senso-concept-Mcs (sfrFin)

McsHitp-creation:: {2021-12-30}

overview of sfrFin

">financial instrument vs financial-service:
While the terms "financial instrument" and "financial service" are often used interchangeably, there is a subtle distinction between them.

**Financial instrument** is a broad term that encompasses any legally binding agreement that involves a monetary transaction. These instruments can be used to raise capital, manage risk, or speculate on future prices. Examples of financial instruments include:
* **Securities:** Stocks, bonds, and mutual funds are all examples of securities, which represent ownership or debt in a company or other entity.
* **Derivatives:** Derivatives are financial instruments whose value is derived from the value of another asset, such as a stock, bond, or commodity. Options, futures, and swaps are all examples of derivatives.
* **Cash instruments:** Cash instruments are simply pieces of paper or electronic records that represent currency, such as checks, money orders, and electronic transfers.

**Financial service**, on the other hand, is a more general term that refers to any activity or service that facilitates the movement of money between parties. This includes:
* **Investment management:** Investment managers help clients invest their money in various financial instruments, such as stocks, bonds, and mutual funds.
* **Banking:** Banks offer a variety of services, such as checking accounts, savings accounts, loans, and mortgages.
* **Insurance:** Insurance companies provide protection against financial losses due to unforeseen events, such as accidents, illness, or property damage.

In other words, financial instruments are the tools that are used to provide financial services. For example, a bank might use a loan agreement to provide a financial service to a customer.
Here is a table that summarizes the key differences between financial instruments and financial services:
| Feature | Financial Instrument | Financial Service || Definition | Legally binding agreement involving a monetary transaction | Any activity or service that facilitates the movement of money between parties |
| Purpose | To raise capital, manage risk, or speculate on future prices | To provide investment management, banking, insurance, or other financial services |
| Examples | Stocks, bonds, mutual funds, derivatives, cash instruments | Investment management, banking, insurance, brokerage, financial planning |
I hope this helps!"
[{2023-12-08 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.McsStn000029.last.html//dirStn//dirMcs!⇒sfrFin,
* McsEngl.dirStn/McsStn000029.last.html!⇒sfrFin,
* McsEngl.satisfier.026-financial!⇒sfrFin,
* McsEngl.sfrFin,
* McsEngl.sfrFin!=financial-satisfier,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.χρηματοοικονομικό-μέσο!το!=sfrFin,
* McsElln.χρηματοπιστωτικό-μέσο!το!=sfrFin,
* McsElln.χρηματοπιστωτικό-προϊόν!το!=sfrFin,

"11.32 The classification of financial transactions has become more difficult because of financial innovation that has led to the development and increased use of new and often complex financial assets and other financial instruments to meet the needs of investors with respect to maturity, yield, avoidance of risk, and other factors.
The identification issue is further complicated by variations in characteristics of financial instruments across countries and variations in national practices on accounting and classification of instruments.
These factors tend to limit the scope for firm recommendations with respect to the treatment of certain transactions within the SNA.
Thus, a substantial amount of flexibility, particularly with regard to further breakdowns, is required to match the classification scheme to national capabilities, resources and needs.
In particular, further breakdowns of the standard items are desirable for many countries to distinguish important types of assets within categories (such as short-term securities included in measures of money)."

organization (link) of sfrFin

law of sfrFin

· any law on financial-product.

* McsEngl.lawEconomy.011-financial-product,
* McsEngl.sfrFin'law,

law.securities of sfrFin

· law on securities.

* McsEngl.lawEconomy.012-security,

info-resource of sfrFin

* McsEngl.sfrFin'Infrsc,


DOING of sfrFin


* McsEngl.sfrFin'doing,

evoluting of sfrFin

* McsEngl.evoluting-of-sfrFin,
* McsEngl.sfrFin'evoluting,

=== McsHitp-creation:
· creation of current concept.


* McsEngl.sfrFin'part-whole-tree,
* McsEngl.sfrFin'whole-part-tree,

* ... Sympan.



* McsEngl.sfrFin'generic-specific-tree,
* McsEngl.sfrFin'specific-generic-tree,

* satisfier,
* ... entity.

* financial-service,
* financial-serviceNo,
* derivative,
* derivativeNo,
* debt-based,
* equity-based,


"Financial assets are economic assets, comprising all financial claims, equity and the gold bullion component of monetary gold. These assets are stores of value representing a benefit or series of benefits accruing to the economic owner through holding or using the assets over a period of time. They are a means of carrying forward value from one accounting period to another. By contrast, financial liabilities are established when debtors are obliged to provide a payment or a series of payments to creditors.
The classification of financial assets and liabilities corresponds to the classification of financial transactions. Financial assets and liabilities as negotiable financial instruments are valued at market value; these values should exclude commissions, fees and taxes. Financial instruments that are non-negotiable are valued at nominal value. These assets/liabilities include:
* Monetary gold and special drawing rights (SDRs): the former is gold bullion held by financial authorities (or others subject to effective control by such authorities) as a reserve asset against which no outstanding financial liability exists; the latter is an international reserve asset created by the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
* Currency and deposits: the former is composed of banknotes and coins issued by monetary authorities; the latter are exchangeable for currency on demand and may be used directly for making payments by cheque, giro, direct debit, and so on.
* Debt securities: negotiable financial instruments (legal ownership of which may be transferred) that must be designed for potential trading on an organised exchange or in the over-the-counter market.
* Loans: financial assets created when creditors lend funds to debtors, either directly or through brokers, which are either evidenced by non-negotiable documents or not evidenced by documents.
* Equity and investment fund shares or units: composed of financial assets that represent property rights on corporations or quasi-corporations (such assets generally entitle the holders to a share of profit, and to a share of net assets in the event of liquidation).
* Insurance, pension and standardised guarantee schemes: composed of financial assets of policy holders or beneficiaries and financial liabilities of insurers, pension funds, or issuers of standardised guarantees.
* Financial derivatives and employee stock options: financial assets linked to a financial asset, a non-financial asset or an index, through which specific financial risks can be traded in financial markets in their own right (for example, options, forwards and credit derivatives, or agreements for the purchase of an employer’s stock at a stated price).
* Other accounts receivable/payable: financial assets that are created as a counterpart of a financial or a non-financial transaction in cases where there is a timing difference between this transaction and the corresponding payment (for example, the direct extension of credit by suppliers, advances for work that is in progress or has yet to be undertaken, or prepayment for goods/services that have yet to be delivered)."
[{2021-12-30 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.sfrFin.eurostat,


"The production of financial services is the result of
* financial intermediation,
* financial risk management,
* liquidity transformation or
* auxiliary financial activities.
Because the provision of financial services is typically subject to strict regulation, it is usually the case that units providing financial services do not produce other goods and services and financial services are not provided as secondary production."

* McsEngl.finService,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.001-service!⇒finService,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.service!⇒finService,


* accounting,
* intermedation,
* lending money,
* payment-service,
* safekeeping of money,
* stock brokerage,
* tax preparation,

* McsEngl.finService.specific,


· a NON financial-service.

* McsEngl.finInstrument,
* McsEngl.finServiceNo!⇒finInstrument,
* McsEngl.instrument!⇒finInstrument,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.002-serviceNo!⇒finInstrument,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.serviceNo!⇒finInstrument,


* derivative-finInstrument,
* derivativeNo-finInstrument,

* McsEngl.finInstrument.specific,


"In finance, a derivative is a contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity. This underlying entity can be an asset, index, or interest rate, and is often simply called the "underlying".[1][2] Derivatives can be used for a number of purposes, including insuring against price movements (hedging), increasing exposure to price movements for speculation, or getting access to otherwise hard-to-trade assets or markets.[3]
Some of the more common derivatives include forwards, futures, options, swaps, and variations of these such as synthetic collateralized debt obligations and credit default swaps. Most derivatives are traded over-the-counter (off-exchange) or on an exchange such as the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, while most insurance contracts have developed into a separate industry. In the United States, after the financial crisis of 2007–2009, there has been increased pressure to move derivatives to trade on exchanges.
Derivatives are one of the three main categories of financial instruments, the other two being equity (i.e., stocks or shares) and debt (i.e., bonds and mortgages). The oldest example of a derivative in history, attested to by Aristotle, is thought to be a contract transaction of olives, entered into by ancient Greek philosopher Thales, who made a profit in the exchange.[4] Bucket shops, outlawed in 1936, are a more recent historical example."
[{2021-12-30 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.derivative!⇒finDerivative,
* McsEngl.finDerivative,
* McsEngl.finInstrument.derivative!⇒finDerivative,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.003-derivative!⇒finDerivative,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.derivative!⇒finDerivative,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.jīnróng-yǎnshēng-gōngjù-金融衍生工具!=finDerivative,
* McsZhon.金融衍生工具-jīnróng-yǎnshēng-gōngjù!=finDerivative,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.παράγωγο!το!=finDerivative,


