autonomous-trust--crypto-economics--chain-net senso-concept-Mcs

McsHitp-creation:: {2017-07-02},

overview of Autonet

· chain-network (decentralized-trust--chain-network) is a-peer-to-peer-network that stores in a-distributed-ledger the-history (chain) of the UNCHANGEABLE, TRANSPARENT, CRYPTO transactions-of-information among its nodes, using exchange-value to append the-ledger with a-consensus-algorithm without trust of a central authority.
· Đ-network (pronounced D-stroke-network) (decentralized-crypto-chain--network) is a-peer-to-peer-network that stores in a-shared-consensus-datastructure the-history (Đ-chain) of the UNCHANGEABLE, TRANSPARENT, CRYPTO transactions-of-information among its nodes.
Decentralized-transaction-chain--network (Đ-net) is a-peer-to-peer-network that stores in a-shared-consensus-file (Dtc-file) the-history (chain) of the UNMODIFIABLE, TRANSPARENT, CRYPTO transactions-of-information among its nodes.
Crypto-Decentralized-Ledger--network (DLgr-net) is a-peer-to-peer-network that stores in a-shared-consensus-file (Dledger) the-history (register) of the UNMODIFIABLE, TRANSPARENT, CRYPTO transactions-of-information among its nodes.
Dledger-network (DLgr-net) is a-peer-to-peer-network that stores in a-shared-file (Dledger) the-history of the UNMODIFIABLE, TRANSPARENT transactions-of-information among its nodes.

* McsEngl.McsTchInf000015.last.html//dirTchInf//dirMcs!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.dirMcs/dirTchInf/McsTchInf000015.last.html!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.Atc-net!⇒Autonet, {2018-11-05},
* McsEngl.Autonet!=McsTchInf000015,
* McsEngl.Autonet!=autonomous-net, {2024-03-10}
* McsEngl.D-stroke-chain-network!⇒Autonet, {2017-12-09},
* McsEngl.D-stroke-net!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.D-stroke-network!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.D-stroke-technology!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.DLT-network!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.Dcc-net!⇒Autonet, (NameMachine),
* McsEngl.Dcc-net-(decentralized-crypto-chain--network)!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.Dchain-net!⇒Autonet, {2019-04-02},
* McsEngl.Dchainnet!⇒Autonet, {2020-05-05},
* McsEngl.Dcn!⇒Autonet, {2020-05-02},
* McsEngl.Dcnet!⇒Autonet, {2020-05-02},
* McsEngl.Dctc-net!⇒Autonet, {2018-01-27},
* McsEngl.DeNet/di-net/!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.Dctc-network!⇒Autonet, {2018-01-18},
* McsEngl.DeNet!=autonomous-trust--net, {2021-11-24}, {2019-06-17},
* McsEngl.DnetChain!⇒Autonet, {2020-05-07},
* McsEngl.Dtc-net-(decentralized-transactionchain--network)!⇒Autonet, {2017-10-15},
* McsEngl.Dtcc-net!⇒Autonet, {2018-05-22},
* McsEngl.Dtcec-net!⇒Autonet, {2018-05-26},
* McsEngl.algorithmic-trust--chain-net!⇒Autonet, {2019-02-24},
* McsEngl.automated-trust--chain-net!⇒Autonet, {2018-10-12},
* McsEngl.automated-decentralized-trust-crypto-economics-chain--network!⇒Autonet, {2019-02-17},
* McsEngl.autonomous-net!⇒Autonet, {2024-01-14},
* McsEngl.autonomous-trust--net!⇒Autonet, {2023-12-30},
* McsEngl.chain-net!⇒Autonet, {2018-01-23},
* McsEngl.chain-network!⇒Autonet, {2017-12-10},
* McsEngl.chain-technology!⇒Autonet, {2018-01-20},
* McsEngl.chn-net!⇒Autonet, {2018-01-26},
* McsEngl.crypto-chain--network!⇒Autonet, {2018-05-22},
* McsEngl.crypto-decentralized-transactionchain--network!⇒Autonet, {2017-10-02},
* McsEngl.da-chain--net!⇒Autonet, {2019-06-01},
* McsEngl.decentralized-autonomous--chain-net!⇒Autonet, {2019-05-04},
* McsEngl.decentralized-chain--technology!⇒Autonet, {2017-12-09},
* McsEngl.decentralized-crypto--transaction-chain--network!⇒Autonet, {2018-01-23},
* McsEngl.decentralized-crypto-chain--network!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.decentralized-crypto-chain--technology!⇒Autonet, {2018-01-14},
* McsEngl.decentralized-crypto-transactionchain--network!⇒Autonet, {2017-12-09},
* McsEngl.decentralized-transaction-chain--network!⇒Autonet, {2017-09-26},
* McsEngl.decentralized-transactionchain--network!⇒Autonet, {2017-09-26},
* McsEngl.decentralized-trust-and-chain--network!⇒Autonet, {2018-05-10},
* McsEngl.decentralized-trust-and-crypto-chain--network!⇒Autonet, {2018-05-22},
* McsEngl.decentralized-trust-chain--network!⇒Autonet, {2018-04-17},
* McsEngl.decentralized-trust-crypto-economics-chain--network!⇒Autonet, {2018-05-26},
* McsEngl.decentralized-trust-technology!⇒Autonet, {2018-04-20},
* McsEngl.distributed-transaction-chain--network!⇒Autonet, {2017-09-26},
* McsEngl.transaction-chain-network!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.transaction-chain--network!⇒Autonet, {2017-09-30},
* McsEngl.tx-chain-net!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.tx-chain-network!⇒Autonet, {2017-09-30},
* McsEngl.value-chain--net!⇒Autonet, {2019-03-20},
* McsEngl.Đ-chain-network!⇒Autonet, {2017-12-18},
* McsEngl.Đ-net!⇒Autonet, {2017-12-22},
* McsEngl.Đ-net-(decentralized-crypto-chain--network)!⇒Autonet, {2018-01-14},
* McsEngl.Đ-network!⇒Autonet, {2018-01-14},
* McsEngl.Đ-tech!⇒Autonet, {2018-01-03},
=== literature:
* McsEngl.cryptonetwork!⇒Autonet, {2018-02-19},
=== OLD:
* McsEngl.Dtransaction-chain--network!⇒Autonet, {2017-09-27},
* McsEngl.Dctc-net-(Distributed-transaction-chain--network)!⇒Autonet, {2017-09-26},
* McsEngl.Dtchain-net-(Distributed-Transaction-chain--network)!⇒Autonet, {2017-09-26},
* McsEngl.Dtxchain-network!⇒Autonet, {2017-09-30},
* McsEngl.CDledger-network!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.CDledger-system!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.CDLgr-net-(Crypto-Decentralized-Ledger--Network)!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.CDRegister-Network!⇒Autonet, {2017-09-02},
* McsEngl.CDRgr-net!⇒Autonet, {2017-09-02},
* McsEngl.CDRN-(Crypto-Decentralized-Register--network)!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.crypto-Distributed-Register--Network!⇒Autonet, {2017-09-02},
* McsEngl.crypto-Decentralized-Ledger--network!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.crypto-Decentralized-Ledger--system!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.crypto-Distributed-Ledger--network!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.crypto-Distributed-Ledger--system!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.decentralized-ledger--network!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.decentralized-ledger--system!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.decentralized-only-appendable-register--network!⇒Autonet, {2017-09-19},
* McsEngl.distributed-ledger--network!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.distributed-ledger--system!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.Distributed-Ledger--Technology-(DLT)!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.Dledger-network!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.Dledger-system!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.DLgr-net-(Decentralized-Ledger-network)!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.DLT!=Decentralized-Ledger-Technology!⇒Autonet,
* McsEngl.DLT!=Distributed-Ledger-Technology!⇒Autonet,
* Dnet!⇒Autonet, {2020-04-27},
* Dc-Net, (NameMachine)
* DCChain-network, {2017-12-09},
* decentralized-consensus-based-transaction-system,
* decentralized-consensus-network,
* DOARN-(Decentralized-only-appendable-register--network-(Đ-net)), {2017-09-19},
* DRegister-network-(Đ-net),
* DRgr-net-(Đ-net),
* DRgr-network-(Đ-net),
* DRN-(Distributed-Registry--Network), {2017-09-03},
* Txc-net-(transactionchain-network), {2017-09-30},
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ΑΑΔ, {2017-12-17},
* McsElln.ΑΑΔ-(αποκεντρωτικής-αλυσίδας--δίκτυο), {2017-12-17},
* McsElln.αλυσίδας-και-αποκεντρωτικής-εμπιστοσύνης--δίκτυο, {2018-05-06},
* McsElln.αποκεντρωτικής-αλυσίδας--δίκτυο-(ΑΑΔ), {2017-12-17},
* McsElln.αποκεντρωτικής-εμπιστοσύνης-και-αλυσίδας--δίκτυο, {2018-05-06},
* McsElln.αποκεντρωτικό-δίκτυο-αλυσίδας, {2021-06-19},
* McsElln.αυτόνομο-δίκτυο!=Autonet, {2024-01-14},
* McsElln.δίκτυο-αποκεντρωμένου-καθολικού-(ΔΑΚ)!=Autonet,
* McsElln.δίκτυο-αποκεντρωτικής-αλυσίδας-(ΑΑΔ), {2017-12-17},
* McsElln.δίκτυο-αλυσίδας, {2018-12-20},
* McsElln.δίκτυο-αλυσίδας-και-αποκεντρωτικής-εμπιστοσύνης, {2018-05-06},
* McsElln.δίκτυο-αποκεντρωτικής-εμπιστοσύνης-και-αλυσίδας, {2018-05-06},
* McsElln.δίκτυο-αποκεντρωτικού-καθολικού-(ΔΑΚ), {2017-07-05},
* McsElln.δίκτυο-κατανεμημένης-αλυσίδας-συναλλαγών-(ΔΚΑΣ), {2017-09-26},
* McsElln.δίκτυο-κατανεμημένου-καθολικού-(ΔΚΚ)!=Autonet,
* McsElln.δίκτυο-κρυπτογραφημένου-κατανεμημένου-καθολικού-(ΔΚΚΚ), {2017-09-03},
* McsElln.δίκτυο-κατανεμημένου-μητρώου-(ΔΚΚΜ),
* McsElln.δίκτυο-κρύπτο-κατανεμημένου-μητρώου-(ΔΚΚΜ), {2017-09-03},
* McsElln.ντιλέντζερ-δίκτυο-(ΝΛΔ),
* McsElln.ντιτσέιν-δίκτυο-(ΑΑΔ), {2017-12-17},
* McsElln.τεχνολογία-αποκεντρωμένου-μητρώου!=Autonet,
====== langoTurkish:
* McsTurk.merkezi-olmayan-defter-teknolojisi!=Autonet,

01_stakeholder of Autonet

· stakeholder is any human-entity (human, human-group, human-organization) or Dchain-account RELATED to a-Autonet.
· stakeholder is any human or human-organization RELATED to a-chain-net.

* McsEngl.Autonet'01_stakeholder!⇒Dstakeholder,
* McsEngl.Autonet'stakeholder!⇒Dstakeholder,
* McsEngl.Autonet-stakeholder!⇒Dstakeholder,
* McsEngl.Dstakeholder,

* Dhuman,
* Autonet-organization,
* Dnode-operator,


· authority is a-stakeholder that governs the-Dchain-net.
· the more stakeholders involved the more decentralized the-system is.

* McsEngl.authority-of--Autonet-govc,
* McsEngl.Autonet'authority,
* McsEngl.Dstakeholder.authority,



· internal-stakeholder is a-stakeholder with direct (= defined by the-stakeholders) relations to a-chain-net.

* McsEngl.Dstakeholder.externalNo,
* McsEngl.Dstakeholder.internal,
* McsEngl.Dstakeholder.member,


· external-stakeholder is a-stakeholder with indirect (= defined by the-stakeholders) relations to a-chain-net.

* McsEngl.Dstakeholder.external,
* McsEngl.Dstakeholder.internalNo,
* McsEngl.Dstakeholder.memberNo,

Dstakeholder.Foundation-ogn (link)


· Autonet--human-entity is a-human, a-human-group, or a-human-organization stakeholder.

* McsEngl.Autonet'human-entity,
* McsEngl.Dstakeholder.human-entity,
* McsEngl.human-entity--of-Autonet,


* McsEngl.Dchain-human!⇒Dhuman, {2019-04-13},
* McsEngl.Dhuman, {2019-06-21},
* McsEngl.Autonet'human!⇒Dhuman,
* McsEngl.Autonet'participant!⇒Dhuman,
* McsEngl.D-stroke-human!⇒Dhuman,
* McsEngl.Dcc-human!⇒Dhuman,
* McsEngl.Dctc-human!⇒Dhuman,
* McsEngl.human-of-Dnchain!⇒Dhuman,
* McsEngl.transaction-chain-human!⇒Dhuman,
* McsEngl.Đ-human!⇒Dhuman,
* McsEngl.Dcc-hmn!⇒Dhuman,
* McsEngl.Dcc-hmn-(decentralized-crypto-chain--human)!⇒Dhuman,
* McsEngl.Dctc-hmn!⇒Dhuman,
* McsEngl.Đ-hmn!⇒Dhuman,

power of Dchain-human

· power-of--Dchain-human is his right to make governing-decisions.

