senso-concept-Mcs (ogznPrdg)

McsHitp-creation:: {2020-07-31}

overview of ogznPrdg

· ogznPrdg is a-human-society-organization that MAINLY produces satisfiers for a-society.
· a-producer-ozn also consumes satisfiers.

· stxZhon: 我 是 第 一 个 到 公司 的 人。 :: _stxSbj:[Wǒ] _stxVrb:{shì} _stxSbjc:[dì-yī gè dào gōngsī (de) rén]. != [I] {am} [first arived company person]. :: I'm the first person that came to the office.

* McsEngl.McsStn000015.last.html//dirStn//dirMcs!⇒ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.dirMcs/dirStn/McsStn000015.last.html!⇒ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.Econcmpn!⇒ogznPrdg, {2024-03-10}
* McsEngl.Socecon'att008-production-ozn!⇒ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.Socecon'production-ozn!⇒ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.Socozn.production!⇒ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.cmpn!⇒ogznPrdg, {2024-02-13},
* economic-institution!⇒ogznPrdg,
* economic-organization!⇒ogznPrdg,
* economic-ozn!⇒ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.enterprise!⇒ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.householdNo-organization!⇒ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.non-household-organization!⇒ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.ogzn.001-production!⇒ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.ogznConsumptionNo!⇒ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.ogznEcon!⇒ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.ogznPdcn!⇒ogznPrdg, {2020-11-07},
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg!=McsStn000015,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg!=producing--economic-organization, {2024-03-02}
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg//economy!⇒ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.oznPrdn!⇒ogznPrdg, {2023-10-18},
* McsEngl.ogznProduction!⇒ogznPrdg, {2020-11-07},
* McsEngl.ogznSatisfier!⇒ogznPrdg, {2020-09-02},
* McsEngl.ogznSfr!⇒ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.ogznHouseholdNo!⇒ogznPrdg, {2020-10-25},
* McsEngl.producer-organization!⇒ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.producing--economic-organization!⇒ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.production-organization!⇒ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.satisfier'05_organization!⇒ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.satisfier'att012-organization!⇒ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.satisfier'organization!⇒ogznPrdg,
* economic = producing or consuming
* human-economic-organization!⇒ogznPrdg,
* ogzn.economic!⇒ogznPrdg,
* ogznProduction!=organization.economic,
* organization.human.economic!⇒ogznPrdg,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.gōngsī-公司!=ogznPrdg,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.οργανισμός-παραγωγής!=ogznPrdg,
* McsElln.παραγωγής-οργανισμός!=ogznPrdg,

"An enterprise is the view of an institutional unit as a producer of goods and services.
The term enterprise may refer to a corporation, a quasi-corporation, an NPI or an unincorporated enterprise."
OpenCorporates has taken a pragmatic and (we think) sensible approach to this, as it changes from country to country and culture to culture: a company is something registered as a company by a company registry."

VATID of ogznPrdg

"A value added tax identification number or VAT identification number (VATIN[1]) is an identifier used in many countries, including the countries of the European Union, for value added tax purposes.
In the EU, a VAT identification number can be verified online at the EU's official VIES[2] website. It confirms that the number is currently allocated and can provide the name or other identifying details of the entity to whom the identifier has been allocated. However, many national governments will not give out VAT identification numbers due to data protection laws."
[{2021-01-22} http://localhost/dWstSgm/dirMcs/Mcs000000.last.html#idMwsstatCpt]

* McsEngl.VATID'(value-added-tax-identification-number),
* McsEngl.VAT-identification-number,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att031-Vatid,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'Vatid,
* McsEngl.value-added-tax-identification-number,


DUNS of ogznPrdg

"The Data Universal Numbering System, abbreviated as DUNS or D-U-N-S, is a proprietary system developed and managed by Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) that assigns a unique numeric identifier, referred to as a "DUNS number" to a single business entity. It was introduced in 1963 to support D&B's credit reporting practice. It is standard worldwide. DUNS users include the European Commission, the United Nations, the United States government, and Apple. More than 50 global industry and trade associations recognize, recommend, or require DUNS. The DUNS database contains over 300 million entries for businesses throughout the world.[1]"

* McsEngl.DUNS'(data-universal-numbering-system),
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att032-Duns,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'Duns,

01_node of ogznPrdg

· ogznPrdg'node is a-part of it which is a-system.

* McsEngl.node-of-ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'01_node,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att025-node,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'node,

* ozn'node,

* creation-node,
* governance-node,

02-stakeholder of ogznPrdg

· any human or ozn related to ogznPrdg.

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'02-stakeholder,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att012-stakeholder,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'stakeholder,
* McsEngl.stakeholder-of-ogznPrdg,


* hmnMember-of-ogznPrdg,
* owner-of-ogznPrdg,
* consumer-of-ogznPrdg,
* supplier-of-ogznPrdg,
* government-of-ogznPrdg,
* trade-union-of-ogznPrdg,
* community-of-ogznPrdg,

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'stakeholder.specific,

stakeholder.owner (link)


· the-buyer of its sufisfiers.

* McsEngl.customer-of-ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att028-customer,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'customer,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'stakeholder.customer,


">supplier of organization:
The supplier of an organization refers to an external entity or business that provides goods, services, or raw materials to the organization. Suppliers play a crucial role in the supply chain and overall operations of a company. They can be individuals, other companies, or even government agencies, depending on the nature of the organization and its needs.

Organizations often establish relationships with suppliers to ensure a steady and reliable source of necessary resources. These relationships can be formalized through contracts and agreements that outline terms and conditions such as pricing, delivery schedules, quality standards, and other relevant factors.

The selection of suppliers is an important strategic decision for organizations, as it can impact the cost, quality, and efficiency of their operations. Many businesses evaluate potential suppliers based on criteria such as reliability, reputation, financial stability, ethical practices, and the ability to meet specific requirements.

Effective supplier management is essential for maintaining a smooth and efficient supply chain. This involves ongoing communication, monitoring of performance, and collaboration to address any issues that may arise.

In summary, a supplier is an external entity that provides goods, services, or raw materials to an organization, and managing these relationships is crucial for the success of the organization's operations."
[{2023-12-03 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'supplier-stakeholder,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att034-supplier-stakeholder,
* McsEngl.stakeholder.supplier,

03-humans-system of ogznPrdg

· the-humans-subsystem of the-organization.

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'03-node.humans,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att029-node.humans,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'node.humans,

hmnMember of ogznPrdg

· the-humans members (that make-up) of the-ogznPrdg.

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'hmnMember,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att001-humanHmn,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'hmnMember,

hiring of ogznPrdg

">hiring employees:
Hiring employees is a critical process for any organization, as it involves finding, selecting, and bringing on board new talent that aligns with the company's goals, culture, and operational needs. To effectively hire employees, organizations typically follow a structured process that includes several key steps:
1. **Identifying the Need:** Determine the positions that need to be filled within the organization, considering factors such as current and future business requirements, budget, and workforce planning.
2. **Creating a Job Description:** Develop a detailed job description that outlines the responsibilities, qualifications, experience, and skills required for the position. This should also include information about the company culture and any benefits or perks associated with the role.
3. **Sourcing Candidates:** Utilize various channels to find suitable candidates. This can include job posting sites, social media platforms, employee referrals, professional networks, and recruitment agencies.
4. **Screening and Shortlisting:** Review applications and resumes to identify candidates who best match the job requirements. This may involve initial screening calls or assessments to further narrow down the pool of applicants.
5. **Interviewing:** Conduct interviews with shortlisted candidates to assess their qualifications, experience, and fit for the role and company culture. Interviews can be conducted in various formats, including one-on-one, panel, or virtual meetings.
6. **Evaluation and Selection:** After interviewing, evaluate candidates based on their responses, qualifications, and how well they fit with the company culture and role requirements. This stage may involve additional assessments or reference checks.
7. **Job Offer:** Once a candidate is selected, extend a job offer, which should include details about salary, benefits, start date, and other relevant employment terms. Negotiations may take place at this stage.
8. **Onboarding:** After the offer is accepted, begin the onboarding process to integrate the new employee into the company. This includes completing necessary paperwork, introducing them to the team, and providing training and resources needed to perform their job.
Each of these steps can be tailored to the specific needs and practices of the organization. Effective hiring not only fills open positions but also contributes to the overall strength and competitiveness of the company by bringing in talented individuals who can drive success. It's also important for organizations to ensure their hiring practices are fair, inclusive, and compliant with local labor laws and regulations."
[{2024-02-12 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.hiring-in-ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att035-hiring,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'hiring,

info-resource of hiring of ogznPrdg

- the date,
- the flirt,
- and the fiancé.

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'hiring'Infrsc,

hmnOwner of ogznPrdg

· any member who owns the-organization.

* McsEngl.businessman,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att007-owner,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'owner,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.shāngrén-商人!=businessman,
* McsZhon.商人-shāngrén!=businessman,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.επιχειρηματίας-ο|η!=businessman,

hmnWorker of ogznPrdg

· any member who works in this organization.

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att008-worker!⇒wrkrOznProduction,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'worker!⇒wrkrOznProduction,
* McsEngl.wrkrOznProduction,

* manager,
* laborer,

info-resource of wrkrOznProduction

*, Online retailer Amazon has added 427,300 new employees to its company this year, increasing its total workforce to 1.2 million.

* McsEngl.idOznPdnatt008rscF'Infrsc,

manager of ogznPrdg

=== jīnglǐ-经理:
· stxZhon: 他 当 经理 了。 :: _stxSbj:[Tā] _stxVrb:{dāng} _stxObj:[jīnglǐ] {le}. != He became a manager. (He wasn't a manager before.)

* McsEngl.manager-of-ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att009-manager,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'manager,
* McsEngl.wrkrManagerOznSatisfier,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.jīnglǐ-经理!=ogznPrdg'manager,
* McsZhon.经理-jīnglǐ!=ogznPrdg'manager,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.διαχειριστής!ο!=ogznPrdg'manager,
* McsElln.διευθύνων!ο!=ogznPrdg'manager,
* McsElln.μάνατζερ!ο!=ogznPrdg'manager,

laborer of ogznPrdg


* McsEngl.laborer-of-ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att010-laborer,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'laborer,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'managerNo,
* McsEngl.wrkrManagerNoOznSatisfier,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.δουλευτής!=ogznPrdg'laborer,

sociality of ogznPrdg


* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'sociality,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att005-sociality,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'sociality,

04-economic-system of ogznPrdg

· production-node is the-node-(subsystem) that does the-production-function.

* McsEngl.Cmpnecon!=economic-system-of-company,
* McsEngl.producance-node--of-ogznPrdg!⇒Cmpnecon, {2020-10-26},
* McsEngl.production-node--of-ogznPrdg!⇒Cmpnecon,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'04-economic-system!⇒Cmpnecon,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'node.satisfier!⇒Cmpnecon,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att026-production-node!⇒Cmpnecon,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'node.production!⇒Cmpnecon,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'production-node!⇒Cmpnecon,
* McsEngl.sutisfier-subsystem--of-ogznPrdg!⇒Cmpnecon,

satisfier of ogznPrdg

· the-satisfier the-ogznPrdg manages.
· no satisfier, no economic-organization.

* McsEngl.Cmpnstfr!=company-satisfier,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'satisfier,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att003-satisfier,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'satisfier,

tax of ogznPrdg


* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att033-tax,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'tax,

satisfier-producing of ogznPrdg

"1.40 The activity of production is fundamental.
In the SNA, production is understood to be a physical process, carried out under the responsibility, control and management of an institutional unit, in which labour and assets are used to transform inputs of goods and services into outputs of other goods and services.
All goods and services produced as outputs must be such that they can be sold on markets or at least be capable of being provided by one unit to another, with or without charge.
The SNA includes within the production boundary all production actually destined for the market, whether for sale or barter.
It also includes all goods or services provided free to individual households or collectively to the community by government units or NPISHs."

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att015-satisfier-producing,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'satisfier-producing,
* McsEngl.production-activity-of-ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.production-of-satisfier,

* creating,
* transacting,
** exchanging
** transiting-satisfiers,
** advertising-satisfiers, of ogznPrdg


* McsEngl.ogznPrdg',
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg', of ogznPrdg


* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att027-transacting-node,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'transacting-node,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'node.transacting,

** exchanging
** transiting-satisfiers,
** advertising-satisfiers,

node.financing of ogznPrdg

"Finance Department is the part of an organization that is responsible for acquiring funds for the firm, managing funds within the organization and planning for the expenditure of funds on various assets. It is the part of an organization that ensures efficient financial management and financial control necessary to support all business activities.
The contributions of finance department to any company and how these contributions positively affect organisational performance will greatly depend on factors such as the extent to which the owner/ manager is involved in his company. The roles and responsibilities of a finance department include but are not limited to:
a. Bookkeeping
b. Management of company’s cash flow
c. Budgets and forecasting
d. Advising and sourcing longer-term financing
e. Management of Taxes
f. Management of Company’s Investments
g. Financial Reporting and analysis
h. Assist managers in making key strategic decisions"

* McsEngl.financing-sys-of-ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att014-financing-sys,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'financing-sys,

node.accounting of ogznPrdg

"While some people may have a differing opinion, the essential roles and duties of virtually any accounting department should include the following:
* Money out – making payments and keeping the bills paid
* Money in – processing incoming payments
* Payroll – make sure everyone gets paid (including the government)
* Reporting – preparing financial reports, e.g. P&L, Balance sheets and budgets
* Financial Controls – to avoid errors, fraud and theft"

* McsEngl.accounting-department--of-ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.accounting-node--of-ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.bookeeping-node--of-ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att024-accounting-node,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'accounting-node,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'node.accounting,

05-admin-system of ogznPrdg

· the-governance-node of a-satisfier-organization.

">outline of company governance:
To provide a comprehensive outline on company governance, I'll break it down into key components that typically encompass the structures, principles, practices, and regulations governing the management and oversight of companies. This outline will cover the basics of corporate governance, including its significance, common structures, principles, and challenges.
### I. Introduction to Corporate Governance
A. Definition of Corporate Governance
B. Importance of Corporate Governance
1. Ensures accountability and transparency
2. Protects the interests of stakeholders
3. Enhances company reputation and investor confidence
### II. Key Principles of Corporate Governance
A. Accountability
B. Transparency
C. Fairness
D. Responsibility
### III. Governance Structures and Models
A. Board of Directors
1. Composition and roles
2. Board diversity and independence
B. Executive Management
1. CEO and executive roles
2. Separation of Chairman and CEO roles
C. Committees within the Board
1. Audit Committee
2. Remuneration Committee
3. Nomination Committee
D. Shareholders and Stakeholders
1. Rights and responsibilities
2. Engagement mechanisms
### IV. Regulatory Framework and Compliance
A. Laws and Regulations
1. Domestic and International Laws
2. Securities and Exchange Commissions
B. Corporate Governance Codes
1. Principles-based vs. Rules-based approaches
2. Adoption and adaptation across jurisdictions
### V. Challenges in Corporate Governance
A. Managing Conflicts of Interest
B. Ensuring Board Effectiveness
C. Governance in Family-owned, State-owned, and Multinational Corporations
D. Technological Changes and Cybersecurity Risks
### VI. Best Practices in Corporate Governance
A. Continuous Education and Training for Board Members
B. Implementing Effective Risk Management
C. Fostering a Culture of Ethical Conduct and Compliance
D. Regular Review and Adaptation of Governance Practices
### VII. The Future of Corporate Governance
A. Trends and Evolving Practices
B. The Role of Sustainability and ESG (Environmental, Social, and Governance) Criteria
C. The Impact of Digitalization and Artificial Intelligence
### VIII. Conclusion
A. The ongoing importance of robust corporate governance
B. The role of all stakeholders in fostering good governance
This outline provides a framework for understanding the complexities and nuances of company governance. Each section can be expanded with more detailed information, including case studies, regulatory examples, and emerging trends that highlight the practical application of these principles and structures in the business world."
[{2024-02-13 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Cmpnadmn!=admin-sys-of-ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.admin-sys-of-ogznPrdg!⇒Cmpnadmn,
* McsEngl.admnCmpn!⇒Cmpnadmn,
* McsEngl.governance-sys-of-ogznPrdg!⇒Cmpnadmn,
* McsEngl.gvcOznSfr!⇒Cmpnadmn,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'05-admin-sys!⇒Cmpnadmn,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'governance-sys!⇒Cmpnadmn,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att002-governance-sys!⇒Cmpnadmn,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'gvc!⇒Cmpnadmn,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'governance-sys!⇒Cmpnadmn,

* admnOgzn,

control of ogznPrdg

"26.85 Control is determined to exist if the direct investor owns more than 50 per cent of the voting power in the direct investment enterprise.
Such an enterprise is called a subsidiary.
A significant degree of influence is determined to exist if the direct investor owns from 10 to 50 percent of the voting power in the direct investment enterprise.
Such an enterprise is called an associate.
In order to achieve bilateral consistency and avoid subjective decisions about actual control or influence, these operational definitions should be used in all cases."

* McsEngl.control-of-ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att018-control,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'control,

06-law of ogznPrdg

× generic: lawEconomy,

"Corporate law (also known as business law or enterprise law or sometimes company law) is the body of law governing the rights, relations, and conduct of persons, companies, organizations and businesses. The term refers to the legal practice of law relating to corporations, or to the theory of corporations. Corporate law often describes the law relating to matters which derive directly from the life-cycle of a corporation.[1] It thus encompasses the formation, funding, governance, and death of a corporation."

">corporate law:
Corporate law, also known as business law, company law, or enterprise law, is the body of law governing the rights, relations, and conduct of persons, companies, organizations and businesses. It includes the formation, operation, governance, and termination of legal entities.

**Key Areas of Corporate Law**
* **Corporate Formation:** This area of law deals with the process of creating a corporation, including obtaining a corporate charter, drafting and filing corporate documents, and establishing corporate bylaws.
* **Corporate Governance:** This area of law governs the internal management of corporations, including the role of shareholders, directors, and officers. It also addresses issues such as corporate ethics, corporate social responsibility, and corporate accountability.
* **Corporate Finance:** This area of law deals with the raising of capital by corporations, including the issuance of stocks, bonds, and other securities. It also covers mergers, acquisitions, and other corporate transactions.
* **Corporate Liability:** This area of law addresses the legal obligations of corporations and their officers and directors. It includes issues such as tort liability, contract liability, and securities law liability.

**Importance of Corporate Law**
Corporate law is important for several reasons:
1. **It protects investors and shareholders:** Corporate law provides a framework for corporations to operate in a fair and transparent manner, which helps to protect the interests of investors and shareholders.
2. **It promotes competition:** Corporate law helps to ensure that corporations compete fairly and that markets are open and accessible to all.
3. **It protects creditors:** Corporate law protects the rights of creditors by ensuring that corporations fulfill their financial obligations.
4. **It promotes economic growth:** Corporate law contributes to economic growth by creating a stable and predictable environment for businesses to operate.

**Types of Corporations**
There are several different types of corporations, each with its own legal structure and governance. The most common types of corporations include:
* **C corporations:** C corporations are for-profit corporations that are taxed separately from their shareholders. They are the most common type of corporation for large businesses.
* **S corporations:** S corporations are for-profit corporations that are taxed as partnerships or LLCs. This means that the corporation's profits and losses are passed through to the shareholders, who are then taxed on their individual returns. S corporations are a popular choice for small businesses.
* **Limited Liability Companies (LLCs):** LLCs are hybrid entities that combine the characteristics of corporations and partnerships. LLCs offer limited liability protection to their members, and their profits are taxed as pass-through entities. LLCs are a popular choice for small businesses and startups.
* **Nonprofit Corporations:** Nonprofit corporations are organized for a charitable or other social purpose, and they are not allowed to distribute profits to their members. Nonprofit corporations are exempt from federal income tax, but they must file annual tax returns.

**Regulation of Corporate Law**
Corporate law is regulated by both state and federal law. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is the primary federal agency responsible for overseeing corporate law. The SEC has a wide range of authority, including the power to register and regulate securities offerings, investigate corporate fraud, and enforce insider trading laws.
In addition to the SEC, there are a number of other federal and state agencies that have jurisdiction over corporate law. These agencies include the Department of Justice, the Federal Trade Commission, and the state attorneys general.

Corporate law is a complex and ever-evolving area of law. It is important for businesses to have a basic understanding of corporate law to ensure that they are operating in compliance with the law. Businesses should also consult with an attorney to address specific legal issues.
[{2023-12-07 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.corporate-law!⇒lawCmpn,
* McsEngl.enterprise-law!⇒lawCmpn,
* McsEngl.lawCmpn!=company-law,
* McsEngl.lawEconomy.005-company!⇒lawCmpn,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'06-law!⇒lawCmpn,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att013-law!⇒lawCmpn,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'law!⇒lawCmpn,

07_health of ogznPrdg

">health of organization:
Organizational health is a multifaceted concept that encompasses an organization's ability to effectively operate, achieve its goals, and adapt to change. It is influenced by a range of factors, including employee engagement, leadership effectiveness, communication, culture, and decision-making processes.

**Key indicators of organizational health**
* **Employee engagement:** A healthy organization has employees who are engaged in their work, feel connected to their colleagues, and are motivated to contribute to the organization's success.
* **Leadership effectiveness:** Effective leaders set a clear vision, provide support and direction, and foster a positive and supportive work environment.
* **Communication:** Open and clear communication is essential for ensuring that everyone in the organization is on the same page and that important information is shared effectively.
* **Culture:** A healthy organizational culture is one that is based on shared values, trust, and respect. It promotes collaboration, innovation, and accountability.
* **Decision-making processes:** Effective decision-making processes involve clear roles, involvement of stakeholders, and a focus on data and analysis.

**Benefits of a healthy organization**
* **Improved employee engagement and productivity:** Healthy organizations are more likely to have engaged employees who are motivated and productive.
* **Increased customer satisfaction:** When employees are engaged and productive, they are more likely to provide excellent customer service.
* **Enhanced innovation and creativity:** Healthy organizations are more likely to foster a culture of innovation and creativity, leading to new products, services, and processes.
* **Improved financial performance:** Healthy organizations are more likely to achieve their financial goals and outperform their competitors.

**How to assess your organization's health**
There are a number of ways to assess your organization's health. One approach is to conduct surveys or focus groups with employees to gather their feedback on various aspects of the organization, such as leadership, communication, and culture. You can also benchmark your organization against industry standards to identify areas for improvement.