* forwards,
* futures,
* options,
* swaps,

* McsEngl.finDerivative.specific,


"In finance, a forward contract or simply a forward is a non-standardized contract between two parties to buy or sell an asset at a specified future time at a price agreed on at the time of conclusion of the contract, making it a type of derivative instrument.[1][2] The party agreeing to buy the underlying asset in the future assumes a long position, and the party agreeing to sell the asset in the future assumes a short position. The price agreed upon is called the delivery price, which is equal to the forward price at the time the contract is entered into."
[{2021-12-30 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.finDerivative.forward!⇒finForward,
* McsEngl.finForward,
* McsEngl.forward!⇒finForward,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.013-forward!⇒finForward,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.forward!⇒finForward,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.yuǎnqīhéyuē-远期合约-(遠期合約)!=finForward,
* McsZhon.远期合约-(遠期合約)-yuǎnqīhéyuē!=finForward,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.προθεσμιακό-συμβόλαιο!το!=finForward,


"In finance, a futures contract (sometimes called futures) is a standardized legal agreement to buy or sell something at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future, between parties not known to each other. The asset transacted is usually a commodity or financial instrument. The predetermined price the parties agree to buy and sell the asset for is known as the forward price. The specified time in the future—which is when delivery and payment occur—is known as the delivery date. Because it is a function of an underlying asset, a futures contract is a derivative product."
[{2021-12-30 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.finDerivative.future!⇒finFuture,
* McsEngl.finFuture,
* McsEngl.future!⇒finFuture,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.014-future!⇒finFuture,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.future!⇒finFuture,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.qīhuòhéyuē-期货合约-(期貨合約)!=finFuture,
* McsZhon.期货合约-(期貨合約)-qīhuòhéyuē!=finFuture,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.συμβόλαιο-μελλοντικής-εκπλήρωσης!το!=finFuture,


"In finance, an option is a contract which conveys to its owner, the holder, the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price on or before a specified date, depending on the style of the option. Options are typically acquired by purchase, as a form of compensation, or as part of a complex financial transaction. Thus, they are also a form of asset and have a valuation that may depend on a complex relationship between underlying asset value, time until expiration, market volatility, and other factors. Options may be traded between private parties in over-the-counter (OTC) transactions, or they may be exchange-traded in live, orderly markets in the form of standardized contracts."
[{2021-12-30 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.finDerivative.option!⇒finOption,
* McsEngl.finOption,
* McsEngl.option!⇒finOption,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.015-option!⇒finOption,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.option!⇒finOption,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.qīquán-期权-(期權)!=finOption,
* McsZhon.期权-(期權)-qīquán!=finOption,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.δικαίωμα-προαίρεσης!το!=finOption,


"A swap, in finance, is an agreement between two counterparties to exchange financial instruments or cashflows or payments for a certain time. The instruments can be almost anything but most swaps involve cash based on a notional principal amount."
[{2021-12-30 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.finDerivative.swap!⇒finSwap,
* McsEngl.finSwap,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.016-swap!⇒finSwap,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.swap!⇒finSwap,
* McsEngl.swap!⇒finSwap,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.diàoqī-掉期!=finSwap,
* McsZhon.掉期-diàoqī!=finSwap,


"A structured note is an over the counter derivative with hybrid security features which combine payoffs from multiple ordinary securities, typically a stock or bond plus a derivative. When the product depends on a credit payoff, it is called a credit-linked note. Because no such security exists outside of the sponsor creating this hybrid, the creditworthiness of this structured note depends on the strength of the sponsor."
[{2021-12-30 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.finDerivative.structured-note!⇒finStructured-note,
* McsEngl.finStructured-note,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.020-structured-note!⇒finStructured-note,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.structured-note!⇒finStructured-note,
* McsEngl.structured-note!⇒finStructured-note,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.δομημένο-ομόλογο!το!=finStructured-note,


"Derivatives are one of the three main categories of financial instruments, the other two being equity (i.e., stocks or shares) and debt (i.e., bonds and mortgages)."
[{2021-12-30 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.derivativeNo!⇒finDerivativeNo,
* McsEngl.finDerivativeNo,
* McsEngl.finInstrument.derivativeNo!⇒finDerivativeNo,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.004-derivativeNo!⇒finDerivativeNo,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.derivativeNo!⇒finDerivativeNo,


* equity-finDerivativeNo,
* debt-finDerivativeNo,

* McsEngl.finDerivativeNo.specific,


"Alternatively, financial instruments can be categorized by "asset class" depending on whether they are equity based (reflecting ownership of the issuing entity) or debt based (reflecting a loan the investor has made to the issuing entity). If it is debt, it can be further categorised into short term (less than one year) or long term."

* McsEngl.debt-based-derivativeNo,
* McsEngl.finDerivativeNo.debt,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.005-debt-based,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.debt-based,


"Alternatively, financial instruments can be categorized by "asset class" depending on whether they are equity based (reflecting ownership of the issuing entity) or debt based (reflecting a loan the investor has made to the issuing entity). If it is debt, it can be further categorised into short term (less than one year) or long term."

* McsEngl.equity-based-derivativeNo,
* McsEngl.finDerivativeNo.equity,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.006-equity-based,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.equity-based,


"In finance, stock (also capital stock) consists of all of the shares into which ownership of a corporation or company is divided.[1] (Especially in American English, the word "stocks" is also used to refer to shares.)[1][2] A single share of the stock means fractional ownership of the corporation in proportion to the total number of shares. This typically entitles the shareholder (stockholder) to that fraction of the company's earnings, proceeds from liquidation of assets (after discharge of all senior claims such as secured and unsecured debt),[3] or voting power, often dividing these up in proportion to the amount of money each stockholder has invested. Not all stock is necessarily equal, as certain classes of stock may be issued for example without voting rights, with enhanced voting rights, or with a certain priority to receive profits or liquidation proceeds before or after other classes of shareholders."
[{2021-12-30 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.finDerivativeNo.stock!⇒finStock,
* McsEngl.finStock,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.010-stock!⇒finStock,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.stock!⇒finStock,
* McsEngl.stock!⇒finStock,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.gǔpiào-股票!=finStock,
* McsZhon.股票-gǔpiào!=finStock,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.μετοχικό-κεφάλαιο!το!=finStock,

"In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders. The most common types of bonds include municipal bonds and corporate bonds. Bonds can be in mutual funds or can be in private investing where a person would give a loan to a company or the government."
[{2021-12-30 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.finBond,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.010-bond!⇒finBond,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.zhàiquàn-债券-(債券)!=finBond,
* McsZhon.债券-(債券)-zhàiquàn!=finBond,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ομόλογο!το!=finBond,

"A mortgage loan or simply mortgage (/ˈmɔːrɡɪdʒ/) is a loan used either by purchasers of real property to raise funds to buy real estate, or by existing property owners to raise funds for any purpose while putting a lien on the property being mortgaged. The loan is "secured" on the borrower's property through a process known as mortgage origination. This means that a legal mechanism is put into place which allows the lender to take possession and sell the secured property ("foreclosure" or "repossession") to pay off the loan in the event the borrower defaults on the loan or otherwise fails to abide by its terms. The word mortgage is derived from a Law French term used in Britain in the Middle Ages meaning "death pledge" and refers to the pledge ending (dying) when either the obligation is fulfilled or the property is taken through foreclosure.[1] A mortgage can also be described as "a borrower giving consideration in the form of a collateral for a benefit (loan)"."
[{2021-12-30 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.finMortgage,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.012-mortgage!⇒finMortgage,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.fángdìchǎndǐyā-房地产抵押!=finMortgage,
* McsZhon.房地产抵押-fángdìchǎndǐyā!=finMortgage,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.υποθήκη!η!=finMortgage,

"11.33 Financial claims can be distinguished as to whether they are negotiable or not.
A claim is negotiable if its legal ownership is readily capable of being transferred from one unit to another unit by delivery or endorsement.
While any financial instrument can potentially be traded, negotiable instruments are designed to be traded on organized and other markets.
Negotiability is a matter of the legal form of the instrument.
Those financial claims that are negotiable are referred to as securities.
Some securities may be legally negotiable, but there is not, in fact, a liquid market where they can be readily bought or sold.
Securities include shares and debt securities; listed financial derivatives, such as warrants, are sometimes considered to be securities."
[{2021-12-30 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.finSecurity,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.017-security!⇒finSecurity,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.αξιόγραφο!το!=finSecurity,
* McsElln.χρεόγραφο!το!=finSecurity,


· a NON security.

* McsEngl.finSecurityNo,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.018-securityNo!⇒finSecurityNo,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.securityNo!⇒finSecurityNo,


"5. Liquid instruments, such as stock in a major company, a government bond or a futures contract for a recognised commodity, are traded on major exchanges and real time prices are readily available, both to active market participants and through various media outlets.
Some liquid derivative instruments, eg, forward stock options or commodity futures, are also traded on exchanges.
The process of estimating value for such instruments is an illustration of the direct market comparison approach defined in IVS 102 Valuation Approaches in its simplest form.
A unit price on the date of valuation is directly observable and can normally be applied to the asset being valued without adjustment."
[, 304.01]

* McsEngl.liquid-instrument,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.007-liquid,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.liquid,


· a NON liquid-instrument.