* McsEngl.Dhuman'power,
* McsEngl.power-of--Dchain-human,

GENERIC of Dchain-human

* stakeholder-of--chain-net,


* blockchain-human,
* Dagchain-human,
* developer,
* appender,
* user,
* founder,
* sponsor,
* promoter,
* Buterin.Vitalic (Ethereum),
* Hoskinson.Charles (Cardano),
* Larimer.Danier (Eos, Steem, BitShares),
* Nakamoto.Satoshi (Bitcoin),


· Đ-developer is a-human that develops any of the-Đ-programs needed to exists and functions a-Đ-network.

* McsEngl.chain-developer,
* McsEngl.Dhuman.developer!⇒Ddeveloper,
* McsEngl.developer-of-Đ-chain!⇒Ddeveloper,
* McsEngl.D-stroke-developer!⇒Ddeveloper,
* McsEngl.Dcc-developer!⇒Ddeveloper,
* McsEngl.Đ-human.developer!⇒Ddeveloper,
* McsEngl.Đ-developer!⇒Ddeveloper,


· Đ-appender is a-human responsible to append the-Đ-chain.

* McsEngl.D-stroke-appender!⇒Dappender-operator,
* McsEngl.Dchain-appender-node'operator!⇒Dappender-operator,
* McsEngl.Dchain-appender-operator, {2019-04-13},
* McsEngl.Dcc-appender!⇒Dappender-operator,
* McsEngl.appender-of-Đ-chain!⇒Dappender-operator,
* McsEngl.chain-appender,
* McsEngl.Dhuman.approver!⇒Dappender-operator,
* McsEngl.transaction-approver--of-Dnchain!⇒Dappender-operator,
* McsEngl.Đ-human.appender!⇒Dappender-operator,
* McsEngl.Đ-appender!⇒Dappender-operator,

* miner-(Pow-appender),
* Pos-appender,


· Đ-user is a-human that uses the-services of a-Đ-network.

* McsEngl.chain--end-user!⇒chain-user,
* McsEngl.Dhuman.end-user,
* McsEngl.Dhuman.user,
* McsEngl.chain-user,
* McsEngl.Autonet'user!⇒chain-user,
* McsEngl.D-stroke-user!⇒chain-user,
* McsEngl.Dcc-user!⇒chain-user,
* McsEngl.user-of-Dnchain!⇒chain-user,
* McsEngl.Đ-human.user!⇒chain-user,
* McsEngl.Đ-user!⇒chain-user,

* blockchain-human,
* asset-holder,
* reader,
* transactor,


· coin-holder interests and user interest are not naturally aligned.
· users have to buy coins from coin-holders to use the-blockchain.
· coin-holders would-prefer if users had to pay more.
· while users would-prefer if they had to pay less.

* McsEngl.chain-holder,
* McsEngl.Dhuman.asset-holder!⇒chain-holder,
* McsEngl.Dhuman.coin-holder!⇒chain-holder,


Charles Hoskinson is a Colorado based technology entrepreneur and mathematician. He attended Metropolitan State University of Denver and University of Colorado at Boulder to study Analytic Number Theory prior to moving into cryptography via industry exposure.
His professional experience includes founding three Cryptocurrency related start-ups- Invictus Innovations, Ethereum and IOHK- and a variety of colorful positions in the public and private sector. He was the founding chairman of the Bitcoin Foundation’s education committee and established the Cryptocurrency Research Group in September of 2013.
His current projects focus on education of cryptocurrency topics, evangelism of decentralization and making cryptographic tools easier to use for the mainstream.

* McsEngl.Charles-Hoskinson.human,
* McsEngl.Hoskinson.Charles.human,
* McsEngl.Dhuman.1987.Hoskinson.Charles,
* McsEngl.Dhuman.Hoskinson.Charles.1987,
* McsEngl.human.Hoskinson.Charles,


Dhuman.Larimer.Daniel (link)


"A well-known figure in the space, Nick Szabo is a cryptographer, computer scientist and legal scholar coming from that 90's cypherpunk culture and known for his research in digital contracts and digital currency.
His design for a decentralized digital currency, "bit gold", has been called a direct precursor of Bitcoin (despite "bit gold" never having been implemented).
He coined the very phrase "smart contracts" in the mid-'90s, with the intention of bringing what he calls the "highly evolved practices of contract law and practice to the design of electronic commerce protocols between strangers on the Internet".
He differentiated between "wet code", or human language and expression (ambiguous and imprecise, with semantic meanings shifting and subject to interpretation depending on the context) and "dry code", or machine code - the binary machine logic and circuitry upon which computers operate and execute pre-programmed instructions."

* McsEngl.Dhuman.Szabo.Nick,
* McsEngl.human.1964.Szabo.Nick,
* McsEngl.human.Szabo.Nick.1964,
* McsEngl.Szabo.Nick.chain-human,

info-resource of Szabo.Nick

* McsEngl.human.Szabo.Nick'Infrsc,


02_protocol of Autonet

· Dprotocol is document|s describing how the whole network works.
Algorithm is A-METHOD of a-process.
Protocol is a communication ALGORITHM.
Protocol is A-METHOD of a-communication-process of a-network.
Protocol is A-DESCRIPTION of the-communication-process of the-network.
Algorithm usually is-called a-description of info processing.

* McsEngl.Autonet'02_protocol!⇒Dprotocol,
* McsEngl.Autonet'protocol!⇒Dprotocol,
* McsEngl.Dchain-protocol!⇒Dprotocol, {2019-04-02},
* McsEngl.Dledger-protocol!⇒Dprotocol,
* McsEngl.Dprotocol, {2019-06-18},
* McsEngl.D-stroke-protocol!⇒Dprotocol, {2017-12-20},
* McsEngl.Dcc-protocol!⇒Dprotocol,
* McsEngl.Dcc-prl!⇒Dprotocol,
* McsEngl.Dctc-prl!⇒Dprotocol, {2018-01-28},
* McsEngl.Dchain-netApProtocol!⇒Dprotocol,
* McsEngl.chain-protocol!⇒Dprotocol,
* McsEngl.protocol-of-Dnchain!⇒Dprotocol,
* McsEngl.Đ-protocol!⇒Dprotocol,
* McsEngl.Đ-prl!⇒Dprotocol,

* p2p-network-protocol,

white-paper of Dprotocol

Usually, PDF-files that DESCRIBE the-protocol in natural-language.

* McsEngl.Dprotocol'white-paper,
* McsEngl.Dcc-wpr,
* McsEngl.Dledger-white-paper,
* McsEngl.Autonet'white-paper,
* McsEngl.chain--white-paper,
* McsEngl.white-paper--of-Autonet,

* {2019-04-23},

* blockchain--white-paper,

implementation-language of Dprotocol

The-computer-language used to write the-protocol.

* McsEngl.chain-implementation-language,
* McsEngl.Autonet'coding-language,
* McsEngl.Autonet'implementation-language,
* McsEngl.Autonet'source-code-language,
* McsEngl.Dprotocol'implementation-language,
* McsEngl.Dledger-implementation-language,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netApCoding-language,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netApImplementation-language,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netApSource-code-language,
* McsEngl.implementation-language-of-Dledger,

* Blockchain-protocol--implementation-language,

improvement-proposal of Dprotocol

"The Bitcoin Improvement Proposal, a standard for proposing improvements to the Bitcoin Protocol, was proposed by Amir Taaki in 2011 in BIP 0001 and expanded on in BIP 0002 by Luke Dash Jr.
The BIP process drew heavily from the Python Enhancement Proposal (PEP 0001), even directly copying some of the text. It also refers to a document called “On Consensus and Humming in the IETF,” a collection of principles for open-source collaboration from the Internet Engineering Task Force.
The goal of the BIP process is to allow anyone to propose improvements to the Bitcoin protocol, but also to thoroughly vet ideas for security and feasibility, before implementing any code that could threaten the stability of the network.
The process is meant to allow the community to establish rough consensus around proposed ideas."

* McsEngl.Dprotocol'improvement-proposal,

atomic-cross-chain-trading of Dprotocol

The problem of atomic cross-chain trading is one where (at least) two parties, Alice and Bob, own coins in separate cryptocurrencies, and want to exchange them without having to trust a third party (centralized exchange).
A non-atomic trivial solution would have Alice send her Bitcoins to Bob, and then have Bob send another cryptocurrency to Alice - but Bob has the option of going back on his end of the bargain and simply not following through with the protocol, ending up with both Bitcoins and the altcoin.

* McsEngl.atomic-cross-chain-trading-of-Dchain-protocol,
* McsEngl.atomic-swap-trading-of-Dchain-protocol,
* McsEngl.Autonet'atomic-cross-chain-trading,
* McsEngl.Autonet'atomic-swap-trading,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netApAtomic-cross-chain-trading,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netApAtomic-swap-trading,
* McsEngl.Dprotocol'atomic-cross-chain-trading,

* {2017-10-11} Bitcoin-Ethereum Atomic Swap Code Now Open Source:,
* {2017-09-20},
* {2017-09-20} Decred Adds Atomic Swap Support for Exchange-Free Cryptocurrency Trading,

EVOLUTING of Dprotocol (link)


* McsEngl.Dprotocol.specific,

* Blockchain-protocol,

03_node of Autonet

· chain-node is a-network-node of a-chain-network.

* McsEngl.Autonet'03_node!⇒Dnode,
* McsEngl.Autonet'node!⇒Dnode,
* McsEngl.D-stroke-chain-node!⇒Dnode,
* McsEngl.D-stroke-node!⇒Dnode, {2017-12-20},
* McsEngl.Dnode, {2019-06-18},
* McsEngl.Dchain-node, {2019-04-02},
* McsEngl.Dchain-netApNode!⇒Dnode,
* McsEngl.chain-node!⇒Dnode,
* McsEngl.decentralized-chain--node!⇒Dnode,
* McsEngl.node-of-Dnchain!⇒Dnode,
* McsEngl.Đ-node!⇒Dnode,

* {2018-02-03} Qtum Launches ‘First Ever’ Blockchain Node Into Space:,

operator of Dnode

· Dnode-operator is the-human-entity who operates a-Dnode.

* McsEngl.Dnode'operator,

performance-of-hardware of Dnode

Hardware performance of single nodes includes network throughput, storage throughput, and computing power for certain functions (for example business transaction processing and blockchain services).

* McsEngl.Dnode'hardware-performance,


* blockchain--chain-node,
* Dagchain--chain-node,
* full--chain-node,
* light--chain-node,
* appender--chain-node,


· appender-Đ-node is a-Đ-node that appends the-Đ-chain.

* McsEngl.Dchain-appender-node, {2019-04-13},
* McsEngl.Autonet'appender-node!⇒DnodeAppender,
* McsEngl.Dnode.appender!⇒DnodeAppender,
* McsEngl.Dnode.full.appender!⇒DnodeAppender,
* McsEngl.DnodeAppender, {2019-06-18},
* McsEngl.appender-Dnode!⇒DnodeAppender,
* McsEngl.validator-Dnode!⇒DnodeAppender,

* {2018-02-03} Mining Margins and Where to Make the Most Money:,

* blockchain--appender-node,
* Dagchain--appender-node,

operator of DnodeAppender (link)


· full-Đ-node is a-Đ-node that stores the-whole Đ-chain.

* McsEngl.Dchain-full-node,
* McsEngl.Autonet'full-node,
* McsEngl.Dnode.full,
* McsEngl.full-node--of-Autonet,

* appender--full-node,
* appenderNo--full-node,

full-node.APPENDER (link)


· non-appender full-nodes help ensure the-security and stability of the-net.

* McsEngl.Dnode.full.appenderNo,


· light-Đ-node is a-Đ-node that does-NOT-store the-whole Đ-chain.

* McsEngl.Dchain-light-node,
* McsEngl.Autonet'light-node,
* McsEngl.Dnode.light,
* McsEngl.light-node--of-Autonet,

04_chain of Autonet

· transaction-chain is a-data-structure of the-chain-net with the-history of consensus crypto transactions of information among the-nodes of the-network.
· it is only appendable by consensus.
· it is publicly viewable and privatively usable because contains crypto information.
Dledger-file is the-register-file with the-history of consensus crypto transactions of information among the-nodes of the-network.
It is only appendable by consensus.
It is publicly viewable and privatively usable because contains crypto information.
"a blockchain is:
- A digital ledger — that contains data that is stored somewhere
- It is verifiable — only valid transactions can be recorded on the blockchain through a security consensus shared by a network of nodes
- The database is decentralized — there is not one copy of the ledger, instead, every node has the same copy of the ledger
- It is immutable — recorded transactions can’t be altered or erased"

* McsEngl.Autonet'04_chain!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.Autonet'chain!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.CDledger-file!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.Dchain, {2019-04-01},
* McsEngl.D-ledger!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.D-stroke-chain!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.D-stroke-chain-data!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.D-stroke-chain-ledger!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.D-stroke-chain!⇒Dchain, {2017-12-20},
* McsEngl.Dledger-data!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.Autonet'append-only-log!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.Autonet'ledger!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netApTransactionchain!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.chain-ledger!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.chain-of-Dnchain!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.crypto-chain!⇒Dchain, {2018-05-24},
* McsEngl.decentralized-chain!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.decentralized-transaction-chain--data-structure!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.decentralized-transaction-chain--file!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.decentralized-trust-chain!⇒Dchain, {2018-04-20},
* McsEngl.distributed-cryptographic-ledger!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.distributed-ledger!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.Dtc!⇒Dchain, {2018-04-20},
* McsEngl.Dtcc-chain!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.Dtcc-file!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.Dtchain--data-structure!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.Dtchain-file!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.ledger-of-Dnchain!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.shared-ledger!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.Txcn!⇒Dchain, {2019-03-17},
* McsEngl.transaction-chain!⇒Dchain, {2017-10-17},
* McsEngl.transaction-ledger!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.transaction-chain-data!⇒Dchain, {2017-10-03},
* McsEngl.tx-chain!⇒Dchain, {2018-01-23},
* McsEngl.Đ-chain!⇒Dchain,
* McsEngl.Đ-ledger!⇒Dchain,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.Ακαθολικό, {2021-06-19},
* McsElln.αλυσίδας-συναλλαγών--δεδομένα, {2017-10-03},
* McsElln.αποκεντρωτική-αλυσίδα-συναλλαγών, {2017-12-20},
* McsElln.δεδομένα--αλυσίδας-συναλλαγών, {2017-10-03},
* McsElln.συναλλαγών-αλυσίδα--δεδομένα, {2017-10-03},

transaction of Dchain

· Đ-transaction is INFORMATION communicated in the-Đ-network which is-being-appended on the-Đ-chain.