**Strategies for improving organizational health**
Once you have a good understanding of your organization's health, you can develop strategies to improve it. Here are a few examples of effective strategies:
* **Invest in employee engagement:** Provide opportunities for learning and development, offer flexible work arrangements, and recognize and reward employee contributions.
* **Develop strong leadership:** Ensure that leaders are equipped with the skills and training they need to be effective, and provide them with opportunities for growth.
* **Enhance communication:** Encourage open and honest communication across all levels of the organization, and use a variety of communication channels to reach different audiences.
* **Create a positive culture:** Foster a culture of trust, respect, and collaboration. Celebrate successes, and address issues promptly and effectively.
* **Improve decision-making processes:** Ensure that decisions are made in a transparent and accountable manner, and involve stakeholders in the process.

By investing in organizational health, organizations can reap numerous benefits, including improved employee engagement, customer satisfaction, innovation, and financial performance."
[{2023-12-10 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'07_health,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att006-health,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'health,

08_place of ogznPrdg

· the-place associated with the-organization.

* McsEngl.Pdnplace,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'08_place!⇒Pdnplace,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att011-place!⇒Pdnplace,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'location!⇒Pdnplace,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'place!⇒Pdnplace,


· the-place where it produces its satisfiers.

* McsEngl.Pdnplace.creating,
* McsEngl.creating-place-of-ogznPrdg,


· the-place where it transacts its satisfiers

* McsEngl.Pdnplace.transacting,
* McsEngl.transacting-place-of-ogznPrdg,


"26.36 The residence of each institutional unit is the economic territory with which it has the strongest connection, expressed as its centre of predominant economic interest.
An institutional unit is resident in an economic territory when there exists, within the economic territory, some location, dwelling, place of production, or other premises on which or from which the unit engages and intends to continue engaging, either indefinitely or over a finite but long period of time, in economic activities and transactions on a significant scale.
The location need not be fixed so long as it remains within the economic territory.
Actual or intended location for one year or more is used as an operational definition.
While the choice of one year as a specific period is somewhat arbitrary, it is adopted to avoid uncertainty and facilitate international consistency.
Most units have strong connections to only one economy but with globalization, a growing number have strong links to two or more economies."

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att023-residence,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'residence,
* McsEngl.residence-of-ogznPrdg,

09_size of ogznPrdg

· on misc attributes:
* quantity of workers,
* quantity of output,

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'09_size,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att036-size,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'size,

register of ogznPrdg

"A company register is a register of legal entities in the jurisdiction they operate under, for the purpose of protection, accountability and control of legal entities"

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att017-register,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'register,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.μητρώο-επιχειρήσεων,

"25.20 Registration.
One interpretation of what is informal is whatever is not registered with some arm of government.
The problems with this criterion are obvious.
Different countries have different practices on registration.
Some may insist that all activities, however small and casual, should be registered; others may be more pragmatic and require activities to be registered only when their turnover exceeds a given amount or when the number of employees exceeds a given number.
Further, whatever the official requirements for registration, the degree of compliance with the requirements will vary according to the extent to which they are enforced in practice.
A definition of the informal sector based on registration is therefore not going to give international comparability or, possibly, comparability over time within a country if the requirements for registration or degree of compliance with the requirements vary"

evaluation of ogznPrdg

">evaluation of organization:
Evaluating an organization is a crucial process that provides valuable insights into its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis). This evaluation can be used to identify areas for improvement, make informed decisions, and ensure the organization is aligned with its strategic goals.

**Key Aspects of Organizational Evaluation**
1. **Mission and Vision:** Evaluate whether the organization's mission and vision are clearly defined, relevant to its current environment, and inspiring to its employees.
2. **Values:** Assess whether the organization's values are actively upheld and reflected in its practices, decisions, and behaviors.
3. **Goals and Objectives:** Evaluate whether the organization's goals and objectives are SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-bound), aligned with the mission and vision, and supported by adequate resources.
4. **Performance Measurements:** Assess the organization's performance against its goals and objectives using relevant metrics, such as financial performance, customer satisfaction, employee engagement, and market share.
5. **Leadership:** Evaluate the effectiveness of the leadership team in setting direction, motivating employees, and fostering a positive organizational culture.
6. **Decision-Making Processes:** Assess the organization's decision-making processes, ensuring they are transparent, inclusive, and based on sound information and analysis.
7. **Culture and Engagement:** Evaluate the organization's culture, considering its values, communication, teamwork, and employee engagement.
8. **Sustainability and Innovation:** Assess the organization's commitment to sustainability practices, innovation, and adaptability to changing market conditions.

**Tools for Organizational Evaluation**
1. **Self-Assessment:** Organizations can conduct internal self-assessments using questionnaires, surveys, and interviews to gather feedback from employees, customers, and stakeholders.
2. **External Audits:** Engage external consultants or auditors to provide objective and independent reviews of the organization's processes, systems, and performance.
3. **Performance Benchmarking:** Compare the organization's performance against industry benchmarks or similar organizations to identify areas for improvement or differentiation.

**Benefits of Organizational Evaluation**
1. **Improved Performance:** Identify areas for improvement and make strategic adjustments to enhance organizational effectiveness.
2. **Increased Efficiency:** Optimize resource allocation, processes, and operations to maximize value and reduce waste.
3. **Enhanced Accountability:** Hold individuals and departments accountable for their contributions to achieving organizational goals.
4. **Strengthened Culture:** Foster a positive, engaged, and productive organizational culture that attracts and retains top talent.
5. **Greater Resilience:** Prepare for future challenges and adapt to changing market conditions through informed decision-making.

Organizational evaluation is an ongoing process that should be conducted regularly to ensure the organization remains aligned with its strategic goals, adapts to changing external factors, and continuously improves its performance."
[{2023-12-10 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'evaluation,

ESG of ogznPrdg

ESG stands for Environmental, Social, and Governance, and it refers to a set of criteria used to evaluate a company's performance in these three areas. ESG factors are often considered by investors, analysts, and other stakeholders to assess the sustainability and ethical impact of a business. Here's a breakdown of each component:

1. **Environmental (E):** This category focuses on a company's impact on the environment. It includes considerations such as a company's carbon footprint, energy efficiency, waste management practices, water usage, and overall environmental sustainability. Companies with strong environmental performance are often those that prioritize eco-friendly practices and demonstrate a commitment to reducing their environmental impact.

2. **Social (S):** The social aspect of ESG evaluates a company's relationships with its employees, customers, suppliers, and the communities in which it operates. Social factors include labor practices, employee relations, diversity and inclusion, human rights, and community engagement. Companies with strong social performance prioritize fair labor practices, diversity, employee well-being, and positive community contributions.

3. **Governance (G):** Governance relates to the way a company is managed and controlled. Key governance factors include the composition and structure of the board of directors, executive compensation, transparency, ethical business practices, and adherence to legal and regulatory standards. Strong governance is associated with effective decision-making, ethical behavior, and accountability.

Investors and financial institutions increasingly consider ESG factors as part of their investment strategies, recognizing that companies with strong ESG performance may be better positioned for long-term success and are less likely to face environmental, social, and governance-related risks. ESG considerations are integrated into investment decisions, and there is a growing demand for transparency and standardized reporting of ESG metrics from companies.

ESG investing reflects a broader shift toward sustainable and responsible investing practices, where financial performance is evaluated alongside environmental and social impact. Many companies now publish ESG reports to communicate their efforts and performance in these areas to stakeholders."
[{2023-12-10 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ESG!=environmental-social-governance,
* McsEngl.environmental-social-governance,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'ESG,


* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'misc-attribute,

DUNS-number of ogznPrdg

"Your DUNS number only reveals credit information gathered by one credit bureau—Dun & Bradstreet. Originally known as the Mercantile Agency, Dun & Bradstreet is one of America’s oldest companies. Its founder, Lewis Tappan, created it in 1841 for the purpose of helping merchants establish the creditworthiness of potential customers.
Today, Dun & Bradstreet keeps track of over 265 million businesses worldwide. Over 100 million of those businesses have been assigned a DUNS number. The federal government adopted the DUNS number as its principal business identifier in 1994.
In 1998, the DUNS number was incorporated as the federal government’s contractor identification code. This means that companies without a DUNS number cannot do business with the federal government. This makes a DUNS number invaluable for many small businesses, since government contracts are often stable, lucrative sources of income."

* McsEngl.DUNS-number-of-ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'DUNS-number,

info-resource of ogznPrdg

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'Infrsc,

=== news:
* SNA-2008 enterprise definition:,

structure of ogznPrdg

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'structure,


DOING of ogznPrdg

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'doing,

* satisfier-producing,
* satisfier-producingNo,
** satisfier-consuming,
** satisfier-exchanging,
* goal,
* mission,
* governing,
* financing,
* accounting,
* hiring,
* evoluting,
** creating,
** operating,
** stopping-operating,
** dissoluting,

10_goal of ogznPrdg

· the-existential-goal is satisfier management.

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'10_goal,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att004-goal,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'goal,

satisfier-producingNo of ogznPrdg

· any other than producing doing on satisfiers.

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att016-satisfier-producingNo,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'satisfier-producingNo,

* consuming-satisfier,
* transacting-satisfier,
** exchanging,
** transfering,

evoluting of ogznPrdg

* McsEngl.evoluting-of-ogznPrdg,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'evoluting,

=== McsHitp-creation:
· creation of current concept.

creation-stage of ogznPrdg


* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att019-creation-stage,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'creation-stage,

operation-stage of ogznPrdg


* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att020-operation-stage,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'operation-stage,

closure-stage of ogznPrdg


* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att021-closure-stage,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'closure-stage,

dissolution-stage of ogznPrdg


* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'att022-dissolution-stage,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'dissolution-stage,


* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'whole-part-tree,

* ... Sympan.



* McsEngl.ogznPrdg'generic-specific-tree,

* economic-ogzn,
* ... entity.


* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.specific,
* governance-organization,
* household-ogznPrdg,
* government-ogznPrdg,
* pure-ogznPrdg,
* service-ogznPrdg,


"The International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) is a United Nations industry classification system. Wide use has been made of ISIC in classifying data according to kind of economic activity in the fields of employment and health data.
It is maintained by the United Nations Statistics Division.[1]
ISIC classifies entities by activity. The most detailed categories are defined by combinations of activities described in statistical units, considering the relative importance of the activities included in these classes.
ISIC Rev.4 continues to use criteria such as input, output and use of the products produced, but places additional emphasis on production processes.
ISIC Revision 4 broad structure:
* 1. Agriculture, forestry and fishing,
* 2. Mining and quarrying,
* 3. Manufacturing,
* 4. Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply,
* 5. Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities,
* 6. Construction,
* 7. Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles,
* 8. Transportation and storage,
* 9. Accommodation and food service activities,
* 10. Information and communication,
* 11. Financial and insurance activities,
* 12. Real estate activities,
* 13. Professional, scientific and technical activities,
* 14. Administrative and support service activities,
* 15. Public administration and defence; compulsory social security,
* 16. Education,
* 17. Human health and social work activities,
* 18. Arts, entertainment and recreation,
* 19. Other service activities,
* 20. Activities of households as employers; undifferentiated goods- and services-producing activities of households for own use,
* 21. Activities of extraterritorial organizations and bodies",

* McsEngl.ISIC'(international-standard-industrial-classification),
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.Isic-classification,


"in economic or social surveys collecting data on enterprises, the observation unit can be:
* an enterprise: a legally recognised organisational unit carrying out one or more activities at one or more locations; enterprises are classified into sectors (by NACE) according to their main activity;
* a local unit: an enterprise or part of an enterprise (factory, warehouse, office) situated in one geographically identified place; local units are classified into sectors (by NACE) according to their main activity;
* a kind-of-activity unit: abbreviated as KAU: an enterprise or part of an enterprise which in its entirety can be classified within one activity sector (by NACE);
* a Local kind-of-activity unit: a combination of the previous two: an enterprise or part of an enterprise situated in one geographically identified place which in its entirety can be classified within one activity sector (by NACE);
One enterprise can have a number of local units and/or kind-of-activity units. One local unit can comprise several local kind-of-activity units. It is possible that the main activity of a local unit is not the same as the one of the enterprise to which it belongs."

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.NACE-classification,


"The North American Industry Classification System or NAICS (pronounced "nakes"[1]) is a classification of business establishments by type of economic activity (process of production). It is used by government and business in Canada, Mexico, and the United States of America. It has largely replaced the older Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system, except in some government agencies, such as the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
An establishment is typically a single physical location, though administratively distinct operations at a single location may be treated as distinct establishments. Each establishment is classified to an industry according to the primary business activity taking place there. NAICS does not offer guidance on the classification of enterprises (companies) which are composed of multiple establishments."

* McsEngl.NAICS'(North-American-industry-classification-system),
* McsEngl.North-American-industry-classification-system,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.Naics-classification,


"The Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) is a system for classifying industries by a four-digit code. Established in the United States in 1937, it is used by government agencies to classify industry areas. The SIC system is also used by agencies in other countries, e.g., by the United Kingdom's Companies House.[1]
In the United States, the SIC code has been replaced by the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS code), which was released in 1997.[2] Some U.S. government departments and agencies, such as the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), continued to use SIC codes through at least 2019.[3]
The SIC code for an establishment, that is, a workplace with a U.S. address, was determined by the industry appropriate for the overall largest product lines of the company or organization of which the establishment was a part. The later NAICS classification system has a different concept, assigning establishments into categories based on each one's output.[4][5]"

* McsEngl.SIC'(standard-industrial-classification),
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.Sic-classification,
* McsEngl.standard-industrial-classification,


"The Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS) is an industry taxonomy developed in 1999 by MSCI and Standard & Poor's (S&P) for use by the global financial community. The GICS structure consists of 11 sectors, 24 industry groups, 69 industries and 158 sub-industries[1] into which S&P has categorized all major public companies. The system is similar to ICB (Industry Classification Benchmark), a classification structure maintained by FTSE Group.
GICS is used as a basis for S&P and MSCI financial market indexes in which each company is assigned to a sub-industry, and to an industry, industry group, and sector, by its principal business activity.
"GICS" is a registered trademark of McGraw Hill Financial and MSCI Inc.[2][3]"

* McsEngl.GICS'(global-industry-classification-system),
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.Gics,


· on owner:
* private-ogznPrdg,
* privateNo-ogznPrdg,

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.spec-div.owner,

ogznPrdg.cooperative (link)

ogznPrdg.emploee-owned (link)


"Today the main asymmetry in our human-societies is between the FEW and the MANY. It is big mistake if we think that the asymmetries are among countries or between regions. The few govern the whole world!!!
The many can break this relation (and bring equilibrium in our societies) by supporting only -TRANSPARENT-SOCIALLY-ORIENTED-COMPANIES (TSoc)!!!.
TSocs are companies that today can be owned by anyone (privately, workers, government) but with the following attributes:
1) they are TRANSPARENT: their profits, inputs, outputs and salaries are on the internet and anyone can see them. IF they lie the many drop their support and they stop to exist.
2) they are SOCIALLY-ORIENTED: their excess-profits (= profits after transparent compensation of their employees and owners) are distributed transparently only in solving social-problems."
[{2024-03-02 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Tsoc!=transparent-socially-oriented-company,
* McsEngl.cmpnTso!=transparent-socially-oriented-company,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.048-transparent-socially-oriented,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.transparent-socially-oriented,
* McsEngl.transparent-socially-oriented-company,


× whole: sectorProducing,

· company-sector is ANY set of related ogznProductions on an-attribute.

* McsEngl.industry!⇒sector,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.004-sector!⇒sector,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.sector!⇒sector,
* McsEngl.sector!=production-organization-sector,
* McsEngl.sector-of-ogznPrdg!⇒sector,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.τομέας-επιχείρισης-οικονομίας!ο/toméas-epihírisis-ikonomías-o/!=sector,

"2.39 Establishments that have the same principal activity are grouped into industries according to the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities Revision 4 (ISIC, Rev.4) (United Nations, 2008a)."

input-product of sector

· every sector to create its output has as input other products from other sectors.
· input-product is the-aggregate product inputed from all input-sectors.

* McsEngl.sector'input-product,

input-sector-product of sector

· input-sector-product-of-sector\a\ is the-product an input-sector contributes to sector\a\.

* McsEngl.input-sector-product-of-sector,
* McsEngl.sector'input-sector-product,

input-sector of sector

· input-sector--of-sector\a\ is a-specific-sector which contributes with its product to sector\a\.

* McsEngl.input-sector--of-sector,
* McsEngl.sector'input-sector,

output-product of sector

· the-aggregate output-product of a-sector.

* McsEngl.output-product--of-sector,
* McsEngl.sector'output-product,

output-sector-product of sector

· the-part of output-product contributed to a-specific-sector.

* McsEngl.output-sector-product--of-sector,
* McsEngl.sector'output-sector-product,

output-sector of sector

· the-sector to which part of output-product contributed to.

* McsEngl.output-sector--of-sector,
* McsEngl.sector'output-sector,

Gdp-percent of sector

· sector's output percent to country or global Gdp.

* McsEngl.sector'Gdp-percent,

market-value of sector

">market value of sector:
The market value of a sector is the total market capitalization of all companies in that sector. Market capitalization is calculated by multiplying the number of outstanding shares of a company by its current share price. The market value of a sector is a measure of the overall size and importance of that sector in the economy.
Here are the market values of the 11 major market sectors as of October 4, 2023:
1. Technology: $7.42 trillion
2. Consumer discretionary: $5.79 trillion
3. Financials: $5.43 trillion
4. Communication services: $4.80 trillion
5. Health care: $4.37 trillion
6. Industrials: $3.90 trillion
7. Materials: $3.37 trillion
8. Consumer staples: $3.17 trillion
9. Utilities: $2.49 trillion
10. Real estate: $2.23 trillion
11. Energy: $1.94 trillion
As you can see, the technology sector is the largest by market value, followed by consumer discretionary, financials, communication services, and healthcare. These five sectors make up over half of the total market value of all stocks.
The market value of a sector can change over time as new companies enter the sector, existing companies grow or shrink, and economic conditions change. For example, the technology sector has seen its market value grow rapidly in recent years, while the energy sector has seen its market value decline.
The market value of a sector can be a useful indicator of the overall health of the economy. A growing sector is often a sign of economic growth, while a declining sector can be a sign of economic weakness. However, it is important to note that the market value of a sector is just one piece of information, and investors should also consider other factors such as company-specific fundamentals and economic trends when making investment decisions."
[{2024-01-03 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.sector'market-value,

expenditure of sector

">expenditure of sector:
The term "expenditure of sector" can be interpreted in two ways:
1. **Government Spending by Sector:** This refers to how governments allocate their budget across different areas. Common sectors for government expenditure include healthcare, education, infrastructure, defense, and social security. You can find data on government spending by sector from various sources like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) [IMF Public Expenditure Measurement] or Eurostat (for European countries) [Eurostat Government expenditure on economic affairs].
2. **Private Sector Expenditure:** This refers to spending by businesses and households. Here, sectors could be industries like manufacturing, retail, or healthcare. Data on private sector expenditure is often harder to find in a disaggregated form, but some economic reports might provide this information.
To get a better understanding of expenditure by sector, it would be helpful to know:
* **What sector are you interested in?** (e.g., healthcare, education, manufacturing)
* **Is it public or private sector expenditure you're looking for?**
* **What geographical area are you interested in?** (e.g., national, regional)
Once you have a clearer idea, you can search for specific data sources or reports that might be relevant."
[{2024-03-16 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.sector'expenditure,
* McsEngl.sector'spending,

law of sector

· economic-law about a-sector.

* McsEngl.lawEconomy.013-sector!⇒lawSector,
* McsEngl.lawEconomy.sector!⇒lawSector,
* McsEngl.lawSector!=law-on-sector,
* McsEngl.sector'law!⇒lawSector,

policy of sector

">economic-policies per sector:
Economic policies are government actions or interventions intended to influence the economy. These policies can affect a wide range of economic activities, including production, consumption, investment, and international trade. Different economic sectors have different policy needs, and governments often tailor their policies to the specific needs of each sector.
The agricultural sector is a key economic driver in many countries, and governments often use policies to support the sector. These policies may include:
* **Subsidies:** Governments may provide subsidies to farmers to help them cover the costs of production, such as fertilizers, seeds, and equipment.
* **Infrastructure development:** Governments may invest in infrastructure development, such as roads, irrigation systems, and storage facilities, to improve the productivity of the agricultural sector.
* **Market access:** Governments may work to improve market access for agricultural products, both domestically and internationally. This may involve negotiating trade agreements or providing technical assistance to farmers to help them meet export standards.
The manufacturing sector is another important economic sector, and governments often use policies to support it. These policies may include:
* **Tax breaks:** Governments may provide tax breaks to manufacturing companies to encourage them to invest and create jobs.
* **Government procurement:** Governments may give preference to domestic manufacturing companies when they are awarding contracts.
* **Research and development (R&D) subsidies:** Governments may provide subsidies to manufacturing companies to fund R&D activities, which can help them develop new products and processes.
**Financial Services**
The financial services sector is crucial for the functioning of the economy, and governments often use policies to regulate it. These policies may include:
* **Bank regulation:** Governments may regulate banks to ensure that they are safe and sound, and to prevent them from engaging in risky activities that could harm the economy.
* **Financial market regulation:** Governments may regulate financial markets to prevent fraud and manipulation, and to ensure that investors are protected.
* **Monetary policy:** Governments may use monetary policy to manage inflation and interest rates, which can affect the overall health of the economy.
The tourism sector is a major source of income for many countries, and governments often use policies to encourage tourism. These policies may include:
* **Tax breaks for hotels and other tourism businesses:** Governments may provide tax breaks to hotels and other tourism businesses to make them more competitive.
* **Investment in tourism infrastructure:** Governments may invest in tourism infrastructure, such as airports, roads, and tourist attractions, to make it easier for tourists to visit the country.
* **Marketing and promotion:** Governments may invest in marketing and promotion to attract tourists to the country.
Education is a key investment in the future of an economy, and governments often use policies to improve education. These policies may include:
* **Investment in public schools:** Governments may invest in public schools to improve the quality of education. This may involve hiring more teachers, providing better facilities, and developing new curriculums.
* **Funding for higher education:** Governments may provide funding for higher education to make it more affordable for students.
* **Tuition subsidies:** Governments may provide tuition subsidies to students from low-income families.
**Other Sectors**
In addition to the sectors discussed above, there are many other sectors that governments use policies to support. These sectors may include:
* **Healthcare:** Governments may provide healthcare services directly or by providing subsidies to private healthcare providers.
* **Transportation:** Governments may invest in transportation infrastructure, such as roads, railways, and airports.
* **Energy:** Governments may regulate the energy sector to ensure that it is reliable, affordable, and environmentally sustainable."
[{2024-01-03 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Socpolicy.sector,
* McsEngl.sector'policy,

worker of sector


* McsEngl.sector'worker,


* admin-sector,
* adminNo-sector,
* service-sector,
* serviceNo-sector,
* admin-sector,
* adminNo-sector,
* public-sector,
* primary-sector,
* private-sector,
* secondary-sector,
* service-sector,
* serviceNo-sector,
* tertriary-sector,
* voluntary-sector,
"Organizations that are not part of the public sector are either a part of the private sector or voluntary sector. The private sector is composed of the economic sectors that are intended to earn a profit for the owners of the enterprise. The voluntary, civic or social sector concerns a diverse array of non-profit organizations emphasizing civil society."

