McsHitp-creation:: {2020-07-06}

overview of law

· law is information on governing a-socialitation.

* McsEngl.McsStnlaw000002.last.html//dirStnlaw//dirMcs!⇒law,
* McsEngl.dirMcs/dirStnlaw/McsStnlaw000002.last.html!⇒law,
* McsEngl.gvcSoc'law!⇒law,
* McsEngl.human-law!⇒law,
* McsEngl.lawHmn!⇒law,
* McsEngl.society'att016-law!⇒law,
* McsEngl.society'law!⇒law,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.fǎlǜ-法律!=law,
* McsZhon.法律-fǎlǜ!=law,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.δίκαιο!το!=law,

"Law is commonly understood as a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate conduct,[2] although its precise definition is a matter of longstanding debate.[3][4][5] It has been variously described as a science[6][7] and the art of justice.[8][9][10] State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics, history and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people."

01_topic of law

· the-referent of law.

">subject of law:
The "subject of law" can have different meanings depending on the context. Here are a few possible interpretations:

1. **Legal Person or Entity:**
- In a broad legal sense, a "subject of law" can refer to any entity, whether an individual or a group, that is capable of holding legal rights and duties. This includes both natural persons (individuals) and legal persons (entities recognized by the law, such as corporations, organizations, or even states).

2. **Legal Personality:**
- The concept of "legal personality" is related to the capacity of entities to have legal rights and obligations. In many legal systems, individuals are recognized as having legal personality by default. However, legal systems also grant legal personality to entities like corporations, allowing them to enter into contracts, sue, and be sued.

3. **Legal Subjects in a Case:**
- In the context of a legal case, the "subjects of law" may refer to the parties involved—those who are bringing a legal action (plaintiffs) and those against whom the action is brought (defendants). These individuals or entities are the subjects of the legal proceedings.

4. **Legal Subjects in a Legal System:**
- In a broader sense, "subjects of law" can also refer to the entities that are subject to the laws and regulations of a particular legal system. This includes both individuals and organizations that must comply with the laws of a given jurisdiction.

5. **International Law:**
- In the realm of international law, the "subjects of law" primarily refer to states as the main actors. However, the concept has expanded to include international organizations and, to some extent, individuals who may have rights and responsibilities under international law.

Understanding the specific context in which the term is used is crucial for a precise interpretation. In general, it refers to entities or individuals that are recognized as having legal standing or capacity within a legal system."
[{2023-11-25 retrieved}]

">subject of law:
The subject of law is a broad and complex one, encompassing a wide range of topics and concepts. At its core, law is a system of rules that govern human behavior, and the subject of law seeks to understand and interpret these rules in order to ensure that they are applied fairly and justly.

**What is law?**
Law is a system of rules that govern human behavior. These rules are typically created by legislatures, courts, and other government bodies, and they are enforced through a system of sanctions. The purpose of law is to protect individuals and society from harm, to promote justice and fairness, and to maintain order and stability.

**What are the different types of law?**
There are many different types of law, but they can be broadly divided into two categories: civil law and criminal law. Civil law deals with disputes between individuals or organizations, while criminal law deals with offenses against the state.

**What are the sources of law?**
There are several sources of law, including statutes, regulations, case law, and constitutional law. Statutes are laws that are enacted by legislatures, while regulations are laws that are created by administrative agencies. Case law is the law that is created by courts, and it is based on the decisions of judges in previous cases. Constitutional law is the law that is found in constitutions, which are the fundamental documents of government.

**What are the different branches of law?**
There are many different branches of law, but some of the most common include:
* **Contract law:** This branch of law deals with contracts, which are agreements between two or more parties.
* **Tort law:** This branch of law deals with civil wrongs, such as negligence and intentional harm.
* **Criminal law:** This branch of law deals with offenses against the state, such as murder, theft, and assault.
* **Property law:** This branch of law deals with the ownership and use of property.
* **Family law:** This branch of law deals with relationships between family members, such as marriage, divorce, and child custody.
* **Business law:** This branch of law deals with business organizations, such as corporations, partnerships, and limited liability companies.

**What are the roles of lawyers and judges?**
Lawyers are legal professionals who advise and represent clients in legal matters. They also draft legal documents, such as contracts and wills. Judges are impartial decision-makers who preside over legal proceedings and apply the law to the facts of a case.

The subject of law is a complex and fascinating one, and it is essential for anyone who wants to understand how society works. By studying law, we can learn about the rights and responsibilities of individuals, the role of government, and the importance of justice.

I hope this helps!"
[{2023-11-25 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.subject-matter-of-law!⇒law'topic,

02_jurisdiction of law

· the-place, the-organization, any entity to which a-law is-addressed.
"A jurisdiction is an area with a set of laws under the control of a system of courts which are different to neighbouring areas. Unitary states usually form single jurisdictions, whilst each state in a federal state forms a separate jurisdiction. However sometimes certain laws in a federal state are uniform across the constituent states and enforced by a set of federal courts; with a result that the federal state forms a single jurisdiction for that purpose.


03_time-of-validation of law

· time-interval on which the-law is valid.


start-time-of-validation of law



end-time-of-validation of law



legality-of-entity of law

"Slavery was legal
Colonialism was legal
Jim Crow was legal
Apartheid was legal
"Legality" is a matter of power, not justice.
[{2021-07-25 retrieved}]
· legality-of-entity is the-compliance-relation of this entity with the-law.
"the quality or state of being in accordance with the law."
[{2021-07-25 retrieved} Google dict]
· put the-law into effect|use.
"law compliance:
**Law compliance** is the act of adhering to the laws and regulations that are applicable to a particular organization or individual. Compliance can be a complex and challenging task, as laws and regulations are constantly changing. However, it is essential for organizations and individuals to comply with the law in order to avoid legal penalties and to maintain their reputation.

There are many different types of law compliance, but some of the most common include:
* **Regulatory compliance:** This refers to compliance with laws and regulations that are issued by government agencies. Examples of regulatory compliance include environmental compliance, financial compliance, and occupational safety and health compliance.
* **Contractual compliance:** This refers to compliance with the terms of contracts that have been entered into by an organization or individual. Examples of contractual compliance include compliance with supplier contracts, customer contracts, and employment contracts.
* **Ethical compliance:** This refers to compliance with ethical standards that are not necessarily codified in law or regulation. Examples of ethical compliance include avoiding conflicts of interest, protecting confidential information, and treating others with respect.

Organizations can achieve law compliance by implementing a number of different measures, such as:
* **Developing and implementing a compliance program:** A compliance program is a set of policies and procedures that are designed to help an organization comply with the law.
* **Training employees on compliance:** Employees need to be trained on the laws and regulations that are relevant to their job.
* **Monitoring compliance:** Organizations need to have a system in place for monitoring compliance with the law.
* **Taking corrective action:** Organizations need to take corrective action when they identify compliance issues.

Law compliance is important for organizations and individuals for a number of reasons. Compliance can help to:
* **Avoid legal penalties:** Organizations and individuals can be fined or even imprisoned for violating the law.
* **Protect the organization's reputation:** A non-compliant organization can suffer reputational damage, which can lead to lost customers, investors, and employees.
* **Maintain a competitive advantage:** Compliance can help an organization to maintain a competitive advantage by reducing the risk of legal challenges or regulatory sanctions.
* **Protect employees:** Compliance can help to protect employees from being injured or killed on the job.
* **Promote a culture of ethics:** Compliance can help to promote a culture of ethics within an organization, which can lead to better decision-making and a more sustainable business."
[{2023-11-25 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.entity'legality,
* McsEngl.legality-of-entity,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.εφαρμογή-δικαίου!η!=legality-of-entity,
* McsElln.νομιμότητα-οντότητας!η!=legality-of-entity,
* McsElln.συμμόρφωση-με-το-νόμο!η!=legality-of-entity,

evaluation of legality-of-entity

· assessment on compliance.

* McsEngl.legality'evaluation,


· positive evaluation of compliance.

* McsEngl.legality-of-entity.positive,


· negative evaluation of compliance.

* McsEngl.adjeEngl.illegal!=legality-of-entity.negative,
* McsEngl.illegal!~adjeEngl!=legality-of-entity.negative,
* McsEngl.legality-of-entity.negative,

organization of law

· any organization related to law.

* McsEngl.ogznLaw,


">court of law:
A court of law is an official body where legal matters are heard, examined, and decided by a judge or judges. Courts are established by governments and have the authority to enforce laws.

Courts play an essential role in ensuring that laws are applied fairly and impartially, and that individuals have access to justice. They also help to maintain order in society and protect the rights of individuals.

The structure and powers of courts vary depending on the legal system of the country. However, all courts have some fundamental characteristics in common.
* **Independence:** Courts must be independent from the other branches of government, such as the legislature and executive. This ensures that they can make impartial decisions without fear of interference.
* **Impartiality:** Judges must be impartial and unbiased. They must not have any personal or financial interest in the outcome of a case.
* **Openness:** Court proceedings must be open to the public. This ensures that justice is seen to be done.
* **Fairness:** All parties involved in a case must have a fair opportunity to be heard.

Courts have a variety of powers, including the power to:
* **Issue rulings:** Courts can issue rulings on legal matters, which are binding on the parties involved.
* **Enforce laws:** Courts can enforce laws by issuing orders or judgments.
* **Punish individuals:** Courts can punish individuals who have violated the law.
* **Grant remedies:** Courts can grant remedies to individuals who have been harmed by others.

Courts play an important role in upholding the rule of law and protecting the rights of individuals. They are a vital part of the justice system."
[{2023-11-25 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.court-of-law,
* McsEngl.oznCourt,
* McsEngl.ogznLaw.court,


"types of courts-of-law:
Courts of law are essential institutions in any society, as they provide a forum for resolving disputes and upholding the rule of law. There are many different types of courts, each with its own jurisdiction and powers. Here are some of the most common types of courts:

* **Trial courts:** These are the courts where most cases are heard and decided. They are responsible for hearing evidence, determining the facts of the case, and applying the law to those facts to reach a verdict.
* **Appellate courts:** These courts review decisions made by trial courts. They do not hear new evidence, but instead review the legal arguments made by the parties to determine whether the trial court made any errors of law.
* **Supreme courts:** These are the highest courts in a legal system. They have the final say on all matters of law, and their decisions are binding on all lower courts.
* **Special courts:** These courts have jurisdiction over specific types of cases, such as family law, tax law, or juvenile law.
* **International courts:** These courts resolve disputes between countries. They are based on international law, and their decisions are binding on the parties involved.

In addition to these general categories, there are many other specialized courts, such as bankruptcy courts, military courts, and maritime courts. The specific types of courts that exist in a particular jurisdiction will vary depending on the country's legal system.

The structure of a court system is also important. In some jurisdictions, there is a single hierarchy of courts, with the highest court at the top. In other jurisdictions, there are separate systems of courts for different types of cases.

The role of courts in society is to uphold the rule of law, protect individual rights, and ensure that justice is served. Courts play a vital role in maintaining a fair and just society."
[{2023-11-25 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.oznCourt.specific,


">court vs tribunal:
Courts and tribunals are both legal entities that play important roles in the justice system, but they have some key differences in their structure, function, and jurisdiction. Here are some general distinctions between courts and tribunals:

1. **Structure:**
- **Courts:** Courts are typically formal judicial bodies that are part of the judicial branch of government. They have a hierarchical structure, with different levels (e.g., trial courts, appellate courts, and supreme courts).
- **Tribunals:** Tribunals may have a more specialized and flexible structure. They are often set up to deal with specific areas of law or types of disputes and may not have the same hierarchical structure as courts.

2. **Jurisdiction:**
- **Courts:** Courts have general or specific jurisdiction over a wide range of legal matters, and they handle both criminal and civil cases. They often follow established legal procedures and rules of evidence.
- **Tribunals:** Tribunals are often created to deal with specific types of cases or disputes within a particular area of law, such as employment, immigration, tax, or administrative law.

3. **Formality:**
- **Courts:** Court proceedings tend to be more formal, with strict adherence to legal procedures and rules of evidence. Judges, lawyers, and other legal professionals are commonly involved in court proceedings.
- **Tribunals:** While some tribunals may adopt formal procedures, others may operate in a less formal manner. They may be designed to provide accessible and efficient resolution of disputes, and parties might represent themselves more frequently.

4. **Decision-Making:**
- **Courts:** Decisions in courts are typically made by judges or juries based on the application of the law to the facts of a case.
- **Tribunals:** Decisions in tribunals may be made by a single adjudicator or a panel of experts with knowledge in the specific area of law relevant to the dispute.

5. **Appeals:**
- **Courts:** Most court systems have a mechanism for appeals, allowing parties to seek a review of a decision at a higher court.
- **Tribunals:** Depending on the jurisdiction and type of tribunal, there may be limited or no automatic right of appeal to a higher tribunal.

It's important to note that the specific characteristics of courts and tribunals can vary by jurisdiction, and different countries may use different terminology or have variations in the roles and functions of these legal entities."
[{2023-11-28 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.oznCourt.tribunal,
* McsEngl.tribunal-/traibyúnal/,


">law enforcement-agency:
Law enforcement agencies are organizations established by governments to maintain law and order, prevent and investigate crimes, and ensure public safety within a specific jurisdiction. These agencies have the authority to enforce laws, conduct investigations, make arrests, and uphold the legal system. The structure, functions, and jurisdictions of law enforcement agencies can vary from country to country. Here are some key aspects related to law enforcement agencies:

1. **Roles and Responsibilities:**
- **Crime Prevention:** Law enforcement agencies work to prevent criminal activities through patrolling, community engagement, and public awareness.
- **Investigation:** Agencies conduct investigations into reported crimes, gather evidence, and build cases for prosecution.
- **Arrest and Detention:** Law enforcement officers have the authority to arrest individuals suspected of committing crimes and, in some cases, detain them pending further legal processes.
- **Public Order Maintenance:** Ensuring public safety and responding to emergencies or disturbances to maintain order in communities.
- **Traffic Control:** Enforcing traffic laws and regulations to ensure road safety.