* McsEngl.Dchain-doing.transaction!⇒Dchain-tx,
* McsEngl.Autonet'transaction!⇒Dchain-tx,
* McsEngl.Dchain-tx, {2019-04-02},
* McsEngl.Dchain-netApTransaction!⇒Dchain-tx,
* McsEngl.chain-transaction!⇒Dchain-tx,
* McsEngl.chain-tx!⇒Dchain-tx, {2019-03-15},
* McsEngl.D-stroke-chain-transaction!⇒Dchain-tx,
* McsEngl.D-stroke-transaction!⇒Dchain-tx, {2017-12-20},
* McsEngl.Dtcc-tx!⇒Dchain-tx,
* McsEngl.decentralized-chain--transaction!⇒Dchain-tx,
* McsEngl.transaction-of-Dnchain!⇒Dchain-tx,
* McsEngl.Đ-transaction!⇒Dchain-tx,

fee of Dchain-tx

* McsEngl.chain-fee,
* McsEngl.Dchain-tx'fee,
* McsEngl.fee-of--chain-transaction,

* {2019-06-03} Haseeb-Qureshi, Blockchain fees are broken. Here are 3 proposals to fix them,,
* {2019-02-19} Jacek-Sieka @jcksie, How would you feel about the #ethereum user experience if you fat-fingered a gas price of 0.1 ETH, totaling a 2100 ETH transaction fee?,,
* {2017-12-24} BitPay Will Not Process Bitcoin Payments Below $100 Due to High Miner Fees:,

* Bitcoin transaction fees have indeed increased from an average of 20 cents to about $15 over the course of 2017,

time of Dchain-tx

· the-time ONE transaction needs to be-done.

* McsEngl.Dchain-tx'time,


PERFORMANCE - The most compelling use cases require hundreds of thousands of transactions per second in a single shard (perhaps millions of transactions per second (tps) in a fully-sharded solution), and many require consensus latency measured in seconds. These performance metrics are orders of magnitude beyond what current public DLT platforms can achieve.
Blockchain scalability
This problem is nothing new.
A quick Google search on the topic of Blockchain scalability produces hundreds of results from forums, websites, and blogs that all describe the same problem.
While cryptocurrency is enjoying more and more mainstream adoption, it does not process transactions fast enough for it to be used on a massive, or even near massive, scale.
As recently as June, Bitcoin, one of the most prominent cryptocurrencies so far, could only process a maximum of seven transactions per second (tps) under optimal conditions, with more realistic numbers looking like two to three, compared to PayPal's 115 and VISA's 2,000 tps.
XRP consistently handles 1,500 transactions per second, 24x7, and can scale to handle the same throughput as Visa.*
*Source: 50,000 transactions per second, as of July 15, 2017

* McsEngl.Autonet'performance,
* McsEngl.Autonet'tps,
* McsEngl.Autonet'transaction-rate,
* McsEngl.Autonet'transaction-speed,
* McsEngl.Autonet'transaction-throughput,
* McsEngl.chain-tps, {2019-02-16},
* McsEngl.Dchain-tx'per-second,
* McsEngl.performance-of-Autonet,
* McsEngl.tps-(Transaction-Per-Second),
* McsEngl.transaction-per-second--of-Autonet,
* McsEngl.transaction-rate--of-Autonet,
* McsEngl.transaction-speed--of-Autonet,
* McsEngl.transaction-throughput--of-Autonet,

* {2017-12-13},
* {2017-10-26} University of Sydney's Red Belly Blockchain Scales 660,000 Transactions/Sec; 11.5x of Visa, 94,000x of Bitcoin:,


* blockchain-tx,
* Dagchain-tx,

appending-algorithm of Dchain

· chain-appending-algo is the-algorithm which automates the-appendability of the-transaction-chain.
"Daniel Larimer @bytemaster7
every #blockchain has two consensus algorithms: automated/objective/technical and manual/subjective/governance. #DPOS is a number of different subjective governance models built on top of a number of different technical consensus variations - some that go undistinguished/unnamed"
[ {2020-03-11}]

* McsEngl.Dchain-appending-algo, {2019-04-02},
* McsEngl.consensus-algorithm--of-Dnchain!⇒Dchain-appending-algo,
* McsEngl.chain--consensus-algorithm!⇒Dchain-appending-algo,
* McsEngl.chain-appending-algo!⇒Dchain-appending-algo, {2019-02-17},
* McsEngl.chain-consensus-algorithm!⇒Dchain-appending-algo,
* McsEngl.chain-consensus-algo!⇒Dchain-appending-algo,
* McsEngl.Autonet'consensus-algorithm!⇒Dchain-appending-algo,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netApConsensus-algorithm!⇒Dchain-appending-algo,
* McsEngl.D-stroke-chain--consensus-algorithm!⇒Dchain-appending-algo,
* McsEngl.Dcc-Csa!⇒Dchain-appending-algo, {2018-01-16},
* McsEngl.decentralized-chain--consensus-algorithm!⇒Dchain-appending-algo,
* McsEngl.Dtcc-Csa!⇒Dchain-appending-algo,
* McsEngl.machine-consensus--of-Dnchain!⇒Dchain-appending-algo,
* McsEngl.Dchain'appending-algorithm!⇒Dchain-appending-algo,
* McsEngl.Dchain'consensus-algorithm!⇒Dchain-appending-algo,
* McsEngl.Đ-consensus-algorithm!⇒Dchain-appending-algo,

* {2018-08-07} Vitalik-Buterin, A Guide to 99% Fault Tolerant Consensus,,
* {2018-05-16} Daniel-Larimer, DPOS BFT— Pipelined Byzantine Fault Tolerance,,
* {2017-12-08} Understanding Blockchain Fundamentals, Part 2: Proof of Work & Proof of Stake:,

* blockchain--consensus-algorithm,
* Dagchain--consensus-algorithm,
* proof-of-work,
* proof-of-stake,
* delegated-proof-of-stake,
* proof-of-burn,
* proof-of-space,
* tendermint,


The DPOS algorithm is divided into two parts: electing a group of block producers and scheduling production. The election process makes sure that stakeholders are ultimately in control because stakeholders lose the most when the network does not operate smoothly. How people are elected has little impact on how consensus is achieved on a minute by minute basis.

* McsEngl.Dchain-appending-algo.Dpos,
* McsEngl.delegated-proof-of-stake--consensus-algorithm,
* McsEngl.DPOS,

* {2017-05-29} DPOS Consensus Algorithm - The Missing White Paper:,


In proof-of-work, computing power and electricity is converted into tokens and in proof-of-burn the same resource is further converted into another token.

* McsEngl.Dchain-appending-algo.proof-of-burn,
* McsEngl.proof-of-burn--consensus-algorithm,


The problem with PoW is a waste of computing power.
While PoS makes the rich richer.
Nebulas developed the Proof of Devotion (PoD) algorithm.
PoD also uses NR as the measure of value to identify the accounts with great devotion to the ecosystem and grant them the fair chances to be bookkeeper to avoid monopoly in bookkeeping.

* McsEngl.Dchain-appending-algo.proof-of-devosion,
* McsEngl.proof-of-devosion--consensus-algorithm,


* McsEngl.Dchain-appending-algo.Proof-of-space,
* McsEngl.proof-of-space--consensus-algorithm,


account of Dchain (link)

data of Dchain

* McsEngl.Dchain'data,

* enables you to search, process and analyze real-time blockchain data from networks including Ethereum (ETH), Ethereum Classic (ETC) or PoA Network using SQL, ElasticSearch and GraphQL,

size of Dchain

· the-size-of-Đ-chain is a-Đ-problem.

* McsEngl.Dchain'size,
* McsEngl.size-of-Dchain,

* {2018-05-23} StopAndDecrypt, The Ethereum-blockchain size has exceeded 1TB, and yes, it’s an issue,,

cryptography of Dchain

· tx-chain contains cryptographic-information because much of this information represents exchange-value.
· this way, anybody can see it, but only its owner can change it.
The use of mathematics to create codes and ciphers that can be used to conceal information.
Used as the basis for the mathematical problems used to verify and secure bitcoin transactions.

* McsEngl.Dchain-crypto,
* McsEngl.Autonet'cryptography!⇒Dchain-crypto,
* McsEngl.crypto-of-Dnchain!⇒Dchain-crypto,
* McsEngl.cryptography.Dchain-net!⇒Dchain-crypto,
* McsEngl.Dchain'cryptography!⇒Dchain-crypto,

algorithm of Dchain-crypto (cipher)

· chain-cipher is an-algorithm for performing encryption or decryption on chain-info.
In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.
An alternative, less common term is encipherment.
To encipher or encode is to convert information from plain text into code or cipher.

* McsEngl.algorithm.Dchain-crypto!⇒Dchain-cipher,
* McsEngl.Dchain-algorithm.cryptography!⇒Dchain-cipher,
* McsEngl.Dchain-cipher, /'saifer/ {2019-04-13},
* McsEngl.Dchain--crypto-algo!⇒Dchain-cipher,
* McsEngl.Dchain-crypto'algorithm!⇒Dchain-cipher,
* McsEngl.Dchain-cypher!⇒Dchain-cipher,
* McsEngl.Dchain-encryption-algorithm!⇒Dchain-cipher,
* McsEngl.cipher.Dchain!⇒Dchain-cipher,
* McsEngl.blockchain-algorithm.cryptography!⇒Dchain-cipher,
* McsEngl.blockchain-cipher!⇒Dchain-cipher,
* McsEngl.blockchain-crypto'cipher!⇒Dchain-cipher,
* McsEngl.blockchain-cypher!⇒Dchain-cipher,
* McsEngl.blockchain-encryption-algorithm!⇒Dchain-cipher,

hash-function of Dchain-crypto

· hash-function is a-math-function that takes as input a-text and gives as output a fixed length text (the-hash).
Cryptographic hash functions are a third type of cryptographic algorithm.
They take a message of any length as input, and output a short, fixed length hash which can be used in (for example) a digital signature.
For good-hash-functions, an attacker cannot find two messages that produce the same hash.
MD4 is a long-used hash function which is now broken;
MD5, a strengthened variant of MD4, is also widely used but broken in practice.
The U.S. National Security Agency developed the Secure Hash Algorithm series of MD5-like hash functions:
SHA-0 was a flawed algorithm that the agency withdrew;
SHA-1 is widely deployed and more secure than MD5, but cryptanalysts have identified attacks against it;
the SHA-2 family improves on SHA-1, but it isn't yet widely deployed, and the U.S. standards authority thought it "prudent" from a security perspective to develop a new standard to "significantly improve the robustness of NIST's overall hash algorithm toolkit."[25]
Thus, a hash function design competition is underway and meant to select a new U.S. national standard, to be called SHA-3, by 2012.

* McsEngl.Dchain-crypto'hash-function!⇒Dchain-hash-function,
* McsEngl.Dchain-hash-function,
* McsEngl.hash-function-of--Dchain-crypto!⇒Dchain-hash-function,
* McsEngl.blockchain-crypto'cryptographic-hash-function!⇒Dchain-hash-function,
* McsEngl.blockchain-hash-function!⇒Dchain-hash-function, {2019-03-08},
* McsEngl.hash-algorithm-of-blockchain!⇒Dchain-hash-function,
* McsEngl.hash-function-of-blockchain!⇒Dchain-hash-function,

input of hash-function

* McsEngl.Dchain-hash-function'input,

output of hash-function

· hash is-called the-output of a-hash-function.