">types of economic sectors:
Economic sectors are broad categories of economic activity that are based on the type of goods or services that are produced. The five main economic sectors are:

**Primary sector:** This sector is responsible for extracting raw materials from the natural environment. This includes activities such as mining, fishing, and forestry.
**Secondary sector:** This sector is responsible for converting raw materials into finished goods. This includes activities such as manufacturing, construction, and utilities.
**Tertiary sector:** This sector is responsible for providing services to consumers and businesses. This includes activities such as retail, healthcare, and education.
**Quaternary sector:** This sector is responsible for providing the knowledge and information that is necessary to support the other sectors of the economy. This includes activities such as research and development, and technology.
**Quinary sector:** This sector is responsible for the most specialized and high-level services, such as management consulting, investment banking, and healthcare.

The composition of an economy's sectors can change over time. For example, as a country develops, the secondary and tertiary sectors tend to grow, while the primary sector shrinks. This is because as people become more affluent, they demand more manufactured goods and services.

The relative size of each sector can also vary from country to country. For example, in countries with abundant natural resources, the primary sector may be larger than in countries with fewer natural resources.

Understanding the composition of an economy's sectors can be helpful for making economic decisions. For example, a government may want to invest in education and training to support the growth of the quaternary sector."
[{2023-11-24 retrieved}]
">economic sectors:
The economy is typically divided into various sectors to organize and analyze different aspects of economic activity. These sectors include:

1. **Primary Sector**: This involves the extraction and production of raw materials, such as agriculture, mining, forestry, and fishing. It forms the base of the economy and is fundamental in less developed economies.

2. **Secondary Sector**: This sector is concerned with the processing of raw materials obtained from the primary sector. This transformation results in goods production and includes industries like manufacturing, construction, and production.

3. **Tertiary Sector**: Also known as the service sector, it involves the provision of services instead of goods. This sector includes retail, entertainment, financial services, healthcare, and education.

4. **Quaternary Sector**: This is a more specialized part of the tertiary sector and involves the intellectual aspect of the economy, such as information technology, research and development (R&D), and consulting.

5. **Quinary Sector**: This sector includes the highest levels of decision-making and includes top executives or officials in government, science, universities, nonprofit, healthcare, culture, and the media.

Each sector plays a crucial role in the economy, contributing to its growth and stability. The significance of each sector can vary greatly from country to country, depending on the level of economic development. Developed countries tend to have a smaller primary sector and a larger tertiary and quaternary sector, reflecting a higher level of economic advancement and a greater focus on services and knowledge-based activities."
[{2023-12-12 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.sector.specific,


* primary-sector-(raw-materials),
* secondary-sector-(manufacturing),
* tertriary-sector-(service),

"The three-sector model in economics divides economies into three sectors of activity: extraction of raw materials (primary), manufacturing (secondary), and service industries which exist to facilitate the transport, distribution and sale of goods produced in the secondary sector (tertiary).[1] The model was developed by Allan Fisher,[2][3][4] Colin Clark,[5] and Jean Fourastié[6] in the first half of the 20th century, and is a representation of an industrial economy. It has been criticised as inappropriate as a representation of the economy in the 21st century.[7]
According to the three-sector model, the main focus of an economy's activity shifts from the primary, through the secondary and finally to the tertiary sector. Countries with a low per capita income are in an early state of development; the main part of their national income is achieved through production in the primary sector. Countries in a more advanced state of development, with a medium national income, generate their income mostly in the secondary sector. In highly developed countries with a high income, the tertiary sector dominates the total output of the economy.
The rise of the post-industrial economy in which an increasing proportion of economic activity is not directly related to physical goods has led some economists to expand the model by adding a fourth quaternary or fifth quinary sectors, while others have ceased to use the model."
[{2024-01-28 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.sector.spec-div.3-sector-model,
* McsEngl.three-sector-model,


* state-sector,
* stateNo-sector,
** profit-stateNo-sector,
** profitNo-stateNo-sector,

* McsEngl.sector.spec-div.ownership,

sector.service (link)


">global non-service-sector percentage in economy:
As of 2023, the non-service sector (including agriculture, manufacturing, and construction) accounts for about 25% of the global economy. The service sector, on the other hand, accounts for about 75% of the global economy. This means that the service sector is much larger than the non-service sector in terms of both value and employment.
[{2023-12-13 retrieved}]

">industries in non-service-sector:
The non-service sector is the subset of the economy that produces goods as opposed to services. It includes industries such as manufacturing, mining, agriculture, and construction. The non-service sector accounts for a significant portion of the global economy, with manufacturing being the largest non-service sector by value-added.
Here are some of the major industries in the non-service sector:

* **Manufacturing:** This industry encompasses the production of goods through various processes, including machining, assembly, and chemical processing. It is a large and diverse industry, with products ranging from automobiles and electronics to food and pharmaceuticals.

* **Mining:** This industry involves excavating minerals and other valuable resources from the earth. It is a critical component of the global economy, as it provides materials for construction, manufacturing, and energy production.

* **Agriculture:** This industry involves the production of food crops and livestock. It is a vital sector, as it provides the necessary sustenance for the world's population.

* **Construction:** This industry involves the erection of buildings and other structures. It is a major employer and economic driver, contributing to the growth of cities and towns.

The non-service sector is a crucial part of the global economy, providing goods and services that are essential for human life and development. It plays a vital role in economic growth, employment creation, and innovation."
[{2023-12-13 retrieved}]

">industries in non-service-sector:
Industries in the non-service sector encompass a broad range of economic activities primarily focused on the production of goods rather than services. Here are some key examples:

1. **Agriculture**: This sector includes farming, livestock breeding, and fishing. It's primarily concerned with producing food, fiber, and other goods through cultivation and breeding.

2. **Manufacturing**: This involves the production of goods in factories. Examples include automobile manufacturing, electronics, clothing, and machinery.

3. **Mining and Quarrying**: This sector is focused on extracting natural resources from the Earth, such as coal, minerals, and oil.

4. **Construction**: This industry involves building infrastructure like houses, roads, and commercial buildings.

5. **Utilities**: This includes the production and distribution of electricity, gas, water, and waste management services.

6. **Forestry and Logging**: This involves the cultivation, management, and harvesting of forests for timber and wood products.

Each of these industries plays a vital role in the economy, providing essential goods and contributing significantly to employment and economic growth. They also face unique challenges, such as environmental impact, the need for technological advancement, and fluctuating market demands."
[{2023-12-13 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.non-service-production-section!⇒sector3No,
* McsEngl.ogznServiceNo.sector!⇒sector3No,
* McsEngl.sector3No!=non-service-production-section,
* McsEngl.sectorServiceNo!⇒sector3No,


">primary-sector vs agricultural-sector:
The primary sector and the agricultural sector are often used interchangeably, but there is a subtle difference between the two terms.
**The primary sector** is the broadest category of economic activity, encompassing all industries that involve the extraction or production of raw materials from nature. This includes agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, and quarrying.
**The agricultural sector** is a narrower subcategory of the primary sector, specifically focused on the production of food from plants and animals. This includes crop farming, livestock production, horticulture, and aquaculture.
In other words, all agriculture is part of the primary sector, but not all primary sector activities are agriculture. For example, mining and forestry are primary sector activities that are not agriculture.
Here is a table summarizing the key differences between the primary sector and the agricultural sector:
| Feature | Primary Sector | Agricultural Sector |
| Definition | The broadest category of economic activity, encompassing the extraction or production of raw materials from nature. | A subcategory of the primary sector focused on the production of food from plants and animals. |
| Key activities | Agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying. | Crop farming, livestock production, horticulture, aquaculture. |
| Products | Raw materials, such as timber, minerals, and agricultural produce. | Food, such as fruits, vegetables, meat, and dairy products. |
| Importance | Provides the basic materials that are essential for all other economic activities. | Provides food for human consumption and is a major source of employment and income in many countries. |
While the primary sector and the agricultural sector are distinct categories, they are closely linked. Agriculture is a major component of the primary sector, and the raw materials produced by other primary sector activities are often used in agricultural production. For example, fertilizers are made from mined minerals, and irrigation systems are often built using construction materials from quarries.
The primary sector and the agricultural sector play a vital role in the global economy. They provide the essential materials that are needed for all other economic activities, and they are a major source of employment and income in many countries. As the world's population continues to grow, the need for sustainable primary sector and agricultural practices will become even more important."
[{2024-01-06 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.037-primary-sector!⇒sector1,
* McsEngl.primary-sector!⇒sector1,
* McsEngl.sector1!=primary-sector,
* McsEngl.sector3No.primary!⇒sector1,


">industrial sector:
The industrial sector is a broad term that encompasses all industries that produce goods from raw materials. It is a vital part of the economy, providing jobs and products that we rely on every day.
There are many different types of industries within the industrial sector. Some of the major ones include:
* **Manufacturing:** This is the process of converting raw materials into finished goods. Manufacturing industries include everything from cars and appliances to food and clothing.
* **Construction:** This is the industry that builds roads, bridges, buildings, and other structures.
* **Extractive industries:** These industries extract raw materials from the earth, such as coal, oil, and minerals.
* **Utilities:** These industries provide essential services to businesses and households, such as electricity, gas, and water.
The industrial sector is a major contributor to the economy. In the United States, it accounts for about 20% of GDP. It also provides jobs for millions of people. In 2021, the manufacturing sector alone employed over 15 million workers.
The industrial sector is facing a number of challenges in the 21st century. These include:
* **Globalization:** The increasing globalization of the economy has put pressure on domestic industries to compete with lower-cost producers overseas.
* **Technology:** Technological change is transforming the industrial sector, with new technologies automating many jobs and changing the way products are made.
* **Environmental concerns:** The industrial sector is a major source of pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.
Despite these challenges, the industrial sector remains an important part of the economy. It is essential for providing jobs, products, and services that we rely on.
Here are some of the key trends in the industrial sector:
* **Increased automation:** Automation is replacing many manual jobs in the industrial sector. This is leading to higher productivity but also job losses.
* **Focus on sustainability:** Businesses in the industrial sector are increasingly focusing on sustainability, using less energy and water and producing less waste.
* **Digitalization:** The industrial sector is embracing digital technologies, such as artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things, to improve efficiency and productivity.
These trends are likely to continue to shape the industrial sector in the years to come."
[{2024-01-03 retrieved}]

">secondary sector:
The secondary sector of the economy, also known as the industrial sector, involves the processing of raw materials extracted by the primary sector into finished goods. This sector includes industries that produce a finished, usable product or are involved in construction. Examples of industries in the secondary sector include:
1. **Manufacturing:** This includes the production of goods, ranging from consumer electronics and automobiles to household items and clothing. Manufacturing industries convert raw materials or components into new products, often using extensive machinery and advanced technology.
2. **Construction:** This involves the construction of buildings, roads, bridges, and other infrastructure. It's a key sector for economic growth, as construction projects lead to the development of new facilities and infrastructure.
3. **Utilities:** These are essential services such as electricity, gas, water, and waste management. Though often controlled by public entities, they also include private companies that produce and distribute these resources.
The secondary sector is vital for any economy as it helps in value addition to raw materials, creates employment opportunities, and contributes significantly to the gross domestic product (GDP). Moreover, it is closely linked with the primary sector (which provides the raw materials) and the tertiary sector (which handles the distribution and sale of manufactured goods)."
[{2024-01-06 retrieved}]

">industry vs sector:
The terms "industry" and "sector" are often used interchangeably, but they have distinct meanings in the context of economics and business.

**Industry** refers to a specific group of companies that produce similar products or services. For instance, the automotive industry comprises companies like Ford, Toyota, and General Motors, all of which manufacture and sell cars. Similarly, the healthcare industry encompasses hospitals, clinics, and pharmaceutical companies that provide medical services and treatments.

**Sector**, on the other hand, is a broader classification that groups together industries with similar characteristics. For example, the manufacturing sector encompasses industries that produce physical goods, such as the automotive, electronics, and textiles industries. Similarly, the service sector includes industries that provide intangible services, such as the healthcare, financial, and hospitality industries.

Here's a table summarizing the key differences between industry and sector:
| Feature | Industry | Sector |
| Definition | A specific group of companies that produce similar products or services. | A broader classification that groups together industries with similar characteristics. |
| Scope | Narrower, focusing on a specific type of product or service. | Wider, encompassing multiple industries with shared characteristics. |
| Examples | Automotive, healthcare, technology, finance | Manufacturing, service, energy, consumer goods |

Here's an analogy that might help illustrate the difference:
Imagine an economy as a large city, with different industries representing distinct neighborhoods. The automotive industry would be like a neighborhood with car dealerships, repair shops, and manufacturing plants. Similarly, the healthcare industry would be like a neighborhood with hospitals, clinics, and pharmacies. The manufacturing sector, on the other hand, would be like a region of the city that encompasses multiple neighborhoods, such as the automotive, electronics, and textiles industries.

In summary, an industry is a more specific term that focuses on a particular group of companies, while a sector is a broader term that categorizes industries based on shared characteristics. Understanding the distinction between industry and sector is crucial for analyzing economic trends, conducting market research, and making informed investment decisions."
[{2023-12-13 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.035-sector.industrial!⇒sector2,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.sector.industrial!⇒sector2,
* McsEngl.sector.industrial!⇒sector2,
* McsEngl.sector2!=secondary-sector,
* McsEngl.sector3No.industrial!⇒sector2,
* McsEngl.sectorIndustrial!⇒sector2,
* McsEngl.secondary-sector!⇒sector2,
* McsEngl.industry-vs-sector,
* McsEngl.sector-vs-industry,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.βιομηχανία!η/viomihanía-i/!=sector,


"As of 2023, agriculture accounts for about 4% of the global gross domestic product (GDP). However, in some of the least developed countries, the contribution of agriculture to GDP can be more than 25%.
[{2023-12-13 retrieved}]

">statistics of agricultural-sector:
The agricultural sector is a vital part of the global economy, providing food for a growing population and generating billions of dollars in revenue. Here are some key statistics about the agricultural sector:
**Global agricultural output**
* The global agricultural sector produced an estimated 4.1 trillion tonnes of food and feed in 2021, an increase of 1.2% from 2020.
* Crops accounted for 81% of global agricultural output, while livestock accounted for the remaining 19%.
* The top three crops in terms of production were wheat, maize (corn), and rice.
* The top three livestock products in terms of production were meat, milk, and eggs.
**Global agricultural trade**
* Agricultural trade reached an estimated $2.12 trillion in 2021, an increase of 4.9% from 2020.
* The top five agricultural exporters in 2021 were the United States, China, Brazil, Germany, and the Netherlands.
* The top five agricultural importers in 2021 were China, the United States, India, Japan, and Germany.
**Global agricultural employment**
* The agricultural sector employed an estimated 2.5 billion people in 2021, accounting for 35% of the global labor force.
* The majority of agricultural workers are in developing countries, where agriculture is often the main source of employment.
**Economic impact of agriculture**
* Agriculture contributed an estimated $12.3 trillion to global GDP in 2021.
* Agriculture is a key driver of economic growth in many developing countries.
* The agricultural sector is also a major source of employment and income for rural populations.
**Challenges facing the agricultural sector**
* Climate change is a major threat to agriculture, as it is causing more extreme weather events, such as droughts and floods.
* Population growth is putting increasing pressure on the agricultural sector to produce more food.
* Food insecurity is a growing problem, especially in developing countries.
**Sustainability in agriculture**
* Sustainable agriculture practices are essential to ensuring the long-term productivity of the agricultural sector.
* These practices include reducing greenhouse gas emissions, conserving water resources, and protecting biodiversity.
**Role of technology in agriculture**
* Technology is playing an increasingly important role in the agricultural sector, with innovations such as drones, precision agriculture, and gene editing.
* These technologies can help to improve crop yields, reduce environmental impact, and improve food safety."
[{2024-01-03 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.agricultural-sector!⇒sectorAgro,
* McsEngl.agriculture-sector3No,
* McsEngl.ogznAgro.sector!⇒sectorAgro,
* McsEngl.sector.agriculture!⇒sectorAgro,
* McsEngl.sector3No.agriculture,
* McsEngl.sectorAgriculture,
* McsEngl.sectorAgro,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.τομέας-αγροτικός!ο!=sectorAgro,

">global construction percentage in economy:
The global construction industry's growth in 2023 is expected to remain sluggish, expanding by just 0.8%. This modest growth rate reflects the challenges faced by the industry, including high construction material costs, labor shortages, and a weak economic backdrop. These challenges are exacerbated by high inflation and a tightening in monetary policies that have dampened investment in many markets around the world.

In addition to these challenges, the construction industry is grappling with other issues such as project delays and underperformance. A significant percentage of construction projects take longer than anticipated, and there's been a noted increase in construction costs, further complicating the industry's growth prospects. The rise in costs has been attributed to several factors, including increased raw material and labor costs.

Looking ahead, while the industry faces immediate challenges, there is potential for growth in certain sectors, particularly in areas like sustainable construction and infrastructure development. This potential growth is driven by global trends towards sustainable building practices and the increasing need for infrastructure development in various regions.

Overall, while the construction industry faces several headwinds in 2023, there are opportunities for growth in specific sectors and regions, which could contribute to a more positive outlook in the coming years.

- Deloitte Insights' 2024 Engineering and Construction Industry Outlook (Deloitte)
- GlobalData's forecast on the global construction industry growth (GlobalData)
- Digital Builder's Construction Industry Statistics (Autodesk)"
[{2023-12-13 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.sectorConstruction,


">global forestry percentage in economy:
The global forestry sector plays a significant role in the world economy, although exact percentage contributions to the global economy are not readily available in recent reports. However, various aspects of the forestry sector's impact and trends can be highlighted.

1. **Economic and Environmental Impact**: Forests are crucial both economically and environmentally. Companies and financial institutions face substantial revenue risks associated with deforestation. In 2022, a significant number of companies reported forest-related risks, with the potential financial impact averaging $330 million per company. This underscores the economic magnitude of the forestry sector and its environmental challenges【】.

2. **Forestry Investment Trends**: There have been significant shifts in forestry investment due to changes in geopolitics, supply chains, and global efforts to address climate change and biodiversity loss. These factors are creating new opportunities and risks for investors in sustainable forestry, indicating the sector's evolving nature and its potential for future growth【】.

3. **Industry Predictions for 2023**: The global forest industry has seen changes, with predictions for 2023 including a drop in North American lumber prices and demand, fluctuating stumpage prices, and a focus on renewable energy investments. These predictions reflect the dynamic nature of the forestry sector and its sensitivity to economic and environmental factors【】.

4. **Timber Losses due to Wildfires**: There has been a concerning increase in the annual area of timber-producing forest lost to wildfires. This trend indicates the growing impact of climate change on the forestry sector and the need for effective forest management strategies to mitigate these losses【】.

5. **Forest Pathways for Sustainable Development**: The forestry sector is integral to building inclusive, resilient, and sustainable economies. The role of forest ecosystems in supporting green recovery and addressing environmental crises like climate change and biodiversity loss is increasingly recognized. The forestry sector's contribution to national economies and its potential for future demand and supply of timber for a sustainable economy are key areas of focus【】.

In conclusion, the forestry sector is a complex and vital part of the global economy, with its significance extending beyond mere financial contributions to encompassing environmental sustainability and green recovery efforts."
[{2023-12-13 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.forestry-sector3No,
* McsEngl.sector3No.forestry,
* McsEngl.sectorForestry,


">global manufacturing percentage in economy:
The global manufacturing sector is a vital component of the world economy. As of 2023, it's expected to reach a staggering value of $19.9 trillion. This growth highlights the sector's significant role in driving economic progress and innovation globally. In 2019, manufacturing industries contributed a notable $6.79 trillion, or 17.4%, to the global GDP of $39.04 trillion. This contribution underlines the sector's crucial impact on the global economy.

Looking at the trend from 2021 to 2028, the manufacturing industry is projected to grow at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 4.0%. This growth rate signifies a robust and expanding sector, adapting to new challenges and opportunities. The significance of the manufacturing industry is further emphasized by its contribution to global employment, accounting for over 20% of jobs worldwide. This indicates that a significant portion of the global workforce is engaged in manufacturing-related activities.

Regionally, the Asia-Pacific area has been particularly prominent in the manufacturing sector, accounting for more than 60% of the total additive manufacturing in 2020. This points towards the region's rapid adoption of innovative manufacturing methods and technologies.

Additionally, the global manufacturing workforce has seen changes due to technological advancements and automation. Between 1991 and 2016, the manufacturing workforce globally declined from 27% to 22%, reflecting the industry's shift towards more technology-driven processes.

These figures and trends collectively paint a picture of a dynamic and evolving sector that continues to play a crucial role in shaping the global economy and labor market."
[{2023-12-13 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.manufacturing-sector3No,
* McsEngl.sector3No.manufacturing,
* McsEngl.sectorManufacturing,


Some manufacturing industries:
* Aerospace industry
* Automotive industry
* Chemical industry
* Computer industry
* Electronics industry
* Food processing industry
* Garment industry
* Pharmaceutical industry
* Pulp and paper industry
* Toy industry

* McsEngl.sectorManufacturing.specific,


">global mining percentage in economy:
The global mining market has shown significant growth in recent years. In 2023, the market grew from $2022.6 billion in 2022 to $2145.15 billion, representing a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.1%. This growth was impacted by various global events, including the Russia-Ukraine war, which caused disruptions in the global economy, leading to a surge in commodity prices and supply chain issues. Despite these challenges, the market is expected to continue growing, reaching an estimated $2775.5 billion by 2027 with a CAGR of 6.7%【】.