2. **Types of Law Enforcement Agencies:**
- **Local Police Departments:** Responsible for enforcing laws within specific cities or municipalities.
- **County Sheriff's Offices:** Typically responsible for law enforcement in specific counties, often in rural or unincorporated areas.
- **State Police/Highway Patrol:** Focus on enforcing state laws, particularly related to traffic, and may have jurisdiction on highways.
- **Federal Agencies:** Such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), and others, which have jurisdiction over federal laws and may specialize in specific types of crimes.

3. **Specialized Units:**
- Many law enforcement agencies have specialized units for handling specific types of crimes, such as narcotics, cybercrime, homicide, or SWAT (Special Weapons and Tactics) teams for high-risk situations.

4. **Training and Standards:**
- Law enforcement officers typically undergo extensive training, including physical training, legal education, and skills development.
- Agencies often have standards and codes of conduct that officers are expected to adhere to.

5. **Community Policing:**
- Some modern law enforcement agencies emphasize community policing, which involves building positive relationships between police officers and the communities they serve.

6. **Use of Force:**
- Law enforcement agencies are authorized to use force, including deadly force in certain situations, to protect themselves and others. However, the use of force is typically subject to strict regulations and oversight.

7. **Oversight and Accountability:**
- There is increasing emphasis on oversight and accountability in law enforcement, with mechanisms such as internal affairs investigations, civilian review boards, and external oversight bodies.

It's important to note that public perception, trust in law enforcement, and discussions about police reform are ongoing topics, and different jurisdictions may implement various approaches to address these issues.
[{2023-12-03 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ogznLaw.enforcement-agency,

The Legal Information Institute (LII) is a term commonly used to refer to online legal research and educational platforms that provide free access to legal information. These institutes are often associated with universities or legal organizations and aim to make legal information accessible to the public. One of the most well-known legal information institutes is the Legal Information Institute at Cornell Law School.

Here are key features and information about the Legal Information Institute at Cornell Law School:

1. **Cornell Legal Information Institute (LII):**
- The Cornell Legal Information Institute (LII) is a non-profit project at Cornell Law School.
- It was founded in 1992 by Thomas R. Bruce and Peter W. Martin with the goal of providing free and open access to legal information.
- The LII is known for hosting a comprehensive collection of U.S. legal resources, including the United States Code, Supreme Court opinions, and other federal and state legal materials.

2. **Features and Resources:**
- The LII website offers a user-friendly interface and provides access to a wide range of legal resources.
- It includes legal materials such as statutes, case law, regulations, and legal guides.
- The platform also provides information on topics like business law, constitutional law, criminal law, and international law.

3. **Educational Initiatives:**
- In addition to providing legal information, the LII is involved in educational initiatives.
- It aims to empower individuals to understand and navigate the legal system by providing educational materials and resources.

4. **Collaborations:**
- The LII collaborates with other legal information institutes and organizations to enhance the availability of legal information globally.

5. **Global Legal Information Network (GLIN):**
- The LII has been involved in projects such as the Global Legal Information Network (GLIN), which aimed to provide access to legal information from around the world.

It's important to note that while the Cornell LII is one prominent example, there are other legal information institutes and initiatives globally, each with its own focus and scope. These initiatives collectively contribute to the goal of promoting open access to legal information and fostering legal education."
[{2023-12-03 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.LII!⇒legal-information-institute!⇒ogznLii,
* McsEngl.ogznLii!=legal-information-institute,


* African Legal Information Institute:,
* Asian Legal Information Institute:,
* Australasian Legal Information Institute:,
* British & Irish Legal Information Institute:,
* Canadian Legal Information Institute:,
* Commonwealth Legal Information Institute:,
* Hong Kong Legal Information Institute:,
* Irish Legal Information Initiative:,
* Korean Legal Information Institute:,
* Liberia Legal Information Institute:,
* Legal Information Institute:,
* LII Austria:,
* Legal Information Institute of India:,
* Malawi Legal Information Institute :, * Namibia Legal Information Institute,
* New Zealand Legal Information Institute:,
* Pacific Islands Legal Information Institute:,
* Samoa Legal Information Institute:,
* Southern African Legal Information Institute:,
* Seychelles Legal Information Institute:,
* Sierra Leone Legal Information Institute:,
* Swaziland Legal Information Institute:,
* Taiwan Legal Information Institute:,
* Ugandan Legal Information Institute:,
* World Legal Information Institute:,
* Zambia Legal Information Institute:,
* Zimbabwe Legal Information Institute:,

* McsEngl.ogznLii.specific,


"Welcome to the website of the Free Access to Law Movement (FALM), an international voluntary association which has as its members more than 60 organisations from around the world. FALM members provide and support free access to legal information, consistent with the principles of the Free Access to Law Movement and subscribe to the Declaration on Free Access to Law."
[{2023-12-03 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.FALM!=Free-Access-to-Law-Movement!⇒ogznFalm,
* McsEngl.Free-Access-to-Law-Movement!⇒ogznFalm,
* McsEngl.ogznFalm!=Free-Access-to-Law-Movement,

Declaration-on-Free-Access-to-Law of ogznFalm

1. Legal information institutes of the world, meeting in Montreal, declare that:

1.a) Public legal information from all countries and international institutions is part of the common heritage of humanity.
Maximising access to this information promotes justice and the rule of law;

1.b) Public legal information is digital common property and should be accessible to all on a non-profit basis and free of charge;

1.c) Organisations such as legal information institutes have the right to publish public legal information and the government bodies that create or control that information should provide access to it so that it can be published by other parties.

2. Public legal information means legal information produced by public bodies that have a duty to produce law and make it public.
It includes primary sources of law, such as legislation, case law and treaties, as well as various secondary (interpretative) public sources, such as reports on preparatory work and law reform, and resulting from boards of inquiry.
It also includes legal documents created as a result of public funding.

3. Publicly funded secondary (interpretative) legal materials should be accessible for free but permission to republish is not always appropriate or possible.
In particular free access to legal scholarship may be provided by legal scholarship repositories, legal information institutes or other means.

4. Legal information institutes:

4.a) Publish via the internet public legal information originating from more than one public body;

4.b) Provide free and anonymous public access to that information;

4.c) Do not impede others from obtaining public legal information from its sources and publishing it; and

4.d) Support the objectives set out in this Declaration.

5. All legal information institutes are encouraged to participate in regional or global free access to law networks.

6. Therefore, the legal information institutes agree:

6.a) To promote and support free access to public legal information throughout the world, principally via the Internet;

6.b) To recognise the primary role of local initiatives in free access publishing of their own national legal information;

6.c) To cooperate in order to achieve these goals and, in particular, to assist organisations in developing countries to achieve these goals, recognising the reciprocal advantages that all obtain from access to each other's law;

6.d) To help each other and to support, within their means, other organisations that share these goals with respect to:
  i) Promotion, to governments and other organisations, of public policy conducive to the accessibility of public legal information;
 ii) Technical assistance, advice and training;
iii) Development of open technical standards;
 iv) Academic exchange of research results.

6.e) To meet at least annually, and to invite other organisations who are legal information institutes to subscribe to this declaration and join those meetings, according to procedures to be established by the parties to this Declaration;

6.f) To provide to the end users of public legal information clear information concerning any conditions of re-use of that information, where this is feasible.

7. The parties to this Declaration also support the principles stated in the 'Guiding Principles' on State obligations concerning free access to legal information developed by an expert group convened by the Hague Conference on Private International Law in October 2008, and the 'Law.Gov principles' for 'the dissemination of primary legal materials in the United States' developed in 2010 by Public

This declaration was made by legal information institutes meeting in Montreal in 2002, as amended at meetings in Sydney (2003), Paris (2004), Montreal (2007) and Ithaca (2012).


* McsEngl.Declaration-on-Free-Access-to-Law,
* McsEngl.Modreal-Declaration-on-Free-Access-to-Law,
* McsEngl.ogznFalm'Declaration-on-Free-Access-to-Law,]

member of ogznFalm

Short nameFull nameCoverageMember Since
ALLAfrican Law LibraryAfrica2013
AfricanLIIAfrican Legal Information InstituteAfrica2012
ASEAN LIPASEAN Legal Information PortalASEAN2018
AsianLIIAsian Legal Information InstituteAsia2007
AustLII Australasian Legal Information InstituteAustralasia2002
BAILIIBritish & Irish Legal Information InstituteUK and Ireland2002
Botswana e-LawsBotswana E-lawsBotswana 2011
CALICenter for Computer-Assisted Legal InstructionUSA2012
CanLIICanadian Legal Information InstituteCanada2002
Cardiff IndexCardiff Index to Legal AbbreviationsGlobal2009
CIRSFIDCentro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca in Storia del Diritto, Filosofia e Sociologia del Diritto e Informatica GiuridicaItaly2015
CommonLIICommonwealth Legal Information InstituteGlobal2006
Droit.orgInstitut Francais d’information JuridiqueFrance2008
Free Law ProjectFree Law ProjectUSA2013
GLINGlobal Legal Information NetworkGlobal2007
HKLIIHong Kong Legal Information InstituteHong Kong SAR2002
IALS Information ProjectsInstitute of Advanced Legal Studies Information ProjectsUK2011
IDTInstitute of Law & TechnologySpain2008
IIJ-UNAMInstituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas Mexico2008
IIJusticiaIIJusticia Argentina2008
IRLIIIrish Legal Information InitiativeIreland2007
IGSGInstitute of Legal Informatics and Judicial Systems
(previously Institute of Legal Information Theory & Techniques)
JLIBJersey Legal Information BoardJersey, Channel Islands2008
JIPSJuristisches Internetprojekt SaarbrückenGermany2007
JuriBurkinaJuriBurkina Burkina Faso2005
JuriNigerJuriNiger Niger2007 Morocco2011
KenyaLawKenya Law ReportsKenya2007
KLRIKorean Legislation Research InstituteSouth Korea2009
KoreanLIIKorean Legal Information InstituteSouth Korea2015
KSLKathmandu School of LawNepal2009
LawPhilThe LawPhil ProjectPhilippines2007
Laws AfricaLaws AfricaAfrica2021
Laws of South AfricaLaws of South AfricaSouth Africa2014
LiberLIILiberia Legal Information InstituteLiberia2011
LII (Cornell)Legal Information InstituteUSA2002
LII AustriaLII AustriaAustria2016
LII of IndiaLegal Information Institute of IndiaIndia2010
LIS-FSMLegal Information System of the Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia2011
MalawiLIIMalawi Legal Information Institute Malawi2009
NaLRIINamibia Legal Resources and Information InstituteNamibia2013
NamLIINamibia Legal Information InstituteNamibia2011
NZLIINew Zealand Legal Information InstituteNew Zealand2005
NZPCONew Zealand Parliamentary Counsel OfficeNew Zealand2016
PacLIIPacific Islands Legal Information InstitutePacific Islands2002
Rutgers Law Library - NewarkThe Rutgers University School of Law - Newark Law LibraryUSA2013
SamLIISamoa Legal Information InstituteSamoa2012
SAFLIISouthern African Legal Information InstituteAfrica2002
SeyLIISeychelles Legal Information InstituteSeychelles2014
SierraLIISierra Leone Legal Information InstituteSierra Leone2012
SSRN / LSNSocial Science Research Network / Legal Scholarship NetworkGlobal2013
SwaziLIISwaziland Legal Information InstituteSwaziland2011
TaiwanLIITaiwan Legal Information InstituteTaiwan2011
TLRCThai Law Reform CommissionThailand2008
UBR|KOOPPublications Office of the NetherlandsAustria2016
ULIIUgandan Legal Information InstituteUganda2007
WorldLIIWorld Legal Information InstituteGlobal2002
ZamLIIZambia Legal Information InstituteZambia2012
ZimLIIZimbabwe Legal Information InstituteZimbabwe2014

* McsEngl.ogznFalm'member,

worker of law


* McsEngl.wrkr.036-law!⇒wrkrLaw,
* McsEngl.wrkrLaw,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.εργαζόμενος-δικαίου!=wrkrLaw,


">types of workers of law:
There are many different types of workers in the legal field, each with their own unique role and responsibilities. Here are some of the most common types of legal workers:

* **Lawyers:** Lawyers are licensed professionals who provide legal advice and representation to their clients. They may specialize in a particular area of law, such as criminal law, family law, or corporate law.
* **Paralegals:** Paralegals assist lawyers with research, drafting legal documents, and other tasks. They typically have a bachelor's degree in paralegal studies or a related field.
* **Legal secretaries:** Legal secretaries provide administrative and clerical support to lawyers and paralegals. They may manage calendars, schedule meetings, and prepare correspondence.
* **Legal assistants:** Legal assistants provide general support to lawyers and paralegals, such as answering phones, taking messages, and filing documents. They may not have any formal legal training.
* **Court reporters:** Court reporters transcribe court proceedings, creating a written record of everything that is said in court. They must be able to type quickly and accurately.
* **Law librarians:** Law librarians research and manage legal information for lawyers, judges, and other legal professionals. They may also provide legal research assistance to the public.
* **Legal educators:** Legal educators teach law at law schools and other educational institutions. They may also conduct research and publish scholarly articles.