* McsEngl.Dchain-hash-function'hash,
* McsEngl.Dchain-hash-function'output,
* McsEngl.blockchain-hash,
* McsEngl.blockchain-hash-function'hash,
* McsEngl.blockchain-hash-function'output,
* McsEngl.blockchain-cryptographic-hash,
* McsEngl.blockchain-digest,
* McsEngl.blockchain-hash-value,
* McsEngl.hash-of-blockchain,
* McsEngl.hash-of--hash-function,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.κατακερματισμός-μπλοκτσέιν,
* McsElln.κρυπτογραφικός-κατακερματισμός-μπλοκτσέιν,
* McsElln.μπλοκτσέιν-κατακερματισμός,

hashing of hash-function

· hashing is-called THE-PROCESS of using a-hash-function on input-data[1] and producing its[1] hash.

* McsEngl.Dchain-hash-function'hashing,
* McsEngl.blockchain-hashing,
* McsEngl.blockchain-hash-function'hashing,
* McsEngl.hashing-of-blockchain,
* McsEngl.hashing-of--hash-function,

zk-SNARK of Dchain-crypto

"The acronym zk-SNARK stands for “Zero-Knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive Argument of Knowledge,” and refers to a proof construction where one can prove possession of certain information, e.g. a secret key, without revealing that information, and without any interaction between the prover and verifier.
“Zero-knowledge” proofs allow one party (the prover) to prove to another (the verifier) that a statement is true, without revealing any information beyond the validity of the statement itself. For example, given the hash of a random number, the prover could convince the verifier that there indeed exists a number with this hash value, without revealing what it is."

* McsEngl.Dchain-crypto'zk-SNARK,
* McsEngl.zk-SNARK--of--Dchain-crypto,


info-resource of Dchain-crypto

* McsEngl.Dchain-crypto'Infrsc,

* Stanford Javascript Crypto Library:,
* {2019-11-05} Threshold Signatures Explained,,


* blockchain--cryptography,
* Dagchain--cryptography,
* public-key--cryptography,



Public key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is any cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys which may be disseminated widely, and private keys which are known only to the owner.
This accomplishes two functions:
- authentication, which is when the public key is used to verify that a holder of the paired private key sent the message, and
- encryption, whereby only the holder of the paired private key can decrypt the message encrypted with the public key.

* McsEngl.Dchain-crypto.public-key!⇒public-key-crypto,
* McsEngl.asymmetric-cryptography-of-blockchain!⇒public-key-crypto,
* McsEngl.blockchain-asymmetric-cryptography!⇒public-key-crypto,
* McsEngl.blockchain-crypto.public-key-cryptography!⇒public-key-crypto,
* McsEngl.blockchain--public-key-cryptography!⇒public-key-crypto,
* McsEngl.public-key-crypto, {2019-04-13},
* McsEngl.public-key-cryptography--of-blockchain!⇒public-key-crypto,


"ECC is used for the exact same reasons as RSA. It simply generates a public and private key and allows two parties to communicate securely. There is one major advantage however that ECC offers over RSA. A 256 bit key in ECC offers about the same security as 3072 bit key using RSA. This means that in systems with limited resources such as smartphones, embedded computers, cryptocurrency networks, it uses less than 10% of the hard disk space and bandwidth required using RSA."

* McsEngl.ECC--public-key-crypto,
* McsEngl.public-key-crypto.ECC,


"In 1978, Ronald Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Len Adleman invented RSA, another public-key system."

* McsEngl.RSA--public-key-crypto,
* McsEngl.public-key-crypto.RSA,

immutability of Dchain

· the recorded transactions on a-chain-net, no one can-change.
"Immutability, the inability to be edited, is at once the blockchain’s greatest strength and its largest barrier to meaningful adoption."
"Ben Rickert @BenRickertt
The year is 2065, and finally everything is now on the blockchain. Our protagonist has a stupid name since a typo in his birth certificate was immutably uploaded to the chain
4:28 PM · Nov 10, 2019 · Twitter Web App"

* McsEngl.Autonet'immutability,
* McsEngl.immutability-of-Autonet,
* McsEngl.Dchain'immutability,

* chain-net--advantage,

timeness of Dchain

· the-transactions of a-chain-net are-stored chronologically.

* McsEngl.Autonet'timeness,
* McsEngl.timeness-of-Autonet,
* McsEngl.Dchain'timeness,

transparency of Dchain

· the-transactions of a-chain-net are transparent.
· anyone can-see them, they are public.

* McsEngl.Autonet'transparency,
* McsEngl.Dchain'transparency,
* McsEngl.transparency-of-Autonet,

appending transaction-chain

· appending-chain is the-process of appending new transactions on the-chain of a-chain-net.

* McsEngl.appending-chain-net,
* McsEngl.Autonet'appending,


* blockchain-network--chain,
* Dagchain-network--chain,

05_asset of Autonet

· exchange-value is INFORMATION assigned to satisfiers in order to exchange them.
· digital-exchange-value is NOT double-spending information stored on computers.
· until {2009} (Bitcoin creation), digital-exchange-value is-stored on centrally controlled computers.
· đ-asset is digital-exchange-value stored on decentralized-chain-networks.
"Dledger-networks can define in their Dledger-files, exchange-value-units (= no double spending information) because Dledger-files are unmodifiable, only appendable.
These exhange-value-units, which are called tokens, are used to create the-Dledger-files by consensus but also to represent the-exchange-value for any commodity".

* McsEngl.Autoasset, {2024-03-11}
* McsEngl.Autoasset!=autonomous-asset,
* McsEngl.Autonet'05_asset!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.Autonet'asset!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.Autonet'crypto-token!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.Chnast!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.Chnevu!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.Dasset!⇒Autoasset, {2019-04-02},
* McsEngl.DeAsset!⇒Autoasset, {2021-11-27},
* McsEngl.Devu!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.Dledger--exchange-value-unit!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.Dledger-token!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.Dv!⇒Autoasset, {2021-05-31},
* McsEngl.Evu(exchange-value-unit)-of-Dnchain!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.Evu-of-Dnchain!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.EvuChn!⇒Autoasset, {2019-03-10},
* McsEngl.EvuChn(exchange-value-unit.chain)!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.autonomous-asset!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.asset-of-Dnchain!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.chain-asset!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.chain-Evu!⇒Autoasset, {2019-03-12},
* McsEngl.chain-token!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.crypto-asset--of-Dnchain!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.crypto-chain-asset!⇒Autoasset, {2018-05-24},
* McsEngl.crypto-token--of-Dnchain!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.cryptoasset!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.cryptographic-token!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.cryptotoken!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.d-stroke-small-asset!⇒Autoasset, {2017-12-20},
* McsEngl.d-stroke-small-token!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.decentralized-value!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.token.chain!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.token-of--Dledger-network!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.token-of-Dnchain!⇒Autoasset,
* McsEngl.đ-asset!⇒Autoasset, {2017-12-19},
* McsEngl.đ-token!⇒Autoasset, {2017-12-19},
There is no standard terminology yet for this concept. just changed its terminology from "coin-asset" to "coin-token" on {2017.09}.
Without definitions, the-confusion will-continue.
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.αλυσίδας-περιουσιακό-στοιχείο!=Autoasset,
* McsElln.αποκεντρωτικό-περιουσιακό-στοιχείο!=Autoasset,
* McsElln.αυτόνομο-περιουσιακό-στοιχείο!το!=Autoasset,
* McsElln.περιουσιακό-στοιχείο-αλυσίδας!=Autoasset,

"If you’re just starting out in blockchain and cryptocurrency, it’s essential to understand the difference between digital assets, cryptocurrencies, and tokens. While these terms are often used interchangeably, they are different in a number of key ways. Broadly speaking, a digital asset is a non-tangible asset that is created, traded, and stored in a digital format. In the context of blockchain, digital assets include cryptocurrency and crypto tokens.
Cryptocurrency and tokens are unique subclasses of digital assets that utilize cryptography, an advanced encryption technique that assures the authenticity of crypto assets by eradicating the possibility of counterfeiting or double-spending.
The key differentiation between the two classes of digital asset is that cryptocurrencies are the native asset of a blockchain — like BTC or ETH — whereas tokens are created as part of a platform that is built on an existing blockchain, like the many ERC-20 tokens that make up the Ethereum ecosystem."
"The term “token” has a few different meanings in cryptocurrency and in general. We explain the general meaning and describe how tokens work with payment systems and with cryptocurrency specifically.[1][2][3][4]
Short answer: In cryptocurrency, “token” is often used as a synonym for “cryptocurrency.” Often the two terms are combined and the term “cryptocurrency token” is used. Consider, the unit of account on the Bitcoin blockchain is the Bitcoin token, and the united of account on the Ethereum blockchain is the Ethereum token. Cryptocurrencies exist as tokenized data (a type of encrypted data used in both cryptocurrency and computer security in general), therefore cryptocurrencies are often called tokens. That said, sometimes people use the term token to specifically refer to a digital asset that exists on another cryptocurrency’s blockchain (for example OMG is an ERC-20 token on the Ethereum blockchain). With all that covered, a token is just a string of numbers and letters used in types of cryptography like computer security (for example the type of security underlying cryptocurrency technology). "
[{2021-05-31 retrieved}]

ticker of Autoasset

· ticker-of-Autoasset is a special short name, usually used on exchanges, eg BTC, ETH, ...
· I use the-notation DvBTC, DvETH, ...
· the-prefix Dv (= decentralized autonomous value) denotes that the-name is a-ticker of a-Autoasset.
· chain-Evu has and a special short name, usually used on exchanges, eg BTC, ETH, ...
· I use this notation: EvuBTC, EvuETH, ...
· ISO-4217 is the-standard for these names.

* McsEngl.Autoasset'code,
* McsEngl.Autoasset'short-name,
* McsEngl.Autoasset'shorthand,
* McsEngl.Autoasset'symbol,
* McsEngl.Autoasset'ticker,

icon of Autoasset

· a small picture to denote the-Evu.

* McsEngl.Autoasset'icon,

backness of Autoasset

· commodity is an-entity with exchange-value (= people want to exchange it with other commodities).
· exchange-value is INFORMATION attached to commodities.
· backness-of--exchange-value is its relation with its attached commodity.
· exchange-value by itself is NOT useful to us, only the backed commodity we need.
· fiat-money is exchange-value unbacked with a real commodity, but backed by law (= by force) by a-government.
· native-cryptocurrencies are-backed with our willingnes (usefulness) to exist their transaction-chain--networks.
· all other cryptoassets must backed with a-commodity or a useful property eg discount for a-commodity.

* McsEngl.backness-of-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.Autoasset'backness,

adoption of Autoasset

The quantity of people use the-đ-asset.

* McsEngl.acceptance-of-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.adoption-of-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.Autoasset'adoption,

cost-of-operation of Autoasset

* McsEngl.Autoasset'cost-of-operation,
* McsEngl.cost-of-operation--of-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.operational-cost--of-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.running-cost--of-Autoasset,

price of Autoasset

· ratio is the-relation of 2 measures.
· for example, the-ratio OF oranges TO strawberries in a-basket is 5 to 10, 5:10.
· THE-PRICE of a-đ-asset is the-ratio of 1 đ-asset to a-currency.
· people disagree on what exchange-value is and the-quantity of exchange-value of commodities.
· apart of these disagreements, when we are-making exchanges we accept|set concrete exchange-values.
· can we use fair prices?
· in current economic-system, NO.
· crises and bubbles are internal attributes of current economic-system.

* McsEngl.Autoasset'exchange-ratio!⇒Autoasset-price,
* McsEngl.Autoasset'price!⇒Autoasset-price, {2019-02-24},
* McsEngl.Autoasset'value!⇒Autoasset-price,
* McsEngl.Autoasset-price, {2019-06-10},
* McsEngl.price-of-cryptoasset!⇒Autoasset-price,
* McsEngl.price-of--chain-asset!⇒Autoasset-price,
* McsEngl.value-of-cryptoasset!⇒Autoasset-price,
* McsEngl.value-of--chain-asset!⇒Autoasset-price,

exchange-rate of Autoasset

· exchange-rate of a-đ-asset is its price OVER TIME.

* McsEngl.Autoasset'exchange-rate,
* McsEngl.Autoasset'rate,
* McsEngl.Đ-exchange-rate,

market-capitalization of Autoasset

Market-capitalization-of-đ-asset is its price multiplied by the-circulating-đ-assets.

* McsEngl.Autoasset'market-capitalization,

bubble of Autoasset

Will crypto markets crash in between?
Most likely.
In the same way the dotcom bubble burned over six trillion dollars back in 2000, Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies will probably go through the same cycles.
Bubbles establish the true players in the market and eliminate all the ones who are there for a quick buck.
What’s important is that the technology is real, and it is here to stay.

* McsEngl.bubble-of-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.Autoasset'bubble,

volatility of Autoasset

· volatility-of-đ-asset is the-change of its price over time and its quantity.
The total cryptocurrency market cap has fallen from $650 bln to $430 bln in a single day.
[ {2017-12-22}]

* McsEngl.Autonet-benefitNo.volatility-of-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.Autoasset'volatility,
* McsEngl.Autoasset-price'volatility,
* McsEngl.price-volatility--of-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.volatility-of-Autoasset,

* chain-problem,

speculation of Autoasset

· the main reason of price-volatility is speculation.
· wales swim in the-đ-assets waters!