The mining sector's revenue in 2022 was notably stable, maintaining around US$711 billion. Coal remained a significant contributor to total revenues, accounting for 28% of the total, marking the first time since 2010 that coal has held such a dominant position in the sector's revenue【】.

The industry plays a pivotal role in the global economy, particularly in the transition to a carbon-free future. The mining and metals industry is challenged to increase production to supply the necessary materials for this transition while minimizing environmental impact and carbon emissions. This transformation is crucial as there is a growing demand for metals and minerals, but developing new mines has become increasingly challenging【】.

In summary, the mining sector is an essential component of the global economy, with its significant market value and its crucial role in the transition to sustainable energy sources. The industry is expected to continue growing, driven by the demand for critical minerals and metals, despite facing challenges like environmental concerns and geopolitical uncertainties."
[{2023-12-13 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.mining-sector3No,
* McsEngl.sector3No.mining,
* McsEngl.sectorMining,


"The quaternary sector of the economy is based upon the economic activity that is associated with either the intellectual or knowledge-based economy.[1] This consists of information technology; media; research and development; information-based services such as information-generation and information-sharing; and knowledge-based services such as consultation, entertainment, broadcasting, mass media, telecommunication, education, information technology, financial planning, blogging, and designing.[2] Other definitions describe the quaternary sector as pure services.[3] This may consist of the entertainment industry, to describe media and culture, and government. This may be classified into an additional quinary sector.
The term reflects the analysis of the three-sector model of the economy, in which the primary sector produces raw materials used by the secondary sector to produce goods, which are then distributed to consumers by the tertiary sector.
Contrary to this implied sequence, however, the quaternary sector does not process the output of the tertiary sector. It has only limited and indirect connections to the industrial economy characterized by the three-sector model.
In a modern economy, the generation, analysis and dissemination of information is important enough to warrant a separate sector instead of being a part of the tertiary sector. This sector evolves in well-developed countries where the primary and secondary sectors are a minority of the economy, and requires a highly educated workforce.[4]
For example, the tertiary and quaternary sectors form the largest part of the UK economy, employing 76% of the workforce."
[{2024-01-28 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.043-quaternary-sector!⇒sector4,
* McsEngl.quaternary-sector!⇒sector4,
* McsEngl.sector.quaternary!⇒sector4,
* McsEngl.sector4!=forth-sector,


"Definitions of the quinary sector vary significantly. Some define it as merely non-profit work such as for charities and NGOs.
Others define it as the sector that focuses on human services and control, such as government and some charities, as well as creation or non-routine use of information and new technologies, linking slightly with the quaternary sector.[12]
Sometimes referred to as ‘gold collar’ professions,[13] they include special and highly paid skills of senior business executives, government officials, research scientists, financial and legal consultants, etc. The highest level of decision makers or policy makers perform quinary activities.[12]"
[{2024-01-28 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.044-quinary-sector!⇒sector5,
* McsEngl.quinary-sector!⇒sector5,
* McsEngl.sector.quinary!⇒sector5,
* McsEngl.sector5!=fifth-sector,


"The retail sector is a vast and diverse industry that encompasses businesses that sell goods and services directly to consumers. It plays a crucial role in the economy by providing employment, driving consumer spending, and contributing to overall economic growth. The retail sector includes a wide range of businesses, from small independent shops to large multinational corporations.
Retailers operate in various formats, including physical stores, online platforms, and hybrid models that combine both. Physical stores can range from small specialty shops to large department stores and supermarkets. Online retailers, on the other hand, operate exclusively through websites or mobile apps, allowing consumers to shop from the comfort of their homes. Hybrid models offer consumers the flexibility to shop online and pick up their purchases in-store or have them delivered to their homes.
The retail sector is constantly evolving to meet the changing needs and preferences of consumers. Technological advancements, such as mobile payments, augmented reality, and artificial intelligence, are transforming the way consumers shop and interact with retailers. The rise of e-commerce has also revolutionized the retail landscape, providing consumers with greater convenience and access to a wider range of products.
The retail sector is a major employer, providing jobs for millions of people worldwide. Retail jobs can range from sales associates and cashiers to store managers and buyers. The sector also supports a wide range of indirect jobs in areas such as logistics, marketing, and manufacturing.
Despite the challenges posed by e-commerce and changing consumer behavior, the retail sector continues to be a vital part of the economy. Retailers are adapting to the new digital landscape by investing in omnichannel strategies, enhancing the in-store experience, and leveraging technology to personalize the shopping journey. As the retail sector continues to evolve, it will remain a dynamic and essential part of the global economy."
[{2024-06-15 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.050-retail-sector!⇒sectorRetail,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.retail-sector!⇒sectorRetail,
* McsEngl.retail-sector!⇒sectorRetail,
* McsEngl.sectorRetail!=retail-sector,


× whole: producing-sector,

· sectorPublic = sectorPublic0|core + sectorPublic1|narrow + sectorPblcBroad|broad

· sectorPublic is the-set of ogznAdmn.
· Socadmn is THE-SYSTEM of ogznAdmn.

* McsEngl.admin-sector!⇒sectorPblc,
* McsEngl.administrative-sector!⇒sectorPblc,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.sectorPublic!⇒sectorPblc,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.sectorPublic!⇒sectorPblc,
* McsEngl.public-sector!⇒sectorPblc,
* McsEngl.sector.public!⇒sectorPblc,
* McsEngl.sectorAdmn!⇒sectorPblc,
* McsEngl.sectorPblc!=public-sector,
* McsEngl.sectorPblc//sectorProducing,
* McsEngl.sectorPublic!⇒sectorPblc,
* McsEngl.sectorPublicOwned!⇒sectorPblc,
* McsEngl.sectorGvcOwned!⇒sectorPblc,
* McsEngl.sectorSocadmn!⇒sectorPblc,
* McsEngl.state-sector!⇒sectorPblc,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.δημόσιος-τομέας!ο!=sectorPublic,
* McsElln.διοίκησης-κοινωνίας-τομέας!ο!=sectorPublic,
* McsElln.τομέας-διοίκησης-κοινωνίας!ο!=sectorPublic,

admin-system (link) of sectorPublic

public-organization (link) of sectorPublic

sectorPublicCore of sectorPblc

· core-public-sector.
· sectorPublic = sectorPublic0|core + sectorPublic1|narrow + sectorPblcBroad|broad

">narrow public sector:
The term "narrow public sector" is less commonly used and has a somewhat ambiguous definition. It can be interpreted in two ways:
**1. A more restricted definition of the public sector:** In this context, the narrow public sector would encompass only the core government institutions, such as ministries, departments, and agencies. These organizations are directly accountable to the government and play a central role in formulating and implementing public policies.
**2. A smaller subset of the broader public sector:** This interpretation views the narrow public sector as a subset of the broader public sector, excluding organizations that operate with more autonomy and flexibility. This could include certain non-profit organizations, Crown corporations, or quasi-governmental agencies that receive public funding but enjoy greater independence in their operations.
The distinction between the narrow and broader public sectors is not always clear-cut, as the boundaries between these categories can vary depending on the specific context and the country's institutional arrangements. However, both perspectives highlight the diversity of organizations that contribute to the public sector's role in providing essential services, promoting social welfare, and supporting economic development."
[{2024-01-02 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.core-admin-sector!⇒sectorPblcCore,
* McsEngl.core-public-sector!⇒sectorPblcCore,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.019-sectorPublicCore!⇒sectorPblcCore,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.sectorPublicCore!⇒sectorPblcCore,
* McsEngl.public-sector.core!⇒sectorPblcCore,
* McsEngl.sectorPblc0!⇒sectorPblcCore,
* McsEngl.sectorPblcCore!=core-public-sector,
* McsEngl.sectorPublic0!⇒sectorPblcCore,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.πυρηνικός-τομέας-διοίκησης!=sectorPblcCore,
* McsElln.τομέας-διοίκησης-πυρηνικός!=sectorPblcCore,


· core-admin-organization is any organization of the-core-admin-sector (executive, legislature, judicial).

* McsEngl.core-admin-organization!=ogznPblcCore,
* McsEngl.core-public-sector-organization!=ogznPblcCore,
* McsEngl.ogznAdmn0!⇒ogznPblcCore,
* McsEngl.ogznPblcCorecore-public-sector-organization,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.047-AdminCore!⇒ogznPblcCore,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.AdminCore!⇒ogznPblcCore,

sectorPublicNarrow of sectorPblc

· narrow-public-sector.
· sectorPublic = sectorPublic0|core + sectorPublic1|narrow + sectorPblcBroad|broad

* core-public-sector,
* armed-forces,
* police-forces,
* fire-forces,

* McsEngl.narrow-admin-sector!⇒sectorPblcNarrow,
* McsEngl.narrow-public-sector!⇒sectorPblcNarrow,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.039-sectorPublicNarrow!⇒sectorPblcNarrow,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.sectorPublicNarrow!⇒sectorPblcNarrow,
* McsEngl.sectorPblc1!⇒sectorPblcNarrow,
* McsEngl.sectorPblcNarrow!=narrow-public-sector,
* McsEngl.sectorPublic1!⇒sectorPblcNarrow,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.δημόσιος-τομέας.στενός!=sectorPblcNarrow,
* McsElln.στενός-δημόσιος-τομέας!=sectorPblcNarrow,


· narrow-admin-organization is any organization of the-narrow-admin-sector (armed, police, fire forces).

* McsEngl.narrow-admin-organization!⇒ogznPblcNarrow,
* McsEngl.narrow-public-sector-organization!⇒ogznPblcNarrow,
* McsEngl.ogznAdmn1!⇒ogznPblcNarrow,
* McsEngl.ogznPblcNarrow!=narrow-public-sector-organization,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.045-AdminNarrow!⇒ogznPblcNarrow,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.AdminNarrow!⇒ogznPblcNarrow,

armed-forces of sectorPblcNarrow

× whole: military-industry,

"A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct military uniform. It may consist of one or more military branches such as an army, navy, air force, space force, marines, or coast guard. The main task of the military is usually defined as defence of the state and its interests against external armed threats.
In broad usage, the terms "armed forces" and "military" are often treated as synonymous, although in technical usage a distinction is sometimes made in which a country's armed forces may include both its military and other paramilitary forces. There are various forms of irregular military forces, not belonging to a recognized state; though they share many attributes with regular military forces, they are less often referred to as simply "military"."

* McsEngl.armed-forces!⇒sectorArmed,
* McsEngl.military!⇒sectorArmed,
* McsEngl.sectorArmed!=armed-forces,
* McsEngl.sectorPublic'armed-forces!⇒sectorArmed,
* McsEngl.sectorPblcNarrow'armed-forces!⇒sectorArmed,
* McsEngl.sectorPublicMili!⇒sectorArmed,
* McsEngl.society'military!⇒sectorArmed,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ένοπλες-δυνάμεις!οι!=sectorArmed,
* McsElln.στρατός!ο!=sectorArmed,

spending of sectorArmed

· Military spending, 2022:
* USA: $877 billion,
* China: $292 billion,
* Russia: $86 billion,
* India: $81 billion,
* Saudi Arabia: $75 billion,
* UK: $69 billion,
* Germany: $56 billion,
* France: $54 billion,
* Japan: $46 billion,
* South Korea: $46 billion,
* Ukraine: $44 billion,
* Italy: $33 billion,
* Australia: $32.2 billion,
* Canada: $26.9 billion,
* Israel: $23.4 billion,
* Spain: $20.3 billion,
* Brazil: $20 billion,
* Poland: $16 billion,
* Netherlands: $15.6 billion,
* Turkey: $10.6 billion,
* Pakistan: $10 billion,
* Colombia: $9.9 billion,
* Indonesia: $8.9 billion,
* Mexico: $8.5 billion,
* Norway: $8.3 billion,
* Sweden: $7.7 billion,
* Switzerland: $6.1 billion,
* Iran: $6 billion,
* Chile: $5.5 billion,
* Denmark: $5.4 billion,
* Finland: $4.8 billion,
* Austria: $3.6 billion,
* Nigeria: $3.1 billion,
* South Africa: $2.9 billion,
* Argentina: $2.5 billion,
* Venezuela: $4.6 million,
[{2023-08-07 retrieved} World of Statistics]

* McsEngl.defense-expenditure!⇒sectorArmedSpdg,
* McsEngl.defense-spending!⇒sectorArmedSpdg,
* McsEngl.general-government-total-expenditure-on-defense!⇒sectorArmedSpdg,
* McsEngl.military-spending!⇒sectorArmedSpdg,
* McsEngl.sectorArmed-spending!⇒sectorArmedSpdg,
* McsEngl.sectorArmedSpdg!=spending-sectorArmed,
* McsEngl.spending-sectorArmed!⇒sectorArmedSpdg,


EU governments have pledged to increase defense spending to fulfil the NATO target of 2% of GDP. If and when that level is reached, it would amount to two-thirds of the current defense spending level of the United States at 3%.
Increasing the share of defense spending to 2% of GDP in all EU member states until 2028 would require a total of EUR 470 billion in additional spending.
In 2022, general government expenditures for defense in today’s 27-member EU stood at 204 billion.
Back in 1995, EU countries’ defense expenditures corresponded to 1.6% of GDP and declined to 1.3% of GDP in 2022.
The country with he highest general government total expenditure on defense in the EU is Greece. The country with the lowest is Ireland.
While the welfare budgets have generally received a big boost over time, defense expenditures have not kept pace with general GDP and total expenditure growth.
The largest single expenditure item in EU countries’ budgets are expenditures for social protection. In 2022, they accounted for 39% of total general government expenditures in the EU 27.
For the EU to reach the share of 3% of GDP that is spent by the United States on defense today it would need additional defense spending of EUR 1,110 bn over the next five years.
The EU has three options to fund increased defense spending: Cutting expenditures in other functions, debt financing or increasing taxes.
To keep the overall expenditure level stable would require expenditure cuts of -8.6% in Spain, -7.7% in Germany, -6.5% in Italy and -4.8% in France.
Relying on debt financing would result in a total additional interest burden of around EUR 12.1 billion in 2028. This is roughly equivalent to the amount spent on biodiversity and landscape protection in the EU 27 in 2022.
What about increasing taxes? Assuming there are no shifts in the tax income structures, the VAT rate would have to increase by 0.6% on average across the EU-27 in 2028 – ranging from 0.1% in France, 0.5% in Italy and 0.7% in Germany and Spain.
Source: Allianz/Eurostat"
[{2024-04-04 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.EusasectorArmedSpdg,
* McsEngl.sectorArmedSpdg.EU,

worker of sectorArmed

"Active military manpower:
🇨🇳 China: 2,035,000
🇮🇳 India: 1,455,550
🇺🇸 USA: 1,328,000
🇷🇺 Russia: 1,320,000
🇰🇵 North Korea: 1,320,000
🇺🇦 Ukraine: 900,000
🇵🇰 Pakistan: 654,000
🇮🇷 Iran: 610,000
🇰🇷 South Korea: 600,000
🇻🇳 Vietnam: 600,000
🇪🇬 Egypt: 440,000
🇲🇽 Mexico: 412,000
🇮🇩 Indonesia: 400,000
🇹🇭 Thailand: 360,850
🇧🇷 Brazil: 360,000
🇹🇷 Turkey: 355,200
🇱🇰 Sri Lanka: 346,000
🇩🇿 Algeria: 325,000
🇨🇴 Colombia: 293,200
🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia: 257,000
🇯🇵 Japan: 247,150
🇳🇬 Nigeria: 230,000
🇰🇭 Cambodia: 221,000
🇹🇼 Taiwan: 215,000
🇵🇱 Poland: 202,100
🇫🇷 France: 200,000
🇲🇦 Morocco: 195,800
🇮🇶 Iraq: 193,000
🇸🇸 South Sudan: 185,000
🇬🇧 UK: 184,860
According to Global Fire Power
[{2024-03-20 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.sectorArmed'worker!⇒wrkrArmed,
* McsEngl.military-manpower!⇒wrkrArmed,
* McsEngl.wrkrArmed!=armed-forces-worker,

fighter of sectorArmed

"Percentage of people who would fight for their country:
* Pakistan → 89%,
* Vietnam → 89%,
* Bangladesh → 86%,
* Afghanistan → 76%,
* India → 75%,
* Finland → 74%,
* Turkey → 73%,
* China → 71%,
* Indonesia → 70%,
* Ukraine → 62%,
* Russia → 59%,
* Mexico → 56%,
* Sweden → 55%,
* Nigeria → 50%,
* Brazil → 48%,
* Poland → 47%,
* US → 44%,
* Argentina → 43%,
* Denmark → 37%,
* Canada → 30%,
* Australia → 29%,
* France → 29%,
* UK → 27%,
* Czechia → 23%,
* Spain → 21%,
* Italy → 20%,
* Germany → 18%,
* Netherlands → 15%,
* Japan → 11%,
** according to 2015 survey",
[{2023-08-24 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.sectorArmed'fighter,
* McsEngl.society'fighter,

doing of sectorArmed

· The military protects a country from foreign invasion or invades in other countries.

* McsEngl.national-defence,
* McsEngl.sectorArmed'doing,
* McsEngl.servicePblc.national-defence,


"US military and clandestine operations in foreign countries since WWII:
* 🇮🇷 Iran: 1946
* 🇨🇳 China: 1946-1949
* 🇬🇷 Greece: 1947-1949
* 🇮🇹 Italy: 1948
* 🇵🇭 Philippines: 1948-1954
* 🇰🇵 Korea: 1950-1953
* 🇮🇷 Iran: 1953
* 🇻🇳 Vietnam: 1954
* 🇬🇹 Guatemala: 1954
* 🇱🇧 Lebanon: 1958
* 🇵🇦 Panama: 1958
* 🇭🇹 Haiti: 1959
* 🇨🇩 Congo: 1960
* 🇻🇳 Vietnam: 1960-1964
* 🇨🇺 Cuba: 1961
* 🇨🇺 Cuba: 1962
* 🇱🇦 Laos: 1962
* 🇪🇨 Ecuador: 1963
* 🇵🇦 Panama: 1964
* 🇧🇷 Brazil: 1964
* 🇻🇳 Vietnam: 1965-1975
* 🇮🇩 Indonesia: 1965
* 🇨🇩 Congo: 1965
* 🇩🇴 Dominican Republic: 1965
* 🇱🇦 Laos: 1965-1973
* 🇬🇭 Ghana: 1966
* 🇬🇹 Guatemala: 1966-1967
* 🇰🇭 Cambodia: 1969-1975
* 🇴🇲 Oman: 1970
* 🇱🇦 Laos: 1971-1973
* 🇨🇱 Chile: 1973
* 🇰🇭 Cambodia: 1975
* 🇦🇴 Angola: 1976-1992
* 🇮🇷 Iran: 1980
* 🇱🇾 Libya: 1981
* 🇸🇻 El Salvador: 1981-1992
* 🇳🇮 Nicaragua: 1981-1990
* 🇱🇧 Lebanon: 1982-1984
* 🇬🇩 Grenada: 1983
* 🇭🇳 Honduras: 1983-1989
* 🇮🇷 Iran: 1984
* 🇱🇾 Libya: 1986
* 🇧🇴 Bolivia: 1986
* 🇮🇷 Iran: 1987-1988
* 🇱🇾 Libya: 1989
* 🇵🇭 Philippines: 1989
* 🇵🇦 Panama: 1989-1990
* 🇱🇷 Liberia: 1990
* 🇮🇶 Iraq: 1990-1991
* 🇮🇶 Iraq: 1991-2003
* 🇭🇹 Haiti: 1991
* 🇸🇴 Somalia: 1992-1994
* Yugoslavia: 1992-1994
* 🇧🇦 Bosnia: 1993-1995
* 🇭🇹 Haiti: 1994-1996
* 🇭🇷 Croatia: 1995
* 🇨🇩 Zaire (Congo): 1996-1997
* 🇱🇷 Liberia: 1997
* 🇸🇩 Sudan: 1998
* 🇦🇫 Afghanistan: 1998
* 🇮🇶 Iraq: 1998
* Yugoslavia: 1999
* 🇲🇰 Macedonia: 2001
* 🇦🇫 Afghanistan: 2001
* 🇮🇶 Iraq: 2003
* 🇮🇶 Iraq: 2003-present
* 🇭🇹 Haiti: 2004
Note: This list does not pretend to be definitive or absolutely complete. Nor does it seek to explain or interpret the interventions."
[{2024-01-24 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.UsaasectorArmed!=armed-sector-of-Usa,
* McsEngl.sectorArmed.Usa!⇒UsaasectorArmed,

war-approval of UsaasectorArmed

"21 years ago today, US and its allies started a war in Iraq because they said Iraq had weapons of mass destruction and was a threat to international peace.
🇺🇸 Wars that Americans approve (think it was the right decision):
• WWII (1939-1945): 67%
• WWI (1914-1918): 57%
• The Gulf War (1990-1991): 38%
• Korean War (1950-1953): 33%
• Afghanistan War (2001-2021): 33%
• Iraq War (2003-2011): 28%
• Invasion of Panama (1989): 24%
• Syrian Civil War (2011-present): 22%
• Kosovo War (1999): 21%
• Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961): 21%
• Vietnam War (1955-1975): 18%
• Cambodian campaign (1970): 16%
• Yemeni Civil War (2015-present): 15%
[{2024-03-20 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.UsaasectorArmed'war-approval,

police-forces of sectorPblcNarrow

"The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state, with the aim to enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health and possessions of citizens, and to prevent crime and civil disorder.[1][2] Their lawful powers include arrest and the use of force legitimized by the state via the monopoly on violence. The term is most commonly associated with the police forces of a sovereign state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. Police forces are often defined as being separate from the military and other organizations involved in the defense of the state against foreign aggressors; however, gendarmerie are military units charged with civil policing.[3] Police forces are usually public sector services, funded through taxes."