In addition to these traditional roles, there are many other types of workers in the legal field, such as:
* **Legal investigators:** Legal investigators gather evidence and information for use in legal cases. They may interview witnesses, conduct surveillance, and analyze records.
* **Mediators:** Mediators help parties in a dispute reach a mutually agreeable resolution. They are neutral third parties who do not take sides in the dispute.
* **Arbitrators:** Arbitrators are neutral third parties who make decisions in disputes. Their decisions are usually binding on the parties involved.
* **Legal translators:** Legal translators translate legal documents from one language to another. They must have a deep understanding of both the legal system and the languages they translate.

These are just a few of the many types of workers in the legal field. The law is a complex and ever-changing field, so there is always a demand for skilled and qualified legal professionals."
[{2023-12-04 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.wrkrLaw.specific,

"A lawyer is a person who practices law. The role of a lawyer varies greatly across different legal jurisdictions. A lawyer can be classified as an advocate, government lawyer, attorney, barrister, canon lawyer, civil law notary, counsel, counselor, solicitor, legal executive, or public servant — with each role having different functions and privileges.[1] Working as a lawyer generally involves the practical application of abstract legal theories and knowledge to solve specific problems. Some lawyers also work primarily in advancing the interests of the law and legal profession.[2][3]"
[{2023-08-24 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.wrkrLawyer,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.δικηγόρος!ο!=wrkrLawyer,

">attorney vs lawyer:
The terms "attorney" and "lawyer" are often used interchangeably, and in many contexts, there is no practical distinction between them. However, there are subtle differences in their usage, and the distinctions can vary depending on the jurisdiction.

1. **Lawyer:**
- The term "lawyer" is a more general term that refers to someone who has completed legal education and is trained to practice law. A lawyer can provide legal advice, represent clients in legal matters, and engage in the practice of law in various capacities.

2. **Attorney:**
- The term "attorney" is more specific and is often used to refer to someone who is legally designated to act on behalf of another person. An attorney can be a lawyer, but not all lawyers are necessarily attorneys. For example, in the United States, the terms "attorney" and "attorney-at-law" are often used to refer to someone who is licensed to practice law and represent clients in court.

In summary, all attorneys are lawyers, but not all lawyers are referred to as attorneys. In everyday language, these terms are often used interchangeably, and the distinction may not be significant in many regions. The choice of terminology can also depend on cultural and regional preferences. In some places, one term may be more commonly used than the other.

It's important to note that regardless of the terminology used, both attorneys and lawyers are individuals who have undergone legal education, passed the necessary examinations, and are authorized to practice law. If you need legal assistance, consulting with a qualified attorney or lawyer is essential."
[{2023-12-04 retrieved}]


tech of law

"Legal technology, also known as Legal Tech,[1][2] refers to the use of technology and software to provide legal services and support the legal industry. Legal Tech companies are often startups founded with the purpose of disrupting the traditionally conservative legal market.[3]
Different approaches and technologies have been used for legal tasks. Traditional software architecture and web technologies have been used for tasks like providing access to case law.[4] Machine learning approaches have been used to help find documents for due diligence or discovery.[5]: 1329  Work on making contracts more easy to use involve aspects of user experience design.[6]"

* McsEngl.techLaw,

legal-system of law

× whole: admin-system-of-society,

"law vs legal system:
"Law" and "legal system" are related concepts in the field of jurisprudence and governance, but they refer to different aspects of the legal framework within a society.

1. Law:
- Definition: Law refers to a set of rules and regulations that are established and enforced by a governing authority (e.g., government or legislature) to regulate human behavior within a society or jurisdiction. These rules can cover a wide range of issues, including individual rights, obligations, responsibilities, and prohibitions.
- Characteristics:
- Laws can be written or unwritten (common law).
- They are designed to provide a framework for resolving disputes, maintaining order, and achieving justice.
- Laws can be divided into various categories, such as criminal law (dealing with offenses against the state), civil law (dealing with disputes between individuals or entities), and administrative law (governing government agencies).
- Sources of Law:
- Statutory law: Laws created by legislatures through the legislative process.
- Common law: Laws developed by courts through precedents and judicial decisions.
- Constitutional law: Fundamental laws that establish the framework of government.
- International law: Laws governing relations between countries.

2. Legal System:
- Definition: A legal system is the overarching framework within which laws are created, interpreted, and enforced. It includes the institutions, processes, and mechanisms through which laws are applied and justice is administered within a specific jurisdiction.
- Characteristics:
- Legal systems can vary significantly from one country or region to another, reflecting cultural, historical, and political differences.
- They typically include key components such as the judiciary, legislative bodies, executive agencies, law enforcement, and legal professionals (lawyers and judges).
- Legal systems provide procedures for the resolution of disputes, the enforcement of laws, and the protection of rights.
- Types of Legal Systems:
- Common Law: Derived from judicial decisions and precedents, with a focus on case law.
- Civil Law: Based on codified statutes and comprehensive legal codes.
- Religious Law: Derived from religious texts and principles, often found in Islamic and some other religious societies.
- Customary Law: Evolves from long-standing cultural practices and traditions.
- Mixed Legal Systems: A combination of two or more of the above.

In summary, "law" represents the rules and regulations that govern behavior, while the "legal system" encompasses the broader institutional framework for creating, interpreting, and enforcing those laws within a specific jurisdiction. Different countries and regions may have different legal systems and bodies of law, making the study of comparative law and legal systems an important field in understanding global legal diversity."
[{2023-10-09 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Soclgls!=legal-system-of-society,
* McsEngl.society'att066-legal-system!⇒Soclgls,
* McsEngl.society'legal-system!⇒Soclgls,

justice-system of Soclgls

"legal system vs justice system:
The terms "legal system" and "justice system" are related but have distinct meanings:

1. Legal System:
- The legal system refers to the set of laws, rules, regulations, and institutions that govern a society or jurisdiction. It encompasses the entire framework within which legal processes are established, interpreted, and enforced.
- The legal system includes legislative bodies that create laws, executive branches responsible for implementing and enforcing laws, and judicial branches that interpret and apply laws to resolve disputes.
- The legal system provides a structured and orderly way to address conflicts, regulate behavior, and ensure order in society. It is concerned with maintaining law and order, as well as upholding the rights and obligations of individuals and entities.

2. Justice System:
- The justice system, on the other hand, is a subset of the legal system that specifically focuses on the administration of justice. It includes the courts, judges, lawyers, and other actors involved in the process of adjudicating legal disputes and ensuring that justice is served.
- The primary goal of the justice system is to ensure fairness, equity, and accountability in the application of laws. It is responsible for resolving disputes, punishing wrongdoers, and protecting the rights of individuals.
- The justice system plays a crucial role in upholding the rule of law and ensuring that individuals have access to a fair and impartial process when their rights are at stake.

In summary, the legal system encompasses the entire framework of laws and institutions within a society, while the justice system is a component of the legal system that specifically deals with the administration of justice and the resolution of legal disputes. The justice system's ultimate aim is to ensure that justice is served and that individuals' rights are protected within the boundaries of the law."
[{2023-10-09 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Socjtcs!=justice-system-of-society,
* McsEngl.justice-system//legal-system!⇒Socjtcs,
* McsEngl.Soclgls/justice-system!⇒Socjtcs,

criminal-justice-system of law

"The criminal justice system is a series of government agencies and institutions. Goals include the rehabilitation of offenders, preventing other crimes, and moral support for victims. The primary institutions of the criminal justice system are the police, prosecution and defense lawyers, the courts and the prisons system."
[{2024-03-22 retrieved}]

">are criminal justice system and justice system same?
The terms "criminal justice system" and "justice system" are related but not identical, each encompassing different scopes and aspects of law and governance. Understanding the distinction between them is essential for a clear grasp of their roles within society.
### Criminal Justice System
The criminal justice system specifically refers to the series of government agencies and institutions that are tasked with upholding law and order, deterring and mitigating crime, and sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts. Its primary focus is on criminal law and the procedures for handling individuals who have been accused of committing crimes. The criminal justice system is typically seen as comprising three main components:
1. **Law Enforcement:** Agencies responsible for the investigation of crimes and the apprehension of suspects. This includes police forces and other law enforcement bodies.
2. **Courts:** The judiciary system where disputes are adjudicated and legal judgments are made. This involves judges, prosecutors, defense attorneys, and other legal professionals who operate within the court system.
3. **Corrections:** Institutions and measures for managing and rehabilitating individuals convicted of crimes. This includes prisons, probation, parole, and rehabilitation programs.
### Justice System
The term "justice system," on the other hand, is broader and encompasses all aspects of justice, including but not limited to criminal justice. It involves institutions and processes not only for criminal law but also for civil law, administrative law, and other areas of law that regulate the relationships between individuals, between individuals and the state, and between different institutions within the state. The justice system aims to uphold the rule of law, ensure fairness in the resolution of disputes, protect rights and liberties, and maintain social order. It includes:
- The **criminal justice system** as a subset, focused on criminal law.
- The **civil justice system**, dealing with disputes between individuals and organizations over rights and obligations.
- **Administrative justice mechanisms**, addressing grievances against government actions or decisions.
- **Other forms of justice**, such as juvenile justice systems, family courts, and mechanisms for alternative dispute resolution (e.g., mediation and arbitration).
### Key Differences
- **Scope:** The criminal justice system is a subset of the broader justice system. It is specifically concerned with criminal law and the processes related to crime and punishment. The justice system encompasses all mechanisms and institutions through which justice is administered, including criminal, civil, and administrative law.
- **Focus:** The criminal justice system focuses on issues of criminal behavior, law enforcement, legal adjudication of crimes, and corrections. The justice system includes these aspects but also covers the resolution of civil disputes, the administration of non-criminal legal matters, and the protection of rights within various legal frameworks.
In summary, while the criminal justice system is an integral part of the justice system dedicated to addressing crime and punishment, the justice system as a whole covers a wider range of legal and administrative processes for maintaining justice, order, and legal protections in society."
[{2024-03-18 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.criminal-justice-system,

crime of law

">crime definition:
A crime is an illegal act that is punishable by law. It is an act that violates the criminal law of a particular jurisdiction and is considered harmful to society.
There are two main ways to think about crime:
* **Legal definition:** A crime is any act or omission that is deemed illegal by a particular legal system. This means that what is considered a crime can vary from place to place and over time.
* **Social definition:** A crime is an act that is considered to be harmful to society. This definition is more subjective and can vary depending on the values of a particular society.
Here are some of the key elements of a crime:
* **Act or omission:** A crime can be either an act (something that is done) or an omission (something that is not done but should be done). For example, theft is an act, while failing to file a tax return is an omission.
* **Harm:** Crimes are generally considered to be harmful to society. This harm can be physical, such as assault or murder, or it can be financial, such as theft or fraud.
* **Legality:** An act is only a crime if it is prohibited by law. This means that something that is considered to be immoral or wrong may not be a crime if it is not illegal.
* **Punishment:** Crimes are punishable by law. This punishment can take a variety of forms, including imprisonment, fines, or probation."
[{2024-03-19 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Socbadbeing.crime!⇒lawCrime,
* McsEngl.lawCrime,
* McsEngl.crime!⇒lawCrime,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.έγκλημα!το!=lawCrime,


"A hate crime (also known a bias crime)[1] is crime where a perpetrator targets a victim because of their physical appearance or perceived membership of a certain social group.[2]
Examples of such groups can include, and are almost exclusively limited to race, ethnicity, disability, language, nationality, physical appearance, political views and/or affiliation, age, religion, sex, gender identity, and/or sexual orientation.[2][3][4][5] Non-criminal actions that are motivated by these reasons are often called "bias incidents".
Incidents may involve physical assault, homicide, damage to property, bullying, harassment, verbal abuse (which includes slurs) or insults, mate crime, or offensive graffiti or letters (hate mail).[6]
In the criminal law of the United States, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines a hate crime as a traditional offense like murder, arson, or vandalism with an added element of bias. Hate itself is not a hate crime but committing a crime motivated by bias against one or more of the social groups listed above, or by bias against their derivatives constitutes a hate crime.[7] A hate crime law is a law intended to deter bias-motivated violence.[8] Hate crime laws are distinct from laws against hate speech: hate crime laws enhance the penalties associated with conduct which is already criminal under other laws, while hate speech laws criminalize a category of speech. Hate speech is a factor for sentencing enhancement in the United States, distinct from laws that criminalize speech."
[{2024-04-07 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.bias-crime,
* McsEngl.hate-crime,
* McsEngl.lawCrime.hate,

penal-system of Socadmn

">criminal justice system vs penal system:
The criminal justice system and the penal system are two components of a broader structure designed to maintain social order, enforce laws, and administer justice. They are interconnected but serve different functions within the legal framework of a country. Here’s a comparison to clarify their roles:
### Criminal Justice System
- **Scope:** The criminal justice system encompasses a wider range of activities and institutions involved in the prevention, prosecution, and punishment of crimes. It includes law enforcement agencies (police), courts, and correctional facilities (prisons, jails).
- **Functions:** Its primary functions include maintaining public order, protecting individuals and property, investigating crimes, gathering evidence, arresting suspects, conducting trials, and determining guilt or innocence.
- **Process:** The process within the criminal justice system starts from the investigation of a crime by the police, followed by the legal process (prosecution and defense) in courts, and ends with the sentencing of the convicted individual.
- **Goal:** The overarching goal is to deliver justice by ensuring that the guilty are punished and the innocent are protected. It seeks to deter crime through the enforcement of laws and rehabilitation of offenders.
### Penal System
- **Scope:** The penal system is a subset of the criminal justice system, focusing specifically on the administration of punishments and the management of correctional facilities where those convicted of crimes serve their sentences.
- **Functions:** Its functions revolve around the enforcement of sentences handed down by courts, such as imprisonment, probation, or parole. It also includes the rehabilitation of offenders, ensuring their humane treatment, and preparing them for reintegration into society.
- **Process:** Once an individual is convicted and sentenced by the court, the penal system takes over, managing the duration of their sentence, whether in a correctional facility or through community-based sentences like probation.
- **Goal:** The goal of the penal system is not just to punish but also to rehabilitate offenders, aiming to reduce recidivism (the tendency of a convicted criminal to reoffend) and ensure public safety.
In summary, while the criminal justice system covers the entire process of dealing with crime from its inception to the conclusion of a legal case, the penal system specifically deals with the punishment and rehabilitation of individuals convicted of crimes. Both systems work together to enforce law and order, ensure justice, and maintain social stability."
[{2024-03-19 retrieved}]

">from which entity the penal-system is part?
The penal system, or criminal justice system, isn't directly part of a single entity. It's a complex network functioning under the umbrella of the **government**.
Here's why it's not a single entity:
* **Multi-Branched System:** The penal system involves various government branches working together. Law enforcement falls under the executive branch, courts belong to the judiciary, and corrections are often handled by a separate department within the government.
* **State and Federal Levels:** The United States, for instance, has both federal and state-level criminal justice systems. Each state has its own penal code outlining crimes and punishments, while the federal system deals with crimes that violate federal law.
So, while the government oversees the entire process, different branches and levels collaborate to enforce the penal system.