* McsEngl.sfrFin.008-liquidNo,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.liquidNo,

"A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's accrued debt (i.e., promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts plus the other agreed charges).[1] The card issuer (usually a bank or credit union) creates a revolving account and grants a line of credit to the cardholder, from which the cardholder can borrow money for payment to a merchant or as a cash advance. There are two credit card groups: consumer credit cards and business credit cards. Most cards are plastic, but some are metal cards (stainless steel, gold, palladium, titanium),[2][3] and a few gemstone-encrusted metal cards.[2]
A regular credit card is different from a charge card, which requires the balance to be repaid in full each month or at the end of each statement cycle.[4] In contrast, credit cards allow the consumers to build a continuing balance of debt, subject to interest being charged. A credit card differs from a charge card also in that a credit card typically involves a third-party entity that pays the seller and is reimbursed by the buyer, whereas a charge card simply defers payment by the buyer until a later date.
A credit card also differs from a debit card, which can be used like currency by the owner of the card.
In 2018, there were 1.12 billion credit cards in circulation in the U.S., and 72% of adults had at least one card.[5]"
[{2021-12-30 retrieved}]

=== xìnyòngkǎ-信用卡!=credit-card:
· stxZhon: 现在 大家 都 用 信用卡。:: _stxTime:[Xiànzài] _stxSbj:[dàjiā dōu] _stxVrb:{yòng} _stxObj:[xìnyòngkǎ]。 != [now] [everyone] {uses} {credit-card}

* McsEngl.sfrFin.009-credit-card,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.xìnyòngkǎ-信用卡!=credit-card,
* McsZhon.信用卡-xìnyòngkǎ!=credit-card,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.πιστωτική-κάρτα!η!=credit-card,

· money is any special commodity that facilitates exchanging.
· money is a-measure of exchange-value.
· after {1971} PURE exchange-value is-used as money.

* McsEngl.Evm!=exchange-value-measure,
*!⇒money, {2021-01-22},
* McsEngl.finMoney!⇒money,
* McsEngl.mny!⇒money,
* McsEngl.satisfier.039-money!⇒money,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.019-money!⇒money,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.qián-钱!=money,
* McsZhon.钱-qián!=money,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.χρήμα!=money,

· Money is a COMMODITY (claim or nonclaim asset), commodity-economies use as:
* a) a medium-of-exchange (universally exchanged commodity),
* b) a storage-of-value (long-term medium of storage wealth),
* c) a unit-of-account (unit of measurement of the existing wealth).
Historically, 3 types of money are used:
* 1) Non-claim-money: non-claim-assets that have the above 3 attributes, the most common is the precious metals.
* 2) Claim-backed-money (fiat-backed-money): The issuer-of-money gets an interest-free loan from a non-claim-asset holder. The asset-holder gets a contract, information (paper or digital) revealing his claim. This claim he can exchange with other non-claim-commodities OR he can exchange with the issuer with the backed-commodity (usually gold).
* 3) Claim-non-backed-money (fiat-non-backed-money): since 1971, economies use claim-assets but non-backed with another commodity which continue to have the medium-of-exchange and unit-of-account attributes but have an uncertain storage-of-value attribute which depends on the credibility of the issuer.

01_medium-of-exchange of money

"In economics, a medium of exchange is any item that is widely acceptable in exchange for goods and services.[1] In modern economies, the most commonly used medium of exchange is currency."
[{2021-07-28 retrieved}]


02_store-of-value of money

"A store of value is any commodity or asset that would normally retain purchasing power into the future and is the function of the asset that can be saved, retrieved and exchanged at a later time, and be predictably useful when retrieved.[citation needed]
The most common store of value in modern times has been money, currency, or a commodity like a precious metal or financial capital."
[{2021-07-28 retrieved}]


03_unit-of-account of money

"Unit of measure and unit of account are sometimes treated as synonyms in financial accounting and economics. Unit of measure in financial accounting refers to the monetary unit to be used; that is, whether it should be nominal units of money as opposed to units that are adjusted for changes in purchasing power over time."
[{2021-07-28 retrieved}]


legal-tender of money

"Legal tender is a form of money that courts of law are required to recognize as satisfactory payment for any monetary debt.[1] Each jurisdiction determines what is legal tender, but essentially it is anything which when offered ("tendered") in payment of a debt extinguishes the debt. There is no obligation on the creditor to accept the tendered payment, but the act of tendering the payment in legal tender discharges the debt."
[{2021-07-28 retrieved}]


scarcity of money

· its supply in circulation must be limited.


divisibility of money

· divisible to small units.


durability of money

· able to withstand repeated use.


portability of money

· easily carried and transported.


fungibility of money

· mutual interchangeability.


cognizability of money

· its value must be easily identified.


independence of money

"Historically, gold and silver were used as money because they had many properties necessary for money: uniformity, divisibility, portability, durability, and scarcity.
Any commodity with these properties can be used as money.
I am going to propose that money needs another property: independence. If money is not independent from anybody’s control over its issuance then the people are not in control of their economy.
If the people are not in control, then is it a democracy?"


monetary-policy of money


* McsEngl.Socpolicy.monetary,
* McsEngl.monetary-policy,

* {2022-02-10} David Siegel. 21st Century Monetary Policy: Automating the money supply for a better world,,

info-resource of money

* {2021-08-02},


spending of money

"(v) spend, expend, drop (pay out) "spend money""
[{2021-08-31 retrieved}]

* spender,
* money,
* cause,

* McsEngl.spending-acting,
* McsEngl.actSpending,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.花费-huāfèi!=actSpending,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ξοδεύω!-ω-ομαι!~verbElln!=actSpending,σς


* Evu,
* DeCurrency,
* claim-money,
* claimNo-money,
* international-money,
* national-money,
* local-money,
* Dmoney,
* commodity-money,
* digital-money,
* fiat-money,
* representative-money,



· a-unit-of-measurement of exchange-value.

* McsEngl.CURRENCY!⇒Evu,
* McsEngl.Evu,
* McsEngl.Evu!=exchange-value-unit,
* McsEngl.currency//society!⇒Evu,
* McsEngl.society'currency!⇒Evu,
* McsEngl.society/currency!⇒Evu,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.huòbì-货币!=Evu,
* McsZhon.货币-huòbì!=Evu,
* McsZhon.kuài..máo-块..毛!=Evu,
* McsZhon.块..毛-kuài..máo!=Evu,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.νόμισμα!το!=Evu,

=== kuài..máo-块..毛!=Evu:
· stxZhon: 两 块 五 毛 :: liǎng kuài wǔ máo != two kuai five mao (2.5)
· stxZhon: 两 块 二 :: liǎng kuài èr != two kuai two mao (2.2)
· stxZhon: 三 块 八 毛 六 :: sān kuài bā máo liù != three kuai eight mao six fen (3.86)

· stxZhon: 这 件 衣服 多少 钱? :: _stxSbj:[Zhè jiàn yīfu] _stxSbjc:[duōshao qián]? != [this clothing] [how much money]?
* McsEngl.syntax.Evu,