* McsEngl.sectorPolice!=police-forces,
* McsEngl.police!⇒sectorPolice,
* McsEngl.police-forces!⇒sectorPolice,
* McsEngl.sectorPublic'police-forces!⇒sectorPolice,
* McsEngl.sectorPblcNarrow'police-forces!⇒sectorPolice,
* McsEngl.sectorPolice!=police-forces,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.jǐngchá-警察!=sectorPolice,
* McsZhon.警察-jǐngchá!=sectorPolice,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.αστυνομία!η!=sectorPolice,

policeman of sectorPublicPolice


* McsEngl.hmnWorker.027-police!⇒wrkrPoli,
* McsEngl.hmnWorker.police!⇒wrkrPoli,
* McsEngl.sectorPublicPolice'worker!⇒wrkrPoli,
* McsEngl.policeman!⇒wrkrPoli,
* McsEngl.wrkrPoli!=police-worker,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.jǐngchá-警察!=wrkrPoli,
* McsZhon.警察-jǐngchá!=wrkrPoli,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.αστυνομικίνα!η!=wrkrPoli,
* McsElln.αστυνομικός!ο!=wrkrPoli,

relation-to-law-enforcement of sectorPolice

">law enforcement vs police:
The terms "law enforcement" and "police" are closely related and often used interchangeably, but they have distinct meanings that cover different scopes within the realm of maintaining public order and safety. Here's a comparison to clarify the differences:
### Law Enforcement
- **Definition**: Law enforcement refers to the broader system or network of agencies that are authorized by the government to enforce laws, maintain public order, and ensure public safety. It includes a range of organizations at various levels: local, state, and federal.
- **Scope**: Beyond the police, law enforcement encompasses a variety of agencies with specific jurisdictions and functions. This can include sheriffs' departments, state troopers/highway patrol, federal agencies (e.g., FBI in the United States, RCMP in Canada), border enforcement, customs agencies, and specialized units (drug enforcement, cybercrime units, etc.).
- **Role**: The collective role of law enforcement agencies is to investigate crimes, apprehend suspects, ensure the enforcement of laws, provide security, and protect the rights and property of citizens. Their duties and powers vary according to the specific jurisdiction and the nature of the agency.
### Police
- **Definition**: The police are a specific component of the broader law enforcement system. They are typically responsible for general law enforcement duties at the local or municipal level, although there are also state and national police forces in some countries.
- **Scope**: The primary focus of police forces is on maintaining public order, preventing crimes, investigating crimes, and protecting the lives and property of citizens within their specific geographical area of responsibility.
- **Role**: Police officers perform routine patrols, respond to emergency calls, investigate crimes and accidents, enforce traffic laws, and engage in community policing efforts. They are often the most visible and accessible form of law enforcement to the general public.
In essence, while "police" refer specifically to the agency or officers engaged in the prevention, detection, and investigation of crime within a local or specific jurisdiction, "law enforcement" is a broader term that encompasses all governmental agencies—including the police—tasked with law enforcement and public safety responsibilities."
[{2024-03-16 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.sectorPolice'relation-to-law-enforcement,
* McsEngl.sectorLaw-enforcement'relation-to-sectorPolice,

fire-forces of sectorPblcNarrow

"A fire department (American English) or fire brigade (British English),[note 1] also known as a fire authority or fire service, is an organization that provides firefighting services. In some areas, they may also provide technical rescue, fire protection, fire investigation, and emergency medical services.
Fire departments are most commonly a public sector organization that operate within a municipality, county, state, nation, or special district. Private and specialist firefighting organizations also exist, such as those for aircraft rescue and firefighting.[1]
A fire department contains one or more fire stations within its boundaries, and may be staffed by firefighters, who may be professional, volunteers, conscripts, or on-call. Combination fire departments employ a mix of professional and volunteer firefighters.[2]"

* McsEngl.sectorFire!=fire-forces,
* McsEngl.sectorPublicFire!⇒sectorFire,
* McsEngl.sectorPublic'fire-forces!⇒sectorFire,
* McsEngl.sectorPblcNarrow'fire-forces!⇒sectorFire,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.πυροσβεστική-υπηρεσία!η!=sectorFire,

sectorPublicBroad of sectorPblc

· broad-public-sector.
· sectorPublic = sectorPublic0|core + sectorPblcNarrow|narrow + sectorPblcBroad|broad
· sectorPublic = sectorPublic0 + sectorPblcNarrow + sectorPblcBroad
· sectorPublicOwned is THE-SET of ogznAdmnOwned.

* core-public-sector,
* narrow-public-sector,
* health-services,
* education-services,
* utilities, transportation, social services,
"The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises.
Public sectors include public goods and governmental services such as the military, law enforcement, infrastructure (public roads, bridges, tunnels, water supply, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications, etc.), public transit, public education, along with health care and those working for the government itself, such as elected officials. The public sector might provide services that a non-payer cannot be excluded from (such as street lighting), services which benefit all of society rather than just the individual who uses the service.[1] Public enterprises, or state-owned enterprises, are self-financing commercial enterprises that are under public ownership which provide various private goods and services for sale and usually operate on a commercial basis.
Organizations that are not part of the public sector are either a part of the private sector or voluntary sector. The private sector is composed of the economic sectors that are intended to earn a profit for the owners of the enterprise. The voluntary, civic or social sector concerns a diverse array of non-profit organizations emphasizing civil society."

* McsEngl.broad-public-sector!⇒sectorPblcBroad,
* McsEngl.ogznPdnAdmn2.aggregate!⇒sectorPblcBroad,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.009-sectorAdminBroad!⇒sectorPblcBroad,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.sectorAdminBroad!⇒sectorPblcBroad,
* McsEngl.sectorAdminBroad!⇒sectorPblcBroad,
* McsEngl.sectorPblc2!⇒sectorPblcBroad,
* McsEngl.sectorPblcBroad!=broad-public-sector,
* McsEngl.sectorPublic2!=sectorPblcBroad,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.δημόσιος-τομέας.ευρύς!=sectorPblcBroad,
* McsElln.ευρύς-δημόσιος-τομέας!=sectorPblcBroad,

satisfier (link) of sectorPblcBroad

health-sys of sectorPblcBroad


* McsEngl.ogznHlthGvc,
* McsEngl.sectorPblcBroad'health-sys!⇒ogznHlthGvc,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.δημόσιο-σύστημα-υγείας!ogznHlthGvc,

education-sys of sectorPblcBroad


* McsEngl.ogznEduGvc,
* McsEngl.sectorPblcBroad'education-sys!⇒ogznEduGvc,

worker (link) of sectorPblcBroad


· broad-public-organization is any organization of the-broad-admin-sector (health, education, utilities, transportation, social services).

* McsEngl.broad-admin-organization!⇒ogznPblcBroad,
* McsEngl.broad-public-organization!⇒ogznPblcBroad,
* McsEngl.ogznAdmn2!⇒ogznPblcBroad,
* McsEngl.ogznPblcBroad!=broad-public-organization,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.046-publicBroad!⇒ogznPblcBroad,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.publicBroad!⇒ogznPblcBroad,

worker of sectorPblc

· any worker on sectorGvc.
"A civil servant or public servant is a person employed in the public sector by a government department or agency."

* McsEngl.Socadmn'worker!⇒wrkrPblc,
* McsEngl.administrator!⇒wrkrPblc,
* McsEngl.public-servant!⇒wrkrPblc,
* McsEngl.public-worker!⇒wrkrPblc,
* McsEngl.civil-servant!⇒wrkrPblc,
* McsEngl.public-servant!⇒wrkrPblc,
* McsEngl.sectorGvc'worker!⇒wrkrPblc,
* McsEngl.sectorPblc'worker!⇒wrkrPblc,
* McsEngl.wrkrAdmn!=wrkrPblc, {2024-01-07},
* McsEngl.wrkrGvcsctr!⇒wrkrPblc,
* McsEngl.wrkrGvcSoc!⇒wrkrPblc,
* McsEngl.wrkrPblc!=public-worker, {2024-03-19}
* McsEngl.wrkr.028-Socadmn!⇒wrkrPblc,
* McsEngl.wrkr.Socadmn!⇒wrkrPblc,
* McsEngl.wrkr.sectorGvc!⇒wrkrPblc,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.δημόσιος-λειτουργός!=wrkrPblc,


* elected-wrkrPblc,
* electedNo-wrkrPblc,
* wrkrPblcCore,
* wrkrPblcNarrow,
* wrkrPblcBroad,
* police-officer,
* politician,

* McsEngl.wrkrPblc.specific,


"An emperor is a monarch, typically the sovereign ruler of an empire, a vast, multi-ethnic or multi-national state, comprising several territories and peoples under a single supreme authority. Emperors are often considered higher in rank than kings, with the title historically implying the control of extensive regions and diverse populations. Here is an overview of the role and significance of emperors throughout history:

### Historical Overview
1. **Ancient Empires:**
- **Roman Empire:** One of the earliest and most famous empires, with emperors such as Augustus and Julius Caesar (though Caesar was never officially emperor, his dictatorship paved the way for the imperial system).
- **Chinese Dynasties:** Emperors ruled China for millennia, with dynasties like the Han, Tang, Ming, and Qing shaping Chinese civilization.
- **Persian Empire:** The Achaemenid dynasty, founded by Cyrus the Great, saw emperors who ruled over a vast territory from the Indus Valley to Greece.
2. **Medieval Empires:**
- **Byzantine Empire:** The continuation of the Roman Empire in the east, with emperors like Justinian I.
- **Holy Roman Empire:** A complex multi-ethnic empire in Central Europe, started by Charlemagne in 800 AD.
- **Mongol Empire:** The largest contiguous land empire in history, founded by Genghis Khan and expanded by his successors.
3. **Modern Empires:**
- **British Empire:** At its height, the largest empire in history, with Queen Victoria assuming the title of Empress of India.
- **Russian Empire:** Expanded greatly under emperors (Tsars) like Peter the Great and Catherine the Great.
- **Ottoman Empire:** Lasted for over 600 years, with sultans holding absolute power, and the title of "Caliph" symbolizing religious leadership.

### Roles and Powers of Emperors
- **Supreme Authority:** Emperors typically wield absolute power, including military command, legal authority, and control over religious institutions.
- **Cultural and Religious Leadership:** Many emperors were seen as divine or semi-divine figures, central to the cultural and religious identity of their empire.
- **Political Leadership:** Emperors often enacted laws, controlled the treasury, and made critical decisions regarding war, diplomacy, and trade.
- **Symbolic Role:** Emperors often served as a unifying symbol for their people, representing the continuity and stability of the empire.

### Famous Emperors
- **Augustus (Roman Empire):** The first Roman emperor who established the imperial system and brought relative peace through the Pax Romana.
- **Qin Shi Huang (China):** The first emperor of a unified China, known for his centralization efforts and construction of the Great Wall.
- **Napoleon Bonaparte (French Empire):** Declared himself Emperor of the French, leading significant military campaigns across Europe.
- **Akbar the Great (Mughal Empire):** Known for his policy of religious tolerance and administrative reforms in India.
- **Meiji Emperor (Japan):** Oversaw the modernization and westernization of Japan during the Meiji Restoration.

### Decline and Legacy
The concept of emperorship has largely declined with the fall of empires and the rise of nation-states and democratic governance. However, the legacy of emperors remains significant in historical, cultural, and symbolic contexts. Modern constitutional monarchies like Japan retain emperors with ceremonial roles, reflecting the enduring influence of imperial history."
[{2024-05-20 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.wrkr.039-emperor!⇒wrkrEmperor,
* McsEngl.wrkr.emperor!⇒wrkrEmperor,
* McsEngl.wrkrEmperor!=emperor,
* McsEngl.wrkrPblc.emperor!⇒wrkrEmperor,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.huángdì-皇帝!=emperor,
* McsZhon.皇帝-huángdì!=emperor,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.αυτοκράτορας!ο!=emperor,


Certainly! Here's an overview of the term "king":

### Definition
A king is a male monarch who is the supreme ruler of a kingdom or territory. Kingship is typically hereditary, passed down through a royal family line, although there are instances where kings are elected or appointed.

### Roles and Responsibilities
- **Governance**: Kings often serve as the head of state, wielding executive, legislative, and judicial powers. In some historical contexts, their rule was absolute, while in others, they shared power with councils or parliaments.
- **Military Leadership**: Historically, kings were often the supreme military leaders of their kingdoms, leading their armies in battle and making crucial strategic decisions.
- **Symbolic Figurehead**: Kings often embody the cultural and spiritual identity of their nation, serving as symbols of continuity and tradition.

### Historical Context
- **Ancient Kingships**: The concept of kingship dates back to ancient civilizations such as Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Indus Valley, where kings were often seen as divine or semi-divine figures.
- **Medieval Kings**: During the Middle Ages, European kings held feudal power, where their authority was supported by a network of nobles who owed allegiance to them.
- **Modern Monarchies**: In contemporary times, the role of kings has largely become ceremonial in many countries with constitutional monarchies, where real political power is held by elected bodies. However, some kings still wield significant influence in absolute monarchies.

### Notable Kings in History
- **King Tutankhamun (Tutankhamen)**: Ancient Egypt, known for his tomb's discovery in 1922 which provided significant archaeological insights.
- **Alexander the Great**: King of Macedonia who created one of the largest empires in history by the age of 30.
- **King Henry VIII**: English king known for his six marriages and the establishment of the Church of England.
- **King Louis XIV**: Known as the "Sun King," he ruled France for 72 years and exemplified absolute monarchy.
- **King Solomon**: Ancient Israelite king renowned for his wisdom, wealth, and building projects including the First Temple in Jerusalem.

### Symbolism and Cultural Significance
- **Crown and Throne**: Traditional symbols of a king's authority and sovereignty.
- **Royal Regalia**: Objects like scepters, orbs, and ceremonial swords used during coronations and other state functions.
- **Myth and Legend**: Kings are often central figures in national myths, legends, and literature, representing ideals of bravery, wisdom, and justice.

### Evolution of Kingship
- **Feudal to Constitutional**: The transition from feudal monarchies with significant autocratic power to constitutional monarchies where kings serve primarily as ceremonial heads of state.
- **Decline of Absolute Power**: The rise of democratic governance has significantly curtailed the political power of kings, transforming many into symbols of national unity and continuity.

In conclusion, the concept of a king has evolved significantly over time, from ancient divine rulers to modern ceremonial figureheads. Despite the changes in their political power and function, kings remain potent symbols of cultural heritage and national identity."
[{2024-05-20 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.king!⇒wrkrKing,
* McsEngl.wrkrKing!⇒king,
* McsEngl.wrkr.038-king!⇒wrkrKing,
* McsEngl.wrkr.king!⇒wrkrKing,
* McsEngl.wrkrPblc.king!⇒wrkrKing,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.wáng-王!=wrkrKing,
* McsZhon.王-wáng!=wrkrKing,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.βασιλιάς!ο!=wrkrKing,

budget of sectorPblc

"A budget (from old French bougette, purse) is a list of all planned expenses and revenues. It is a plan for saving and spending.[1] A budget is an important concept in microeconomics, which uses a budget line to illustrate the trade-offs between two or more goods. In other terms, a budget is an organizational plan stated in monetary terms.
In summary, the purpose of budgeting is to:
Provide a forecast of revenues and expenditures, that is, construct a model of how our business might perform financially if certain strategies, events and plans are carried out.
Enable the actual financial operation of the business to be measured against the forecast."

* McsEngl.bdgtPblc!=public-budget,
* McsEngl.bdgtPblc//sectorPublic,
* McsEngl.public-budget!⇒bdgtPblc,
* McsEngl.sectorPblc'budget!⇒bdgtPblc,
* McsEngl.Socbudget!⇒bdgtPblc,
* McsEngl.budget.society!⇒bdgtPblc,
* McsEngl.Socadmn'budget!⇒bdgtPblc,
* McsEngl.socHmn'att030-budget!⇒bdgtPblc,
* McsEngl.socHmn'budget!⇒bdgtPblc,

01_input of bdgtPblc

"Government income, also known as government revenue, refers to the money a government receives from various sources to fund its operations and expenditures. The primary sources of government income typically include:
* **Taxes:** This is the most common and significant source of government revenue. Taxes can be levied on income, profits, property, goods and services, and other forms of wealth.
* **Social contributions:** These are payments made by individuals and employers to fund social security programs like pensions, healthcare, and unemployment benefits.
* **Non-tax revenue:** This includes income from sources like government-owned enterprises, fees for services provided by the state, royalties on natural resources, and investments.
The total amount of government revenue varies depending on several factors, including the size of the economy, tax policies, and the level of economic activity.
You can find more information about government revenue in these resources:
* **Government revenue - Wikipedia:** [](
* **General government revenue - OECD Data:** [](
* **How much revenue has the US government collected this year? - U.S. Treasury Fiscal Data:** [](
I hope this helps! Let me know if you have any other questions."
[{2024-06-16 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Socadmn'income,
* McsEngl.bdgtPblc'01_input,
* McsEngl.bdgtPblc'att001-input,
* McsEngl.bdgtPblc'input,
* McsEngl.bdgtPblc'revenue,
* McsEngl.government-income,
* McsEngl.income-of-government,

tax-revenue of bdgtPblc

"Tax revenue is the income that a government collects from taxes imposed on individuals, businesses, and other entities. It is a primary source of funding for government operations, public services, and infrastructure projects.

**Types of Taxes that Contribute to Tax Revenue:**
* **Taxes on Income and Profits:** These include individual income taxes, corporate income taxes, and taxes on capital gains.
* **Social Security Contributions:** These are payroll taxes paid by both employees and employers to fund social security programs.
* **Taxes Levied on Goods and Services:** These include sales taxes, value-added taxes (VAT), excise taxes on specific goods (e.g., gasoline, alcohol, tobacco), and import duties.
* **Payroll Taxes:** These are taxes paid by employers on behalf of their employees, such as unemployment insurance taxes.
* **Taxes on the Ownership and Transfer of Property:** These include property taxes, inheritance taxes, and taxes on real estate transactions.
* **Other Taxes:** These may include environmental taxes, license fees, and other miscellaneous taxes.

**Importance of Tax Revenue:**
* **Funding Government Activities:** Tax revenue is essential for funding government programs and services, such as healthcare, education, defense, social welfare, and infrastructure development.
* **Economic Stability:** Tax policy can be used to influence the economy, promote growth, and stabilize economic fluctuations.
* **Income Redistribution:** Progressive tax systems, where higher earners pay a higher percentage of their income in taxes, can be used to reduce income inequality and provide social safety nets.
* **Financing Public Debt:** Tax revenue is used to service and repay government debt.

**Measurement of Tax Revenue:**
* **Total Tax Revenue:** The total amount of taxes collected by a government.
* **Tax-to-GDP Ratio:** The ratio of tax revenue to a country's gross domestic product (GDP), indicating the share of economic output collected by the government through taxes. This ratio is often used to compare tax burdens across countries.
Let me know if you would like more information on a specific aspect of tax revenue."
[{2024-06-16 retrieved}]


02_output of bdgtPblc


* McsEngl.bdgtPblc'02_output,
* McsEngl.bdgtPblc'att002-output,
* McsEngl.bdgtPblc'expenditure,
* McsEngl.bdgtPblc'expense,
* McsEngl.bdgtPblc'output,

03_balance of bdgtPblc


* McsEngl.bdgtPblc'03_balance,
* McsEngl.bdgtPblc'att003-balance,
* McsEngl.bdgtPblc'balance,

public-debt of bdgtPblc

">public debt parts:
Public debt, often referred to as national debt or government debt, is the total amount of money owed by a government to creditors. It's a crucial aspect of a country's financial health, impacting its borrowing costs, investment attractiveness, and economic policies. Public debt can be broken down into various parts, reflecting the sources and structures of the debt. Here are the key components:
1. **Market Debt (or Marketable Securities)**: This includes debt instruments issued by the government that are available for purchase by investors on the open market. Market debt is further categorized into:
- **Treasury Bills (T-Bills)**: Short-term securities that mature in one year or less. They are sold at a discount and pay no interest before maturity.
- **Treasury Notes (T-Notes)**: Medium-term securities that mature between two and ten years. They pay interest every six months.
- **Treasury Bonds (T-Bonds)**: Long-term securities with maturities exceeding ten years, up to 30 years. Like T-Notes, they pay interest semi-annually.
2. **Non-Marketable Securities**: These are debt instruments that cannot be sold on the open market and are typically issued to specific entities or government accounts. They include:
- **Government Account Series (GAS) Securities**: Issued to federal government accounts, like Social Security and Medicare trust funds. These securities represent internal transactions within the government.
- **Savings Bonds**: Offered to the public and are non-transferable. They're intended for small investors for savings purposes, with maturities ranging from 1 to 30 years.
- **Special Securities Issued to State and Local Governments**: These are non-marketable and may be used for specific purposes, such as managing state and local government funds.
3. **Foreign and Domestic Holdings**: Public debt is also categorized based on the ownership of the debt securities:
- **Domestic Debt**: Debt held by citizens, businesses, and institutions within the country.
- **Foreign Debt**: Debt owned by foreign governments, corporations, and individuals. This component is critical for assessing a country's external vulnerabilities and its reliance on foreign investment.
4. **Short-Term vs. Long-Term Debt**: This categorization is based on the maturity of the debt instruments. Short-term debt typically matures in one year or less, while long-term debt has a longer maturity period. The structure of the maturity profile can affect the government's refinancing needs and interest rate risk.
Understanding the components of public debt helps in analyzing a government's debt sustainability, the potential impact on the economy, and the risks associated with debt management policies. It also provides insight into the government's fiscal health and its ability to meet future obligations."
[{2024-03-09 retrieved}]

USA national debt:
1930: $16 billion
1940: $43 billion
1950: $257 billion
1960: $286 billion
1970: $371 billion
1980: $908 billion
1990: $3.2 trillion
2000: $5.6 trillion
2010: $13.5 trillion
2020: $27.7 trillion
2023: $32.8 trillion
[{2023-08-29 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.bdgtPblc'att006-debt,
* McsEngl.bdgtPblc'debt,
* McsEngl.government-debt,
* McsEngl.national-debt,
* McsEngl.public-debt,

relation-to-Gdp of bdgtPblc

· Eu-member-states budget is 46% of Gdp.