>whole entity of penal-system:
The penal system, also known as the criminal justice system, is the entire apparatus of government and related institutions that deals with the apprehension, prosecution, incarceration, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.
Here's a breakdown of the whole entity of the penal system:
* **Law enforcement:** Police officers, sheriff's deputies, and other law enforcement officials are responsible for investigating crimes, arresting suspects, and preparing cases for prosecution.
* **Courts:** Judges and juries decide guilt or innocence, and impose sentences on those who are convicted.
* **Corrections:** This includes prisons, jails, probation, and parole. Prisons house those sentenced to long terms of incarceration, while jails hold people awaiting trial or serving short sentences. Probation and parole allow offenders to serve part of their sentences in the community, under supervision.
* **Rehabilitation:** This includes programs and services designed to help offenders change their behavior and become productive members of society. These can include educational programs, job training, substance abuse treatment, and mental health counseling.
The goals of the penal system vary depending on the jurisdiction. Some common goals include:
* **Punishment:** To impose a penalty on offenders for their crimes.
* **Deterrence:** To discourage people from committing crimes in the first place.
* **Rehabilitation:** To help offenders change their behavior and become law-abiding citizens.
* **Public safety:** To protect the public from criminals.
The effectiveness of the penal system is a matter of ongoing debate. Critics argue that it is too focused on punishment and not enough on rehabilitation. They also point to the high rate of recidivism (the rate at which offenders return to prison) as evidence that the system is not working. Proponents of the penal system argue that it is necessary to protect the public from criminals and to deter crime. They also point to the fact that many offenders do not recidivate."
[{2024-03-15 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Socadmn'penal-system!⇒Socpnls,
* McsEngl.Socpnls!=penal-system-of-society,
* McsEngl.penal-system!⇒Socpnls,
* McsEngl.society'att065-penal-system!⇒Socpnls,
* McsEngl.society'penal-system!⇒Socpnls,

judicial-system (link) of Soclgls

law-enforcement-system of Soclgls

">law enforcement system:
The law enforcement system is a network of institutions and processes that work together to enforce the law, uphold public safety, and deliver justice. It's composed of three main parts:
1. Law enforcement agencies: These are the groups responsible for investigating crimes, making arrests, and keeping the peace. They include local police departments, state police agencies, and federal agencies like the FBI and DEA.
2. The courts: This is where accused criminals go on trial to determine their guilt or innocence. The court system includes judges, lawyers, and other court personnel.
3. Corrections: This is the part of the system that deals with punishing offenders who have been convicted of crimes. This can include jails, prisons, and probation or parole programs.
The goal of the law enforcement system is to create a safe and secure society where people can live their lives free from crime. The system works best when all three parts work together effectively."
[{2024-03-19 retrieved}]


evoluting of Soclgls

">evolution of legal-system:
The evolution of legal systems is a complex and multifaceted process that has unfolded over centuries, shaped by cultural, social, economic, and political factors. Different societies and civilizations have developed their own legal systems, each reflecting their unique values, traditions, and institutions. Here's a broad overview of the evolution of legal systems:

1. **Early Legal Systems:**
- **Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt:** Some of the earliest legal codes, such as the Code of Ur-Nammu (circa 2100-2050 BCE) and the more famous Code of Hammurabi (circa 1754 BCE), emerged in Mesopotamia. These early legal codes focused on issues like property, contracts, and family matters.
- **Ancient Greece and Rome:** The Greeks and Romans developed legal systems that influenced Western legal thought. The Roman Republic's Twelve Tables (450 BCE) codified laws and established principles of justice.

2. **Medieval Legal Systems:**
- **Feudal Europe:** During the medieval period, feudalism shaped legal systems in Europe. Local lords administered justice, and legal principles were often based on customary law.
- **Islamic Legal System:** The Islamic legal system, derived from Sharia law, evolved during the medieval period, with legal scholars interpreting religious texts to derive laws governing various aspects of life.

3. **Common Law and Civil Law Traditions:**
- **Common Law:** In medieval England, common law emerged, relying on judicial decisions and precedents. This system spread to the British colonies and has significantly influenced legal systems in countries like the United States, Canada, and Australia.
- **Civil Law:** In continental Europe, the Roman legal tradition persisted, leading to the development of civil law systems. These systems are based on comprehensive legal codes, with judges relying more on codified statutes than precedent.

4. **Modern Legal Systems:**
- **National Legal Codes:** Many nations developed comprehensive legal codes during the 18th and 19th centuries, reflecting the ideals of the Enlightenment. For example, Napoleon's Civil Code (1804) had a profound impact on legal systems in many countries.
- **Globalization and International Law:** In the 20th and 21st centuries, the rise of globalization has led to the development of international legal systems and organizations, such as the United Nations and the International Criminal Court, to address issues that transcend national boundaries.

5. **Emerging Trends:**
- **Technology and Law:** The 21st century has seen the integration of technology into legal systems, affecting everything from legal research to the delivery of legal services.
- **Human Rights:** There is a growing emphasis on human rights in legal systems worldwide, with international and domestic laws addressing issues like discrimination, freedom of speech, and the rights of marginalized groups.

The evolution of legal systems is an ongoing process shaped by societal changes, technological advancements, and the pursuit of justice and fairness. Different regions and cultures continue to adapt and modify their legal frameworks to meet the evolving needs of their societies."
[{2023-11-24 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.evoluting-of-legal-system,
* McsEngl.Soclgls'evoluting,

info-resource of law

"The term ‘legal source’ has two meanings:
in its original meaning, it refers to the reason for the emergence of a legal provision, i.e. the motivation behind the creation of a legal construct. According to this definition, the ‘legal source’ of Union law is the will to preserve peace and create a better Europe through closer economic ties — two cornerstones of the EU.
In legal parlance, however, ‘legal source’ refers to the origin and embodiment of the law."

">source of law:
The sources of law are the origins of the rules that govern human behavior. In different legal systems, there are various sources of law, but some of the most common include:

1. **Constitutions:** Constitutions are the supreme law of a country and establish the framework for the government, including its powers and limitations. They also enshrine fundamental rights and freedoms for citizens.

2. **Statutes:** Statutes are laws enacted by the legislative branch of government, such as Congress or a state legislature. They are typically written in general terms and apply to a broad range of situations.

3. **Regulations:** Regulations are rules created by administrative agencies, which are government bodies responsible for enforcing specific laws. They provide more detailed guidance on how statutes should be applied.

4. **Case law:** Case law is the law created by courts through their decisions in legal disputes. It is based on the principle of stare decisis, which means that courts should follow the precedents set by previous decisions.

5. **Treaties:** Treaties are agreements between two or more countries that are binding on international law. They can establish new laws or modify existing ones.

6. **Customary law:** Customary law is based on long-standing traditions and practices that are accepted as binding by a particular community. It is most commonly found in common law systems.

In addition to these primary sources of law, there are also secondary sources, which are materials that provide information about the law. These include legal encyclopedias, treatises, and law review articles.

The relative importance of different sources of law varies depending on the legal system. In common law systems, case law is a primary source of law, while in civil law systems, statutes and codes are more important.

Here is a table summarizing the different sources of law:
| Source of Law | Description | Example |
| Constitutions | The supreme law of a country | The United States Constitution |
| Statutes | Laws enacted by the legislative branch of government | The Clean Air Act |
| Regulations | Rules created by administrative agencies | The Environmental Protection Agency's regulations on air pollution |
| Case law | Law created by courts through their decisions in legal disputes | Brown v. Board of Education |
| Treaties | Agreements between two or more countries | The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) |
| Customary law | Law based on long-standing traditions and practices | The law of the sea |
| Secondary sources | Materials that provide information about the law | Legal encyclopedias, treatises, and law review articles |"
[{2023-11-25 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.source-of-law,


science of law

"Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law. Scholars of jurisprudence seek to explain the nature of law in its most general form and provide a deeper understanding of legal reasoning, legal systems, legal institutions, and the role of law in society.[1]
Modern jurisprudence began in the 18th century and was focused on the first principles of natural law, civil law, and the law of nations.[2] General jurisprudence can be divided into categories both by the type of question scholars seek to answer and by the theories of jurisprudence, or schools of thought, regarding how those questions are best answered. Contemporary philosophy of law, which deals with general jurisprudence, addresses problems internal to law and legal systems and problems of law as a social institution that relates to the larger political and social context in which it exists.[3]"

* McsEngl.jurisprudence!⇒sciLaw,
* McsEngl.philosophy-of-law!⇒sciLaw,
* McsEngl.sciLaw!=law-science,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.επιστήμη.νομική!=sciLaw,
* McsElln.νομική-επιστήμη!η!=sciLaw,

evoluting of sciLaw

"evolution of jurisprudence:
Jurisprudence, or the philosophy of law, has undergone significant evolution over the centuries, reflecting changes in societal values, political structures, and intellectual currents. Here's a broad overview of the evolution of jurisprudence:

1. **Ancient Legal Philosophies:**
- **Greek and Roman Philosophies:** Early Western legal thought was heavily influenced by Greek and Roman philosophers. Thinkers like Plato and Aristotle explored concepts of justice, law, and governance.

2. **Medieval Period:**
- **Scholasticism:** During the medieval period, Scholastic philosophers, particularly in Europe, sought to reconcile Christian theology with classical philosophy. Legal thought was often intertwined with religious principles.

3. **Natural Law and Enlightenment (17th-18th Centuries):**
- **Natural Law:** Thinkers such as Hugo Grotius and John Locke contributed to the development of natural law theories, asserting that certain moral and legal principles are inherent in human nature.
- **Enlightenment:** The Enlightenment era emphasized reason, individual rights, and skepticism of authority. Legal philosophers like Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Montesquieu explored ideas of legal positivism and the separation of powers.

4. **Legal Positivism (19th Century):**
- **Jeremy Bentham and John Austin:** Legal positivism gained prominence in the 19th century, with thinkers like Jeremy Bentham and John Austin emphasizing the importance of written law and the separation of law from morality.

5. **Historical School (19th Century):**
- Legal historians, such as Friedrich Carl von Savigny, focused on the historical development of legal systems. They argued that law should be understood within its historical and cultural context.

6. **Sociological Jurisprudence (Late 19th-20th Centuries):**
- **Emile Durkheim and Max Weber:** Sociological jurisprudence emerged, considering law as a social phenomenon. Emile Durkheim and Max Weber explored how social factors influence legal systems.

7. **Realism (Early 20th Century):**
- **Legal Realism:** Legal realism, prominent in the United States, challenged formalistic approaches and emphasized the role of judges' discretion and the impact of social and economic factors on legal decision-making.

8. **Analytical Jurisprudence (20th Century):**
- **H.L.A. Hart and the Positivist Response:** Analytical jurisprudence, exemplified by H.L.A. Hart, sought to refine legal positivism by acknowledging the importance of legal principles and rules.

9. **Contemporary Trends (Late 20th Century - Present):**
- **Critical Legal Studies:** This movement, emerging in the late 20th century, critiqued traditional legal theories and emphasized the political and economic dimensions of law.
- **Feminist Jurisprudence:** Focuses on the role of gender in the law, addressing issues of equality, discrimination, and representation.
- **Postmodern Jurisprudence:** Challenges the idea of a single, objective truth in law and highlights the role of language and power in legal interpretation.

10. **Globalization and Interdisciplinary Approaches:**
- Jurisprudence continues to evolve in response to globalization, technological advances, and interdisciplinary influences from fields like sociology, psychology, and economics.