* McsEngl.Evu.AED!=United-Arab-Emirates-Dirham-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.AFN!=Afghanistan-Afghani-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.ALL!=Albania-Lek-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.AMD!=Armenia-Dram-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.ANG!=Netherlands-Antilles-Guilder-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.AOA!=Angola-Kwanza-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.ARS!=Argentina-Peso-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.AUD!=Australia-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.AWG!=Aruba-Guilder-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.AZN!=Azerbaijan-New-Manat-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.BAM!=Bosnia-and-Herzegovina-Convertible-Marka-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.BBD!=Barbados-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.BDT!=Bangladesh-Taka-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.BGN!=Bulgaria-Lev-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.BHD!=Bahrain-Dinar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.BIF!=Burundi-Franc-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.BMD!=Bermuda-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.BND!=Brunei-Darussalam-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.BOB!=Bolivia-Bolíviano-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.BRL!=Brazil-Real-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.BSD!=Bahamas-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.BTN!=Bhutan-Ngultrum-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.BWP!=Botswana-Pula-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.BYN!=Belarus-Ruble-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.BZD!=Belize-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.CAD!=Canada-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.CDF!=Congo/Kinshasa-Franc-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.CHF!=Switzerland-Franc-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.CLP!=Chile-Peso-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.CNY!=China-Yuan-Renminbi-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.COP!=Colombia-Peso-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.CRC!=Costa-Rica-Colon-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.CUC!=Cuba-Convertible-Peso-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.CUP!=Cuba-Peso-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.CVE!=Cape-Verde-Escudo-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.CZK!=Czech-Republic-Koruna-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.DJF!=Djibouti-Franc-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.DKK!=Denmark-Krone-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.DOP!=Dominican-Republic-Peso-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.DZD!=Algeria-Dinar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.EGP!=Egypt-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.ERN!=Eritrea-Nakfa-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.ETB!=Ethiopia-Birr-currency,
* Evu.EUR EvuEUR'(Euro-Member-Countries-currency),
* McsEngl.Evu.FJD!=Fiji-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.FKP!=Falkland-Islands-(Malvinas)-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.GBP!=United-Kingdom-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.GEL!=Georgia-Lari-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.GGP!=Guernsey-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.GHS!=Ghana-Cedi-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.GIP!=Gibraltar-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.GMD!=Gambia-Dalasi-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.GNF!=Guinea-Franc-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.GTQ!=Guatemala-Quetzal-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.GYD!=Guyana-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.HKD!=Hong-Kong-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.HNL!=Honduras-Lempira-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.HRK!=Croatia-Kuna-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.HTG!=Haiti-Gourde-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.HUF!=Hungary-Forint-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.IDR!=Indonesia-Rupiah-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.ILS!=Israel-Shekel-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.IMP!=Isle-of-Man-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.INR!=India-Rupee-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.IQD!=Iraq-Dinar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.IRR!=Iran-Rial-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.ISK!=Iceland-Krona-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.JEP!=Jersey-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.JMD!=Jamaica-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.JOD!=Jordan-Dinar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.JPY!=Japan-Yen-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.KES!=Kenya-Shilling-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.KGS!=Kyrgyzstan-Som-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.KHR!=Cambodia-Riel-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.KMF!=Comoros-Franc-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.KPW!=Korea-(North)-Won-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.KRW!=Korea-(South)-Won-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.KWD!=Kuwait-Dinar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.KYD!=Cayman-Islands-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.KZT!=Kazakhstan-Tenge-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.LAK!=Laos-Kip-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.LBP!=Lebanon-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.LKR!=Sri-Lanka-Rupee-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.LRD!=Liberia-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.LSL!=Lesotho-Loti-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.LYD!=Libya-Dinar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.MAD!=Morocco-Dirham-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.MDL!=Moldova-Leu-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.MGA!=Madagascar-Ariary-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.MKD!=Macedonia-Denar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.MMK!=Myanmar'(Burma)-Kyat-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.MNT!=Mongolia-Tughrik-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.MOP!=Macau-Pataca-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.MRO!=Mauritania-Ouguiya-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.MUR!=Mauritius-Rupee-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.MVR!=Maldives'(Maldive-Islands)-Rufiyaa-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.MWK!=Malawi-Kwacha-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.MXN!=Mexico-Peso-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.MYR!=Malaysia-Ringgit-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.MZN!=Mozambique-Metical-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.NAD!=Namibia-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.NGN!=Nigeria-Naira-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.NIO!=Nicaragua-Cordoba-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.NOK!=Norway-Krone-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.NPR!=Nepal-Rupee-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.NZD!=New-Zealand-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.OMR!=Oman-Rial-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.PAB!=Panama-Balboa-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.PEN!=Peru-Sol-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.PGK!=Papua-New-Guinea-Kina-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.PHP!=Philippines-Peso-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.PKR!=Pakistan-Rupee-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.PLN!=Poland-Zloty-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.PYG!=Paraguay-Guarani-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.QAR!=Qatar-Riyal-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.RON!=Romania-New-Leu-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.RSD!=Serbia-Dinar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.RUB!=Russia-Ruble-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.RWF!=Rwanda-Franc-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.SAR!=Saudi-Arabia-Riyal-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.SBD!=Solomon-Islands-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.SCR!=Seychelles-Rupee-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.SDG!=Sudan-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.SEK!=Sweden-Krona-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.SGD!=Singapore-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.SHP!=Saint-Helena-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.SLL!=Sierra-Leone-Leone-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.SOS!=Somalia-Shilling-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.SPL!=Seborga-Luigino-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.SRD!=Suriname-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.STD!=São-Tomé-and-Príncipe-Dobra-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.SVC!=El-Salvador-Colon-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.SYP!=Syria-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.SZL!=Swaziland-Lilangeni-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.THB!=Thailand-Baht-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.TJS!=Tajikistan-Somoni-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.TMT!=Turkmenistan-Manat-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.TND!=Tunisia-Dinar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.TOP!=Tonga-Pa'anga-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.TRY!=Turkey-Lira-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.TTD!=Trinidad-and-Tobago-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.TVD!=Tuvalu-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.TWD!=Taiwan-New-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.TZS!=Tanzania-Shilling-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.UAH!=Ukraine-Hryvnia-currency,
* Evu.USD!=United-States-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.UYU!=Uruguay-Peso-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.UZS!=Uzbekistan-Som-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.VEF!=Venezuela-Bolivar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.VND!=Viet-Nam-Dong-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.VUV!=Vanuatu-Vatu-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.WST!=Samoa-Tala-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.XAF!=Communauté-Financière-Africaine-(BEAC)-CFA-Franc-BEAC-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.XCD!=East-Caribbean-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.XDR!=International-Monetary-Fund-(IMF)-Special-Drawing-Rights-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.XOF!=Communauté-Financière-Africaine-(BCEAO)-Franc-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.XPF!=Comptoirs-Français-du-Pacifique-(CFP)-Franc-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.YER!=Yemen-Rial-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.ZAR!=South-Africa-Rand-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.ZMW!=Zambia-Kwacha-currency,
* McsEngl.Evu.ZWD!=Zimbabwe-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.AED!=United-Arab-Emirates-Dirham-currency,
* McsEngl.AFN!=Afghanistan-Afghani-currency,
* McsEngl.ALL!=Albania-Lek-currency,
* McsEngl.AMD!=Armenia-Dram-currency,
* McsEngl.ANG!=Netherlands-Antilles-Guilder-currency,
* McsEngl.AOA!=Angola-Kwanza-currency,
* McsEngl.ARS!=Argentina-Peso-currency,
* McsEngl.AUD!=Australia-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.AWG!=Aruba-Guilder-currency,
* McsEngl.AZN!=Azerbaijan-New-Manat-currency,
* McsEngl.BAM!=Bosnia-and-Herzegovina-Convertible-Marka-currency,
* McsEngl.BBD!=Barbados-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.BDT!=Bangladesh-Taka-currency,
* McsEngl.BGN!=Bulgaria-Lev-currency,
* McsEngl.BHD!=Bahrain-Dinar-currency,
* McsEngl.BIF!=Burundi-Franc-currency,
* McsEngl.BMD!=Bermuda-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.BND!=Brunei-Darussalam-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.BOB!=Bolivia-Bolíviano-currency,
* McsEngl.BRL!=Brazil-Real-currency,
* McsEngl.BSD!=Bahamas-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.BTN!=Bhutan-Ngultrum-currency,
* McsEngl.BWP!=Botswana-Pula-currency,
* McsEngl.BYN!=Belarus-Ruble-currency,
* McsEngl.BZD!=Belize-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.CAD!=Canada-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.CDF!=Congo/Kinshasa-Franc-currency,