* McsEngl.speculation-of-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.Autoasset'speculation,
* McsEngl.Autoasset-price'speculation,

info-resource of Autoasset-price

* McsEngl.Autoasset-price'Infrsc,

* {2019-06-25} Ben-Munster, How Tether is fueling this booming bitcoin bull run: Everything you want to know about the relationship between whales, tether, bitcoin, exchanges and how the market ticks,,
* {2019-06-05},
* {2018-10-03} Bitcoin Price Manipulated by Cryptocurrency Trading Bots: WSJ,,
* {2018-08-09} Vitalik-Buterin, Blocchain Resource Pricing,,
* {2017-12-18} Bitcoin : when speculation grabs a worthwhile innovation:,
* {2017-12-14} How Fear Is Being Used to Manipulate Cryptocurrency Markets: Misinformation campaigns designed to confuse investors are causing chaos.,
* {2017-12-11} Whales and Killer Whales: Bitcoin’s Big Money Movers:,
* {2017-11-27} Bittrex Issues a Warning About Cryptocurrency Pump and Dumps:,


* McsEngl.Autoasset-price.specific,


· market-price--of-a-chain-asset is the-price-of-an-asset that the-market sets through supply and demand.



· community-price--of-a-chain-asset is the-price-of-an-asset that a-community which uses the-asset, sets through consensus, for example the-Faircoin-currency.



· a selling price.

* McsEngl.Autoasset-price.ask,
* McsEngl.Autoasset-price.offer,


· a buying price.


usability of Autoasset

* McsEngl.Autoasset'ease-of-use,
* McsEngl.Autoasset'usability,
* McsEngl.ease-of-use--of-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.usability-of-Autoasset,

law of Autoasset

* DeLaw,

* McsEngl.Autoasset'law,

wallet of Autoasset

· the-wallet used to have access to a-đ-asset.

* McsEngl.Autoasset'wallet,
* McsEngl.wallet-of-Autoasset,

device of Autoasset

* McsEngl.Autoasset'device,
* McsEngl.device-of-Autoasset,

exchange-organization of Autoasset

* McsEngl.Autoasset'exchange-organization,

evaluation of Autoasset

* McsEngl.Autoasset'evaluation,
* McsEngl.evaluation-of-Autoasset,

* {2014-04-01} The Fifth Protocol,,

con of Autoasset

"The biggest weakness of cryptocurrency is its dependence upon complex technology and largely centralized internet infrastructure."

* McsEngl.Autoasset'con,

distribution of Autoasset

* McsEngl.allocation-of-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.Autoasset'distribution,
* McsEngl.distribution-of-Autoasset,

* {2019-05-15} Tyler-Durden,, (448 people own 20% of all Bitcoin),

standard of Autoasset

* McsEngl.Autoasset'standard,
* McsEngl.standard-of-Autoasset,

* International Token Standardization Association (ITSA) e.V,
* ISO-4217:,
* {2018-04-28} BANKEX, Token Standards,,


"Cryptographic tokens running on DLT systems will soon form an integral part of various major economic sectors (e.g. financial markets, information and media, manufacturing and trade). As such they are going to provide utility and value in many different forms to business and society as a whole. Moreover, cryptographic tokens are also on the verge of representing a recognized institutional asset class. Yet, the current token markets still lack a tangible and holistic framework for the identification, classification and analysis of different token types, which leads to economic, technological as well as regulatory uncertainty and a lack of transparency for all players involved.
With the objective of addressing these shortcomings, the International Token Standardization Association (ITSA) e.V. aims at implementing comprehensive market standards for the global token economy.
The International Token Standardization Association (ITSA) is based in Berlin and has more than 100 associated founding members."

* McsEngl.Autoasset'International-Token-Standardization-Association,
* McsEngl.Autoasset'Itsa,
* McsEngl.Autonet-ozn.International-Token-Standardization-Association,
* McsEngl.International-Token-Standardization-Association,


info-resource of Autoasset

* McsEngl.Autoasset'Infrsc,

* {2019-04-25},
* {2018-04-17} BANKEX, Security vs. Utility Tokens,,
* {2018-03-25} Meltem-Demirors, Drowning in Tokens: A pragmatist’s take on perceived scarcity and artificial demand:,
* {2018-02-08} Matthew-Prewitt, Blockchains are Governance:,
* {2017-12-19} Kaspar Korjus: We’re planning to launch estcoin — and that’s only the start: We’re working to make e-Residency the best option globally for entrepreneurs launching a trusted ICO, while proceeding with three variants of our own ‘estcoin’ under consideration:,
* {2017-12-13} David-Siegel, The Token Handbook,,
* {2017-11-28} Miguel-Caballero (Tutellus), Tokenomics: how we design them and why the token matters more than the money,,
* {2017-10-02} Cryptocurrency is Hybrid Financial Instrument but Should Not Have Special Treatment:,
* {2017-09-27} Cryptoeconomics, The Blockchain Economy: A beginner’s guide to institutional cryptoeconomics:,
* {2017-09-09} The 7 Things You Need To Know From The Valuing Cryptocurrency Conference Call,
* {2017-09-20} Bitcoin Price Triple Its True Value, Claims Allianz Economist:,
* {2017-05-27} Balaji-S.-Srinivasan, Thoughts on Tokens: Tokens are early today, but will transform technology tomorrow:,
* Inheritance Planning for Cryptocurrencies: 3 Steps in 3 Minutes:, -,

tokenomics of Autoasset

Tokenomics, a portmanteau of "token" and "economics," is an emerging field concerned with the economic properties of digital assets, particularly cryptocurrencies. It encompasses the design and analysis of the mechanisms that govern the creation, distribution, and utilization of these assets.
**Key Elements of Tokenomics**
Tokenomics encompasses a wide range of factors that influence the value and sustainability of a cryptocurrency. These factors can be broadly categorized into three main areas:
* **Supply and Distribution:** This aspect deals with the overall supply of tokens, how they are distributed, and the mechanisms that govern their issuance or creation.
* **Utility:** This refers to the specific functions and applications of the token within the blockchain ecosystem. A well-designed token should have clear utility that incentivizes users to hold and utilize it.
* **Governance:** This aspect addresses the role of the token in the governance of the blockchain project. Owning tokens may grant holders voting rights on important decisions regarding the project's direction and development.
**Impact of Tokenomics on Cryptocurrency Value**
The tokenomics of a cryptocurrency play a crucial role in determining its long-term value. A well-designed tokenomics structure can attract investors and users, increase demand for the token, and ultimately drive its price upwards.
**Common Tokenomics Models**
There are several common tokenomics models used by cryptocurrency projects. These models typically differ in their approach to supply, distribution, and utility. Some of the most prevalent models include:
* **Deflationary Model:** This model aims to reduce the overall supply of tokens over time, potentially driving up their value. This can be achieved through mechanisms like burning tokens or limiting their issuance.
* **Inflationary Model:** This model allows for the continuous creation of new tokens, which can serve as a reward for network participants or to fund the project's development. However, an excessively inflationary model can lead to token devaluation.
* **Dual-Token Model:** This model utilizes two types of tokens, often referred to as "utility tokens" and "governance tokens." Utility tokens provide access to the project's services, while governance tokens grant holders voting rights on project decisions.
**Importance of Tokenomics for Investors**
Investors should carefully consider the tokenomics of a cryptocurrency before making investment decisions. A strong tokenomics structure can increase the likelihood of a successful project and potentially lead to significant returns.
Here are some key questions to ask when evaluating a cryptocurrency's tokenomics:
* **What is the overall supply of tokens and how is it managed?**
* **What is the token's utility within the blockchain ecosystem?**
* **How is the token distributed, and what are the incentives for holding or using it?**
* **Does the token have a governance role, and what are the voting rights associated with it?**
By carefully analyzing these factors, investors can gain a better understanding of the potential value proposition and long-term viability of a cryptocurrency."
[{2024-01-24 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Autoasset'tokenomics,
* McsEngl.token-economics,
* McsEngl.tokenomics,

SERVICE of Autoasset

* McsEngl.function-of-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.service-of-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.Autoasset'service,

* medium-of-exchange,
* store-of-value,

store-of-value-attribute of Autoasset

· the-attribute of retaining its price in time.
Store-of--exchange-value is a-commodity if has a-degree of USE-VALUE.
Fiat-money with zero use-value are store-of-value as long as backed by governments and strong economies.
In a-desert we will-exchange a ton of gold for a bottle of water.
Cryptocurrencies are store-of-value as far as we use them.
Also, a-commodity is store-of-value IF does NOT loose its value over time.
Current cryptocurrencies are very RISKY as a-store-of-value.
Some early adopters become rich, but 'free-market' creates bubbles and destroy many.
Gold or silver have the-attributes of a-medium-of-exhange AND a-use-value in industries.

* McsEngl.Autoasset'store-of-value--attribute,

creating of Autoasset

* McsEngl.Autoasset'creating,
* McsEngl.Autoasset'issuance,
* McsEngl.creating-of-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.production-of-Autoasset,

inflation-rate of Autoasset

* McsEngl.Autoasset'inflation-rate,
* McsEngl.inflation-rate-of-Autoasset,

buying of Autoasset

* McsEngl.buying-of-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.Autoasset'buying,

selling of Autoasset

* McsEngl.Autoasset'selling,
* McsEngl.selling-of-Autoasset,

EVOLUTING of Autoasset

* McsEngl.evoluting-of-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.Autoasset'evoluting,

=== GENESIS Wei-Dai:
Bitcoin is the first implementation of a concept called "cryptocurrency", which was first described in 1998 by Wei Dai on the cypherpunks mailing list, suggesting the idea of a new form of money that uses cryptography to control its creation and transactions, rather than a central authority.
The first Bitcoin specification and proof of concept was published in 2009 in a cryptography mailing list by Satoshi Nakamoto.
Satoshi left the project in late 2010 without revealing much about himself.
The community has since grown exponentially with many developers working on Bitcoin.


* McsEngl.Autoasset.specific,

* {2018-05-14} Jake-Ryan, Crypto Asset Classes,,
* {2018} CryptoCompare, Cryptoasset Taxonomy Report 2018,,

* đ-currency-Autoasset,
* đ-currencyNo-Autoasset,
* claim-Autoasset,
* claimNo-Autoasset,
* tradable-Autoasset,
* tradableNo-Autoasset,
* blockchain-Autoasset,
* Dagchain-Autoasset,
* đ-currency-Autoasset,
* đ,
* đ-currency.national-Autoasset,
* đ-currency.local-Autoasset,
* Company's-share-Autoasset,
* Investment-fund-Autoasset,


* consensus--chain-asset,
* consensusNo--chain-asset,


· we can-divide a-đ-asset on its ability to create a-claim for the-buyer and a-liability for the-seller or NOT.

* McsEngl.Autoasset.spec-div.claim-liability,

* claim-Autoasset,
* claimNo-Autoasset,


* McsEngl.Autoasset.spec-div.chain-currency,

* đ-currency-Autoasset,
* đ-currencyNo-Autoasset,


* McsEngl.Autoasset.spec-div.chain-exchange-orgnanization,


· tradable-đ-asset is a-đ-asset if it is-trade on a-Đ-exchange.