Jurisprudence remains a dynamic and evolving field, with scholars engaging in ongoing debates about the nature and purpose of law in contemporary societies. Different schools of thought continue to coexist, and new perspectives continually contribute to the rich tapestry of legal philosophy."
[{2023-11-25 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.evoluting-of-sciLaw,
* McsEngl.sciLaw'evoluting,


"Comparative law is the study of differences and similarities between the law (legal systems) of different countries. More specifically, it involves the study of the different legal "systems" (or "families") in existence in the world, including the common law, the civil law, socialist law, Canon law, Jewish Law, Islamic law, Hindu law, and Chinese law. It includes the description and analysis of foreign legal systems, even where no explicit comparison is undertaken. The importance of comparative law has increased enormously in the present age of internationalism, economic globalization, and democratization."
[{2024-07-18 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.comparative-law,
* McsEngl.sciLaw.comparative-law,

"Legal informatics is an area within information science.
The American Library Association defines informatics as "the study of the structure and properties of information, as well as the application of technology to the organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information." Legal informatics therefore, pertains to the application of informatics within the context of the legal environment and as such involves law-related organizations (e.g., law offices, courts, and law schools) and users of information and information technologies within these organizations.[1]"
[{2023-08-24 retrieved}]



"Computational Law is the branch of legal informatics concerned with the automation of legal reasoning.[1][2] What distinguishes Computational Law systems from other instances of legal technology is their autonomy, i.e. the ability to answer legal questions without additional input from human legal experts.
While there are many possible applications of Computational Law, the primary focus of work in the field today is compliance management, i.e. the development and deployment of computer systems capable of assessing, facilitating, or enforcing compliance with rules and regulations. Some systems of this sort already exist. TurboTax is a good example. And the potential is particularly significant now due to recent technological advances – including the prevalence of the Internet in human interaction and the proliferation of embedded computer systems (such as smart phones, self-driving cars, and robots).
There are also applications that do not involve governmental laws. The regulations can just as well be the terms of contracts (e.g. delivery schedules, insurance covenants, real estate transactions, financial agreements).[3] They can be the policies of corporations (e.g. constraints on travel, expenditure reporting, pricing rules). They can even be the rules of games (embodied in computer game playing systems)."
[{2023-08-24 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.computational-law,
* McsEngl.sciLaw.computational-law,

DOING of law


* creation,
* interpretation,
* consolidation,
* modification,
* enforcement,
* ratification,
* repealing,

creation of law

"The creation of laws is a complex process that varies depending on the country and its legal system. However, the general steps involved are similar:
1. **Drafting of the Bill:** A bill, which is a draft of the proposed law, is written. This can be done by legislators, government officials, or interest groups. The bill outlines the problem the law aims to address and the specific regulations or measures it proposes.
2. **Introduction of the Bill:** The bill is introduced to the legislative body (e.g., parliament, congress) by a member of that body.
3. **Committee Review:** The bill is assigned to a relevant committee within the legislative body. The committee members study the bill, hold hearings, and may make amendments.
4. **Floor Debate:** If the committee approves the bill, it is then presented to the entire legislative body for debate. Members can propose further amendments or express their support or opposition.
5. **Voting:** The legislative body votes on the bill. In most cases, a simple majority is required for the bill to pass.
6. **Referral to the Other Chamber (if applicable):** In bicameral systems (those with two legislative chambers), the bill is then sent to the other chamber for a similar process of review, debate, and voting. If the second chamber makes changes to the bill, a conference committee may be formed to reconcile the differences.
7. **Executive Approval:** Once both chambers have approved the bill, it is sent to the head of state (e.g., president, monarch) for approval. If the head of state signs the bill, it becomes law.
8. **Publication and Implementation:** The new law is published officially, and the relevant government agencies are responsible for its implementation.
Please note that this is a simplified overview of the law creation process. In reality, there may be additional steps or variations depending on the specific jurisdiction.
For further information on how laws are made in a specific country, you can consult official government websites or legal resources."
[{2024-07-18 retrieved}]


interpretation of law

· law is info.
· every info is a-conceptual-system that models a-referent.
· info-interpreation is the-process of finding the-conceputal-model an-info represents.
· the-reason an-info could denote MANY conceptual-models is because it contains undefined-names.
· the-truth of info is an-attribute AFTER info-interpretation.

* McsEngl.interpretation-of-law,

consolidation of law

"As in most countries, the Greek legislative system publishes laws as documents often containing many references to precedent laws. Modifications to laws are published as text in legislative documents describing the applied changes. During its evolution cycle, a law may get modified several times (sometimes dozens of times), while these modifications may reside in many different scattered documents. As a result, the assembly of all relevant modifications in order to consolidate the current version of a law may prove to be a tedious work when performed manually, requiring an increased cognitive effort."

====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ενοποίηση-νομοθεσίας!=law'consolidation,

enforcement of law

"Law enforcement is the activity of some members of government who act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterring, rehabilitating, or punishing people who violate the rules and norms governing that society.[1] Although the term encompasses police, courts, and corrections, it is most frequently applied to those who directly engage in patrols or surveillance to dissuade and discover criminal activity, and those who investigate crimes and apprehend offenders,[2] a task typically carried out by the police, sheriff or another law enforcement organization."

====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.επιβολή-νόμου!η!=law'enforcement,

impact of law

"The political, economic, and ecological impacts of laws can take decades or centuries to reveal themselves."


evoluting of law

"evolution of law:
The evolution of law is a complex and multifaceted process that has spanned centuries and varies across different cultures and legal systems. The development of law can be broadly categorized into several key stages:

1. **Customary Law:** In early human societies, rules and norms were often based on customs and traditions. Disputes were resolved through informal processes within the community, and decisions were based on established practices.

2. **Codification of Laws:** As societies grew more complex, there was a need for more formalized and systematic legal systems. Many ancient civilizations, such as the Babylonians, Egyptians, and Romans, began to codify laws into written statutes. The most famous example is the Code of Hammurabi, created in Babylon around 1754 BCE.

3. **Religious Influence:** In many societies, religious texts played a significant role in shaping legal principles. For example, in ancient times, the Ten Commandments in the Judeo-Christian tradition and the Sharia law in Islamic societies influenced legal norms and practices.

4. **Feudalism and Royal Courts:** In medieval Europe, feudalism brought about a decentralized legal system with local lords administering justice. Over time, monarchs began to centralize legal authority, establishing royal courts and a more uniform legal system.

5. **Common Law and Civil Law Traditions:** The distinction between common law and civil law systems emerged. Common law, developed in England, relies on judicial precedent and the adversarial system, while civil law, derived from Roman law, is based on codified statutes and an inquisitorial system. Many legal systems around the world are influenced by one of these traditions.

6. **Enlightenment and Legal Rationalism:** The Enlightenment era (17th to 18th centuries) marked a shift towards reason, individual rights, and legal rationalism. Thinkers like John Locke and Montesquieu influenced the development of constitutionalism and the separation of powers.

7. **Human Rights and Modern Constitutionalism:** The 19th and 20th centuries saw the rise of human rights movements and the development of constitutional democracies. Documents like the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) became influential in shaping legal norms globally.

8. **Globalization and International Law:** In the contemporary era, globalization has led to increased interconnectedness between nations. International law has gained prominence, addressing issues that transcend national borders, such as human rights, environmental protection, and trade.

9. **Technological Challenges:** The 21st century poses new challenges for legal systems, especially concerning technology, cybersecurity, privacy, and intellectual property. Legal frameworks are evolving to address these emerging issues.

The evolution of law is an ongoing and dynamic process, shaped by social, political, economic, and technological changes. Legal systems continue to adapt to new challenges and reflect evolving societal values."
[{2023-11-24 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.evoluting-of-law,

=== McsHitp-creation:
· creation of current concept.

"Legal information institutes of the world, meeting in Montreal, declare that:
* Public legal information from all countries and international institutions is part of the common heritage of humanity. Maximising access to this information promotes justice and the rule of law;
* Public legal information is digital common property and should be accessible to all on a non-profit basis and free of charge;
* Organisations such as legal information institutes have the right to publish public legal information and the government bodies that create or control that information should provide access to it so that it can be published by other parties..."

The ICC officially came into force on July 1, 2002, with 60 states becoming parties to the Rome Statute. []
* McsEngl.{law'2002}-Modreal-Declaration-on-Free-Access-to-Law--ICC-creation,
* McsEngl.{2002}-Modreal-Declaration-on-Free-Access-to-Law--ICC-creation,

enshrines the fundamental rights and freedoms that are inherent to all people.
* McsEngl.{law'1948}-Universal-Declaration-of-Human-Rights,

The United Nations, founded after World War II, further expanded the scope and reach of international law. The UN Charter established the International Court of Justice and provided a framework for addressing issues related to international peace and security. []
* McsEngl.{law'1945}-United-Nations,

The League of Nations was established after World War I with the aim of preventing future conflicts and promoting cooperation among nations. The League's efforts contributed to the development of international law, including the establishment of the International Court of Justice (ICJ). []
* McsEngl.{law'1919}-League-of-Nations,

The first and second Hague Conferences in 1899 and 1907 sought to codify rules of war and establish mechanisms for peaceful resolution of disputes. The Permanent Court of Arbitration was created as a result of the conferences. []
* McsEngl.{law'1907}-Hague-Conferences,

The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 is often considered a turning point in the development of modern international law. The treaty marked the end of the Thirty Years' War and contributed to the establishment of the Westphalian system, emphasizing the principle of state sovereignty. []
* McsEngl.{law'1648}-Westphalian-system,
* McsEngl.{1648}-Westphalian-system,

Hugo Grotius, a Dutch jurist, is widely considered the father of international law. His seminal work, "De Jure Belli ac Pacis" (On the Law of War and Peace), published in 1625, laid out the foundations of natural law, which posited that international law was derived from universal moral principles. []
* McsEngl.{law'1625}-natural-law,

The development of maritime law, with the publication of Hugo Grotius' "The Freedom of the Seas" in 1609, was a significant contribution. []
* McsEngl.{law'1609}-maritime-law,

"Many ancient civilizations, such as the Babylonians, Egyptians, and Romans, began to codify laws into written statutes. The most famous example is the Code of Hammurabi, created in Babylon around 1754 BCE." []
* McsEngl.{law'Bce1754}-Code-of-Hammurabi,



* governance-system-of-society,
* ... Sympan.




* info,
* ... entity.

* European-union-law,
* International-law,
"Legal information comprises judgements and decrees, ordinances, administrative regulations, but also documented independent and dependent legal literature."
[{2023-09-11 retrieved}]


* case-law,
* codified-law,
* codifiedNo-law,
* constitution-law,
* digital-law,
* digitalNo-law,
* primary-law,
* primaryNo-law,
* provision-law,
* regulation-law,
* statute-law,
* treaty-law,



* EU-law,
* Greece-law,
* International-law,



* English-language--law,
* Greek-language--law,



* accounting and auditing,
* administrative-law,
* agriculture,
* alternative dispute resolution (ADR),
* anti-corruption,
* art law,
* aviation law,
* banking and finance,
* bankruptcy,
* business, trade and commerce law,
* capital markets,
* censorship,
* citizenship and migration,
* civil-law,
* companies,
* competition law,
* computerisation of law,
* conflict of laws,
* constitutional law,
* construction law,
* consumer credit,
* consumer protection,
* contracts,
* corporate-law,
* corruption,
* criminal-law,
* customs,
* cyberspace,
* data protection,
* deeds and other instruments,
* defamation,
* elections,
* employment law,
* entertainment, arts and sport law,
* environment,
* environmental-law,
* family-law,
* foreign investment,
* freedom of information (FOI),
* good governance,
* health and medicine,
* history of law,
* human rights,
* indigenous law,
* industrial relations and labor law,
* infrastructure,
* inheritance,
* insolvency and bankruptcy,
* insurance,
* intellectual property,
* intellectual-property-law,
* international agreements,
* international law,
* international trade,
* islamic law,
* jurisdictional issues,
* jurisprudence,
* labor law,
* labor-and-employment-law,
* land law,
* law and economics,
* law reform,
* legal history,
* legal practice,
* legal system,
* legal theory,
* litigation,
* maritime law,
* media and communications,
* medicine,
* military law,
* money laundering,
* ombudsmen,
* outer space,
* poverty reduction,
* primary industry,
* privacy,
* private international law,
* privatisation,
* procurement,
* property-law,
* public international law,
* real property,
* refugees and asylum,
* regulatory law,
* religion and the law,
* remedies,
* resources law,
* right to information,
* secured transactions,
* securities,
* social welfare and services,
* space law,
* succession,
* taxation, revenue and customs,
* telecommunications,
* terrorism,
* tort and personal injury,
* trade practices,
* travel and tourism,
* wills and probate,
* women and the law,



">accounting and auditing law:
Accounting and auditing law is a broad area of law that encompasses the legal requirements for financial reporting, as well as the regulation of the accounting and auditing professions. It is a complex and ever-changing field, with new laws and regulations being enacted regularly.

Accounting is the process of recording, classifying, summarizing, and interpreting financial transactions to provide information that is useful in making business decisions. Accounting law governs the requirements for keeping books of account, preparing financial statements, and disclosing financial information.

Auditing is an independent examination of financial statements to determine whether they are accurate and fairly presented. Auditing law governs the qualifications of auditors, the scope of audits, and the reporting of audit results.

**Accounting and Auditing Standards**
Accounting and auditing standards are the rules that govern the preparation and presentation of financial statements, as well as the conduct of audits. These standards are set by accounting and auditing standard-setting bodies, such as the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) Foundation and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB).

**Enforcement of Accounting and Auditing Law**
Accounting and auditing law is enforced by a variety of agencies, including securities regulators, accounting and auditing oversight bodies, and law enforcement agencies. These agencies investigate violations of accounting and auditing law and bring enforcement actions against individuals and entities that violate the law.

**Accounting and Auditing Law in Greece**
Accounting and auditing law in Greece is based on European Union (EU) directives and regulations. The Greek Accounting Standards Committee (Greek GAAP) is responsible for setting accounting standards in Greece. The Hellenic Institute of Certified Public Accountants (SOE) is the professional body for accountants in Greece.