* McsEngl.CHF!=Switzerland-Franc-currency,
* McsEngl.CLP!=Chile-Peso-currency,
* McsEngl.CNY!=China-Yuan-Renminbi-currency,
* McsEngl.COP!=Colombia-Peso-currency,
* McsEngl.CRC!=Costa-Rica-Colon-currency,
* McsEngl.CUC!=Cuba-Convertible-Peso-currency,
* McsEngl.CUP!=Cuba-Peso-currency,
* McsEngl.CVE!=Cape-Verde-Escudo-currency,
* McsEngl.CZK!=Czech-Republic-Koruna-currency,
* McsEngl.DJF!=Djibouti-Franc-currency,
* McsEngl.DKK!=Denmark-Krone-currency,
* McsEngl.DOP!=Dominican-Republic-Peso-currency,
* McsEngl.DZD!=Algeria-Dinar-currency,
* McsEngl.EGP!=Egypt-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.ERN!=Eritrea-Nakfa-currency,
* McsEngl.ETB!=Ethiopia-Birr-currency,
* EUR'(Euro-Member-Countries-currency),
* McsEngl.FJD!=Fiji-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.FKP!=Falkland-Islands-(Malvinas)-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.GBP!=United-Kingdom-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.GEL!=Georgia-Lari-currency,
* McsEngl.GGP!=Guernsey-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.GHS!=Ghana-Cedi-currency,
* McsEngl.GIP!=Gibraltar-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.GMD!=Gambia-Dalasi-currency,
* McsEngl.GNF!=Guinea-Franc-currency,
* McsEngl.GTQ!=Guatemala-Quetzal-currency,
* McsEngl.GYD!=Guyana-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.HKD!=Hong-Kong-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.HNL!=Honduras-Lempira-currency,
* McsEngl.HRK!=Croatia-Kuna-currency,
* McsEngl.HTG!=Haiti-Gourde-currency,
* McsEngl.HUF!=Hungary-Forint-currency,
* McsEngl.IDR!=Indonesia-Rupiah-currency,
* McsEngl.ILS!=Israel-Shekel-currency,
* McsEngl.IMP!=Isle-of-Man-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.INR!=India-Rupee-currency,
* McsEngl.IQD!=Iraq-Dinar-currency,
* McsEngl.IRR!=Iran-Rial-currency,
* McsEngl.ISK!=Iceland-Krona-currency,
* McsEngl.JEP!=Jersey-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.JMD!=Jamaica-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.JOD!=Jordan-Dinar-currency,
* McsEngl.JPY!=Japan-Yen-currency,
* McsEngl.KES!=Kenya-Shilling-currency,
* McsEngl.KGS!=Kyrgyzstan-Som-currency,
* McsEngl.KHR!=Cambodia-Riel-currency,
* McsEngl.KMF!=Comoros-Franc-currency,
* McsEngl.KPW!=Korea-(North)-Won-currency,
* McsEngl.KRW!=Korea-(South)-Won-currency,
* McsEngl.KWD!=Kuwait-Dinar-currency,
* McsEngl.KYD!=Cayman-Islands-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.KZT!=Kazakhstan-Tenge-currency,
* McsEngl.LAK!=Laos-Kip-currency,
* McsEngl.LBP!=Lebanon-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.LKR!=Sri-Lanka-Rupee-currency,
* McsEngl.LRD!=Liberia-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.LSL!=Lesotho-Loti-currency,
* McsEngl.LYD!=Libya-Dinar-currency,
* McsEngl.MAD!=Morocco-Dirham-currency,
* McsEngl.MDL!=Moldova-Leu-currency,
* McsEngl.MGA!=Madagascar-Ariary-currency,
* McsEngl.MKD!=Macedonia-Denar-currency,
* McsEngl.MMK!=Myanmar'(Burma)-Kyat-currency,
* McsEngl.MNT!=Mongolia-Tughrik-currency,
* McsEngl.MOP!=Macau-Pataca-currency,
* McsEngl.MRO!=Mauritania-Ouguiya-currency,
* McsEngl.MUR!=Mauritius-Rupee-currency,
* McsEngl.MVR!=Maldives'(Maldive-Islands)-Rufiyaa-currency,
* McsEngl.MWK!=Malawi-Kwacha-currency,
* McsEngl.MXN!=Mexico-Peso-currency,
* McsEngl.MYR!=Malaysia-Ringgit-currency,
* McsEngl.MZN!=Mozambique-Metical-currency,
* McsEngl.NAD!=Namibia-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.NGN!=Nigeria-Naira-currency,
* McsEngl.NIO!=Nicaragua-Cordoba-currency,
* McsEngl.NOK!=Norway-Krone-currency,
* McsEngl.NPR!=Nepal-Rupee-currency,
* McsEngl.NZD!=New-Zealand-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.OMR!=Oman-Rial-currency,
* McsEngl.PAB!=Panama-Balboa-currency,
* McsEngl.PEN!=Peru-Sol-currency,
* McsEngl.PGK!=Papua-New-Guinea-Kina-currency,
* McsEngl.PHP!=Philippines-Peso-currency,
* McsEngl.PKR!=Pakistan-Rupee-currency,
* McsEngl.PLN!=Poland-Zloty-currency,
* McsEngl.PYG!=Paraguay-Guarani-currency,
* McsEngl.QAR!=Qatar-Riyal-currency,
* McsEngl.RON!=Romania-New-Leu-currency,
* McsEngl.RSD!=Serbia-Dinar-currency,
* McsEngl.RUB!=Russia-Ruble-currency,
* McsEngl.RWF!=Rwanda-Franc-currency,
* McsEngl.SAR!=Saudi-Arabia-Riyal-currency,
* McsEngl.SBD!=Solomon-Islands-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.SCR!=Seychelles-Rupee-currency,
* McsEngl.SDG!=Sudan-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.SEK!=Sweden-Krona-currency,
* McsEngl.SGD!=Singapore-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.SHP!=Saint-Helena-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.SLL!=Sierra-Leone-Leone-currency,
* McsEngl.SOS!=Somalia-Shilling-currency,
* McsEngl.SPL!=Seborga-Luigino-currency,
* McsEngl.SRD!=Suriname-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.STD!=São-Tomé-and-Príncipe-Dobra-currency,
* McsEngl.SVC!=El-Salvador-Colon-currency,
* McsEngl.SYP!=Syria-Pound-currency,
* McsEngl.SZL!=Swaziland-Lilangeni-currency,
* McsEngl.THB!=Thailand-Baht-currency,
* McsEngl.TJS!=Tajikistan-Somoni-currency,
* McsEngl.TMT!=Turkmenistan-Manat-currency,
* McsEngl.TND!=Tunisia-Dinar-currency,
* McsEngl.TOP!=Tonga-Pa'anga-currency,
* McsEngl.TRY!=Turkey-Lira-currency,
* McsEngl.TTD!=Trinidad-and-Tobago-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.TVD!=Tuvalu-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.TWD!=Taiwan-New-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.TZS!=Tanzania-Shilling-currency,
* McsEngl.UAH!=Ukraine-Hryvnia-currency,
* McsEngl.UGX!=Uganda-Shilling-currency,
* McsEngl.UYU!=Uruguay-Peso-currency,
* McsEngl.UZS!=Uzbekistan-Som-currency,
* McsEngl.VEF!=Venezuela-Bolivar-currency,
* McsEngl.VND!=Viet-Nam-Dong-currency,
* McsEngl.VUV!=Vanuatu-Vatu-currency,
* McsEngl.WST!=Samoa-Tala-currency,
* McsEngl.XAF!=Communauté-Financière-Africaine-(BEAC)-CFA-Franc-BEAC-currency,
* McsEngl.XCD!=East-Caribbean-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.XDR!=International-Monetary-Fund-(IMF)-Special-Drawing-Rights-currency,
* McsEngl.XOF!=Communauté-Financière-Africaine-(BCEAO)-Franc-currency,
* McsEngl.XPF!=Comptoirs-Français-du-Pacifique-(CFP)-Franc-currency,
* McsEngl.YER!=Yemen-Rial-currency,
* McsEngl.ZAR!=South-Africa-Rand-currency,
* McsEngl.ZMW!=Zambia-Kwacha-currency,
* McsEngl.ZWD!=Zimbabwe-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.Afghanistan-Afghani-currency-(AFN),
* McsEngl.Albania-Lek-currency-(ALL),
* McsEngl.Algeria-Dinar-currency-(DZD),
* McsEngl.Angola-Kwanza-currency-(AOA),
* McsEngl.Argentina-Peso-currency-(ARS),
* McsEngl.Armenia-Dram-currency-(AMD),
* McsEngl.Aruba-Guilder-currency-(AWG),
* McsEngl.Australia-Dollar-currency-(AUD),
* McsEngl.Azerbaijan-New-Manat-currency-(AZN),
* McsEngl.Bahamas-Dollar-currency-(BSD),
* McsEngl.Bahrain-Dinar-currency-(BHD),
* McsEngl.Bangladesh-Taka-currency-(BDT),
* McsEngl.Barbados-Dollar-currency-(BBD),
* McsEngl.Belarus-Ruble-currency-(BYN),
* McsEngl.Belize-Dollar-currency-(BZD),
* McsEngl.Bermuda-Dollar-currency-(BMD),
* McsEngl.Bhutan-Ngultrum-currency-(BTN),
* McsEngl.Bolivia-Bolíviano-currency-(BOB),
* McsEngl.Bosnia-and-Herzegovina-Convertible-Marka-currency-(BAM),
* McsEngl.Botswana-Pula-currency-(BWP),
* McsEngl.Brazil-Real-currency-(BRL),
* McsEngl.Brunei-Darussalam-Dollar-currency-(BND),
* McsEngl.Bulgaria-Lev-currency-(BGN),
* McsEngl.Burundi-Franc-currency-(BIF),
* McsEngl.Cambodia-Riel-currency-(KHR),
* McsEngl.Canada-Dollar-currency-(CAD),
* McsEngl.Cape-Verde-Escudo-currency-(CVE),
* McsEngl.Cayman-Islands-Dollar-currency-(KYD),
* McsEngl.Chile-Peso-currency-(CLP),
* McsEngl.China-Yuan-Renminbi-currency-(CNY),
* McsEngl.Colombia-Peso-currency-(COP),
* McsEngl.Communauté-Financière-Africaine-(BCEAO)-Franc-currency-(XOF),
* McsEngl.Communauté-Financière-Africaine-(BEAC)-CFA-Franc-BEAC-currency-(XAF),
* McsEngl.Comoros-Franc-currency-(KMF),
* McsEngl.Comptoirs-Français-du-Pacifique-(CFP)-Franc-currency-(XPF),
* McsEngl.Congo/Kinshasa-Franc-currency-(CDF),
* McsEngl.Costa-Rica-Colon-currency-(CRC),
* McsEngl.Croatia-Kuna-currency-(HRK),
* McsEngl.Cuba-Convertible-Peso-currency-(CUC),
* McsEngl.Cuba-Peso-currency-(CUP),
* McsEngl.Czech-Republic-Koruna-currency-(CZK),
* McsEngl.Denmark-Krone-currency-(DKK),
* McsEngl.Djibouti-Franc-currency-(DJF),
* McsEngl.Dominican-Republic-Peso-currency-(DOP),
* McsEngl.East-Caribbean-Dollar-currency-(XCD),
* McsEngl.Egypt-Pound-currency-(EGP),
* McsEngl.El-Salvador-Colon-currency-(SVC),
* McsEngl.Eritrea-Nakfa-currency-(ERN),
* McsEngl.Ethiopia-Birr-currency-(ETB),
* Euro-Member-Countries-currency-(EUR),
* McsEngl.Falkland-Islands-(Malvinas)-Pound-currency-(FKP),
* McsEngl.Fiji-Dollar-currency-(FJD),
* McsEngl.Gambia-Dalasi-currency-(GMD),
* McsEngl.Georgia-Lari-currency-(GEL),
* McsEngl.Ghana-Cedi-currency-(GHS),
* McsEngl.Gibraltar-Pound-currency-(GIP),
* McsEngl.Guatemala-Quetzal-currency-(GTQ),
* McsEngl.Guernsey-Pound-currency-(GGP),
* McsEngl.Guinea-Franc-currency-(GNF),
* McsEngl.Guyana-Dollar-currency-(GYD),
* McsEngl.Haiti-Gourde-currency-(HTG),
* McsEngl.Honduras-Lempira-currency-(HNL),
* McsEngl.Hong-Kong-Dollar-currency-(HKD),
* McsEngl.Hungary-Forint-currency-(HUF),
* McsEngl.Iceland-Krona-currency-(ISK),
* McsEngl.India-Rupee-currency-(INR),
* McsEngl.Indonesia-Rupiah-currency-(IDR),
* McsEngl.International-Monetary-Fund-(IMF)-Special-Drawing-Rights-currency-(XDR),
* McsEngl.Iran-Rial-currency-(IRR),
* McsEngl.Iraq-Dinar-currency-(IQD),
* McsEngl.Isle-of-Man-Pound-currency-(IMP),
* McsEngl.Israel-Shekel-currency-(ILS),
* McsEngl.Jamaica-Dollar-currency-(JMD),
* McsEngl.Japan-Yen-currency-(JPY),
* McsEngl.Jersey-Pound-currency-(JEP),
* McsEngl.Jordan-Dinar-currency-(JOD),
* McsEngl.Kazakhstan-Tenge-currency-(KZT),
* McsEngl.Kenya-Shilling-currency-(KES),
* McsEngl.Korea-(North)-Won-currency-(KPW),
* McsEngl.Korea-(South)-Won-currency-(KRW),
* McsEngl.Kuwait-Dinar-currency-(KWD),
* McsEngl.Kyrgyzstan-Som-currency-(KGS),
* McsEngl.Laos-Kip-currency-(LAK),
* McsEngl.Lebanon-Pound-currency-(LBP),
* McsEngl.Lesotho-Loti-currency-(LSL),
* McsEngl.Liberia-Dollar-currency-(LRD),
* McsEngl.Libya-Dinar-currency-(LYD),
* McsEngl.Macau-Pataca-currency-(MOP),
* McsEngl.Macedonia-Denar-currency-(MKD),
* McsEngl.Madagascar-Ariary-currency-(MGA),
* McsEngl.Malawi-Kwacha-currency-(MWK),
* McsEngl.Malaysia-Ringgit-currency-(MYR),
* McsEngl.Maldives'(Maldive-Islands)-Rufiyaa-currency-(MVR),
* McsEngl.Mauritania-Ouguiya-currency-(MRO),
* McsEngl.Mauritius-Rupee-currency-(MUR),
* McsEngl.Mexico-Peso-currency-(MXN),
* McsEngl.Moldova-Leu-currency-(MDL),
* McsEngl.Mongolia-Tughrik-currency-(MNT),
* McsEngl.Morocco-Dirham-currency-(MAD),
* McsEngl.Mozambique-Metical-currency-(MZN),
* McsEngl.Myanmar'(Burma)-Kyat-currency-(MMK),
* McsEngl.Namibia-Dollar-currency-(NAD),
* McsEngl.Nepal-Rupee-currency-(NPR),
* McsEngl.Netherlands-Antilles-Guilder-currency-(ANG),
* McsEngl.New-Zealand-Dollar-currency-(NZD),
* McsEngl.Nicaragua-Cordoba-currency-(NIO),
* McsEngl.Nigeria-Naira-currency-(NGN),
* McsEngl.Norway-Krone-currency-(NOK),
* McsEngl.Oman-Rial-currency-(OMR),
* McsEngl.Pakistan-Rupee-currency-(PKR),
* McsEngl.Panama-Balboa-currency-(PAB),
* McsEngl.Papua-New-Guinea-Kina-currency-(PGK),
* McsEngl.Paraguay-Guarani-currency-(PYG),
* McsEngl.Peru-Sol-currency-(PEN),
* McsEngl.Philippines-Peso-currency-(PHP),
* McsEngl.Poland-Zloty-currency-(PLN),
* McsEngl.Qatar-Riyal-currency-(QAR),
* McsEngl.Romania-New-Leu-currency-(RON),
* McsEngl.Russia-Ruble-currency-(RUB),
* McsEngl.Rwanda-Franc-currency-(RWF),
* McsEngl.Saint-Helena-Pound-currency-(SHP),
* McsEngl.Samoa-Tala-currency-(WST),
* McsEngl.Saudi-Arabia-Riyal-currency-(SAR),
* McsEngl.Seborga-Luigino-currency-(SPL),
* McsEngl.Serbia-Dinar-currency-(RSD),
* McsEngl.Seychelles-Rupee-currency-(SCR),
* McsEngl.Sierra-Leone-Leone-currency-(SLL),
* McsEngl.Singapore-Dollar-currency-(SGD),
* McsEngl.Solomon-Islands-Dollar-currency-(SBD),
* McsEngl.Somalia-Shilling-currency-(SOS),
* McsEngl.South-Africa-Rand-currency-(ZAR),
* McsEngl.Sri-Lanka-Rupee-currency-(LKR),
* McsEngl.Sudan-Pound-currency-(SDG),
* McsEngl.Suriname-Dollar-currency-(SRD),
* McsEngl.Swaziland-Lilangeni-currency-(SZL),
* McsEngl.Sweden-Krona-currency-(SEK),
* McsEngl.Switzerland-Franc-currency-(CHF),
* McsEngl.Syria-Pound-currency-(SYP),
* McsEngl.São-Tomé-and-Príncipe-Dobra-currency-(STD),
* McsEngl.Taiwan-New-Dollar-currency-(TWD),
* McsEngl.Tajikistan-Somoni-currency-(TJS),
* McsEngl.Tanzania-Shilling-currency-(TZS),
* McsEngl.Thailand-Baht-currency-(THB),
* McsEngl.Tonga-Pa'anga-currency-(TOP),
* McsEngl.Trinidad-and-Tobago-Dollar-currency-(TTD),
* McsEngl.Tunisia-Dinar-currency-(TND),
* McsEngl.Turkey-Lira-currency-(TRY),
* McsEngl.Turkmenistan-Manat-currency-(TMT),
* McsEngl.Tuvalu-Dollar-currency-(TVD),
* McsEngl.Uganda-Shilling-currency-(UGX),
* McsEngl.Ukraine-Hryvnia-currency-(UAH),
* McsEngl.United-Arab-Emirates-Dirham-currency-(AED),
* McsEngl.United-Kingdom-Pound-currency-(GBP),
* McsEngl.Uruguay-Peso-currency-(UYU),
* McsEngl.Uzbekistan-Som-currency-(UZS),
* McsEngl.Vanuatu-Vatu-currency-(VUV),
* McsEngl.Venezuela-Bolivar-currency-(VEF),
* McsEngl.Viet-Nam-Dong-currency-(VND),
* McsEngl.Yemen-Rial-currency-(YER),
* McsEngl.Zambia-Kwacha-currency-(ZMW),
* McsEngl.Zimbabwe-Dollar-currency-(ZWD),