* McsEngl.Autoasset.tradable,
* McsEngl.tradable-Autoasset,


* McsEngl.Autoasset.tradableNo,
* McsEngl.tradableNo-Autoasset,


* Bitcoin-BTC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1, $4235.98, {2017-10-04},
* Ethereum-ETH, CoinMarketCap-rank-2, $293.985, {2017-10-04},
* Ripple-XRP, CoinMarketCap-rank-3, $0.20601, {2017-10-04},
* Bitcoin Cash-BCH, CoinMarketCap-rank-4, $380.931, {2017-10-04},
* Litecoin-LTC, CoinMarketCap-rank-5, $51.8886, {2017-10-04},
* Dash-DASH, CoinMarketCap-rank-6, $312.399, {2017-10-04},
* NEM-XEM, CoinMarketCap-rank-7, $0.21899, {2017-10-04},
* NEO-NEO, CoinMarketCap-rank-8, $32.4525, {2017-10-04},
* IOTA-MIOTA, CoinMarketCap-rank-9, $0.534733, {2017-10-04},
* Monero-XMR, CoinMarketCap-rank-10, $89.9097, {2017-10-04},
* Ethereum Classic-ETC, CoinMarketCap-rank-11, $12.0988, {2017-10-04},
* BitConnect-BCC, CoinMarketCap-rank-12, $135.222, {2017-10-04},
* OmiseGO-OMG, CoinMarketCap-rank-13, $8.72282, {2017-10-04},
* Qtum-QTUM, CoinMarketCap-rank-14, $11.6378, {2017-10-04},
* Lisk-LSK, CoinMarketCap-rank-15, $5.5482, {2017-10-04},
* Zcash-ZEC, CoinMarketCap-rank-16, $243.973, {2017-10-04},
* Cardano-ADA, CoinMarketCap-rank-17, $0.0215182, {2017-10-04},
* Waves-WAVES, CoinMarketCap-rank-18, $5.04015, {2017-10-04},
* Tether-USDT, CoinMarketCap-rank-19, $1.00316, {2017-10-04},
* Stratis-STRAT, CoinMarketCap-rank-20, $3.81152, {2017-10-04},
* Steem-STEEM, CoinMarketCap-rank-21, $1.13785, {2017-10-04},
* Ark-ARK, CoinMarketCap-rank-22, $2.64627, {2017-10-04},
* Basic Attention Token-BAT, CoinMarketCap-rank-23, $0.249124, {2017-10-04},
* Kyber Network-KNC, CoinMarketCap-rank-24, $1.68425, {2017-10-04},
* TenX-PAY, CoinMarketCap-rank-25, $2.20222, {2017-10-04},
* EOS-EOS, CoinMarketCap-rank-26, $0.594553, {2017-10-04},
* Gas-GAS, CoinMarketCap-rank-27, $26.6288, {2017-10-04},
* Bytecoin-BCN, CoinMarketCap-rank-28, $0.00122958, {2017-10-04},
* MaidSafeCoin-MAID, CoinMarketCap-rank-29, $0.470486, {2017-10-04},
* Augur-REP, CoinMarketCap-rank-30, $19.1447, {2017-10-04},
* Golem-GNT, CoinMarketCap-rank-31, $0.248091, {2017-10-04},
* Hshare-HSR, CoinMarketCap-rank-32, $6.10263, {2017-10-04},
* Komodo-KMD, CoinMarketCap-rank-33, $1.97484, {2017-10-04},
* Stellar Lumens-XLM, CoinMarketCap-rank-34, $0.0116775, {2017-10-04},
* PIVX-PIVX, CoinMarketCap-rank-35, $3.43259, {2017-10-04},
* Decred-DCR, CoinMarketCap-rank-36, $31.3111, {2017-10-04},
* Walton-WTC, CoinMarketCap-rank-37, $6.75855, {2017-10-04},
* Binance Coin-BNB, CoinMarketCap-rank-38, $1.65411, {2017-10-04},
* Ardor-ARDR, CoinMarketCap-rank-39, $0.164009, {2017-10-04},
* GameCredits-GAME, CoinMarketCap-rank-40, $2.48071, {2017-10-04},
* Metal-MTL, CoinMarketCap-rank-41, $8.08574, {2017-10-04},
* Factom-FCT, CoinMarketCap-rank-42, $17.2988, {2017-10-04},
* BitShares-BTS, CoinMarketCap-rank-43, $0.0553955, {2017-10-04},
* SALT-SALT, CoinMarketCap-rank-44, $3.92899, {2017-10-04},
* Siacoin-SC, CoinMarketCap-rank-45, $0.00482035, {2017-10-04},
* Iconomi-ICN, CoinMarketCap-rank-46, $1.4194, {2017-10-04},
* Veritaseum-VERI, CoinMarketCap-rank-47, $70.0601, {2017-10-04},
* DigixDAO-DGD, CoinMarketCap-rank-48, $70.3767, {2017-10-04},
* ChainLink-LINK, CoinMarketCap-rank-49, $0.354735, {2017-10-04},
* Civic-CVC, CoinMarketCap-rank-50, $0.364217, {2017-10-04},
* FunFair-FUN, CoinMarketCap-rank-51, $0.0305017, {2017-10-04},
* BitcoinDark-BTCD, CoinMarketCap-rank-52, $94.229, {2017-10-04},
* Dogecoin-DOGE, CoinMarketCap-rank-53, $0.001089, {2017-10-04},
* DigiByte-DGB, CoinMarketCap-rank-54, $0.0137906, {2017-10-04},
* Gnosis-GNO, CoinMarketCap-rank-55, $108.149, {2017-10-04},
* TRON-TRX, CoinMarketCap-rank-56, $0.00289306, {2017-10-04},
* Byteball Bytes-GBYTE, CoinMarketCap-rank-57, $190.857, {2017-10-04},
* SingularDTV-SNGLS, CoinMarketCap-rank-58, $0.180188, {2017-10-04},
* FirstCoin-FRST, CoinMarketCap-rank-59, $9.88765, {2017-10-04},
* Populous-PPT, CoinMarketCap-rank-60, $2.4623, {2017-10-04},
* MCAP-MCAP, CoinMarketCap-rank-61, $2.64354, {2017-10-04},
* Bytom-BTM, CoinMarketCap-rank-62, $0.0996846, {2017-10-04},
* 0x-ZRX, CoinMarketCap-rank-63, $0.190407, {2017-10-04},
* Status-SNT, CoinMarketCap-rank-64, $0.0272735, {2017-10-04},
* Bancor-BNT, CoinMarketCap-rank-65, $2.17114, {2017-10-04},
* Lykke-LKK, CoinMarketCap-rank-66, $0.328805, {2017-10-04},
* Aeternity-AE, CoinMarketCap-rank-67, $0.378036, {2017-10-04},
* Nexus-NXS, CoinMarketCap-rank-68, $1.64904, {2017-10-04},
* VeChain-VEN, CoinMarketCap-rank-69, $0.3096, {2017-10-04},
* Blocknet-BLOCK, CoinMarketCap-rank-70, $17.8403, {2017-10-04},
* Verge-XVG, CoinMarketCap-rank-71, $0.00641074, {2017-10-04},
* GXShares-GXS, CoinMarketCap-rank-72, $2.118, {2017-10-04},
* Syscoin-SYS, CoinMarketCap-rank-73, $0.152716, {2017-10-04},
* Centra-CTR, CoinMarketCap-rank-74, $1.16154, {2017-10-04},
* Kin-KIN, CoinMarketCap-rank-75, $0.0000953558, {2017-10-04},
* Monaco-MCO, CoinMarketCap-rank-76, $7.29751, {2017-10-04},
* AdEx-ADX, CoinMarketCap-rank-77, $1.33327, {2017-10-04},
* SONM-SNM, CoinMarketCap-rank-78, $0.178852, {2017-10-04},
* Nxt-NXT, CoinMarketCap-rank-79, $0.0636722, {2017-10-04},
* Aidos Kuneen-ADK, CoinMarketCap-rank-80, $5.99888, {2017-10-04},
* Ubiq-UBQ, CoinMarketCap-rank-81, $1.60209, {2017-10-04},
* Edgeless-EDG, CoinMarketCap-rank-82, $0.702903, {2017-10-04},
* Particl-PART, CoinMarketCap-rank-83, $7.26357, {2017-10-04},
* Aragon-ANT, CoinMarketCap-rank-84, $1.68725, {2017-10-04},
* NAV Coin-NAV, CoinMarketCap-rank-85, $0.816564, {2017-10-04},
* Bitdeal-BDL, CoinMarketCap-rank-86, $0.416233, {2017-10-04},
* MobileGo-MGO, CoinMarketCap-rank-87, $0.505621, {2017-10-04},
* Bitquence-BQX, CoinMarketCap-rank-88, $0.689275, {2017-10-04},
* Loopring-LRC, CoinMarketCap-rank-89, $0.170108, {2017-10-04},
* I/O Coin-IOC, CoinMarketCap-rank-90, $2.91679, {2017-10-04},
* Wings-WINGS, CoinMarketCap-rank-91, $0.522004, {2017-10-04},
* Vertcoin-VTC, CoinMarketCap-rank-92, $1.13785, {2017-10-04},
* Storj-STORJ, CoinMarketCap-rank-93, $0.438233, {2017-10-04},
*, CoinMarketCap-rank-94, $0.131016, {2017-10-04},
* Credo-CREDO, CoinMarketCap-rank-95, $0.0733039, {2017-10-04},
* Melon-MLN, CoinMarketCap-rank-96, $67.0135, {2017-10-04},
* Gulden-NLG, CoinMarketCap-rank-97, $0.113079, {2017-10-04},
* TokenCard-TKN, CoinMarketCap-rank-98, $1.62798, {2017-10-04},
* Regalcoin-REC, CoinMarketCap-rank-99, $13.655, {2017-10-04},
* Elastic-XEL, CoinMarketCap-rank-100, $0.440826, {2017-10-04},
* Rise-RISE, CoinMarketCap-rank-101, $0.334045, {2017-10-04},
* iExec RLC-RLC, CoinMarketCap-rank-102, $0.4698, {2017-10-04},
* FairCoin-FAIR, CoinMarketCap-rank-103, $0.689174, {2017-10-04},
* FirstBlood-1ST, CoinMarketCap-rank-104, $0.426186, {2017-10-04},
* CloakCoin-CLOAK, CoinMarketCap-rank-105, $6.72238, {2017-10-04},
* Substratum-SUB, CoinMarketCap-rank-106, $0.110956, {2017-10-04},
* ZCoin-XZC, CoinMarketCap-rank-107, $10.7823, {2017-10-04},
* NoLimitCoin-NLC2, CoinMarketCap-rank-108, $0.161052, {2017-10-04},
* Quantum Resistant Ledger-QRL, CoinMarketCap-rank-109, $0.626822, {2017-10-04},
* Pillar-PLR, CoinMarketCap-rank-110, $0.0580474, {2017-10-04},
* Tierion-TNT, CoinMarketCap-rank-111, $0.0760708, {2017-10-04},
* Viacoin-VIA, CoinMarketCap-rank-112, $1.39402, {2017-10-04},
* TaaS-TAAS, CoinMarketCap-rank-113, $3.84658, {2017-10-04},
* Peercoin-PPC, CoinMarketCap-rank-114, $1.26704, {2017-10-04},
* Triggers-TRIG, CoinMarketCap-rank-115, $0.952211, {2017-10-04},
* DECENT-DCT, CoinMarketCap-rank-116, $0.588788, {2017-10-04},
* Monetha-MTH, CoinMarketCap-rank-117, $0.136657, {2017-10-04},
* ReddCoin-RDD, CoinMarketCap-rank-118, $0.00101476, {2017-10-04},
* Dentacoin-DCN, CoinMarketCap-rank-119, $0.0000958502, {2017-10-04},
* WeTrust-TRST, CoinMarketCap-rank-120, $0.314424, {2017-10-04},
* BitBay-BAY, CoinMarketCap-rank-121, $0.028281, {2017-10-04},
* district0x-DNT, CoinMarketCap-rank-122, $0.0473882, {2017-10-04},
* Rialto-XRL, CoinMarketCap-rank-123, $0.334423, {2017-10-04},
* Sprouts-SPRTS, CoinMarketCap-rank-124, $0.0000392248, {2017-10-04},
* Aeon-AEON, CoinMarketCap-rank-125, $1.78738, {2017-10-04},
* Diamond-DMD, CoinMarketCap-rank-126, $10.5738, {2017-10-04},
* Patientory-PTOY, CoinMarketCap-rank-127, $0.366712, {2017-10-04},
* Metaverse ETP-ETP, CoinMarketCap-rank-128, $1.1215, {2017-10-04},
* Stox-STX, CoinMarketCap-rank-129, $0.853483, {2017-10-04},
* Asch-XAS, CoinMarketCap-rank-130, $0.333976, {2017-10-04},
* Emercoin-EMC, CoinMarketCap-rank-131, $0.604089, {2017-10-04},
* Counterparty-XCP, CoinMarketCap-rank-132, $9.40492, {2017-10-04},
* CoinDash-CDT, CoinMarketCap-rank-133, $0.0442837, {2017-10-04},
* Unobtanium-UNO, CoinMarketCap-rank-134, $122.853, {2017-10-04},
* MonaCoin-MONA, CoinMarketCap-rank-135, $0.441593, {2017-10-04},
* Blackmoon Crypto-BMC, CoinMarketCap-rank-136, $0.791907, {2017-10-04},
* Clams-CLAM, CoinMarketCap-rank-137, $8.84854, {2017-10-04},
* ION-ION, CoinMarketCap-rank-138, $1.37175, {2017-10-04},
* Mothership-MSP, CoinMarketCap-rank-139, $0.159898, {2017-10-04},
* Obsidian-ODN, CoinMarketCap-rank-140, $0.895117, {2017-10-04},
* Crown-CRW, CoinMarketCap-rank-141, $1.40052, {2017-10-04},
* Etheroll-DICE, CoinMarketCap-rank-142, $3.09079, {2017-10-04},
* Safe Exchange Coin-SAFEX, CoinMarketCap-rank-143, $0.00997568, {2017-10-04},