**Importance of Accounting and Auditing Law**
Accounting and auditing law is important because it ensures that financial statements are accurate, reliable, and useful to investors and other stakeholders. It also helps to protect investors from fraud and other financial reporting abuses.
**Here are some of the key provisions of accounting and auditing law:**
* Requirements for keeping books of account
* Requirements for preparing financial statements
* Requirements for disclosing financial information
* Qualifications of auditors
* Scope of audits
* Reporting of audit results
* Enforcement mechanisms

Accounting and auditing law is an essential part of the financial reporting system. It helps to ensure that financial information is reliable and useful, and it protects investors from fraud and other financial reporting abuses."
[{2023-12-05 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.accounting-and-auditing-law,

law.administrative (link)


">agriculture law:
Agricultural law encompasses a wide range of legal issues related to the cultivation of land, farming practices, and the production of food and other agricultural products. The specific aspects of agricultural law can vary significantly from one jurisdiction to another, as they are influenced by local, national, and international regulations. Here are some key areas covered by agricultural law:

1. **Land Use and Zoning:** Regulations that control how land can be used, including zoning laws that designate areas for agricultural purposes.

2. **Water Rights:** Laws governing the use and distribution of water for agricultural activities, such as irrigation and livestock.

3. **Environmental Regulations:** Laws addressing environmental concerns related to agriculture, including the use of pesticides, waste disposal, and conservation practices.

4. **Contract Farming:** Agreements between farmers and agribusinesses or processors regarding the production and sale of agricultural products.

5. **Employment and Labor Laws:** Regulations governing the employment relationship in agriculture, including issues related to seasonal labor, wages, and working conditions.

6. **Crop Insurance:** Laws related to insurance coverage for crops, protecting farmers against losses due to weather, pests, or other unforeseen events.

7. **Food Safety Regulations:** Laws and regulations ensuring the safety of food products from farm to table, including standards for handling, processing, and labeling.

8. **Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs):** Regulations related to the use, labeling, and commercialization of genetically modified crops and organisms.

9. **Animal Welfare:** Laws concerning the treatment and care of animals in agriculture, particularly in livestock farming.

10. **Estate Planning and Succession:** Legal considerations for the transfer of agricultural assets and businesses from one generation to the next.

11. **Trade and Tariffs:** International regulations and agreements that impact the import and export of agricultural products.

12. **Rural Development:** Laws aimed at promoting sustainable development in rural areas, including infrastructure, housing, and community support.

It's important for farmers, agribusinesses, and agricultural professionals to be aware of and comply with the relevant agricultural laws in their region. Agricultural law is dynamic and can be influenced by changes in technology, market conditions, and public policy, so staying informed about legal developments is crucial for those involved in the agricultural sector. Additionally, consulting with legal professionals who specialize in agricultural law can provide guidance and assistance in navigating complex legal issues."
[{2023-12-06 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.agricultural-law,


">alternative dispute resolution law:
Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) law refers to the body of laws and regulations that govern the use of ADR processes. ADR law varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, but there are some general principles that apply in most jurisdictions.

**Principles of ADR law**
* **Voluntariness:** Parties must agree to participate in ADR.
* **Neutrality:** ADR processes must be conducted by a neutral third party who does not have any interest in the outcome of the dispute.
* **Confidentiality:** Communications made during ADR processes are confidential and cannot be used in court.
* **Enforceability:** The results of ADR processes can be enforced in court, except for non-binding arbitration agreements.

**Key statutes**
* **Federal Arbitration Act (FAA):** The FAA governs domestic arbitration agreements.
* **Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York Convention):** The New York Convention governs international arbitration agreements.
* **Uniform Mediation Act (UMA):** The UMA governs mediation agreements.

**Benefits of ADR law**
* **Reduces court congestion:** ADR can help to reduce court congestion by diverting cases away from the traditional court system.
* **Promotes settlement:** ADR can help to promote settlement by providing parties with a forum to negotiate and reach an agreement on their own.
* **Reduces costs:** ADR can help to reduce the costs of litigation by providing parties with a more efficient and less expensive way to resolve their disputes.
* **Preserves relationships:** ADR can help to preserve relationships between parties by providing them with a non-adversarial way to resolve their disputes.

**Challenges of ADR law**
* **Lack of uniformity:** ADR law varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, which can make it difficult for parties to know their rights and obligations.
* **Lack of enforcement:** Some ADR processes, such as mediation, are not binding, which means that the parties are not required to comply with the outcome of the process.
* **Access to justice:** ADR processes can be expensive, which can make them inaccessible to some parties.

**Future of ADR law**
As the use of ADR continues to grow, it is likely that ADR law will continue to develop. Some of the areas that are likely to see future development include:
* **Online ADR:** Online ADR is a growing trend, and it is likely that ADR law will need to be updated to address the unique challenges of online ADR.
* **International ADR:** International commerce is becoming increasingly important, and it is likely that ADR law will need to be harmonized to facilitate international ADR.
* **Access to justice:** ADR can be a valuable tool for promoting access to justice, and it is likely that ADR law will need to be developed to make ADR more accessible to all parties.

Overall, ADR law is a complex and evolving area of law. As the use of ADR continues to grow, it is important to stay up-to-date on the latest developments in ADR law.:
[{2023-12-06 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.ADA-law!=alternative-dispute-resolution--law,
* McsEngl.alternative-dispute-resolution--law,


">anticorruption law:
Anti-corruption laws are legal measures enacted by governments to combat corruption, which is the abuse of power for personal gain. These laws are designed to prevent, detect, and prosecute corrupt practices in both the public and private sectors. The specifics of anti-corruption laws can vary from one country to another, but they generally share common elements. Here are some key features often found in anti-corruption laws:

1. **Bribery Offenses:** Prohibitions against offering, giving, receiving, or soliciting bribes are a fundamental component of anti-corruption laws. Bribery can occur in various forms, such as cash payments, gifts, favors, or other benefits.

2. **Corruption of Public Officials:** Laws typically address corruption within public institutions, criminalizing the abuse of power by public officials for personal gain. This may include bribery, embezzlement, and other corrupt practices.

3. **Transparency and Accountability Measures:** Anti-corruption laws often include provisions that promote transparency and accountability in both public and private sectors. This may involve requirements for financial disclosure, conflict of interest regulations, and the establishment of independent oversight bodies.

4. **Whistleblower Protections:** Encouraging individuals to report corruption is a crucial aspect of many anti-corruption laws. Whistleblower protections are implemented to shield individuals from retaliation when they expose corrupt practices.

5. **International Cooperation:** Given the global nature of corruption, many countries collaborate on international efforts to combat corruption. Anti-corruption laws may include provisions for extradition, mutual legal assistance, and the implementation of international anti-corruption conventions.

6. **Corporate Liability:** Some jurisdictions impose liability on corporations for corrupt practices carried out by their employees or agents. This includes measures to ensure that companies implement effective anti-corruption compliance programs.

7. **Asset Recovery:** Anti-corruption laws often include provisions for the confiscation of assets obtained through corrupt practices. Asset recovery measures aim to deprive individuals involved in corruption of the proceeds of their illicit activities.

8. **Penalties and Enforcement:** Anti-corruption laws specify the penalties for violations, which may include fines, imprisonment, or both. Enforcement mechanisms involve investigative agencies, prosecutors, and the judiciary.

9. **Education and Prevention:** Some jurisdictions include provisions for education and prevention programs to raise awareness about the harmful effects of corruption and promote ethical behavior.

Examples of international initiatives in the fight against corruption include the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Anti-Bribery Convention.

It's important to note that the effectiveness of anti-corruption laws depends on their enforcement, the commitment of the relevant authorities, and broader societal factors."
[{2023-12-06 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.anti-corruption-law,

">art law:
Art law, also known as cultural property law or art and cultural heritage law, is a specialized legal field that encompasses a range of legal issues related to the creation, ownership, sale, and protection of art and cultural property. It involves a combination of various legal disciplines, including intellectual property law, contract law, tax law, and international law. Here are some key aspects of art law:

1. **Intellectual Property:**
- **Copyright:** Artistic works, including paintings, sculptures, and other visual arts, are protected by copyright law. Artists have the exclusive right to reproduce, distribute, and display their works.
- **Trademarks:** Artists and art institutions may use trademarks to protect their brands and prevent unauthorized use of their names or logos.

2. **Contracts and Transactions:**
- **Sales and Purchases:** Legal issues may arise in the buying and selling of artworks, including authenticity, provenance, and the transfer of ownership.
- **Gallery and Dealer Agreements:** Contracts between artists and galleries or dealers govern the terms of representation, sales commissions, and other aspects of the business relationship.

3. **Cultural Heritage and Repatriation:**
- **Cultural Property:** Legal issues may arise when dealing with cultural artifacts, especially when there are claims of looting, theft, or illegal export. Laws and international agreements may govern the repatriation of cultural property to its country of origin.

4. **Authentication and Appraisal:**
- **Provenance Research:** Establishing the history of ownership (provenance) of an artwork is crucial for determining authenticity and legal ownership.
- **Appraisal:** Determining the value of artworks for various purposes, including insurance, taxation, and estate planning.

5. **Nonprofit and Tax-exempt Status:**
- **Museum and Nonprofit Law:** Museums and nonprofit organizations involved in the arts are subject to specific legal considerations, including tax-exempt status and compliance with regulations.

6. **Restitution and Reproductions:**
- **Restitution Claims:** Disputes may arise over the restitution of artworks that were unlawfully taken during times of war or political upheaval.
- **Reproductions:** Issues related to the creation and sale of reproductions of artworks, including limitations on copying and the rights of the original artist.

7. **International Law:**
- **Cross-border Transactions:** Art transactions often involve parties from different countries, requiring an understanding of international law and conventions.

Art law is a dynamic field that continues to evolve as the art market and legal landscape change. It requires a deep understanding of both legal principles and the art industry. Lawyers practicing art law may work with artists, galleries, collectors, museums, and other stakeholders in the art world."
[{2023-12-06 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.cultural-heritage--law,
* McsEngl.cultural-property--law,


">aviation law:
Aviation law, also known as air law, is a specialized branch of law that governs various legal aspects related to air travel and the aviation industry. It encompasses both domestic and international regulations and covers a wide range of issues, including safety, security, environmental concerns, and the rights and liabilities of parties involved in aviation activities. Here are some key aspects of aviation law:

1. **International Air Law:**
- **Chicago Convention:** The Convention on International Civil Aviation, also known as the Chicago Convention, is a key international treaty that establishes the fundamental principles and rules governing international civil aviation. It was adopted in 1944 and serves as the foundation for many aspects of international aviation law.
- **International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO):** ICAO is a specialized agency of the United Nations that sets international standards and regulations for civil aviation. Member states work together to develop and update these standards to ensure the safety, security, and efficiency of international air travel.

2. **Aircraft Registration and Certification:**
- Each country has its own regulations regarding the registration and certification of aircraft. This includes requirements for airworthiness, maintenance, and inspections to ensure that aircraft meet safety standards.

3. **Liability and Insurance:**
- Aviation law addresses issues of liability and insurance in the event of accidents or incidents involving aircraft. This includes the liability of airlines, manufacturers, and other parties. International treaties, such as the Montreal Convention, govern the liability of air carriers in the case of injury or death of passengers.

4. **Air Traffic Management and Navigation:**
- Laws and regulations govern air traffic control, navigation, and airspace management to ensure the safe and efficient movement of aircraft. This includes rules for pilots, air traffic controllers, and other entities involved in air traffic management.

5. **Environmental Regulations:**
- Environmental concerns related to aviation, such as noise pollution and emissions, are addressed by national and international regulations. Efforts are made to minimize the environmental impact of aviation activities.

6. **Aviation Security:**
- Laws and regulations are in place to enhance the security of air travel, including measures to prevent hijacking, terrorism, and other unlawful interference with civil aviation.

7. **Consumer Protection:**
- Passengers' rights and consumer protection in air travel are also addressed in aviation law. This includes regulations related to ticketing, denied boarding, and compensation for flight delays or cancellations.

8. **Space Law:**
- With the increasing involvement of private entities in space activities, space law is becoming more relevant. It covers legal issues related to space exploration, satellite launches, and the use of outer space.

Aviation law is complex and involves the interaction of various national and international legal frameworks. It continues to evolve to address new challenges and developments in the aviation industry."
[{2023-12-06 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.aviation-law,

law.blockchain-asset (link)


"Civil law is the body of law that deals with disputes between individuals or organizations. It includes areas such as contract law, tort law, and property law."
[{2023-11-25 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.civil-law,
* McsEngl.lawCivil,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.αστικό-δίκαιο!το!=lawCivil,


"types of civil-law:
Civil law is the branch of law that deals with private relationships between individuals and organizations. It is typically contrasted with criminal law, which deals with offenses against the state. There are many different types of civil law, but some of the most common include:
* **Contract law:** Contract law deals with the formation, interpretation, and enforcement of contracts. Contracts are agreements between two or more parties that are legally enforceable. Common contract disputes include breach of contract, which occurs when one or more parties to a contract fails to perform their obligations.
* **Property law:** Property law deals with the ownership, use, and transfer of property. Property can be real property, such as land or buildings, or personal property, such as cars or furniture. Common property disputes include trespass, which occurs when someone enters another person's property without permission, and adverse possession, which occurs when someone takes possession of another person's property and claims it as their own.
* **Tort law:** Tort law deals with civil wrongs, such as personal injury, property damage, and emotional distress. Tort law is based on the principle that people should be held liable for the harm they cause to others. Common tort claims include negligence, which occurs when someone fails to exercise the care that a reasonable person would exercise in the same circumstances, and intentional torts, such as assault and battery.
* **Family law:** Family law deals with legal issues related to family relationships, such as marriage, divorce, child custody, and adoption. Family law is based on the principle that families should be protected and that children should be raised in a safe and stable environment. Common family law cases include divorce proceedings, child custody disputes, and adoption petitions.
* **Business law:** Business law deals with the legal issues that arise in the context of business operations. Business law includes areas such as corporate law, securities law, intellectual property law, and employment law. Common business law cases include breach of contract cases, shareholder disputes, and patent infringement lawsuits.