* McsEngl.bdgtPblc'att004-relation-to-Gdp,
* McsEngl.bdgtPblc'relation-to-Gdp,

procurement of bdgtPblc

"Government procurement or public procurement is the procurement of goods, services and works on behalf of a public authority, such as a government agency. Amounting to 12 percent of global GDP in 2018,[1] government procurement accounts for a substantial part of the global economy.
To prevent fraud, waste, corruption, or local protectionism, the laws of most countries regulate government procurement to some extent. Laws usually require the procuring authority to issue public tenders if the value of the procurement exceeds a certain threshold. Government procurement is also the subject of the Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), a plurilateral international treaty under the auspices of the WTO."
[{2024-02-07 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.bdgtPblc'att005-procurement,
* McsEngl.government-procurement,
* McsEngl.public-procurement,


* public-sector minus core-administrative-sector,
* private-sector for-profit and not-for-profit,

* McsEngl.non--core-public-sector!⇒sectorPblcCoreNo,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.020-sectorPublic0No!⇒sectorPblcCoreNo,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.sectorPublic0No!⇒sectorPblcCoreNo,
* McsEngl.sectorPblcCoreNo!=non--core-public-sector,
* McsEngl.sectorPublicCoreNo!⇒sectorPblcCoreNo,


· non-core-admin production-organization.

* McsEngl.non-core-admin--production-organization!⇒ogznPdnAdmn0No,
* McsEngl.ogznPdnAdmn0No!⇒non-core-admin--production-organization,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.ogznAdmn0No!⇒ogznPdnAdmn0No,


× whole: producing-sector,

· the NON governance-owned-sector.

* McsEngl.non-public-sector!⇒sectorPrivate,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.010-sectorPrivate!⇒sectorPrivate,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.sectorPrivate!⇒sectorPrivate,
* McsEngl.publicNo-sector!⇒sectorPrivate,
* McsEngl.sectorPrivate,
* McsEngl.sectorPrvt!⇒sectorPrivate,
* McsEngl.sectorPublicNo!⇒sectorPrivate,
* McsEngl.sectorGvcOwnedNo!⇒sectorPrivate,
* McsEngl.sectorPrivate,
* McsEngl.sectorPublicNo!⇒sectorPrivate,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ιδιωτικός-τομέας!ο!=sectorPrivate,
* McsElln.μη-δημόσιος-τομέας!ο!=sectorPrivate,

ogznPublicNo of sectorPrivate

· ogznPrivate is an-ogznPrdg NOT OWNED by state|regional|local governance-systems.

* McsEngl.ogznAdmnNo!⇒ogznPrivate,
* McsEngl.ogznGovernanceOwnedNo!⇒ogznPrivate,
* McsEngl.ogznPdcnAdmnNo!⇒ogznPrivate,
* McsEngl.ogznPrivate!=private--production-organization,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.006-private!⇒ogznPrivate,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.private!⇒ogznPrivate,
* McsEngl.ogznPublicNo!⇒ogznPrivate,
* McsEngl.private-ogznPrdg!⇒ogznPrivate,
* McsEngl.publicNo-ogznPrdg!⇒ogznPrivate,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.οργανισμός-ιδιωτικού-τομέα!ο!=ogznPrivate,


"In economics, the business sector or corporate sector - sometimes popularly called simply "business" - is "the part of the economy made up by companies".[1][need quotation to verify][2] It is a subset of the domestic economy,[3] excluding the economic activities of general government, private households, and non-profit organizations serving individuals.[4] The business sector is part of the private sector, but it differs in that the private sector includes all non-government activity, including non-profit organizations, while the business sector only includes business that operate for profit.
In the United States the business sector accounted for about 78 percent of the value of gross domestic product (GDP) as of 2000.[4] Kuwait and Tuvalu each had business sectors accounting for less than 40% of GDP as of 2015.[5]
In systems of state capitalism, much of the business sector forms part of the public sector.[6] In mixed economies, state-owned enterprises may straddle any divide between public and business sectors, allowing analysts to use the concept of a "state-owned enterprise sector".[7]
The Oxford English Dictionary records the phrase "business sector" in the general sense from 1934.[8] Word usage suggests that the concept of a "business sector" came into wider use after 1940.[9] Related terms in previous times included "merchant class" and "merchant caste"."
[{2024-01-28 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.corporate-sector!⇒sectorProfit,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.040-profit-sector!⇒sectorProfit,
* McsEngl.private-sector!⇒sectorProfit,
* McsEngl.profit-sector!⇒sectorProfit,
* McsEngl.sectorPrivate.profit!⇒sectorProfit,
* McsEngl.sectorProfit!=sectorPrivate.profit,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ιδιωτικός-τομέας!ο!=sectorProfit,


"The voluntary sector, independent sector, or civic sector is the realm of social activity undertaken by organizations that are non-governmental nonprofit organizations.[1] This sector is also called the third sector, community sector, and nonprofit sector,[2] in contrast to the public sector and the private sector. Civic sector or social sector are other terms for the sector, emphasizing its relationship to civil society. Richard Cornuelle coined the term "independent sector" and was one of the first scholars to point out the vast impact and unique mechanisms of this sector.[3] Given the diversity of organizations that comprise the sector, Peter Frumkin prefers "non-profit and voluntary sector".[4]"
[{2024-01-28 retrieved}]
"23.11 For some time, there has been growing interest in studying the contribution to the economy of institutions such as NPIs because they are seen to constitute a significant presence of growing economic and policy interest.
Such institutions are variously referred to as “non-profit”, “voluntary”, “civil society” or “non-governmental” organizations and collectively as the “third”, “voluntary”, “non-profit” or “independent” sector.
Such institutions attract interest because their operating characteristics are somewhat different from those of other units in the corporations and government sectors.
a. They are not permitted to distribute profits;
b. They may produce public goods as well as private goods;
c. They may receive as much or more from current transfers as they receive from selling their output;
d. They may depend on volunteer labour as well as paid labour;
e. Because they cannot pay dividends, they cannot attract equity capital in competition with corporations;
f. They may be eligible for special tax advantages in many countries;
g. They typically have special legal provisions covering the governance, reporting requirements, political participation and so on;
h. Although they provide public goods and services, they do not have the same powers or restrictions as government in deciding what these goods and services should be and how they should be allocated."
[{2024-03-09 retrieved} SNA-2008]

* McsEngl.civic-sector!⇒sectorProfitNo,
* McsEngl.independent-sector!⇒sectorProfitNo,
* McsEngl.nonprofit-sector!⇒sectorProfitNo,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.041-profitNo-sector!⇒sectorProfit,
* McsEngl.sectorPrivate.profitNo!⇒sectorProfitNo,
* McsEngl.sectorProfitNo!=sectorPrivate.profitNo,
* McsEngl.third-sector!⇒sectorProfitNo,
* McsEngl.voluntary-sector!⇒sectorProfitNo,


· incorporated-ogznPrdg is an-ogznPrdg if it is a-legal-entity.

* McsEngl.incorporated-economic-organization!⇒oznSfrIncorporated,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.007-incorporated!⇒oznSfrIncorporated,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.incorporated!⇒oznSfrIncorporated,
* McsEngl.ogznSfrIncorporated,


· unincorporated-ogznPrdg is an-ogznPrdg if it is-NOT a-legal-entity.

* McsEngl.non-legal-entity--economic-organization!⇒oznSfrIncorporatedNo,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.008-incorporatedNo!⇒oznSfrIncorporatedNo,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.incorporatedNo!⇒oznSfrIncorporatedNo,
* McsEngl.oznSfrIncorporatedNo,
* McsEngl.unincorporated-economic-organization!⇒oznSfrIncorporatedNo,


· local-ogznPrdg is an-ogznPrdg carrying out one or more activities at ONE creation-place.
"a local unit: an enterprise or part of an enterprise (factory, warehouse, office) situated in one geographically identified place; local units are classified into sectors (by NACE) according to their main activity;"

* McsEngl.local-ogznPrdg!⇒ogznPdcnLocal,
* McsEngl.local-unit!/EuNace!⇒ogznPdcnLocal,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.013-local!⇒ogznPdcnLocal,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.local!⇒ogznPdcnLocal,


· ONE creating-place, ONE production-activities.
"a Local kind-of-activity unit: a combination of the previous two: an enterprise or part of an enterprise situated in one geographically identified place which in its entirety can be classified within one activity sector (by NACE);"

* McsEngl.local-kind-of-activity-unit!/EuNace,
* McsEngl.ogznPdcnLocal.activityOne,


· one creating-place, many production-activities.

* McsEngl.ogznPdcnLocal.activityMany,


· localNo-ogznPrdg is an-ogznPrdg carrying out one or more activities at MORE THAN ONE creation-place.

* McsEngl.localNo-ogznPrdg!⇒ogznPdcnLocalNo,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.014-localNo!⇒ogznPdcnLocalNo,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.localNo!⇒ogznPdcnLocalNo,


· MANY creating-place, ONE production-activities.

* McsEngl.ogznPdcnLocalNo.activityOne,


· MANY creating-places, MANY production-activities.

* McsEngl.ogznPdcnLocalNo.activityMany,


· with one production-activities.

* McsEngl.ogznPdcnMonoact,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.015-activityOne!⇒ogznPdcnMonoact,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.activityOne!⇒ogznPdcnMonoact,


· with many production-activities.

* McsEngl.ogznPdcnPolyact,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.016-activityMany!⇒ogznPdcnPolyact,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.activityMany!⇒ogznPdcnPolyact,


"A subsidiary company is a company that belongs to another company, which is called the parent company or holding company. The parent company holds a controlling interest in the subsidiary company, meaning it owns or controls more than half of its shares. In the case where a subsidiary company is fully owned by another company, the subsidiary company is called a wholly-owned company. Companies buy or establish a subsidiary company to acquire specific synergies or assets, secure tax benefits, and limit losses. Shareholder approval is not required."
[{2023-12-06 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogznPdcnPart,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.017-part!⇒ogznPdcnPart,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.part!⇒ogznPdcnPart,
* McsEngl.subsidiary-company!⇒ogznPdcnPart,



* McsEngl.ogznPdcnPart.activityOne,


"The kind-of-activity unit (KAU) is a part of an enterprise. The KAU groups together all the offices, production facilities etc. of an enterprise, which contribute to the performance of a specific economic activity defined at class level (four digits) of the European classification of economic activities (NACE Rev. 2.) For example, a kind-of-activity unit might be the combination of all parts of a metal producing enterprise that produce copper (class 24.44 in NACE Rev. 2); within the same enterprise there might be another KAU consisting of those parts that produce aluminium (class 24.42 in NACE Rev. 2). In order to statistically subdivide enterprises into KAUs the enterprise's information system must be capable of indicating or calculating for each KAU at least the value of production, intermediate consumption, manpower costs, the operating surplus, employment and gross fixed capital formation.
The purpose of the KAU is to improve the homogeneity of statistical surveys by economic activity. In the above example, without the use of KAUs, it would be necessary to classify the enterprise either as a copper manufacturer or as an aluminium manufacturer. In such a way rather diverse enterprises might be considered to engage in the same economic activity which would make statistical results less clear and comparable.
The local part of a kind of activity units is called local kind-of-activity unit (LKAU), the term establishment is common as well, e.g. in SNA or ISIC."

* McsEngl.KAU'(kind-of-activity-unit)!/EuNace,
* McsEngl.kind-of-activity-unit!/EuNace,
* McsEngl.ogznPdcnPart.activityMany,


"An enterprise is an organisational unit producing goods or services which has a certain degree of autonomy in decision-making. An enterprise can carry out more than one economic activity and it can be situated at more than one location. An enterprise may consist out of one or more legal units.
Legal units include legal persons whose existence is recognized by law independently of the individuals or institutions which may own them or are members of them, such as general partnerships, private limited partnerships, limited liability companies, incorporated companies etc. Legal units as well include natural persons who are engaged in an economic activity in their own right, such as the owner and operator of a shop or a garage, a lawyer or a self-employed handicrafts-man.
Most enterprises consist out of one legal unit. According to Eurostat estimations only a very small share of enterprises comprise more than one legal unit. However, in terms of employment or value added these enterprises cover a huge part of the economy. Many of the big companies quoted at the stock exchange are on top of a chain of control of a big number of legal units.
A legal unit may own a second legal unit and this second legal unit may carry out activities solely for this first legal unit. E.g. legal unit A, a limited liability, produces particular goods and legal unit B, a limited liability as well, solely sells these goods. Both units have the same management. In this case they are seen as one single enterprise. Another example may be that legal unit C employs the staff and legal unit D owns the means of production like machines and buildings. A third legal unit E may own and manage these two legal units. Only the units C, D and E together can produce something and hence are to be counted as one enterprise.
Reasons for splitting the organisational unit enterprise into more than one legal unit can be manifold: avoiding taxes or liabilities, different salaries according to the collective wage agreement or avoiding the publication of annual reports are among them. For example, an enterprise with a certain activity might be able to save expenses, if the wages in the collective wage agreement of this activity are higher than e.g. in logistics. In that case it could make sense to single out the transport capacities of this enterprise into a special limited liability. While in the practical organisation of the enterprise nothing has changed, it now legally consists out of two legal units.
In parallel globalisation has contributed further to more complex structures of enterprises. Being active on a market in a country very often requires an enterprise to have a legal unit in that country. The legal units of such an enterprise may be centrally managed from one country, the book-keeping may be carried out centrally from another country, R&D may be done in a country with high wages, parts of the production in countries with low wages. European business statistics serves European and national purposes, data collection in the European Statistical System is organised nationally. In this set-up only the national parts of a multi-national enterprise are registered in statistics and their European parts have to be aggregated to obtain European aggregates. Multi-national enterprises are often very big enterprises with a huge impact on statistics in terms of employment and value added . Thus, a good quality of multi-national enterprise data is crucial for a good quality of European business statistics and necessitates a stepping-up of the collaboration among the European Statistical System. This collaboration is organised in the form of European profiling, a process to delineate complex and large enterprises."

* McsEngl.enterprise!/EuNace!⇒ogznPdcnPartNo,
* McsEngl.ogznPdcnPartNo,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.018-partNo!⇒ogznPdcnPartNo,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.partNo!⇒ogznPdcnPartNo,

ogznPrdg.service-024 (link)

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.024-service!⇒ogznService,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.service!⇒ogznService,


· serviceNo-provider is an-ogznPrdg with output a-serviceNo.

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.025-serviceNo!⇒ogznServiceNo,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.serviceNo!⇒ogznServiceNo,
* McsEngl.ogznServiceNo!=ogznPrdg.serviceNo,

ogznServiceNo.sector (link)


· service and non-service production-organization.

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.034-serviceBoth!⇒ogznServiceBoth,
* McsEngl.ogznServiceBoth!=production-organization-service-and-serviceNo,


">global utilities percentage in economy:
The global utilities industry, which includes essential services such as electricity, water, natural gas, and sewage treatment, had a significant market valuation in recent years. In 2022, the worldwide utilities market achieved a valuation of approximately $6037.3 billion, contributing about 6% to the overall global GDP. The market is expected to continue growing, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.6% projected from 2022 to 2032.
In terms of market segments, the electric power generation, transmission, and distribution segment held the largest share, accounting for about 74.2% of the total utility industry market in 2022. Geographically, China was a leading market in the utilities industry, representing around 19.5% of the global market.
The utilities market is expected to grow further, reaching a valuation of approximately $6,416.54 billion in 2023 and potentially $8,105.48 billion by 2026. This growth is driven by factors such as investments in renewable power generation capacities and advancements in digital technologies like smart grids, sensors, and smart meters that enhance productivity, efficiency, and safety in power generation and distribution.
These findings indicate a robust and expanding utilities industry, playing a crucial role in the global economy and advancing towards more sustainable and technologically integrated operations [] [] [].
[{2023-12-13 retrieved}]

">is utilities a non-service-sector?:
Utilities are often classified as a non-service sector, but this is not entirely accurate. While utilities do not traditionally fit into the traditional definition of a service sector, they do provide essential services to the public. This makes them a unique sector that straddles the line between services and industries.
In some countries, utilities are classified as a part of the secondary sector of the economy, which includes manufacturing and construction. This is because utilities companies often operate large-scale infrastructure projects, such as power plants and pipelines. However, utilities also provide services, such as electricity distribution and customer support.
For this reason, it is more accurate to consider utilities as a cross-sectoral industry. They have aspects of both the secondary and tertiary sectors, and they play a vital role in the economy as a whole.
Here is a table summarizing the classification of utilities:
| Classification | Description |
| Secondary sector (manufacturing, construction) | Utilities companies often operate large-scale infrastructure projects, such as power plants and pipelines. |
| Tertiary sector (services) | Utilities companies provide essential services to the public, such as electricity distribution and customer support. |
| Cross-sectoral industry | Utilities have aspects of both the secondary and tertiary sectors. |
Ultimately, the classification of utilities is a matter of debate. However, there is no doubt that they are a vital industry that plays a crucial role in the economy."
[{2024-01-03 retrieved}]
">is utilities a non-service-sector?
Utilities are not part of the non-service sector. They are, in fact, a core component of the service sector. The non-service sector typically refers to parts of the economy that are involved in the production of goods rather than services. This includes:
1. **Primary Sector**: This includes industries like agriculture, mining, forestry, and fishing, which are involved in the extraction and production of raw materials.
2. **Secondary Sector**: This encompasses manufacturing and industrial activities, where raw materials are transformed into finished goods.
Utilities, on the other hand, fall under the **Tertiary Sector**, also known as the service sector. This sector is focused on providing services rather than goods. Utilities provide essential services such as water, electricity, natural gas, waste management, and telecommunication services. These are integral to the functioning of both the everyday lives of individuals and the operation of other sectors of the economy. Thus, utilities are firmly within the service sector."
[{2024-01-03 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.036-sector.utilities!⇒sectorUtil,
* McsEngl.sector3No.utilities!⇒sectorUtil,
* McsEngl.sectorUtil,
* McsEngl.utilities-sectorServiceBoth!⇒sectorUtil,

"Trust: A legal entity created to manage assets on behalf of beneficiaries. This can be a useful tool in preserving and managing commons outside the realm of government."

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.001-trust!⇒ogznTrust,
* McsEngl.ogznTrust,

"A trust is a three-party fiduciary relationship in which the first party, the trustor or settlor, transfers ("settles") a property (often but not necessarily a sum of money) upon the second party (the trustee) for the benefit of the third party, the beneficiary.[1]
A testamentary trust is created by a will and arises after the death of the settlor. An inter vivos trust is created during the settlor's lifetime by a trust instrument. A trust may be revocable or irrevocable; in the United States, a trust is presumed to be irrevocable unless the instrument or will creating it states it is revocable, except in California, Oklahoma and Texas, in which trusts are presumed to be revocable until the instrument or will creating them states they are irrevocable. An irrevocable trust can be "broken" (revoked) only by a judicial proceeding.
The trustee is the legal owner of the property in trust, as fiduciary for the beneficiary or beneficiaries who is/are the equitable owner(s) of the trust property. Trustees thus have a fiduciary duty to manage the trust to the benefit of the equitable owners. They must provide a regular accounting of trust income and expenditures. Trustees may be compensated and be reimbursed their expenses. A court of competent jurisdiction can remove a trustee who breaches his/her fiduciary duty. Some breaches of fiduciary duty can be charged and tried as criminal offences in a court of law.
A trustee can be a natural person, a business entity or a public body. A trust in the United States may be subject to federal and state taxation.
A trust is created by a settlor, who transfers title to some or all of his or her property to a trustee, who then holds title to that property in trust for the benefit of the beneficiaries.[2] The trust is governed by the terms under which it was created. In most jurisdictions, this requires a contractual trust agreement or deed. It is possible for a single individual to assume the role of more than one of these parties, and for multiple individuals to share a single role.[citation needed] For example, in a living trust it is common for the grantor to be both a trustee and a lifetime beneficiary while naming other contingent beneficiaries.[citation needed]
Trusts have existed since Roman times and have become one of the most important innovations in property law.[3] Trust law has evolved through court rulings differently in different states, so statements in this article are generalizations; understanding the jurisdiction-specific case law involved is tricky. Some U.S. states are adapting the Uniform Trust Code to codify and harmonize their trust laws, but state-specific variations still remain.
An owner placing property into trust turns over part of his or her bundle of rights to the trustee, separating the property's legal ownership and control from its equitable ownership and benefits. This may be done for tax reasons or to control the property and its benefits if the settlor is absent, incapacitated, or deceased. Testamentary trusts may be created in wills, defining how money and property will be handled for children or other beneficiaries.
While the trustee is given legal title to the trust property, in accepting title the trustee owes a number of fiduciary duties to the beneficiaries. The primary duties owed include the duty of loyalty, the duty of prudence, and the duty of impartiality.[4] Trustees may be held to a very high standard of care in their dealings in order to enforce their behavior. To ensure beneficiaries receive their due, trustees are subject to a number of ancillary duties in support of the primary duties, including duties of openness and transparency, and duties of recordkeeping, accounting, and disclosure. In addition, a trustee has a duty to know, understand, and abide by the terms of the trust and relevant law. The trustee may be compensated and have expenses reimbursed, but otherwise must turn over all profits from the trust properties.
There are strong restrictions regarding a trustee with a conflict of interest. Courts can reverse a trustee's actions, order profits returned, and impose other sanctions if they find a trustee has failed in any of its duties. Such a failure is termed a breach of trust and can leave a neglectful or dishonest trustee with severe liabilities for its failures. It is highly advisable for both settlors and trustees to seek qualified legal counsel prior to entering into a trust agreement."

01_trustor of ogznTrust

"In law a settlor is a person who settles property on trust law for the benefit of beneficiaries. In some legal systems, a settlor is also referred to as a trustor, or occasionally, a grantor or donor.[a] Where the trust is a testamentary trust, the settlor is usually referred to as the testator. The settlor may also be the trustee of the trust (where he declares that he holds his own property on trusts) or a third party may be the trustee (where he transfers the property to the trustee on trusts). In the common law of England and Wales, it has been held, controversially, that where a trustee declares an intention to transfer trust property to a trust of which he is one of several trustees, that is a valid settlement notwithstanding the property is not vested in the other trustees.[1]"
[{2020-09-06} ]

* McsEngl.ogznTrust'01_trustor,
* McsEngl.ogznTrust'att001-trustor,
* McsEngl.ogznTrust'donor,
* McsEngl.ogznTrust'grantor,
* McsEngl.ogznTrust'trustor,
* McsEngl.ogznTrust'settlor,

02_trustee of ogznTrust

"The trustee is the legal owner of the property in trust, as fiduciary for the beneficiary or beneficiaries who is/are the equitable owner(s) of the trust property. Trustees thus have a fiduciary duty to manage the trust to the benefit of the equitable owners. They must provide a regular accounting of trust income and expenditures. Trustees may be compensated and be reimbursed their expenses. A court of competent jurisdiction can remove a trustee who breaches his/her fiduciary duty. Some breaches of fiduciary duty can be charged and tried as criminal offences in a court of law.
A trustee can be a natural person, a business entity or a public body. A trust in the United States may be subject to federal and state taxation."