* LEOcoin-LEO, CoinMarketCap-rank-144, $0.234634, {2017-10-04},
* Xaurum-XAUR, CoinMarketCap-rank-145, $0.16793, {2017-10-04},
* The ChampCoin-TCC, CoinMarketCap-rank-146, $0.127334, {2017-10-04},
* MonetaryUnit-MUE, CoinMarketCap-rank-147, $0.158365, {2017-10-04},
* SpreadCoin-SPR, CoinMarketCap-rank-148, $2.28328, {2017-10-04},
* adToken-ADT, CoinMarketCap-rank-149, $0.0324897, {2017-10-04},
* vSlice-VSL, CoinMarketCap-rank-150, $0.583776, {2017-10-04},
* Neblio-NEBL, CoinMarketCap-rank-151, $1.55353, {2017-10-04},
* Agrello-DLT, CoinMarketCap-rank-152, $0.222588, {2017-10-04},
* OKCash-OK, CoinMarketCap-rank-153, $0.261308, {2017-10-04},
* Namecoin-NMC, CoinMarketCap-rank-154, $1.28283, {2017-10-04},
* SIBCoin-SIB, CoinMarketCap-rank-155, $1.21314, {2017-10-04},
* Einsteinium-EMC2, CoinMarketCap-rank-156, $0.0875876, {2017-10-04},
* Humaniq-HMQ, CoinMarketCap-rank-157, $0.114818, {2017-10-04},
* Skycoin-SKY, CoinMarketCap-rank-158, $3.13108, {2017-10-04},
* Numeraire-NMR, CoinMarketCap-rank-159, $14.7299, {2017-10-04},
*, CoinMarketCap-rank-160, $0.00848065, {2017-10-04},
* Nexium-NXC, CoinMarketCap-rank-161, $0.272076, {2017-10-04},
* Lunyr-LUN, CoinMarketCap-rank-162, $7.45812, {2017-10-04},
* OAX-OAX, CoinMarketCap-rank-163, $0.68214, {2017-10-04},
* Santiment Network Token-SAN, CoinMarketCap-rank-164, $0.293766, {2017-10-04},
* Decentraland-MANA, CoinMarketCap-rank-165, $0.0139165, {2017-10-04},
* Mysterium-MYST, CoinMarketCap-rank-166, $0.810439, {2017-10-04},
* Rubycoin-RBY, CoinMarketCap-rank-167, $0.627219, {2017-10-04},
* Compcoin-CMP, CoinMarketCap-rank-168, $3.63728, {2017-10-04},
* Expanse-EXP, CoinMarketCap-rank-169, $1.96575, {2017-10-04},
* Polybius-PLBT, CoinMarketCap-rank-170, $3.93087, {2017-10-04},
* ZenCash-ZEN, CoinMarketCap-rank-171, $6.7028, {2017-10-04},
* Aventus-AVT, CoinMarketCap-rank-172, $2.48415, {2017-10-04},
* XPlay-XPA, CoinMarketCap-rank-173, $0.0146754, {2017-10-04},
* DigitalNote-XDN, CoinMarketCap-rank-174, $0.00211459, {2017-10-04},
* SaluS-SLS, CoinMarketCap-rank-175, $14.2761, {2017-10-04},
* PotCoin-POT, CoinMarketCap-rank-176, $0.0656897, {2017-10-04},
* LBRY Credits-LBC, CoinMarketCap-rank-177, $0.208831, {2017-10-04},
* KoreCoin-KORE, CoinMarketCap-rank-178, $7.23544, {2017-10-04},
* Matchpool-GUP, CoinMarketCap-rank-179, $0.190656, {2017-10-04},
* Moeda Loyalty Points-MDA, CoinMarketCap-rank-180, $2.84534, {2017-10-04},
* Quantum-QAU, CoinMarketCap-rank-181, $0.178836, {2017-10-04},
* Burst-BURST, CoinMarketCap-rank-182, $0.00782107, {2017-10-04},
* Radium-RADS, CoinMarketCap-rank-183, $4.17667, {2017-10-04},
* Energycoin-ENRG, CoinMarketCap-rank-184, $0.115488, {2017-10-04},
* Swarm City-SWT, CoinMarketCap-rank-185, $1.81894, {2017-10-04},
* BlackCoin-BLK, CoinMarketCap-rank-186, $0.181244, {2017-10-04},
* Agoras Tokens-AGRS, CoinMarketCap-rank-187, $0.326239, {2017-10-04},
* E-coin-ECN, CoinMarketCap-rank-188, $3.18695, {2017-10-04},
* Synereo-AMP, CoinMarketCap-rank-189, $0.157754, {2017-10-04},
* Primas-PST, CoinMarketCap-rank-190, $0.251917, {2017-10-04},
* Shift-SHIFT, CoinMarketCap-rank-191, $1.13629, {2017-10-04},
* Chronobank-TIME, CoinMarketCap-rank-192, $17.9934, {2017-10-04},
* Gambit-GAM, CoinMarketCap-rank-193, $10.6745, {2017-10-04},
* Omni-OMNI, CoinMarketCap-rank-194, $22.1873, {2017-10-04},
* GridCoin-GRC, CoinMarketCap-rank-195, $0.0314933, {2017-10-04},
* InvestFeed-IFT, CoinMarketCap-rank-196, $0.0640417, {2017-10-04},
* Mooncoin-MOON, CoinMarketCap-rank-197, $0.0000535882, {2017-10-04},
* Waves Community Token-WCT, CoinMarketCap-rank-198, $1.1872, {2017-10-04},
* Golos-GOLOS, CoinMarketCap-rank-199, $0.09503, {2017-10-04},
* BitDice-CSNO, CoinMarketCap-rank-200, $0.167517, {2017-10-04},
* Databits-DTB, CoinMarketCap-rank-201, $0.502316, {2017-10-04},
* ATC Coin-ATCC, CoinMarketCap-rank-202, $1.06074, {2017-10-04},
* BCAP-BCAP, CoinMarketCap-rank-203, $1.08404, {2017-10-04},
* SmartCash-SMART, CoinMarketCap-rank-204, $0.0179555, {2017-10-04},
* DAO.Casino-BET, CoinMarketCap-rank-205, $0.0961642, {2017-10-04},
* Nimiq-NET, CoinMarketCap-rank-206, $1.00026, {2017-10-04},
* Soarcoin-SOAR, CoinMarketCap-rank-207, $0.0135704, {2017-10-04},
* LoMoCoin-LMC, CoinMarketCap-rank-208, $0.0476454, {2017-10-04},
* iXledger-IXT, CoinMarketCap-rank-209, $0.286485, {2017-10-04},
* Wagerr-WGR, CoinMarketCap-rank-210, $0.0549084, {2017-10-04},
* Peerplays-PPY, CoinMarketCap-rank-211, $2.60459, {2017-10-04},
* E-Dinar Coin-EDR, CoinMarketCap-rank-212, $0.0110101, {2017-10-04},
* Voxels-VOX, CoinMarketCap-rank-213, $0.0464008, {2017-10-04},
* RaiBlocks-XRB, CoinMarketCap-rank-214, $0.0777298, {2017-10-04},
* FlorinCoin-FLO, CoinMarketCap-rank-215, $0.0651353, {2017-10-04},
* Pluton-PLU, CoinMarketCap-rank-216, $10.5658, {2017-10-04},
* Spectrecoin-XSPEC, CoinMarketCap-rank-217, $0.436852, {2017-10-04},
* Internet of People-IOP, CoinMarketCap-rank-218, $4.8697, {2017-10-04},
* VeriCoin-VRC, CoinMarketCap-rank-219, $0.287289, {2017-10-04},
* PinkCoin-PINK, CoinMarketCap-rank-220, $0.0237513, {2017-10-04},
* bitCNY-BITCNY, CoinMarketCap-rank-221, $0.150327, {2017-10-04},
* OBITS-OBITS, CoinMarketCap-rank-222, $0.534425, {2017-10-04},
* Groestlcoin-GRS, CoinMarketCap-rank-223, $0.119472, {2017-10-04},
* Musicoin-MUSIC, CoinMarketCap-rank-224, $0.0224012, {2017-10-04},
* Ecobit-ECOB, CoinMarketCap-rank-225, $0.0183073, {2017-10-04},
* XTRABYTES-XBY, CoinMarketCap-rank-226, $0.0189411, {2017-10-04},
* ToaCoin-TOA, CoinMarketCap-rank-227, $0.00469245, {2017-10-04},
* Jinn-JINN, CoinMarketCap-rank-228, $136.473, {2017-10-04},
* Incent-INCNT, CoinMarketCap-rank-229, $0.172978, {2017-10-04},
* SolarCoin-SLR, CoinMarketCap-rank-230, $0.216465, {2017-10-04},
* NeosCoin-NEOS, CoinMarketCap-rank-231, $2.25948, {2017-10-04},
* Bitland-CADASTRAL, CoinMarketCap-rank-232, $0.255846, {2017-10-04},
* Sphere-SPHR, CoinMarketCap-rank-233, $2.48871, {2017-10-04},
* Novacoin-NVC, CoinMarketCap-rank-234, $4.09457, {2017-10-04},
* PRIZM-PZM, CoinMarketCap-rank-235, $0.837089, {2017-10-04},
* BlockCAT-CAT, CoinMarketCap-rank-236, $1.01158, {2017-10-04},
* Feathercoin-FTC, CoinMarketCap-rank-237, $0.0419759, {2017-10-04},
* XCurrency-XC, CoinMarketCap-rank-238, $1.2684, {2017-10-04},
* Pepe Cash-PEPECASH, CoinMarketCap-rank-239, $0.0103588, {2017-10-04},
* Propy-PRO, CoinMarketCap-rank-240, $0.513443, {2017-10-04},
* BitSend-BSD, CoinMarketCap-rank-241, $0.422933, {2017-10-04},
* Unity Ingot-UNY, CoinMarketCap-rank-242, $0.0344568, {2017-10-04},
* EncryptoTel-ETT, CoinMarketCap-rank-243, $0.109163, {2017-10-04},
* PoSW Coin-POSW, CoinMarketCap-rank-244, $0.153605, {2017-10-04},
* Hive-HVN, CoinMarketCap-rank-245, $0.0180447, {2017-10-04},
* TheGCCcoin-GCC, CoinMarketCap-rank-246, $0.0135281, {2017-10-04},
* Bitcrystals-BCY, CoinMarketCap-rank-247, $0.283431, {2017-10-04},
* Blocktix-TIX, CoinMarketCap-rank-248, $0.161156, {2017-10-04},
* Project Decorum-PDC, CoinMarketCap-rank-249, $0.128771, {2017-10-04},
* BitBean-BITB, CoinMarketCap-rank-250, $0.00295684, {2017-10-04},
* Bitcoin Plus-XBC, CoinMarketCap-rank-251, $61.5677, {2017-10-04},
* HTMLCOIN-HTML5, CoinMarketCap-rank-252, $0.000150986, {2017-10-04},
* Creditbit-CRB, CoinMarketCap-rank-253, $0.515345, {2017-10-04},
* Bitcore-BTX, CoinMarketCap-rank-254, $5.85534, {2017-10-04},
* MyBit Token-MYB, CoinMarketCap-rank-255, $2.37622, {2017-10-04},
* HEAT-HEAT, CoinMarketCap-rank-256, $0.204291, {2017-10-04},
* Round-ROUND, CoinMarketCap-rank-257, $0.00697972, {2017-10-04},
* Auroracoin-AUR, CoinMarketCap-rank-258, $0.673315, {2017-10-04},
* Dent-DENT, CoinMarketCap-rank-259, $0.000540129, {2017-10-04},
* ArtByte-ABY, CoinMarketCap-rank-260, $0.00722985, {2017-10-04},
* DNotes-NOTE, CoinMarketCap-rank-261, $0.0447937, {2017-10-04},
* Qwark-QWARK, CoinMarketCap-rank-262, $0.15384, {2017-10-04},
* APX-APX, CoinMarketCap-rank-263, $7.18635, {2017-10-04},
* Neutron-NTRN, CoinMarketCap-rank-264, $0.177917, {2017-10-04},
* Curecoin-CURE, CoinMarketCap-rank-265, $0.22948, {2017-10-04},
* Sequence-SEQ, CoinMarketCap-rank-266, $0.119682, {2017-10-04},
* DubaiCoin-DBIX, CoinMarketCap-rank-267, $4.27383, {2017-10-04},
* Stealthcoin-XST, CoinMarketCap-rank-268, $0.196709, {2017-10-04},
* FoldingCoin-FLDC, CoinMarketCap-rank-269, $0.0101245, {2017-10-04},
* WhiteCoin-XWC, CoinMarketCap-rank-270, $0.0213068, {2017-10-04},
* E-Currency Coin-ECC, CoinMarketCap-rank-271, $0.000211377, {2017-10-04},
* Bismuth-BIS, CoinMarketCap-rank-272, $1.06179, {2017-10-04},
* ExclusiveCoin-EXCL, CoinMarketCap-rank-273, $1.20962, {2017-10-04},
* EuropeCoin-ERC, CoinMarketCap-rank-274, $0.519649, {2017-10-04},
* NVO-NVST, CoinMarketCap-rank-275, $0.342623, {2017-10-04},
* Primalbase Token-PBT, CoinMarketCap-rank-276, $5130.6, {2017-10-04},
* Global Currency Reserve-GCR, CoinMarketCap-rank-277, $0.0496302, {2017-10-04},
* Vcash-XVC, CoinMarketCap-rank-278, $0.332814, {2017-10-04},
* VIBE-VIBE, CoinMarketCap-rank-279, $0.0372609, {2017-10-04},
* Terracoin-TRC, CoinMarketCap-rank-280, $0.236145, {2017-10-04},
* Pascal Coin-PASC, CoinMarketCap-rank-281, $0.360229, {2017-10-04},
* Bela-BELA, CoinMarketCap-rank-282, $0.131937, {2017-10-04},
* Circuits of Value-COVAL, CoinMarketCap-rank-283, $0.0049885, {2017-10-04},