These are just a few of the many different types of civil law. Civil law is a complex and ever-evolving field of law, and there are many different specialized areas of practice."
[{2023-11-25 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.lawCivil.specific, (link)


× generic: lawPublic,

"Criminal law is the body of law that deals with crime and punishment. It defines what is considered a crime, sets out the penalties for crimes, and provides procedures for investigating and prosecuting crimes."
[{2023-11-25 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.criminal-law,
* McsEngl.lawCriminal,


"types of criminal-law:
Criminal law is the body of law that defines crimes and sets out the punishments for those crimes. It is a complex and ever-evolving field of law, and there are many different types of criminal offenses.

**Here are some of the major types of criminal law:**
* **Crimes against persons:** These are crimes that harm a person's physical or mental well-being, such as murder, assault, battery, rape, and kidnapping.
* **Property crimes:** These are crimes that harm a person's property, such as theft, robbery, burglary, and arson.
* **Inchoate crimes:** These are crimes that are committed in preparation for another crime, such as conspiracy, attempt, and solicitation.
* **Statutory crimes:** These are crimes that are created by statutes, or laws passed by legislatures. These crimes can be very diverse and can range from minor offenses to serious felonies.
* **White-collar crimes:** These are crimes that are committed by people in positions of trust, such as corporate executives, politicians, and lawyers. These crimes can involve fraud, embezzlement, insider trading, and money laundering.

**In addition to these major types of criminal law, there are many other specific types of offenses, such as:**
* **Drug offenses:** These are offenses involving the illegal manufacture, distribution, possession, or use of controlled substances.
* **Traffic offenses:** These are offenses involving the operation of motor vehicles, such as driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, speeding, and reckless driving.
* **Public order offenses:** These are offenses that disrupt the peace and order of society, such as disorderly conduct, rioting, and disturbing the peace.
* **Juvenile offenses:** These are offenses committed by minors, who are typically treated differently under the law than adults.

Criminal law is an important part of the legal system, and it plays a vital role in protecting society from harm. By defining crimes and setting out punishments, criminal law helps to deter crime and ensure that those who commit crimes are held accountable for their actions."
[{2023-11-25 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.lawCriminal.specific,

law.DaoEth (link)

law.DeAsset (link)

law.DeNet (link)

law.household (link)

"An organic law is a law, or system of laws, that form the foundation of a government, corporation or any other organization's body of rules. A constitution is a particular form of organic law."
[{2024-03-21 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.lawOrganic,


">public vs private law:
Public law and private law are two broad categories of law that govern different aspects of society.

**Public law** is concerned with the relationship between the government and its citizens, as well as the structure and powers of the government itself. It includes areas such as constitutional law, criminal law, and administrative law. Public law is typically enforced by the government, and it often involves the use of coercive power.

**Private law** is concerned with the relationships between individuals and organizations, such as contracts, torts, and property law. It is typically enforced by private parties through the courts, and it does not involve the use of coercive power.

Here is a table that summarizes the key differences between public law and private law:
| Feature | Public Law | Private Law |
| **Subject matter** | Relationship between government and citizens, structure and powers of government | Relationships between individuals and organizations |
| **Enforcement** | Government | Private parties |
| **Use of coercive power** | Yes | No |

Here are some examples of public law:
* The Constitution of the United States
* The Criminal Code of Canada
* The Administrative Procedures Act (USA)

Here are some examples of private law:
* The law of contracts
* The law of torts
* The law of property

I hope this helps!"
[{2023-12-05 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.lawPublic,
* McsEngl.public-law,


">public vs private law:
Public law and private law are two broad categories of law that govern different aspects of society.

**Public law** is concerned with the relationship between the government and its citizens, as well as the structure and powers of the government itself. It includes areas such as constitutional law, criminal law, and administrative law. Public law is typically enforced by the government, and it often involves the use of coercive power.

**Private law** is concerned with the relationships between individuals and organizations, such as contracts, torts, and property law. It is typically enforced by private parties through the courts, and it does not involve the use of coercive power.

Here is a table that summarizes the key differences between public law and private law:
| Feature | Public Law | Private Law |
| **Subject matter** | Relationship between government and citizens, structure and powers of government | Relationships between individuals and organizations |
| **Enforcement** | Government | Private parties |
| **Use of coercive power** | Yes | No |

Here are some examples of public law:
* The Constitution of the United States
* The Criminal Code of Canada
* The Administrative Procedures Act (USA)

Here are some examples of private law:
* The law of contracts
* The law of torts
* The law of property

I hope this helps!"
[{2023-12-05 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.lawPublicNo,
* McsEngl.private-law,
* McsEngl.publicNo-law,

law.satisfier (link)

">tax law:
Tax law, also known as revenue law, is a branch of public law that deals with the assessment and collection of taxes. It is a complex and ever-changing field, as governments constantly seek to balance the need for revenue with the desire to promote economic growth and fairness.

Tax law is based on the principle of legality, which means that taxes can only be imposed by law. This principle is designed to protect taxpayers from arbitrary and capricious taxation. However, there are many exceptions to this principle, and tax laws are often extremely complex.

Tax law covers a wide range of topics, including:
* **Income tax:** This is the tax that individuals and corporations pay on their income. Income tax is the largest source of revenue for most governments.
* **Property tax:** This is a tax on the ownership of property, such as real estate and vehicles.
* **Sales tax:** This is a tax on the sale of goods and services.
* **Excise tax:** This is a tax on specific goods or services, such as alcohol and tobacco.
* **Estate tax:** This is a tax on the transfer of wealth at death.
* **Gift tax:** This is a tax on the transfer of wealth during life.

Tax law is a complex and important field of law. It is essential for businesses and individuals to understand the tax laws that apply to them in order to comply with the law and avoid penalties.

Here are some of the most important principles of tax law:
* **Fairness:** Tax laws should be fair and equitable, and they should not unfairly burden any particular group of taxpayers.
* **Efficiency:** Tax laws should be designed to raise revenue in a way that is as efficient as possible, and they should not discourage economic activity.
* **Simplicity:** Tax laws should be simple and easy to understand, and they should not impose undue administrative burdens on taxpayers.

Tax law is a constantly evolving field, and it is important to stay up-to-date on the latest changes. There are a number of resources available to help taxpayers understand the law, including IRS publications, tax software, and tax attorneys."
[{2023-12-05 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.lawTax!=tax-law,
* McsEngl.taxation!⇒lawTax,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.φορολογία!η!=lawTax,
* McsElln.φόρος!ο!=lawTax,

Tax Justice Network of lawTax

">Tax Justice Network:
The Tax Justice Network (TJN) is an independent international organization founded in 2002 that focuses on research, advocacy, and campaigning to reform international tax systems to make them fairer and more sustainable. The organization's mission is to promote tax justice by:

* Exposing the impact of tax havens and illicit financial flows on developing countries.
* Advocating for reforms to international tax rules that enable multinational corporations and wealthy individuals to avoid paying their fair share of taxes.
* Promoting transparency and accountability in the financial system.

The TJN is a recognized leader in the field of tax justice and its research and advocacy have had a significant impact on international policy debates. The organization's work has helped to expose the scale and harmful impact of tax avoidance and illicit financial flows, and has contributed to the development of international initiatives to address these problems.

Here are some of the TJN's key activities:
* Publishes reports and research on a range of tax justice issues, including tax havens, corporate tax abuse, and illicit financial flows.
* Campaigns for policy reforms at the national and international level.
* Provides education and training on tax justice issues to policymakers, journalists, and the public.
* Works with a network of partner organizations around the world to promote tax justice.

The TJN is a valuable resource for anyone interested in learning more about tax justice and the impact of tax policies on developing countries. The organization's website provides access to a wealth of information on tax justice issues, including reports, research papers, news articles, and campaign materials."
[{2023-12-05 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.TJN!=Tax-Justice-Network,
* McsEngl.Tax-Justice-Network,
* McsEngl.lawTax'Tax-Justice-Network,

info-resource of lawTax

* {2023-12-04},

* McsEngl.lawTax'Infrsc,


">types of taxes:
Taxes are financial charges or levies collected by governments to fund public services, infrastructure, and government operations. They vary widely in type, application, and purpose. Here are some of the primary types of taxes:
1. **Income Tax**: Charged on individuals' and businesses' earnings. It's often progressive, meaning the tax rate increases as income increases.
2. **Corporate Tax**: Levied on the profits of corporations. The rates and rules can vary greatly between jurisdictions.
3. **Sales Tax**: Applied to the sale of goods and services. It's usually a percentage of the retail price and is collected by the seller at the point of sale.
4. **Value-Added Tax (VAT)**: A type of consumption tax placed on a product whenever value is added at each stage of the supply chain, from production to the point of sale.
5. **Property Tax**: Levied on property owners based on the value of their property. This includes real estate taxes and sometimes taxes on personal property.
6. **Capital Gains Tax**: Tax on the profit from the sale of non-inventory assets, such as stocks, bonds, or real estate, when the sale price exceeds the purchase price.
7. **Inheritance Tax (Estate Tax)**: Imposed on individuals who inherit property or money. The rate can vary depending on the value of the inheritance and the beneficiary's relationship to the deceased.
8. **Payroll Tax**: Taxes imposed on employers and/or employees, and are usually calculated as a percentage of the salaries that employers pay their staff.
9. **Excise Taxes**: Special taxes on specific goods like alcohol, tobacco, and gasoline, often included in the price of the product.
10. **Tariffs**: Taxes on imported goods, designed to raise the price of imports to protect domestic industries from foreign competition.
11. **Wealth Tax**: A tax based on the market value of assets owned. It's a form of direct tax levied on the total value of personal assets.
12. **Financial Transaction Tax**: Imposed on certain transactions made on financial institutions, like the trade of stocks, bonds, and other financial instruments.
Each type of tax has its own set of rules, rates, and structures, depending on the country or locality in which it is levied. Governments use these taxes to fund various services and projects, from healthcare and education to infrastructure and defense."
[{2024-03-10 retrieved}]

">types of taxes:
There are many different types of taxes, but they can be generally grouped into three main categories:
* **Taxes on income:** These taxes are levied on the money you earn from your job, investments, or other sources. Common examples of income taxes include:
* Individual income tax: This is a tax that is paid on your annual income.
* Corporate income tax: This is a tax that is paid on the profits of corporations.
* Payroll taxes: These are taxes that are withheld from your paycheck to pay for Social Security and Medicare.
* **Taxes on property:** These taxes are levied on the value of real estate or other property that you own. The most common example of a property tax is:
* Property tax: This is a tax that is levied on the assessed value of your home, land, or other real estate.
* **Taxes on goods and services:** These taxes are levied on the sale of goods and services. Common examples of taxes on goods and services include:
* Sales tax: This is a tax that is added to the price of goods and services that you purchase.
* Excise tax: This is a tax that is levied on specific goods, such as gasoline, cigarettes, and alcohol.
* Value-added tax (VAT): This is a tax that is levied on the value added to a product or service at each stage of production and distribution. A VAT is not common in the United States, but it is used in many other countries.
In addition to these three main categories, there are also a number of other taxes, such as:
* Estate tax: This is a tax that is levied on the transfer of wealth from a deceased person to their heirs.
* Gift tax: This is a tax that is levied on the transfer of property from one person to another during their lifetime.
* Tariffs: These are taxes that are levied on imported goods."
[{2024-03-10 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.lawTax.specific,


"Taxes provide the most important revenue source for the Government of the People's Republic of China. Tax is a key component of macro-economic policy, and greatly affects China's economic and social development. With the changes made since the 1994 tax reform, China has sought to set up a streamlined tax system geared to a socialist market economy."
[{2024-03-10 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.lawChnaTax!=tax-law-in-PRC,
* McsEngl.lawTax.China!⇒lawChnaTax,