* McsEngl.Evu.specific,


">reserved currency:
A reserve currency is a foreign currency that is held in significant quantities by governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves. This currency is used for international transactions, investments, and all aspects of the global economy. It represents a large share of the world's savings and is often considered a stable and safe asset, especially in times of economic uncertainty. The characteristics of a reserve currency include:
1. **Widely used for international trade**: It is accepted for trade throughout the world. Countries need reserve currencies to pay for goods and services in the global market.
2. **Widely used for international investments**: It is used for investments outside the country of origin, including government bonds, corporate bonds, and foreign real estate.
3. **Stability and Reliability**: The currency typically belongs to a country with a stable economy, strong governance, and low inflation. This stability encourages other countries to hold it as a reserve.
4. **Liquidity**: It is easily traded in the global foreign exchange markets, allowing holders to quickly and efficiently adjust their reserve positions as needed.
The US dollar (USD) is the most prominent example of a reserve currency, making up a significant portion of foreign exchange reserves held by countries around the world. Other examples include the Euro (EUR), the British Pound Sterling (GBP), the Japanese Yen (JPY), and the Chinese Renminbi (CNY).
The status of a currency as a reserve currency can afford its country considerable advantages, including lower borrowing costs and greater influence in international economic discussions and policy-making. However, it also comes with the responsibility of maintaining economic stability and confidence in the currency's value on a global scale."
[{2024-03-04 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Evu.reserve!⇒EvuRsrv,
* McsEngl.EvuRsrv!=reserve-currency,
* McsEngl.reserve-currency!⇒EvuRsrv,

"A reserve currency is a foreign currency held in significant quantities by central banks and other major financial institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves. It is used for international transactions, investments, and to manage their domestic exchange rate.
**Key points about reserve currencies:**
* **Reduced exchange rate risk:** Countries holding a reserve currency don't need to exchange their own currency for the reserve currency to conduct trade, reducing exchange rate risk.
* **Facilitates global transactions:** Reserve currencies are used for international investments, debt obligations, and trade.
* **Pricing of commodities:** Many commodities like oil and gold are priced in the reserve currency, making it essential for other countries to hold this currency.
**The U.S. dollar as the dominant reserve currency:**
The United States dollar has been the world's primary reserve currency since the end of World War II. This status provides several advantages to the U.S., such as:
* **Easier borrowing:** The U.S. can borrow money more easily as there is high demand for dollar-denominated assets.
* **Financial sanctions:** The U.S. can impose impactful financial sanctions due to the dollar's dominance.
**The future of reserve currencies:**
While the U.S. dollar remains dominant, the rise of other currencies like the Euro and the Chinese Renminbi, along with the growing use of digital currencies, may challenge the dollar's status in the future.
Do you want to know more about a specific aspect of reserve currencies, such as the benefits and drawbacks for the issuing country, or the factors that contribute to a currency becoming a reserve currency?
[{2024-05-28 retrieved}]