* McsEngl.ogznTrust'02_trustee,
* McsEngl.ogznTrust'att002-trustee,
* McsEngl.ogznTrust'trustee,

03_beneficiary of ogznTrust

"Trust: A legal entity created to manage assets on behalf of beneficiaries."

* McsEngl.ogznTrust'03_beneficiary,
* McsEngl.ogznTrust'att003-beneficiary,
* McsEngl.ogznTrust'beneficiary,

04_property of ogznTrust

· the-satisfiers the-trustee manages.

* McsEngl.ogznTrust'04_satisfier,
* McsEngl.ogznTrust'asset,
* McsEngl.ogznTrust'att004-satisfier,
* McsEngl.ogznTrust'property,
* McsEngl.ogznTrust'satisfier,

"A cooperative is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise."

* McsEngl.cooperative!⇒ogznCoop,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.002-coop!⇒ogznCoop,
* McsEngl.ogznCoop,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.συνεταιρισμός!=ogznCoop,

satisfier of ogznCoop

· the-satisfier the-coop manages.

* McsEngl.ogznCoop'att004-satisfier,
* McsEngl.ogznCoop'satisfier,

member of ogznCoop


* McsEngl.ogznCoop'att001-member,
* McsEngl.ogznCoop'member,

cooperator of ogznCoop

· the-owners of the-coop.

* McsEngl.cooperator,
* McsEngl.ogznCoop'att002-cooperator,
* McsEngl.ogznCoop'cooperator,
* McsEngl.ogznCoop'owner,

worker of ogznCoop


* McsEngl.ogznCoop'att003-worker,
* McsEngl.ogznCoop'worker,

stakeholder of ogznCoop

· any human or ozn related to a-coop.

* McsEngl.ogznCoop'att005-stakeholder,
* McsEngl.ogznCoop'stakeholder,

organization of ogznCoop

· any organization related to ogznCoop.

* McsEngl.ogznCoop'att006-organization,
* McsEngl.ogznCoop'organization,

International-Cooperative-Alliance of ogznCoop

"The International Cooperative Alliance unites, represents and serves cooperatives worldwide.
Founded in 1895, it is one of the oldest non-governmental organisations and one of the largest ones measured by the number of people represented: 1,2 billion cooperative members on the planet.
It is the apex body representing cooperatives, which are estimated to be around 3 million worldwide, providing a global voice and forum for knowledge, expertise and co-ordinated action for and about cooperatives. Read more about our mission here
The International Cooperative Alliance works with global and regional governments and organisations to create the legislative environments that allow cooperatives to form and grow."

* McsEngl.ICA-International-Cooperative-Alliance,
* McsEngl.International-Cooperative-Alliance,
* McsEngl.ogznCoop'International-Cooperative-Alliance,

governance-sys of ogznCoop


* McsEngl.ogznCoop'att007-governance-sys,
* McsEngl.ogznCoop'governance-sys,

statement-on-cooperative-identity of ogznCoop

"In 1995, the ICA adopted the revised Statement on the Cooperative Identity which contains the definition of a cooperative, the values of cooperatives, and the seven cooperative principles as described below."

* McsEngl.ogznCoop'statement-on-cooperative-identity,
* McsEngl.statement-on-cooperative-identity,

coop-definition of statement-on-cooperative-identity

A cooperative is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise.

values of statement-on-cooperative-identity

Cooperatives are based on the values of self-help, self-responsibility, democracy, equality, equity, and solidarity.
In the tradition of their founders, cooperative members believe in the ethical values of honesty, openness, social responsibility and caring for others.

principles of statement-on-cooperative-identity

The cooperative principles are guidelines by which cooperatives put their values into practice.
1. Voluntary and Open Membership
Cooperatives are voluntary organisations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership, without gender, social, racial, political or religious discrimination.

2. Democratic Member Control
Cooperatives are democratic organisations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting their policies and making decisions. Men and women serving as elected representatives are accountable to the membership. In primary cooperatives members have equal voting rights (one member, one vote) and cooperatives at other levels are also organised in a democratic manner.

3. Member Economic Participation
Members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their cooperative. At least part of that capital is usually the common property of the cooperative. Members usually receive limited compensation, if any, on capital subscribed as a condition of membership. Members allocate surpluses for any or all of the following purposes: developing their cooperative, possibly by setting up reserves, part of which at least would be indivisible; benefiting members in proportion to their transactions with the cooperative; and supporting other activities approved by the membership.

4. Autonomy and Independence
Cooperatives are autonomous, self-help organisations controlled by their members. If they enter into agreements with other organisations, including governments, or raise capital from external sources, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their cooperative autonomy.

5. Education, Training, and Information
Cooperatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their co-operatives. They inform the general public - particularly young people and opinion leaders - about the nature and benefits of co-operation.

6. Cooperation among Cooperatives
Cooperatives serve their members most effectively and strengthen the cooperative movement by working together through local, national, regional and international structures.

7. Concern for Community
Cooperatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies approved by their members.

info-resource of ogznCoop


* McsEngl.ogznCoop'Infrsc,

DOING of ogznCoop


* McsEngl.ogznCoop'doing,

evoluting of ogznCoop

* McsEngl.evoluting-of-ogznCoop,
* McsEngl.ogznCoop'evoluting,

* McsEngl.{1895}-International-Cooperative-Alliance-creation,
"The International Cooperative Alliance was founded in London, England on 19 August 1895 during the 1st Cooperative Congress. In attendance were delegates from cooperatives from Argentina, Australia, Belgium, England, Denmark, France, Germany, Holland, India, Italy, Switzerland, Serbia, and the USA.
Representatives established the International Cooperative Alliance's aims to provide information, define and defend the Cooperative Principles and develop international trade. It was one of the only international organisations to survive both World War I and World War II.
Overcoming all the political differences between its members was difficult, but the ICA survived by staying committed to peace, democracy, and by remaining politically neutral."



* McsEngl.ogznCoop.specific,


"Housing coops come in many forms. Some coops are townhouses and small buildings with just a handful of units. Others are large apartment-style buildings with hundreds of units. Coops are different from private rental housing because the residents decide how the coop is operated. Every member gets a vote in approving annual budgets, electing directors and setting policies on the coop’s overall direction."

* McsEngl.housing-cooperative!⇒ogznCoopHouse,
* McsEngl.ogznCoop.001-house!⇒ogznCoopHouse,
* McsEngl.ogznCoopHouse,

"consumer (user), producer (provider) and multistakeholders health co‐operatives which seek to provide high‐quality, cost‐effective community health care based on freedom of choice, integration of services, and ethical working conditions."

* McsEngl.ogznCoop.002-helth!⇒ogznCoopHelth,
* McsEngl.ogznCoop.helth!⇒ogznCoopHelth,
* McsEngl.ogznCoopHelth,



* McsEngl.ogznCoop.003-retail!⇒ogznCoopRetail,
* McsEngl.ogznCoop.retail!⇒ogznCoopRetail,
* McsEngl.ogznCoopRetail,



* McsEngl.ogznCoop.004-agricultural!⇒ogznCoopAgricultural,
* McsEngl.ogznCoop.agricultural!⇒ogznCoopAgricultural,
* McsEngl.ogznCoopAgricultural,



* McsEngl.ogznCoop.005-fisheries!⇒ogznCoopFisheries,
* McsEngl.ogznCoop.fisheries!⇒ogznCoopFisheries,
* McsEngl.ogznCoopFisheries,



* McsEngl.ogznCoop.006-banking!⇒ogznCoopBanking,
* McsEngl.ogznCoop.banking!⇒ogznCoopBanking,
* McsEngl.ogznCoopBanking,


* McsEngl.ogznCoop.007-insurance!⇒ogznCoopInsurance,
* McsEngl.ogznCoopInsurance,


"A worker cooperative is a cooperative that is owned and self-managed by its workers. This control may mean a firm where every worker-owner participates in decision-making in a democratic fashion, or it may refer to one in which management is elected by every worker-owner who each have one vote."

* Trend 1: From Profit to Purpose and Values
* Trend 2: From Hierarchical Pyramids to Networks of Teams
* Trend 3: From Directive to Supportive Leadership
* Trend 4: From Plan and Predict to Experiment and Adapt
* Trend 5: From Rules and Control to Freedom and Trust
* Trend 6: From Centralized Authority to Distributed Decision-Making
* Trend 7: From Secrecy to Radical Transparency
* Trend 8: From Job Descriptions to Talents and Mastery
[{2024-02-05 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogznCoop.008-worker!⇒ogznCoopWorker,
* McsEngl.ogznCoop.worker!⇒ogznCoopWorker,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.042-emploee-owned!⇒ogznCoopWorker,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.emploee-owned!⇒ogznCoopWorker,
* McsEngl.ogznCoopWorker,
* McsEngl.worker-cooperative!⇒ogznCoopWorker,

info-resource of ogznCoopWorker

* WORLD DECLARATION ON WORKER COOPERATIVES, Approved by the ICA General Assembly in Cartagena, Colombia, on 23 September 2005:,

* McsEngl.ogznCoopWorker,



* McsEngl.ogznCoop.009-customer!⇒ogznCoopCustomer,
* McsEngl.ogznCoop.customer!⇒ogznCoopCustomer,
* McsEngl.ogznCoopCustomer,



* McsEngl.ogznCulture!=culture-production-organization,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.038-culture!⇒ogznCulture,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.culture!⇒ogznCulture,


"The culture sector encompasses a broad range of activities, industries, and professions related to the arts and cultural heritage. Here's an overview of the main components of the culture sector:
1. **Arts**: This includes visual arts (such as painting, sculpture, and photography), performing arts (such as dance, theater, and music), and literary arts (such as poetry, fiction, and drama). These arts are often supported through galleries, theaters, concert halls, and other venues, as well as through public and private funding.
2. **Cultural Heritage**: This aspect of the culture sector involves the preservation and promotion of heritage sites, museums, and historical monuments. It also includes the study and preservation of archaeological sites, historical documents, and artifacts.
3. **Media and Entertainment**: This subsector includes film, television, radio, and new media (such as online content and virtual reality). It plays a crucial role in cultural dissemination and is a significant economic driver.
4. **Crafts and Design**: This includes traditional crafts, industrial design, fashion design, and interior design. Often, these crafts are rooted in historical and cultural traditions, blending old techniques with modern aesthetics.
5. **Cultural Tourism**: Focused on visitors engaging with a region's culture, particularly its heritage sites, arts, festivals, and community practices. This sector is closely tied with local economies and often supports small businesses and local artisans.
6. **Cultural Education**: Educational programs and initiatives aimed at teaching the arts, heritage conservation, and cultural appreciation. This can be seen in schools, universities, and through public programs.
7. **Digital Culture**: This emerging area includes digital arts, video games, and digital archives. It reflects the shifting ways people engage with culture due to technological advancements.
Each component of the culture sector contributes to the social, economic, and educational enrichment of society, helping to maintain cultural identity and continuity while also encouraging innovation and creativity. The sector often requires support through policy, funding, and community engagement to thrive."
[{2024-04-29 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.culture-sector!⇒sectorCulture,
* McsEngl.ogznCulture.aggregate!⇒sectorCulture,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.005-culture-sector!⇒sectorCulture,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.culture-sector!⇒sectorCulture,

ogznPrdg.techInfo-003 (link)

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.003-techInfo!⇒ogznTechInfo,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.techInfo!⇒ogznTechInfo,

· social-production-organization is ogznPrivate that solves social-problems.
· an-ogznAdmn by definition solves social-problems.
· no transparency, no social-company.

">social enterprise:
A social enterprise is a type of business model that is primarily focused on achieving a social, cultural, or environmental goal, rather than maximizing profit for shareholders. These enterprises seek to apply commercial strategies to maximize improvements in human and environmental well-being, rather than maximizing profits for external shareholders. Social enterprises can operate in various sectors, including healthcare, education, environmental protection, and job training, among others. They may take different legal forms, including non-profit organizations with a business arm, cooperatives, and for-profit corporations that are committed to social objectives.
Key characteristics of social enterprises include:
1. **Mission-driven**: The primary aim is to address social problems or needs, which is central to the mission of the organization.
2. **Revenue-generating**: While they aim to achieve social goals, social enterprises also generate revenue through business activities. However, profits are mainly reinvested to further their social or environmental goals.
3. **Social impact**: They measure their success by the impact they have on society or the environment, in addition to financial performance.
4. **Innovative**: Social enterprises often employ innovative approaches to address social needs, including new products, services, or business models.
5. **Financial sustainability**: Unlike traditional charities that rely on donations and grants, social enterprises aim to be financially sustainable through their business activities.
Social enterprises play a vital role in addressing societal challenges by combining the efficiency and innovation of the business world with the social and environmental focus of the nonprofit sector. They represent a diverse and dynamic sector that is growing globally, driven by an increasing recognition of the role that business can play in tackling social issues."
[{2024-03-16 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.011-social!⇒ogznSocial,
* McsEngl.ogznSocial,

info-resource of ogznSocial


* McsEngl.ogznSocial'Infrsc,


* transparent-socially-oriented-company,

* McsEngl.ogznSocial.specific,


· plant and animal production ogznPrdg.

* McsEngl.ogznAgro!=agricultural-organization,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.012-agricultural!⇒ogznAgro,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.agricultural!⇒ogznAgro,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.αγροτικός-οργανισμός!=ogznAgro,

info-resource of ogznAgro


* McsEngl.ogznAgro'Infrsc,


* animal-ogznAgro,
* plant-ogznAgro,
* digital-ogznAgro,

* McsEngl.ogznAgro.specific,

ogznAgro.sector (link)


* McsEngl.ogznPdcnNew,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.021-new!⇒ogznPdcnNew,


* McsEngl.ogznEdu,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.022-education!⇒ogznEdu,

satisfierEdu of ogznEdu


* McsEngl.ogznEdu'satisfierEdu!⇒sfrEdu,
* McsEngl.sfrEdu,

public-spending of ogznEdu


* McsEngl.ogznEdu'public-spending,
* McsEngl.public-spending-on-education,

student of ogznEdu

=== xuéshēng-学生!=student:
· stxZhon: 他们都是学生。 :: Tāmen dōu shì xuésheng. != They are all students.

* McsEngl.ogznEdu'student,
* McsEngl.student,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.xuéshēng-学生!=student,
* McsZhon.学生-xuéshēng!=student,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.μαθητής!ο!=student,
* McsElln.μαθήτρια!η!=student,

"International students studying in the US 🇺🇲, 2022:
* 🇨🇳 China → 290,086
* 🇮🇳 India → 199,182
* 🇰🇷 South Korea → 40,755
* 🇨🇦 Canada → 27,013
* 🇻🇳 Vietnam → 20,713
* 🇹🇼 Taiwan → 20,487
* 🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia → 18,206
* 🇧🇷 Brazil → 14,897
* 🇲🇽 Mexico → 14,500
* 🇳🇬 Nigeria → 14,438
* 🇯🇵 Japan → 13,449
* 🇳🇵 Nepal → 11,799
* 🇧🇩 Bangladesh → 10,597
* 🇬🇧 United Kingdom → 10,292
* 🇮🇷 Iran → 9,295
* 🇵🇰 Pakistan → 8,772
* 🇩🇪 Germany → 8,550
* 🇹🇷 Turkey → 8,467
* 🇪🇸 Spain → 8,165
* 🇨🇴 Colombia → 8,077
* 🇮🇩 Indonesia → 8,003
* 🇫🇷 France → 7,751
* 🇰🇼 Kuwait → 5,923
* 🇭🇰 Hong Kong → 5,848
* 🇮🇹 Italy → 5,695
* 🇻🇪 Venezuela → 5,317
* 🇹🇭 Thailand → 5,007
* 🇲🇾 Malaysia → 4,933
* 🇬🇭 Ghana → 4,916
* 🇷🇺 Russia → 4,802"
[{2023-09-02 retrieved}]


teacher of ogznEdu

=== jiàoshòu-教授!=wrkrTeacher:
· stxZhon: 中午我要见教授。 :: Zhōngwǔ wǒ yào jiàn jiàoshòu. != At noon, I will see my professor.
· "教师" is a general term for educators, "老师" is an informal and respectful term for teachers, and "教授" is a term reserved for university or college professors.

* McsEngl.ogznEdu'teacher!⇒wrkrTeacher,
* McsEngl.teacher!⇒wrkrTeacher,
* McsEngl.wrkrTeacher,
* McsEngl.wrkr.016-teacher!⇒wrkrTeacher,
* McsEngl.wrkr.teacher!⇒wrkrTeacher,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.jiàoshī-教师!=wrkrTeacher,
* McsZhon.教师-jiàoshī!=wrkrTeacher,
* McsZhon.jiàoshòu-教授!=wrkrTeacher,
* McsZhon.教授-jiàoshòu!=wrkrTeacher,
* McsZhon.lǎoshī-老师!=wrkrTeacher,
* McsZhon.老师-lǎoshī!=wrkrTeacher,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.δάσκαλος!ο!=wrkrTeacher,
* McsElln.δασκάλα!η!=wrkrTeacher,

compensation of wrkrTeacher

· Teachers' salaries:
* Luxembourg: $104,845,
* Germany: $85,048,
* Netherlands: $70,899,
* Canada: $70,331,
* Australia: $68,607,
* USA: $63,531,
* Ireland: $62,336,
* Denmark: $62,300,
* South Korea: $60,184,
* Austria: $57,637,
* New Zealand: $52,698,
* Norway: $50,677,
* Spain: $50,547,
* Japan: $49,355,
* Sweden: $49,231,
* Slovenia: $48,203,
* Finland: $45,771,
* Iceland: $45,371,
* Portugal: $44,412,
* Colombia: $43,073,
* France: $40,042,
* Italy: $39,562,
* Lithuania: $35,391,
* Mexico: $34,704,
* Turkey: $34,255,
* Israel: $33,671,
* Poland: $32,039,
* Czechia: $28,453,
* Greece: $27,026,
* Hungary: $20,634,
* Slovakia: $19,328,
* Russia: $10,433,
* India: $8,828,
* Indonesia: $7,504,
* Pakistan: $2,603,
[{2023-07-21 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.wrkrTeacher'compensation,


* researching,
* teaching,

* McsEngl.ogznEdu.specific,


">education sector:
The education sector encompasses all institutions, policies, practices, and resources dedicated to teaching and learning. It spans various levels from early childhood education through primary and secondary education to tertiary (higher education), vocational training, and adult learning. The sector is not only a cornerstone of personal development and empowerment but also plays a critical role in shaping societal norms, driving economic growth, and fostering innovation.
### Key Components
- **Institutions**: Schools, colleges, universities, and training centers where formal education is provided.
- **Policies and Governance**: Regulatory frameworks and standards set by educational authorities and government bodies to guide the operation of educational institutions and ensure quality education.
- **Curriculum and Assessment**: Standardized content, teaching methodologies, and evaluation processes designed to ensure learners acquire the necessary knowledge, skills, and competencies.
- **Teachers and Educators**: Qualified professionals who facilitate learning through teaching, mentorship, and guidance.
- **Technology and Resources**: Educational technologies (EdTech), textbooks, and other learning materials that support instructional delivery and learning processes.
- **Access and Equity**: Initiatives and policies aimed at ensuring all individuals have equal opportunities to access quality education, regardless of their background or circumstances.
### Challenges and Opportunities
- **Accessibility**: Expanding access to quality education for underserved and marginalized communities remains a significant challenge.
- **Quality of Education**: Ensuring that education systems worldwide can deliver high-quality education that equips learners with relevant skills for the modern workforce.
- **Technological Integration**: The use of technology in education, including digital learning platforms, has transformed traditional educational methodologies, offering new opportunities for personalized and flexible learning experiences.
- **Teacher Training and Development**: As curriculums evolve to include new knowledge areas and pedagogical strategies, ongoing professional development for teachers is essential.
- **Sustainability and Resilience**: Ensuring education systems are sustainable and resilient to crises, such as pandemics or economic downturns, which can disrupt learning.
### Future Directions
- **Lifelong Learning**: Recognizing the importance of continuous education beyond formal schooling to adapt to the rapidly changing job market and technology landscape.
- **Global Education Cooperation**: Enhancing international collaboration in education to share knowledge, resources, and best practices.
- **Innovation in Curriculum Design**: Developing curricula that are more inclusive, interdisciplinary, and focused on critical thinking, creativity, and problem-solving skills.
- **Environmental Education**: Integrating sustainability and environmental consciousness into educational programs to prepare future generations for the challenges of climate change.
The education sector is at a pivotal moment, with technological advancements, globalization, and changing societal needs driving transformation. The sector's ability to adapt and innovate will be crucial in preparing individuals not only for the workforce but also for active and informed citizenship in an increasingly complex world."
[{2024-04-04 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.sectorEdu!=education-sector,
* McsEngl.ogznEdu.aggregate!⇒sectorEdu,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.jiàoyù-bùmén-教育部门!=sectorEdu,
* McsZhon.教育部门-jiàoyù-bùmén!=sectorEdu,

education-system of sectorEdu

">education system vs education sector:
The terms "education system" and "education sector" are related, but they have slightly different meanings:
* **Education system:** This refers to the **organized structure** for providing education within a country. It encompasses all the institutions involved, from preschools and kindergartens to universities and vocational schools. The education system also includes the curriculum, standardized tests, teacher training, and regulations that govern how education is delivered.
Think of it like the framework or the blueprint. It defines the stages of education (elementary, secondary, etc.), the flow between them, and the overall approach to delivering knowledge and skills.
* **Education sector:** This refers to the **broader industry** that surrounds education. It includes not just the schools and universities themselves, but also the businesses that provide products and services to the education system. This could include educational technology companies, publishers of textbooks and learning materials, tutoring and test prep services, educational consultants, and so on.
The education sector is more like the ecosystem that supports the education system. It includes the for-profit companies and non-profit organizations that contribute to the overall educational experience.
Here's an analogy: Imagine a school building as the education system. The classrooms, hallways, and teachers are all part of the system. But the janitorial service that cleans the building, the company that sells the cafeteria food, and the bus company that transports students are all part of the broader education sector that supports the school."
[{2024-03-16 retrieved}]

">education system:
An education system is the network of institutions and organizations that provide formal education to a population. It encompasses all levels of education, from early childhood education to higher education. The purpose of an education system is to provide individuals with the knowledge, skills, and values they need to become productive members of society.