"Under the current tax system in China, there are 26 types of taxes, which, according to their nature and function, can be divided into the following 8 categories:
* Turnover taxes. This includes three kinds of taxes, namely, Value-Added Tax, Consumption Tax and Business Tax. The levy of these taxes are normally based on the volume of turnover or sales of the taxpayers in the manufacturing, circulation or service sectors.
* Income taxes. This includes Enterprise Income Tax (effective prior to 2008, applicable to such domestic enterprises as state-owned enterprises, collectively owned enterprises, private enterprises, joint operation enterprises and joint equity enterprises) and Individual Income Tax. These taxes are levied on the basis of the profits gained by producers or dealers, or the income earned by individuals. Please note that the new Enterprise Income Tax Law of the People's Republic of China has replaced the above two enterprise taxes as of 1 January 2008. The enterprise income tax shall be levied at the rate of 25%. 15% tax rate is a concession rate for high-tech companies.[11]
* Resource taxes. This consists of Resource Tax and Urban and Township Land Use Tax. These taxes are applicable to the exploiters engaged in natural resource exploitation or to the users of urban and township land. These taxes reflect the chargeable use of state-owned natural resources, and aim to adjust the different profits derived by taxpayers who have access to different availability of natural resources.
* Taxes for special purposes. These taxes are City Maintenance and Construction Tax, Farmland Occupation Tax, Fixed Asset Investment Orientation Regulation Tax, Land Appreciation Tax, and Vehicle Acquisition Tax. These taxes are levied on specific items for special regulative purposes.
* Property taxes. This encompasses House Property Tax, Urban Real Estate Tax, and Inheritance Tax (not yet levied). China is preparing to roll out a new property tax. Two of China’s largest cities, Chongqing and Shanghai have trialed property taxes between 0.4% and 1.2% since 2011, mainly targeting second homes, luxury properties, and purchases by non-residents. The new tax is expected to cover a much wider range of properties.[12]
* Behavioural taxes. This includes Vehicle and Vessel Usage Tax, Vehicle and Vessel Usage License Plate Tax, Stamp Tax, Deed Tax, Securities Exchange Tax (not yet levied), Slaughter Tax and Banquet Tax. These taxes are levied on specified behaviour.
* Agricultural taxes. Taxes belonging to this category are Agriculture Tax (including Agricultural Specialty Tax) and Animal Husbandry Tax which are levied on the enterprises, units and/or individuals receiving income from agriculture and animal husbandry activities.
* Customs duties. Customs duties are imposed on the goods and articles imported into and exported out of the territory of the People's Republic of China, including Excise Tax."
[{2024-03-10 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.lawChnaTax.specific,

law.techInfo (link)


">substantive laws vs procedural laws:
Substantive laws and procedural laws are two fundamental types of laws that serve different purposes within a legal system:

**Substantive Laws**
* **Definition:** Substantive laws define the rights and obligations of individuals and organizations. They outline what actions are permissible and what actions are prohibited. These laws essentially define the "substance" of legal rights and duties.
* **Examples:**
* Criminal law: Defines what constitutes a crime and the associated penalties.
* Contract law: Governs the formation and enforcement of agreements between parties.
* Tort law: Deals with civil wrongs, such as negligence or defamation, and the remedies available to victims.
* Property law: Defines the rights and obligations associated with ownership and use of property.

**Procedural Laws**
* **Definition:** Procedural laws dictate the methods and procedures used to enforce substantive laws. They outline how legal cases should be initiated, conducted, and resolved within the court system. These laws provide the "process" for administering justice.
* **Examples:**
* Rules of evidence: Govern what types of evidence can be admitted in court and how it should be presented.
* Rules of civil procedure: Outline the steps involved in filing a lawsuit, conducting discovery, and going to trial.
* Rules of criminal procedure: Govern the process of arresting, charging, and prosecuting individuals accused of crimes.
* Rules of appellate procedure: Dictate how appeals are filed and heard in higher courts.

**Key Differences**
| Feature | Substantive Law | Procedural Law |
| **Focus** | Defines rights and duties | Governs the enforcement of rights and duties |
| **Purpose** | Establishes the "substance" of the law | Establishes the "process" of the law |
| **Examples** | Criminal law, contract law, tort law, property law | Rules of evidence, rules of civil procedure, rules of criminal procedure |

A simple analogy to understand the difference is to think of a sport. The rules of the game, such as the scoring system or the number of players on a team, are like substantive laws. They define the goals and objectives of the game. The procedures for conducting the game, such as the methods for resolving disputes or enforcing penalties, are like procedural laws. They ensure that the game is played fairly and according to the established rules.
Please let me know if you have any other questions."
[{2024-07-18 retrieved}]



* civil procedure law,
* criminal procedure law,
* administrative procedure law,

* McsEngl.procedural-law,


* administrative law,
* criminal law,
* civil law,
* business law,
* economic law,

* McsEngl.substantive-law,


"The legal systems of the world today are generally based on one of three basic systems:
* civil law,
* common law, and
* religious law – or combinations of these.
However, the legal system of each country is shaped by its unique history and so incorporates individual variations."



· a-prerequisite of Autosoc.

· law readable by machines and humans in conceptual-systems form.

* McsEngl.Autoadmn'law!⇒Autolaw,
* McsEngl.Autolaw!=autonomous-law,
* McsEngl.Autosoc'att010-law!⇒Autolaw,
* McsEngl.Autosoc'law!⇒Autolaw,
* McsEngl.autonomous-law!⇒Autolaw,


"Primary sources of law are the formal and authoritative expressions of the law that are binding and enforceable. They are the original documents from which the law is derived and interpreted. Primary sources of law are typically created by government entities, such as legislatures, courts, and administrative agencies.

**Examples of primary sources of law include:**
* **Constitutions:** The fundamental law of a country that establishes the framework for the government and enshrines fundamental rights and freedoms.
* **Statutes:** Laws enacted by the legislative branch of government, such as Congress or a state legislature.
* **Regulations:** Rules created by administrative agencies to implement and enforce statutes.
* **Court decisions:** Decisions by courts that interpret and apply the law to specific cases. These decisions become precedents that guide future cases.
* **Treaties:** International agreements between two or more countries that are binding on international law.

Primary sources of law are distinguished from secondary sources of law, which are materials that provide information and commentary about the law. Secondary sources do not create law themselves, but they can be helpful in understanding and applying primary sources.

Here is a table summarizing the key differences between primary and secondary sources of law:
| Feature | Primary Sources | Secondary Sources |
| Creation | Created by government entities | Created by legal scholars and practitioners |
| Authority | Binding and enforceable | Not binding or enforceable |
| Purpose | Provide the actual law | Explain, interpret, and analyze the law |
| Examples | Constitutions, statutes, regulations, court decisions, treaties | Legal encyclopedias, treatises, law review articles |

Understanding the distinction between primary and secondary sources of law is essential for legal research and analysis. Primary sources are the foundation of the legal system, and they must be consulted to determine the applicable law in a given situation. Secondary sources can be helpful in understanding the context and meaning of primary sources, but they should not be relied upon as the definitive statement of the law."
[{2023-11-25 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.lawPrimary,
* McsEngl.primary-source-of-law!⇒lawPrimary,


"In addition to these primary sources of law, there are also secondary sources, which are materials that provide information about the law. These include legal encyclopedias, treatises, and law review articles."
[{2023-11-25 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.lawSecondary,
* McsEngl.secondary-source-of-law!⇒lawPrimary,


· codified-law is written law.

* McsEngl.codified-law!⇒lawCodified,
* McsEngl.lawCodified,
* McsEngl.non-custom-law!⇒lawCodified,
* McsEngl.written-law!⇒lawCodified,


· custom-law is non-written law.

* McsEngl.codifiedNo-law!⇒lawCustom,
* McsEngl.custom-law!⇒lawCustom,
* McsEngl.lawCustom,
* McsEngl.non-codified-law!⇒lawCustom,
* McsEngl.non-written-law!⇒lawCustom,

· law in digital format.


info-resource of lawDigital


* McsEngl.lawDigital'Infrsc,

lawDigital.Hitp (link)


· law stored, accessed or reasoning by computers.

* McsEngl.computational-law!⇒lawCmr,
* McsEngl.lawCmr,
* McsEngl.lawCmr!=computational-law,

"Computational law is a branch of legal informatics concerned with the mechanization of legal reasoning (whether done by humans or by computers).[1] It emphasizes explicit behavioural constraints and eschews implicit rules of conduct. Importantly, there is a commitment to a level of rigor in specifying laws that is sufficient to support entirely mechanical processing.
Philosophically, computational law sits within the Legal Formalist school of jurisprudence. Given its emphasis on rigorously specified laws, computational law is most applicable in civil law settings, where laws are taken more or less literally. It is less applicable to legal systems based on common law, which provides more scope for unspecified normative considerations. However, even in common law systems, computational law still has relevance in the case of categorical statutes and in settings where the handling of cases has resulted in de facto rules.
From a pragmatic perspective, computational law is important as the basis for computer systems capable of doing useful legal calculations, such as compliance checking, legal planning, regulatory analysis, and so forth. Some systems of this sort already exist.[2] TurboTax is a good example. And the potential is particularly significant now due to recent technological advances – including the prevalence of the Internet in human interaction and the proliferation of embedded computer systems (such as smart phones, self-driving cars, and robots)."


· non digital law.



· ANY construct on a-topic.

====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.νομική-διάταξη!=legal-provision,


· "A constitution is the aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.[1]
When these principles are written down into a single document or set of legal documents, those documents may be said to embody a written constitution; if they are encompassed in a single comprehensive document, it is said to embody a codified constitution. The Constitution of the United Kingdom is a notable example of an uncodified constitution; it is instead written in numerous fundamental Acts of a legislature, court cases, or treaties.[2]
Constitutions concern different levels of organizations, from sovereign countries to companies and unincorporated associations. A treaty that establishes an international organization is also its constitution, in that it would define how that organization is constituted. Within states, a constitution defines the principles upon which the state is based, the procedure in which laws are made and by whom. Some constitutions, especially codified constitutions, also act as limiters of state power, by establishing lines which a state's rulers cannot cross, such as fundamental rights.
The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution of any country in the world,[3] with 146,385 words[4] in its English-language version,[5] while the Constitution of Monaco is the shortest written constitution with 3,814 words.[6][4] The Constitution of San Marino might be the world's oldest active written constitution, since some of its core documents have been in operation since 1600, while the Constitution of the United States is the oldest active codified constitution. The historical life expectancy of a constitution since 1789 is approximately 19 years.[7]"
[{2023-08-06 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.constitution!⇒lawCnstn,
* McsEngl.lawCnstn,
* McsEngl.lawConstitution!⇒lawCnstn,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.σύνταγμα!το!=lawCnstn,

word of lawCnstn

· Length of constitution (# of words):
* India → 146,385,
* Nigeria → 66,263,
* Brazil → 64,488,
* Mexico → 57,087,
* Pakistan → 56,240,
* Zimbabwe → 55,883,
* Uganda → 49,448,
* Kenya → 48,818,
* Colombia → 46,902,
* Guyana → 46,221,
* South Africa → 43,062,
* Sri Lanka → 40,085,
* Singapore → 40,076,
* Jamaica → 38,048,
* Venezuela → 37,344,
* Turkey → 29,727,
* Bangladesh → 27,643,
* Germany → 27,379,
* Egypt → 22,626,
* Philippines → 21,954,
* Spain → 17,608,
* Australia → 17,318,
* Iran → 16,179,
* Ethiopia → 13,630,
* Russia → 12,908,
* Argentina → 12,514,
* Italy → 11,708,
* United Arab Emirates → 11,557,
* Vietnam → 11,344,
* China → 10,960,
* France → 10,180,
* South Korea → 9,059,
* United States → 7,762,
* Saudi Arabia → 6,335,
* Japan → 4,998,
[{2023-08-06 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.lawCnstn'word,


· China-constitution,
· Greece-constitution,
· Greece-constitution-2019,
· Greece-constitution-2008,
· Greece-constitution-1986,
· Usa-constitution-1992,
· Usa-constitution-1787,

* McsEngl.lawCnstn.specific,


"Statutes are laws enacted by the legislative branch of government, such as Congress or a state legislature. They are typically written in general terms and apply to a broad range of situations."
[{2023-11-25 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.lawStatute,
* McsEngl.statute!⇒lawStatute,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.fǎlǜ-法律!=lawStature,
* McsZhon.法律-fǎlǜ!=lawStature,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.νομοθεσία!η!=lawStatute,
* McsElln.νόμος!ο!=lawStatute,


"Regulations are rules created by administrative agencies, which are government bodies responsible for enforcing specific laws. They provide more detailed guidance on how statutes should be applied."
[{2023-11-25 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.lawRegulation,
* McsEngl.regulation!⇒lawRegulation,

"Case law is the law created by courts through their decisions in legal disputes. It is based on the principle of stare decisis, which means that courts should follow the precedents set by previous decisions."
[{2023-11-25 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.lawCase,
* McsEngl.treaty!⇒lawCase,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.νομολογία!η!=lawCase,


" Treaties are agreements between two or more countries that are binding on international law. They can establish new laws or modify existing ones."
[{2023-11-25 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.lawTreaty,
* McsEngl.treaty!⇒lawTreaty,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.συνθήκη!η!=lawTreaty,

law.soc.Internatinal (link)

law.soc.European-Union (link)

law.soc.Greece (link)

law.soc.USA (link)


· law in Greek-language.

* Hitp--Greece's-lawGrk,

* McsEngl.lawGrk!=law-in-Greek-language,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.δίκαιο.Ελληνική-γλώσσα,


* Hitp-lawGrk,

* McsEngl.lawGrk.specific,


this webpage was-visited times since {2020-07-06}

page-wholepath: / worldviewSngo / dirStn / law

· this page uses 'locator-names', names that when you find them, you find the-LOCATION of the-concept they denote.
· clicking on the-green-BAR of a-page you have access to the-global--locator-names of my-site.
· use the-prefix 'law' for sensorial-concepts related to current concept 'law'.
· TYPE CTRL+F "McsLag4.words-of-concept's-name", to go to the-LOCATION of the-concept.
· a-preview of the-description of a-global-name makes reading fast.

• author: Kaseluris.Nikos.1959
• email:
• edit on github:,
• comments on Disqus,
• twitter: @synagonism,

• version.last.dynamic: McsStnlaw000002.last.html,
• version.1-0-0.2021-04-15: (0-13) ../../dirMiwMcs/dirStnLaw/filMcsLaw.1-0-0.2021-04-15.html,
• filMcsLaw.0-1-0.2020-07-06.last.html: draft creation,

support (link)