"Reserve currencies are foreign currencies held in significant quantities by central banks and other major financial institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves. They are used to facilitate global transactions, influence exchange rates, and provide stability in times of economic volatility.
The most common reserve currencies include:
* **United States dollar (USD):** The USD is the world's primary reserve currency, accounting for a significant portion of global foreign exchange reserves. Its dominance stems from the size and stability of the U.S. economy, the depth and liquidity of U.S. financial markets, and the role of the USD in international trade and finance.
* **Euro (EUR):** The euro is the second most widely held reserve currency. It is the official currency of 19 European Union member states and is used by over 340 million people. The euro's importance as a reserve currency reflects the eurozone's economic strength and the euro's role in international trade and investment.
* **Japanese yen (JPY):** The Japanese yen is the third most common reserve currency. Japan's status as a major global exporter and its large economy contribute to the yen's role as a reserve currency.
* **British pound sterling (GBP):** The British pound sterling is the fourth most widely held reserve currency. Its history as a global currency and the UK's position as a major financial center contribute to its continued use as a reserve currency.
* **Chinese renminbi (CNY):** The Chinese renminbi, also known as the yuan, is increasingly used as a reserve currency. China's growing economic power and its efforts to internationalize its currency have led to its inclusion in the International Monetary Fund's Special Drawing Rights basket, which is a supplementary international reserve asset.
In addition to these major reserve currencies, some smaller currencies, such as the Swiss franc (CHF), the Canadian dollar (CAD), and the Australian dollar (AUD), are also held as reserve currencies in smaller amounts.
[{2024-05-28 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.EvuRsrv.specific,


"The renminbi (Chinese: 人民币; pinyin: Rénmínbì; lit. 'People's Currency'; symbol: ¥; ISO code: CNY; abbreviation: RMB) is the official currency of the People's Republic of China.[a] It is the world's 5th most traded currency as of April 2022.[3]
The yuan (Chinese: 元 or simplified Chinese: 圆; traditional Chinese: 圓; pinyin: yuán) is the basic unit of the renminbi, but the word is also used to refer to the Chinese currency generally, especially in international contexts. One yuan is divided into 10 jiao (Chinese: 角; pinyin: jiǎo), and the jiao is further subdivided into 10 fen (Chinese: 分; pinyin: fēn). The renminbi is issued by the People's Bank of China, the monetary authority of China.[4]"
[{2024-03-03 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.CN¥!⇒EvuRmb,
* McsEngl.CNY!⇒EvuRmb,
* McsEngl.Chnaecon'currency!⇒EvuRmb,
* McsEngl.Evu.RMB!⇒EvuRmb,
* McsEngl.EvuRmb!=currency-of-People's-Republic-of-China,
* McsEngl.RMB!=renminbi!⇒EvuRmb,
* McsEngl.fen=0.01yuan!⇒EvuRmb,
* McsEngl.jiao=0.1yuan!⇒EvuRmb,
* McsEngl.renminbi!⇒EvuRmb,
* McsEngl.yuan!⇒EvuRmb,
* McsEngl.¥-RMB!⇒EvuRmb,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.fēn-分=0.01元!=EvuRmb,
* McsZhon.分-fēn=0.01元!=EvuRmb,
* McsZhon.jiǎo-角=0.1元!=EvuRmb,
* McsZhon.角-jiǎo=0.1元!=EvuRmb,
* McsZhon.rénmínbì-人民币!=EvuRmb,
* McsZhon.人民币-rénmínbì!=EvuRmb,
* McsZhon.yuán-元-(圆)-(圓)!=EvuRmb,
* McsZhon.元-(圆)-(圓)-yuán!=EvuRmb,

digital-RMB (link)


· stxZhon: 我 有 一百块美元。 :: _stxSbj:[Wǒ] _stxVrb:{yǒu} _stxSbjc:[yībǎi kuài měiyuán]。 != [I] {have} [one hundred dollars].

* McsEngl.$-USD!⇒EvuUSD,
* McsEngl.Evu.USD!⇒EvuUSD,
* McsEngl.EvuUSD!=United-States-Dollar-currency,
* McsEngl.USD!⇒EvuUSD,
* McsEngl.United-States-Dollar-currency-(USD)!⇒EvuUSD,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.měiyuán-美元!=EvuUSD,
* McsZhon.美元-měiyuán!=EvuUSD,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.Δολάριο-Αμερικής!το!=EvuUSD,


· Claim-backed-money (fiat-backed-money): The issuer-of-money gets an interest-free loan from a non-claim-asset holder. The asset-holder gets a contract, information (paper or digital) revealing his claim. This claim he can exchange with other non-claim-commodities OR he can exchange with the issuer with the backed-commodity (usually gold).
· Claim-non-backed-money (fiat-non-backed-money): since 1971, economies use claim-assets but non-backed with another commodity which continue to have the medium-of-exchange and unit-of-account attributes but have an uncertain storage-of-value attribute which depends on the credibility of the issuer.

* McsEngl.claim-money,
* McsEngl.intrinsicNo-value-money,
* McsEngl.representative-money,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.παραστατικό-χρήμα!το!=fiat-maney,


· Non-claim-money: non-claim-assets that have the above 3 attributes (medium of exchange, storage of value, unit of account), the most common is the precious metals.

* McsEngl.commodity-money,
* McsEngl.non-claim-money,


">labor money overview:
The term "labor money" refers to a concept within economics and social theory related to compensating workers with a form of currency that directly represents their labor input. This idea has roots in various economic theories and has been explored in different contexts throughout history. Here’s an overview that touches upon its key aspects:
### Historical Context
- **Early Proposals**: The idea of labor money dates back to the early socialist and utopian thinkers of the 19th century, such as Robert Owen. They proposed systems where workers would be paid with notes or tokens that represented the amount of labor they contributed, which could then be exchanged for goods and services based on the amount of labor required to produce them.
- **Marxist Critique**: Karl Marx critiqued the concept of labor money in his works, arguing that it failed to address the underlying inequalities of capitalist systems and the complexities of labor value.
### Theoretical Foundations
- **Labor Theory of Value**: At the heart of the labor money concept is the labor theory of value, which suggests that the value of a good or service is determined by the amount of labor required to produce it. Labor money seeks to make this value directly exchangeable.
- **Time Banks and Modern Implementations**: In contemporary settings, the concept of labor money has been partially realized through time banks and alternative currency systems, where individuals trade hours of work for services, bypassing traditional money.
### Advantages and Challenges
- **Advantages**: Proponents argue that labor money could create fairer compensation for work, reduce inequality, and foster community cooperation. It's seen as a way to directly value and reward labor, potentially transforming societal valuations of different types of work.
- **Challenges**: Critics point out several challenges, including the difficulty in accurately measuring the value of diverse types of labor, potential for exploitation, and integration with broader, money-based economies. There's also the issue of how to account for jobs that are necessary but undesirable, and how to ensure a fair exchange rate for labor across different sectors.
### Modern Relevance
- **Alternative Economic Models**: Interest in labor money and similar concepts has seen a resurgence with the growing interest in alternative economic models, including local currencies, cooperative businesses, and the solidarity economy movement.
- **Technology and Implementation**: Advances in technology, especially blockchain and decentralized finance (DeFi), offer new possibilities for implementing labor-based currencies or value exchange systems, potentially addressing some of the traditional challenges.
Labor money represents an intriguing alternative to conventional monetary systems, aiming to more directly connect work with economic value. However, its practical implementation faces significant hurdles, both in terms of economics and societal acceptance. As economic and social paradigms continue to evolve, the concepts underlying labor money may yet find new forms of expression and implementation."
[{2024-02-22 retrieved}]

">labor money overview:
Labor money refers to the compensation that workers receive for their labor. This compensation can take many forms, including wages, salaries, commissions, bonuses, and benefits.
The amount of labor money that a worker receives is determined by a number of factors, including the worker's education, experience, skills, and the demand for their labor in the marketplace. The worker's bargaining power, as well as the laws and regulations of the country or region in which they work, also play a role.
Labor money is an important part of the economy. It allows workers to purchase the goods and services they need and want, and it helps to stimulate economic growth. However, there is a growing concern that labor money is not being distributed fairly. In many countries, the gap between the rich and the poor is widening, and workers are not seeing their wages keep pace with the cost of living.
There are a number of ways to address this issue. One solution is to raise the minimum wage. This would ensure that all workers earn a living wage that allows them to meet their basic needs. Another solution is to strengthen unions. Unions can help workers to bargain for better wages and benefits. Finally, governments can also play a role by investing in education and training programs that help workers to develop the skills they need to get good jobs.
Here are some additional points to consider:
* The concept of labor money is complex and there are many different theories about how it is determined.
* Labor money is a key factor in social inequality.
* There is a growing debate about how to ensure that labor money is distributed fairly."
[{2024-02-22 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.labor-money,

"We advocate using labour time as the basic unit of account because we think that society is about people, and for the moment at least, how people spend their lives remains more important than any one natural resource.
[{2024-02-22 retrieved}, p45]