**Structure of an education system**
The structure of an education system varies from country to country, but there are some common elements. Most education systems are divided into three levels:
* **Early childhood education (ECE)**: ECE is for children from birth to age five. It is designed to help children develop their social, emotional, and cognitive skills.
* **Primary education:** Primary education is for children from age five to age eleven. It is designed to teach children the basic skills they need to succeed in life, such as reading, writing, and arithmetic.
* **Secondary education:** Secondary education is for children from age eleven to age eighteen. It is designed to provide students with a more specialized education that prepares them for college or the workforce.

**Types of education systems**
There are two main types of education systems:
* **Public education systems:** Public education systems are funded by the government and are open to all students.
* **Private education systems:** Private education systems are not funded by the government and are typically selective in their admissions.

**Challenges facing education systems**
Education systems around the world face a number of challenges, including:
* **Providing access to quality education for all students:** There are still many children around the world who do not have access to quality education. This is often due to factors such as poverty, conflict, and discrimination.
* **Ensuring that education is relevant to the needs of the workforce:** The workforce is constantly changing, and education systems need to adapt to meet the needs of employers.
* **Addressing the achievement gap:** There is a significant achievement gap between students from different socioeconomic backgrounds. This gap is often due to factors such as access to resources and early childhood education.

**Future of education**
The future of education is likely to be shaped by a number of trends, including:
* **The rise of technology:** Technology is playing an increasingly important role in education. This is leading to the development of new teaching methods and learning tools.
* **The globalization of education:** Education is becoming increasingly globalized, with students from all over the world studying together. This is creating new opportunities for collaboration and exchange.
* **The increasing focus on lifelong learning:** Education is no longer confined to the classroom. People are increasingly learning throughout their lives, from formal courses to informal learning opportunities.

The education system plays a vital role in preparing individuals for the challenges and opportunities of the future. By addressing the challenges and adapting to new trends, education systems can ensure that all students have the opportunity to succeed."
[{2023-11-24 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.sectorEdu'education-system,


(n) school (an educational institution) "the school was founded in 1900" [WordNet]

=== xuéxiào-学校!=ogznSchool:
· stxZhon: 这个 学校 很小。 :: _stxSbj:[Zhège xuéxiào] _stxSbjc:[hěn xiǎo]。 != [this school] [small].
· stxZhon: 我 早早地 去 学校 了。 :: _stxSbj:[Wǒ] _stxTime:[zǎozǎo (de)] _stxVrb:{qù} _stxObj:[xuéxiào] (le). != I went to school early.

* McsEngl.ogznEdu.teaching!⇒ogznSchool,
* McsEngl.ogznSchool,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.xuéxiào-学校!=ogznSchool,
* McsZhon.学校-xuéxiào!=ogznSchool,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.σχολείο!το!=ogznSchool,



* McsEngl.ogznEdu.primary,
* McsEngl.primary-education,



* McsEngl.ogznEdu.secondary,
* McsEngl.secondary-education,


"Tertiary education, also known as post-secondary education, is the educational level following the completion of secondary education. It encompasses a wide range of institutions and programs, including universities, colleges, technical training institutes, and vocational schools.
Tertiary education can be academic or vocational in nature. Academic programs typically lead to an undergraduate or graduate degree, while vocational programs prepare students for specific jobs or trades. Tertiary education can be full-time, part-time, or online.
There are many benefits to pursuing tertiary education. Graduates of tertiary education have higher earnings, lower unemployment rates, and better health outcomes than those without a college degree. Tertiary education also helps people develop critical thinking skills, problem-solving skills, and communication skills. These skills are essential for success in the workplace and in life.
Here are some of the benefits of tertiary education:
* Higher earning potential: Graduates of tertiary education typically earn more than those without a college degree.
* Lower unemployment rates: Graduates of tertiary education have lower unemployment rates than those without a college degree.
* Better health outcomes: Graduates of tertiary education are more likely to have health insurance and to be in good health than those without a college degree.
* Improved job satisfaction: Graduates of tertiary education are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs than those without a college degree.
* Increased civic engagement: Graduates of tertiary education are more likely to vote and volunteer than those without a college degree.
Tertiary education is also important for economic growth and development. Countries with a high-skilled workforce are more competitive in the global economy.
If you are considering pursuing tertiary education, there are many factors to consider, such as your interests, your career goals, and your financial situation. There are many different types of tertiary institutions and programs available, so it is important to do your research and find the right one for you."
[{2023-10-01 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogznEdu.tertiary,
* McsEngl.ogznEduTertiary,
* McsEngl.tertiary-education,

student of ogznEduTertiary

"Most educated countries:
* South Korea 🇰🇷: 69%
* Canada 🇨🇦: 67%
* Japan 🇯🇵: 65%
* Ireland 🇮🇪: 63%
* Russia 🇷🇺: 62%
* Luxembourg 🇱🇺: 60%
* Lithuania 🇱🇹: 58%
* UK 🇬🇧: 57%
* Netherlands 🇳🇱: 56%
* Norway 🇳🇴: 56%
* Australia 🇦🇺: 56%
* Sweden 🇸🇪: 52%
* Belgium 🇧🇪: 51%
* Switzerland 🇨🇭: 51%
* United States 🇺🇸: 51%
* Spain 🇪🇸: 50%
* France 🇫🇷: 50%
* Denmark 🇩🇰: 49%
* Slovenia 🇸🇮: 47%
* Israel 🇮🇱: 46%
* Latvia 🇱🇻: 45%
* Greece 🇬🇷: 45%
* Portugal 🇵🇹: 44%
* New Zealand 🇳🇿: 44%
* Estonia 🇪🇪: 44%
* Austria 🇦🇹: 43%
* Turkey 🇹🇷: 41%
* Iceland 🇮🇸: 41%
* Finland 🇫🇮: 40%
* Poland 🇵🇱: 40%
* Chile 🇨🇱: 40%
* Slovakia 🇸🇰: 39%
* Germany 🇩🇪: 37%
* Czechia 🇨🇿: 34%
* Colombia 🇨🇴: 34%
* Hungary 🇭🇺: 32%
* Costa Rica 🇨🇷: 31%
* Italy 🇮🇹: 29%
* Mexico 🇲🇽: 27%
* China 🇨🇳: 27%
* Saudi Arabia 🇸🇦: 26%
* Brazil 🇧🇷: 23%
* India 🇮🇳: 20%
* Argentina 🇦🇷: 19%
* Indonesia 🇮🇩: 18%
* South Africa 🇿🇦: 13%
% of 25- to 34-year-olds having completed tertiary education"
[{2023-10-01 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogznEduTertiary'student,
* McsEngl.student.ogznEduTertiary,

"(n) university (establishment where a seat of higher learning is housed, including administrative and living quarters as well as facilities for research and teaching)
(n) university (a large and diverse institution of higher learning created to educate for life and for a profession and to grant degrees)"
[{2023-09-21 retrieved}]

====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.dàxué-大學!=university,
* McsZhon.大學-dàxué!=university,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.πανεπιστήμιο!το!=university,

evaluation of university

"Academic ranking of World universities:
* 1. 🇺🇸 Harvard
* 2. 🇺🇸 Stanford
* 3. 🇺🇸 MIT
* 4. 🇬🇧 Cambridge
* 5. 🇺🇸 Berkeley
* 6. 🇺🇸 Princeton
* 7. 🇬🇧 Oxford
* 8. 🇺🇸 Columbia
* 9. 🇺🇸 California Institute of Technology
* 10. 🇺🇸 University of Chicago
* 11. 🇺🇸 Yale
* 12. 🇺🇸 Cornell
* 15. 🇫🇷 Paris-Saclay
* 16. 🇺🇸 Johns Hopkins
* 20. 🇨🇭 ETH Zurich
* 22. 🇨🇳 Tsinghua
* 24. 🇨🇦 University of Toronto
* 27. 🇯🇵 University if Tokyo
* 32. 🇩🇰 University of Copenhagen
* 35. 🇦🇺 University of Melbourne
* 37. 🇸🇪 Karolinska
* 46. 🇫🇷 Sorbonne
* 52. 🇳🇱 Utrecht
* 55. 🇩🇪 Heidelberg
* 73. 🇳🇴 University of Oslo
* 84. 🇧🇪 Ghent
* 94. 🇰🇷 Seoul National University
* 109. 🇸🇦 King Saud
* 112. 🇷🇺 Moscow State University
* 119. 🇮🇹 Sapienza University
* 147. 🇦🇹 University of Vienna
* 150. 🇨🇳 Xi’an Jiaotong
* 323. 🇮🇳 Indian Institute of Science
* 401. 🇺🇸 Albert Einstein College
* 498. 🇨🇦 York University"
[{2023-09-21 retrieved}]



· any ogznPrdg involved in military.

* McsEngl.military-ogznPrdg!⇒ogznMili,
* McsEngl.ogznMili,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.027-military!⇒ogznMili,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.military!⇒ogznMili,


"military indesutry:
The military industry, also known as the defense industry, is a global industry that manufactures and sells weapons and military technology. Public sector and private sector firms conduct research and development, engineering, production, and servicing of military material, equipment, and facilities. Customers are the armed forces of states, and civilians.
**Industry overview**
The military industry is a complex and multifaceted sector. It includes a wide range of activities, from the development of new weapons systems to the provision of training and support services. The industry is also highly regulated, with governments playing a significant role in setting standards and controlling exports.
**Products and services**
The military industry produces a wide range of goods and services, including:
* **Weapons:** This includes everything from small arms to fighter jets and missiles.
* **Munitions:** This includes ammunition for all types of weapons, as well as explosives and other military supplies.
* **Weapons platforms:** This includes ships, tanks, helicopters, and other vehicles that are used for military purposes.
* **Military communications and electronics:** This includes radar, communications equipment, and other electronic systems that are used by the military.
* **Logistical and operational support:** This includes everything from food and water to training and maintenance.
**Economic impact**
The military industry is a major economic force. In 2023, global military spending was estimated to be $2.1 trillion. The United States is the world's largest military spender, followed by China, Russia, India, and Saudi Arabia.
The military industry also has a significant impact on employment. In 2023, the industry employed an estimated 20 million people worldwide.
**Social and political implications**
The military industry has a number of social and political implications. It can contribute to the arms race and instability in the world. It can also lead to corruption and human rights abuses.
**Criticisms of the military industry**
The military industry has been criticized for its role in promoting war and violence. It has also been criticized for its environmental impact and its contribution to inequality.
**Alternatives to the military industry**
Some people believe that there are alternatives to the military industry. They argue that diplomacy, peacekeeping, and economic development are more effective ways to promote peace and security.
**The future of the military industry**
The future of the military industry is uncertain. The industry is likely to face a number of challenges in the coming years, including the rise of new technologies, the changing nature of warfare, and the growing demand for transparency and accountability.
Despite these challenges, the military industry is likely to remain a major player in the global economy for many years to come.
[{2024-01-01 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.defence-industry!⇒sectorMili,
* McsEngl.military-industry!⇒sectorMili,
* McsEngl.military-sector!⇒sectorMili,
* McsEngl.sector.military!⇒sectorMili,
* McsEngl.sectorMili!=military-sector,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.αμυντική-βιομηχανία!⇒sectorMili,
* McsElln.στρατιωτική-βιομηχανία!⇒sectorMili,

arms-control of sectorMili

"Arms control refers to international restrictions upon the development, production, stockpiling, proliferation and usage of small arms, conventional weapons, and weapons of mass destruction.[27] It is typically exercised through the use of diplomacy, which seeks to persuade governments to accept such limitations through agreements and treaties, although it may also be forced upon non-consenting governments."
[{2024-03-16 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.arms-control,
* McsEngl.sectorMili'arms-control,

law of arms-control

"Notable international arms control treaties
* Geneva Protocol on chemical and biological weapons, 1925
* Outer Space Treaty, signed and entered into force 1967
* Biological Weapons Convention, signed 1972, entered into force 1975
* Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), 1987
* Chemical Weapons Convention, signed 1993, entered into force 1997
* Ottawa Treaty on anti-personnel land mines, signed 1997, entered into force 1999
* New START Treaty, signed by Russia and the United States in April 2010, entered into force in February 2011
* Arms Trade Treaty, concluded in 2013, entered into force on 24 December 2014.[28]"
[{2024-03-16 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.arms-control'law!⇒lawArmscontrol,
* McsEngl.arms-control'treaty!⇒lawArmscontrol,
* McsEngl.lawArmscontrol!=arms-control-treaty,

expenditure of sectorMili

* {2022} "In 2022, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) estimated global military expenditure at $2240 billion, the highest level ever recorded by SIPRI. Global spending grew by 19 per cent over the decade 2013–22 and has risen every year since 2015.[1] The combined arms-sales of the top 100 largest arms-producing companies and military services companies totaled $597 billion in 2022, according to SIPRI.[2] According to the institute, the five largest arms exporters in 2018–22 were the United States, Russia, France, China and Germany. Together, they supplied 76% of the world's arms exports in 2018–22.[3]"
[{2024-03-16 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.sectorMili'expenditure,

sectorArmed (link)

Stockholm-International-Peace-Research-Institute of sectorMili

The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an independent international institute devoted to research into conflict, armaments, arms control, and disarmament. Established in 1966, SIPRI is based in Stockholm, Sweden, and is widely respected for its objective and impartial analysis.
**SIPRI's mission** is to provide open and transparent information about armed conflict, armaments, arms control, and disarmament in the interest of peace, security and development.
**SIPRI's activities** include:
* **Producing and disseminating data and analysis:** SIPRI produces and disseminates a wide range of data and analysis on armed conflict, armaments, arms control, and disarmament. This information is available to policymakers, researchers, journalists, and the general public.
* **Organizing seminars and conferences:** SIPRI organizes seminars, conferences, and workshops on a wide range of arms control and disarmament issues. These events provide a forum for experts from around the world to discuss and debate the most pressing issues of the day.
* **Providing advice to policymakers:** SIPRI provides advice to policymakers at the national, regional, and international levels. This advice is based on SIPRI's research and analysis, and it is designed to help policymakers make informed decisions about arms control and disarmament.
**SIPRI's publications** include:
* **The SIPRI Yearbook:** The SIPRI Yearbook is SIPRI's flagship publication. It provides comprehensive information on armed conflict, armaments, arms control, and disarmament.
* **SIPRI Factsheets:** SIPRI Factsheets provide concise and up-to-date information on a wide range of arms control and disarmament issues.
* **SIPRI Studies:** SIPRI Studies are in-depth reports on specific arms control and disarmament issues.
**SIPRI is a trusted source of information for policymakers, researchers, journalists, and the general public.** Its work is essential for promoting international peace and security."
[{2024-01-01 retrieved}]

">SIPRI overview:
The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), established in 1966, is an independent international institute dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control, and disarmament. SIPRI offers a range of research themes and areas, including armament and disarmament, conflict, peace and security, and peace and development. Under these themes, it covers topics such as arms and military expenditure, chemical and biological weapons, dual-use and arms trade control, emerging military and security technologies, weapons of mass destruction, and more.
SIPRI's research spans different geographical regions like Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Middle East and North Africa. It also delves into issues like climate change and risk, food, peace and security, governance and society, and peacebuilding and resilience. This broad spectrum of research is aimed at providing policymakers, researchers, media, and the public with data, analysis, and recommendations based on open sources.
One of the most notable publications of SIPRI is the SIPRI Yearbook, which is an authoritative and independent source for information on armaments, disarmament, and international security. This publication provides a comprehensive overview of developments in international security, weapons and technology, military expenditure, the arms trade and arms production, and armed conflicts, along with efforts to control conventional, nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. First published in 1969, the SIPRI Yearbook is a valuable resource for politicians, diplomats, journalists, scholars, and citizens. It is translated into several languages and is available online for a broader reach.
In addition to the Yearbook, SIPRI disseminates its research findings through various books, reports, symposia, seminars, and other forms of media, maintaining a focus on current realities and offering unbiased facts to states and individuals. The institute is governed by a board comprising international members with diverse backgrounds, and the current director, as of my last update, is Dan Smith.
For more detailed information and the latest updates from SIPRI, you can visit their official website [here]( and the SIPRI Yearbook online [here]("
[{2024-01-11 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.SIPRI!=Stockholm-International-Peace-Research-Institute,
* McsEngl.Stockholm-International-Peace-Research-Institute,


· "A startup or start-up is a company or project undertaken by an entrepreneur to seek, develop, and validate a scalable business model.[1][2] While entrepreneurship includes all new businesses, including self-employment and businesses that do not intend to go public, startups are new businesses that intend to grow large beyond the solo founder.[3] At the beginning, startups face high uncertainty[4] and have high rates of failure, but a minority of them do go on to be successful and influential.[5]"
[{2023-07-21 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.031-startup!⇒ogznStartup,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.startup!⇒ogznStartup,
* McsEngl.ogznStartup,
* McsEngl.startup!⇒ogznStartup,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.νεοφυής-εταιρία!=ogznStartup,


· "In business, a unicorn is a privately held startup company valued at over US$1 billion.[1]: 1270 [2] The term was first published in 2013, coined by venture capitalist Aileen Lee, choosing the mythical animal to represent the statistical rarity of such successful ventures.[3][4][5][6]
CB Insights identified 1,170 unicorns worldwide as of June 2022.[7] Unicorns with over $10 billion in valuation have been designated as "decacorn" companies.[8] For private companies valued over $100 billion, the terms "centicorn" and "hectocorn" have been used.[9]"
[{2023-07-21 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.032-unicorn!=oznUnicorn,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.unicorn!=oznUnicorn,
* McsEngl.ogznStartup.unicorn!=oznUnicorn,
* McsEngl.oznUnicorn,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.εταιρία-μονόκερος!η!=oznUnicorn,


"The Fortune Global 500 is an annual ranking of the top 500 corporations worldwide as measured by total revenue. It is compiled and published by Fortune magazine.
You can find several resources online to learn more about the Fortune Global 500:
* **Wikipedia:** [](
* **Fortune:** [](
* **GeeksforGeeks:** [](
These resources typically provide:
* **The full list:** A list of all 500 companies, their rankings, revenues, and other key details.
* **Analysis:** Articles and insights on the trends and changes in the global business landscape represented by the list.
* **Historical data:** Past rankings for comparison and analysis.
Please let me know if you have any other questions."
[{2024-06-15 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Fortune-Global-500,
* McsEngl.Global-500,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.049-Fortune-Global-500,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.Fortune-Global-500,


· "(n) museum (a depository for collecting and displaying objects having scientific or historical or artistic value)"
[{2023-07-17 retrieved}]

=== bówùguǎn-博物馆!=ogznMuseum:
· stxZhon: 我 参观 了 博物馆。 :: _stxSbj:[Wǒ] _stxVrb:{cānguān le} _stxObj:[bówùguǎn]。 != [I] {visited} [museum].

* McsEngl.ogznMuseum,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.030-museum!⇒ogznMuseum,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.bówùguǎn-博物馆!=ogznMuseum,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.μουσείο!το!=ogznMuseum,

· "(n) shop, store (a mercantile establishment for the retail sale of goods or services) "he bought it at a shop on Cape Cod""
[{2023-06-23 retrieved}]

=== jiā-shāngdiàn-家商店:
· stxZhon: 这家商店服务很好。 :: _stxSbj:[Zhè jiā shāngdiàn fúwù] _stxSbjc:[hěn hǎo]. != This store's service is very good.

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.029-shop,
* McsEngl.ogznShop,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.jiā-shāngdiàn-家商店!=ogznShop,
* McsZhon.家商店-jiā-shāngdiàn!=ogznShop,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.κατάστημα!το!=ogznShop,

=== shāngchǎng-商场!=ogznShopping_mall:
· stxZhon: 我周末去商场买东西。 :: Wǒ zhōumò qù shāngchǎng mǎi dōngxi. != On the weekend I go to the shopping mall to buy things.

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.033-shopping-mall,
* McsEngl.ogznShopping_mall,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.shāngchǎng-商场!=ogznShopping_mall,
* McsZhon.商场-shāngchǎng!=ogznShopping_mall,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.εμπορικό-κέντρο!το!=ogznShopping_mall,


· "(n) supermarket (a large self-service grocery store selling groceries and dairy products and household goods)"
[{2023-06-17 retrieved}]

=== chāoshì-超市:
· stxZhon: 你家 离 超市 远 吗? _stxSbj:[Nǐ jiā lí chāoshì] _stxSbjc:[yuǎn] {ma}? != Is your house far away from the supermarket?

* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.028-supermarket,
* McsEngl.ogznPrdg.supermarket,
* McsEngl.supermarket,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.chāoshì-超市!=supermarket,
* McsZhon.超市-chāoshì!=supermarket,


this webpage was-visited times since {2020-07-31}

page-wholepath: / worldviewSngo / dirStn / ogznPrdg

· this page uses 'locator-names', names that when you find them, you find the-LOCATION of the-concept they denote.
· clicking on the-green-BAR of a-page you have access to the-global--locator-names of my-site.
· use the-prefix 'ogznPrdg' for sensorial-concepts related to current concept 'organization.economic'.
· TYPE CTRL+F "McsLag4.words-of-concept's-name", to go to the-LOCATION of the-concept.
· a-preview of the-description of a-global-name makes reading fast.

• author: Kaseluris.Nikos.1959
• email:
• edit on github:,
• comments on Disqus,
• twitter: @synagonism,

• version.last.dynamic: McsStn000015.last.html,
• version.1-0-0.2021-04-12: (0-38) ../../dirMiwMcs/dirStn/filMcsOznPdn.1-0-0.2021-04-12.html,
• filMcsOznPdn.0-1-0.2020-07-31.last.html: draft creation,

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