money they earn from sales to pay for the factors of production they need to produce goods and services. This money flows back to households in the form of wages, rent, and interest payments.
3. **Flow of money from government to households and businesses:** The government collects taxes from households and businesses, which it uses to provide public goods and services. This money flows from the government to households and businesses in the form of transfers, such as social security payments and subsidies.
4. **Flow of goods and services from businesses to households and government:** Businesses produce goods and services, which they sell to households and the government. This creates a demand for goods and services, which drives production.

**Importance of the Circular Flow Model**
The circular flow model is a useful tool for understanding how economies function. It can help to explain the following:
1. **The role of markets:** The circular flow model shows how markets play a central role in the economy by facilitating the exchange of goods and services between households and businesses.
2. **The role of money:** The circular flow model shows how money acts as a medium of exchange, which facilitates transactions and promotes efficiency in the economy.
3. **The role of government:** The circular flow model shows how the government affects the economy through taxation, spending, and regulation.
4. **The interdependence of economic sectors:** The circular flow model shows how the different sectors of the economy are interdependent and how changes in one sector can affect the others."
[{2023-12-08 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Socecon.006-circular-flow-model,
* McsEngl.Socecon.circular-flow-model,
* McsEngl.circular-flow-model--of-economy,


">Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply economic-model:
The Aggregate Demand (AD) and Aggregate Supply (AS) model is a fundamental framework in macroeconomics used to analyze the overall performance of an economy. It helps economists and policymakers understand the factors that influence the level of output, employment, and prices in the economy.

### 1. **Aggregate Demand (AD):**
- **Definition:** Aggregate Demand represents the total quantity of goods and services demanded by all sectors of an economy at different price levels and in a given period.
- **Components of AD:**
- Consumption (C): Spending by households on goods and services.
- Investment (I): Spending by businesses on capital goods.
- Government Spending (G): Government expenditures on goods and services.
- Net Exports (NX): The difference between exports and imports.

### 2. **Aggregate Supply (AS):**
- **Definition:** Aggregate Supply represents the total quantity of goods and services that producers in an economy are willing and able to supply at different price levels and in a given period.
- **Short-Run Aggregate Supply (SRAS):** In the short run, the level of output can deviate from its long-run potential due to factors like changes in resource prices.
- **Long-Run Aggregate Supply (LRAS):** In the long run, the level of output is determined by the economy's productive capacity and is not affected by changes in price levels.

### 3. **Equilibrium:**
- The equilibrium in the AD-AS model occurs where the aggregate demand equals the aggregate supply. This equilibrium level of output is associated with a specific price level.

### 4. **Shifts in Aggregate Demand and Supply:**
- **Factors affecting AD shifts:**
- Changes in consumer confidence.
- Fiscal policy changes (government spending and taxation).
- Monetary policy changes (interest rates and money supply).
- Changes in exchange rates affecting net exports.

- **Factors affecting AS shifts:**
- Changes in input prices (e.g., wages, oil prices).
- Technological advancements.
- Changes in the labor force and productivity.
- Government regulations affecting production.

### 5. **Macroeconomic Equilibrium:**
- When AD and AS intersect, the economy is in short-run equilibrium. However, this may differ from the long-run equilibrium, where the economy operates at its full potential level of output.

### 6. **Inflationary and Recessionary Gaps:**
- An inflationary gap occurs when the economy is operating above its long-run potential, leading to upward pressure on prices.
- A recessionary gap occurs when the economy is operating below its long-run potential, leading to high unemployment and lower prices.

### 7. **Policy Implications:**
- Policymakers use the AD-AS model to design and implement economic policies. For instance, during a recession, policymakers may implement expansionary fiscal or monetary policies to boost AD.

Understanding the AD-AS model is crucial for policymakers to make informed decisions about economic stabilization and growth. It provides a framework for analyzing the impact of various factors on the overall health of an economy."
[{2023-12-09 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.AD-AS-model,
* McsEngl.Socecon.007-aggregate-demand-and-aggregate-supply--model,
* McsEngl.Socecon.aggregate-demand-and-aggregate-supply--model,
* McsEngl.aggregate-demand-and-aggregate-supply--economic-model,


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