">investment-fund vs investment-vehicle:
The terms "investment fund" and "investment vehicle" are often used interchangeably, but they have slightly different meanings.
**Investment fund** is a broad term that refers to any type of investment that pools money from multiple investors and invests it in a portfolio of assets. This includes mutual funds, ETFs, hedge funds, and private equity funds.
**Investment vehicle** is a more general term that refers to any asset or instrument that can be used to invest money. This includes stocks, bonds, real estate, commodities, and cryptocurrencies.
So, all investment funds are investment vehicles, but not all investment vehicles are investment funds.
Here is a table summarizing the difference between investment funds and investment vehicles:
| Feature | Investment Fund | Investment Vehicle |
| Definition | A pool of money from multiple investors that is invested in a portfolio of assets. | Any asset or instrument that can be used to invest money. |
| Examples | Mutual funds, ETFs, hedge funds, private equity funds. | Stocks, bonds, real estate, commodities, cryptocurrencies. |
| Management | Typically managed by a professional fund manager. | Can be managed by an individual or a professional. |
| Liquidity | May be more or less liquid depending on the type of fund. | Liquidity varies depending on the asset or instrument. |
| Expenses | May charge fees, such as management fees and expense ratios. | May not charge fees, or may charge fees based on the type of asset or instrument. |
I hope this helps!"
[{2024-01-11 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.finInvestment,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.investment-vehicle!=finInvestment,


">investment vehicles types:
There are many different types of investment vehicles available to investors, each with its own unique characteristics and risk profile. Here are some of the most common types of investment vehicles:
**Direct investments**
Direct investments involve buying individual securities, such as stocks, bonds, and real estate. This gives investors more control over their investments but also exposes them to more risk.
* **Stocks:** Stocks represent ownership in a company. When you buy a stock, you become a shareholder and are entitled to a share of the company's profits. Stocks can be volatile, but they also offer the potential for high returns.
* **Bonds:** Bonds are loans that are issued by governments or corporations. When you buy a bond, you are essentially lending money to the issuer. Bonds are generally less volatile than stocks, but they also offer lower returns.
* **Real estate:** Real estate can be a great way to diversify your portfolio and generate income. However, it can also be illiquid and subject to market fluctuations.
**Pooled investments**
Pooled investments pool money from multiple investors and invest it in a diversified portfolio of securities. This can help to reduce risk by spreading your investment across multiple assets.
* **Mutual funds:** Mutual funds are professionally managed portfolios of securities that are bought and sold once a day after the market closes. Mutual funds can be passively managed (tracking an index) or actively managed (trying to outperform the market).
* **Exchange-traded funds (ETFs):** ETFs are baskets of securities that trade on an exchange, just like stocks. ETFs can be passively managed or actively managed. ETFs are typically more tax-efficient than mutual funds.
* **Real estate investment trusts (REITs):** REITs are companies that own and operate income-producing real estate. REITs offer investors a way to invest in real estate without having to buy and manage properties themselves.
**Other investment vehicles**
There are a number of other investment vehicles available, including:
* **Annuities:** Annuities are insurance contracts that provide regular income payments in retirement.
* **Commodities:** Commodities are physical goods, such as gold, silver, oil, and wheat. Commodities can be volatile, but they can also offer protection against inflation.
* **Cryptocurrencies:** Cryptocurrencies are digital or virtual tokens that use cryptography for security. Cryptocurrencies are highly volatile and speculative.
**Choosing the right investment vehicle**
The best investment vehicle for you will depend on your individual circumstances, such as your investment goals, risk tolerance, and time horizon. It is important to do your research and understand the risks and potential rewards of each type of investment before you make a decision."
[{2024-01-11 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.finInvestment.specific,


"An investment fund is a way of investing money alongside other investors in order to benefit from the inherent advantages of working as part of a group such as reducing the risks of the investment by a significant percentage. These advantages include an ability to:
* hire professional investment managers, who may offer better returns and more adequate risk management;
* benefit from economies of scale, i.e., lower transaction costs;
* increase the asset diversification to reduce some unsystematic risk.
It remains unclear whether professional active investment managers can reliably enhance risk adjusted returns by an amount that exceeds fees and expenses of investment management. Terminology varies with country but investment funds are often referred to as investment pools, collective investment vehicles, collective investment schemes, managed funds, or simply funds. The regulatory term is undertaking for collective investment in transferable securities, or short collective investment undertaking (cf. Law). An investment fund may be held by the public, such as a mutual fund, exchange-traded fund, special-purpose acquisition company or closed-end fund,[1] or it may be sold only in a private placement, such as a hedge fund or private equity fund.[2] The term also includes specialized vehicles such as collective and common trust funds, which are unique bank-managed funds structured primarily to commingle assets from qualifying pension plans or trusts.[3]
Investment funds are promoted with a wide range of investment aims either targeting specific geographic regions (e.g., emerging markets or Europe) or specified industry sectors (e.g., technology). Depending on the country there is normally a bias towards the domestic market due to familiarity, and the lack of currency risk. Funds are often selected on the basis of these specified investment aims, their past investment performance, and other factors such as fees."
[{2021-12-30 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.finInvestment-fund,
* McsEngl.investment-fund!⇒finInvestment-fund,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.021-investment-fund!⇒finInvestment-fund,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.investment-fund!⇒finInvestment-fund,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.επενδυτικό-κεφάλαιο!=finInvestment-fund,
* McsElln.επενδυτικό-ταμείο!=finInvestment-fund,


"A mutual fund is a professionally managed investment fund that pools money from many investors to purchase securities. The term is typically used in the United States, Canada, and India, while similar structures across the globe include the SICAV in Europe ('investment company with variable capital') and open-ended investment company (OEIC) in the UK.
Mutual funds are often classified by their principal investments: investmentmoney market funds, bond or fixed income funds, stock or equity funds, or hybrid funds.[1] Funds may also be categorized as index funds, which are passively managed funds that track the performance of an index, such as a stock market index or bond market index, or actively managed funds, which seek to outperform stock market indices but generally charge higher fees. Primary structures of mutual funds are open-end funds, closed-end funds, unit investment trusts."
[{2021-12-30 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.finMutual-fund,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.022-mutual-fund!⇒finMutual-fund,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.gòngtóngjījīn-共同基金!=finMutual-fund,
* McsZhon.共同基金-gòngtóngjījīn!=finMutual-fund,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.αμοιβαίο-κεφάλαιο!το!=finMutual-fund,


"A hedge fund is a pooled investment fund that trades in relatively liquid assets and is able to make extensive use of more complex trading, portfolio-construction and risk management techniques in an attempt to improve performance, such as short selling, leverage, and derivatives.[1] Financial regulators generally restrict hedge fund marketing to institutional investors, high net worth individuals and others who are considered sufficiently sophisticated."
[{2021-12-30 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.finHedge-fund,
* McsEngl.finInvestment-fund.hedge-fund!⇒finHedge-fund,
* McsEngl.hedge-fund!⇒finHedge-fund,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.023-hedge-fund!⇒finHedge-fund,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.hedge-fund!⇒finHedge-fund,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.αντισταθμιστικό-κεφάλαιο!το!=finHedge-fund,


"An exchange-traded fund (ETF) is a type of investment fund and exchange-traded product, i.e. they are traded on stock exchanges.[1][2][3] ETFs are similar in many ways to mutual funds, except that ETFs are bought and sold from other owners throughout the day on stock exchanges while mutual funds are bought and sold from the issuer based on their price at day's end.[4] An ETF holds assets such as assetstocks, bonds, currencies, futures contracts, and/or commodities such as gold bars, and generally operates with an arbitrage mechanism designed to keep it trading close to its net asset value,[5] although deviations can occasionally occur. Most ETFs are index funds: that is, they hold the same securities in the same proportions as a certain stock market index or bond market index. The most popular ETFs in the U.S. replicate the S&P 500 Index, the total market index, the NASDAQ-100 index, the price of gold, the "growth" stocks in the Russell 1000 Index, or the index of the largest technology companies.[6] With the exception of non-transparent actively managed ETFs, in most cases, the list of stocks that each ETF owns, as well as their weightings, is posted daily on the website of the issuer. The largest ETFs have annual fees of 0.03% of the amount invested, or even lower, although specialty ETFs can have annual fees well in excess of 1% of the amount invested. These fees are paid to the ETF issuer out of dividends received from the underlying holdings or from selling assets."
[{2021-12-30 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ETF!=exchange-traded-fund!⇒finETF,
* McsEngl.finETF,
* McsEngl.sfrFin.024-exchange-traded-fund!⇒finETF,


this page was-visited times since {2021-12-30}

page-wholepath: / worldviewSngo / dirStn / sfrFin

· this page uses 'locator-names', names that when you find them, you find the-LOCATION of the-concept they denote.
· clicking on the-green-BAR of a-page you have access to the-global--locator-names of my-site.
· use the-prefix 'sfrFin' for senso-concepts related to current concept 'financial-satisfier'.
· TYPE CTRL+F "McsLag4.words-of-concept's-name", to go to the-LOCATION of the-concept.
· a-preview of the-description of a-global-name makes reading fast.

• author: Kaseluris.Nikos.1959
• email:
• edit on github:,
• comments on Disqus,
• twitter: @synagonism,

• version.last.dynamic: McsStn000029.last.html,
• version.draft.creation: McsStn000029.0-1-0.2021-12-30.last.html,

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