* Pesetacoin-PTC, CoinMarketCap-rank-284, $0.0377674, {2017-10-04},
* EquiTrader-EQT, CoinMarketCap-rank-285, $0.522118, {2017-10-04},
* Blitzcash-BLITZ, CoinMarketCap-rank-286, $1.20274, {2017-10-04},
* GoldCoin-GLD, CoinMarketCap-rank-287, $0.118957, {2017-10-04},
* TrueFlip-TFL, CoinMarketCap-rank-288, $0.767591, {2017-10-04},
* Condensate-RAIN, CoinMarketCap-rank-289, $0.0743831, {2017-10-04},
* Breakout-BRK, CoinMarketCap-rank-290, $0.250659, {2017-10-04},
* EmberCoin-EMB, CoinMarketCap-rank-291, $0.0000815517, {2017-10-04},
* Bitswift-SWIFT, CoinMarketCap-rank-292, $1.08606, {2017-10-04},
* B3Coin-B3, CoinMarketCap-rank-293, $0.0572539, {2017-10-04},
* TrustPlus-TRUST, CoinMarketCap-rank-294, $0.135281, {2017-10-04},
* Hush-HUSH, CoinMarketCap-rank-295, $1.91544, {2017-10-04},
* ZrCoin-ZRC, CoinMarketCap-rank-296, $1.16257, {2017-10-04},
* NuShares-NSR, CoinMarketCap-rank-297, $0.00152191, {2017-10-04},
* Synergy-SNRG, CoinMarketCap-rank-298, $1.34547, {2017-10-04},
* Opus-OPT, CoinMarketCap-rank-299, $0.0293204, {2017-10-04},
* Dynamic-DYN, CoinMarketCap-rank-300, $2.10109, {2017-10-04},
* Crave-CRAVE, CoinMarketCap-rank-301, $2.71425, {2017-10-04},
* ZClassic-ZCL, CoinMarketCap-rank-302, $2.04631, {2017-10-04},
* Myriad-XMY, CoinMarketCap-rank-303, $0.00236813, {2017-10-04},
* ChainCoin-CHC, CoinMarketCap-rank-304, $0.227292, {2017-10-04},
* CHIPS-CHIPS, CoinMarketCap-rank-305, $0.236785, {2017-10-04},
* Wild Beast Block-WBB, CoinMarketCap-rank-306, $1.4662, {2017-10-04},
* HempCoin-THC, CoinMarketCap-rank-307, $0.0155151, {2017-10-04},
* OracleChain-OCT, CoinMarketCap-rank-308, $0.117112, {2017-10-04},
* Memetic-MEME, CoinMarketCap-rank-309, $0.211325, {2017-10-04},
* DopeCoin-DOPE, CoinMarketCap-rank-310, $0.0312406, {2017-10-04},
* SunContract-SNC, CoinMarketCap-rank-311, $0.0315947, {2017-10-04},
* GeoCoin-GEO, CoinMarketCap-rank-312, $1.01175, {2017-10-04},
* Steem Dollars-SBD, CoinMarketCap-rank-313, $0.917618, {2017-10-04},
* bitUSD-BITUSD, CoinMarketCap-rank-314, $1.00238, {2017-10-04},
* MarteXcoin-MXT, CoinMarketCap-rank-315, $1.15815, {2017-10-04},
* Syndicate-SYNX, CoinMarketCap-rank-316, $0.20671, {2017-10-04},
* Breakout Stake-BRX, CoinMarketCap-rank-317, $0.508755, {2017-10-04},
* PutinCoin-PUT, CoinMarketCap-rank-318, $0.0158757, {2017-10-04},
* Zeitcoin-ZEIT, CoinMarketCap-rank-319, $0.0000830314, {2017-10-04},
* Bitmark-BTM, CoinMarketCap-rank-320, $0.448755, {2017-10-04},
* Primecoin-XPM, CoinMarketCap-rank-321, $0.143718, {2017-10-04},
* VPNCoin-VASH, CoinMarketCap-rank-322, $0.00736665, {2017-10-04},
* NEVERDIE-NDC, CoinMarketCap-rank-323, $0.0715446, {2017-10-04},
* CVCoin-CVCOIN, CoinMarketCap-rank-324, $0.355222, {2017-10-04},
* EverGreenCoin-EGC, CoinMarketCap-rank-325, $0.216964, {2017-10-04},
* Starta-STA, CoinMarketCap-rank-326, $0.568295, {2017-10-04},
* Dimecoin-DIME, CoinMarketCap-rank-327, $0.0000053424, {2017-10-04},
* Oceanlab-OCL, CoinMarketCap-rank-328, $0.060147, {2017-10-04},
* 2GIVE-2GIVE, CoinMarketCap-rank-329, $0.00536898, {2017-10-04},
* VeriumReserve-VRM, CoinMarketCap-rank-330, $2.09458, {2017-10-04},
* Happycoin-HPC, CoinMarketCap-rank-331, $0.222337, {2017-10-04},
* vTorrent-VTR, CoinMarketCap-rank-332, $0.249425, {2017-10-04},
* Signatum-SIGT, CoinMarketCap-rank-333, $0.0246022, {2017-10-04},
* Remicoin-RMC, CoinMarketCap-rank-334, $1.31054, {2017-10-04},
* XP-XP, CoinMarketCap-rank-335, $0.0000170333, {2017-10-04},
* DeepOnion-ONION, CoinMarketCap-rank-336, $0.737084, {2017-10-04},
* Visio-VISIO, CoinMarketCap-rank-337, $0.0493353, {2017-10-04},
* TransferCoin-TX, CoinMarketCap-rank-338, $0.407281, {2017-10-04},
* Atmos-ATMS, CoinMarketCap-rank-339, $0.0249473, {2017-10-04},
* REX-REX, CoinMarketCap-rank-340, $0.283576, {2017-10-04},
* Centurion-CNT, CoinMarketCap-rank-341, $0.0888541, {2017-10-04},
* BlueCoin-BLU, CoinMarketCap-rank-342, $0.00410221, {2017-10-04},
* CannabisCoin-CANN, CoinMarketCap-rank-343, $0.0295994, {2017-10-04},
* Creativecoin-CREA, CoinMarketCap-rank-344, $0.179842, {2017-10-04},
* Startcoin-START, CoinMarketCap-rank-345, $0.0492934, {2017-10-04},
* Legends Room-LGD, CoinMarketCap-rank-346, $1.08754, {2017-10-04},
* Mintcoin-MINT, CoinMarketCap-rank-347, $0.0000850510, {2017-10-04},
* FedoraCoin-TIPS, CoinMarketCap-rank-348, $0.0000046122, {2017-10-04},
* Tokes-TKS, CoinMarketCap-rank-349, $2.11411, {2017-10-04},
* CryptoPing-PING, CoinMarketCap-rank-350, $0.202396, {2017-10-04},
* CasinoCoin-CSC, CoinMarketCap-rank-351, $0.0511955, {2017-10-04},
* Darcrus-DAR, CoinMarketCap-rank-352, $0.144538, {2017-10-04},
* Colossuscoin V2-CV2, CoinMarketCap-rank-353, $0.0000867720, {2017-10-04},
* Minereum-MNE, CoinMarketCap-rank-354, $1.74533, {2017-10-04},
* NautilusCoin-NAUT, CoinMarketCap-rank-355, $0.120696, {2017-10-04},
* Riecoin-RIC, CoinMarketCap-rank-356, $0.0494199, {2017-10-04},
* Adzcoin-ADZ, CoinMarketCap-rank-357, $0.0412234, {2017-10-04},
* Magi-XMG, CoinMarketCap-rank-358, $0.24024, {2017-10-04},
* Embers-MBRS, CoinMarketCap-rank-359, $0.0352412, {2017-10-04},
* ICO OpenLedger-ICOO, CoinMarketCap-rank-360, $3.78153, {2017-10-04},
* Giga Watt Token-WTT, CoinMarketCap-rank-361, $1.93582, {2017-10-04},
* ParkByte-PKB, CoinMarketCap-rank-362, $0.355144, {2017-10-04},
* AdShares-ADST, CoinMarketCap-rank-363, $0.135047, {2017-10-04},
* HyperStake-HYP, CoinMarketCap-rank-364, $0.00165675, {2017-10-04},
* Rupee-RUP, CoinMarketCap-rank-365, $0.0758978, {2017-10-04},
* Mercury-MER, CoinMarketCap-rank-366, $0.0165377, {2017-10-04},
* Ethbits-ETBS, CoinMarketCap-rank-367, $1.17969, {2017-10-04},
* FundYourselfNow-FYN, CoinMarketCap-rank-368, $1.90239, {2017-10-04},
* MergeCoin-MGC, CoinMarketCap-rank-369, $0.0169884, {2017-10-04},
* HunterCoin-HUC, CoinMarketCap-rank-370, $0.0826907, {2017-10-04},
* Espers-ESP, CoinMarketCap-rank-371, $0.0000779744, {2017-10-04},
* e-Gulden-EFL, CoinMarketCap-rank-372, $0.103853, {2017-10-04},
* Crypto Bullion-CBX, CoinMarketCap-rank-373, $1.5853, {2017-10-04},
* DaxxCoin-DAXX, CoinMarketCap-rank-374, $0.00320731, {2017-10-04},
* Ethereum Dark-ETHD, CoinMarketCap-rank-375, $1.02934, {2017-10-04},
* FuckToken-FUCK, CoinMarketCap-rank-376, $0.0293172, {2017-10-04},
* Zennies-ZENI, CoinMarketCap-rank-377, $0.00148461, {2017-10-04},
* Linda-LINDA, CoinMarketCap-rank-378, $0.000243427, {2017-10-04},
* ArcticCoin-ARC, CoinMarketCap-rank-379, $0.0585339, {2017-10-04},
* Miners' Reward Token-MRT, CoinMarketCap-rank-380, $0.137801, {2017-10-04},
* Trackr-TKR, CoinMarketCap-rank-381, $0.116974, {2017-10-04},
* Bata-BTA, CoinMarketCap-rank-382, $0.272474, {2017-10-04},
* SkinCoin-SKIN, CoinMarketCap-rank-383, $0.0151557, {2017-10-04},
* 1337-1337, CoinMarketCap-rank-384, $0.0000573168, {2017-10-04},
* VIVO-VIVO, CoinMarketCap-rank-385, $3.63869, {2017-10-04},
* Renos-RNS, CoinMarketCap-rank-386, $0.0397087, {2017-10-04},
* AudioCoin-ADC, CoinMarketCap-rank-387, $0.00160217, {2017-10-04},
* MonacoCoin-XMCC, CoinMarketCap-rank-388, $0.593391, {2017-10-04},
* Influxcoin-INFX, CoinMarketCap-rank-389, $0.763623, {2017-10-04},
* Quark-QRK, CoinMarketCap-rank-390, $0.00502746, {2017-10-04},
* Unify-UNIFY, CoinMarketCap-rank-391, $0.0712729, {2017-10-04},
* InsaneCoin-INSN, CoinMarketCap-rank-392, $0.0749119, {2017-10-04},
* Bytecent-BYC, CoinMarketCap-rank-393, $0.680634, {2017-10-04},
* Dotcoin-DOT, CoinMarketCap-rank-394, $0.00480538, {2017-10-04},
* Fastcoin-FST, CoinMarketCap-rank-395, $0.00968815, {2017-10-04},
* Altcoin-ALT, CoinMarketCap-rank-396, $9.81277, {2017-10-04},
* 808Coin-808, CoinMarketCap-rank-397, $0.00131124, {2017-10-04},
* Link Platform-LNK, CoinMarketCap-rank-398, $25.0596, {2017-10-04},
* Onix-ONX, CoinMarketCap-rank-399, $0.0429437, {2017-10-04},
* Sexcoin-SXC, CoinMarketCap-rank-400, $0.00927418, {2017-10-04},
* Netko-NETKO, CoinMarketCap-rank-401, $0.288163, {2017-10-04},
* SmileyCoin-SMLY, CoinMarketCap-rank-402, $0.0000437215, {2017-10-04},
* CryptoCarbon-CCRB, CoinMarketCap-rank-403, $0.312506, {2017-10-04},
* WorldCoin-WDC, CoinMarketCap-rank-404, $0.0096158, {2017-10-04},
* COSS-COSS, CoinMarketCap-rank-405, $0.0752274, {2017-10-04},
* Zoin-ZOI, CoinMarketCap-rank-406, $0.0751783, {2017-10-04},
* Capricoin-CPC, CoinMarketCap-rank-407, $0.526573, {2017-10-04},
* ZcCoin-ZCC, CoinMarketCap-rank-408, $0.0169884, {2017-10-04},
* Ultimate Secure Cash-USC, CoinMarketCap-rank-409, $0.0999675, {2017-10-04},
* Growers International-GRWI, CoinMarketCap-rank-410, $0.994272, {2017-10-04},
* GCoin-GCN, CoinMarketCap-rank-411, $0.0000070603, {2017-10-04},
* Mao Zedong-MAO, CoinMarketCap-rank-412, $0.156377, {2017-10-04},
* NuBits-USNBT, CoinMarketCap-rank-413, $1.00493, {2017-10-04},
* Footy Cash-XFT, CoinMarketCap-rank-414, $0.209263, {2017-10-04},
* Fujinto-NTO, CoinMarketCap-rank-415, $0.0143643, {2017-10-04},
* HiCoin-XHI, CoinMarketCap-rank-416, $0.00465039, {2017-10-04},
* IncaKoin-NKA, CoinMarketCap-rank-417, $0.0000847526, {2017-10-04},
* PIECoin-PIE, CoinMarketCap-rank-418, $0.0200608, {2017-10-04},
* EOT Token-EOT, CoinMarketCap-rank-419, $0.332753, {2017-10-04},
* MaxCoin-MAX, CoinMarketCap-rank-420, $0.0136972, {2017-10-04},
* DigitalPrice-DP, CoinMarketCap-rank-421, $0.050115, {2017-10-04},
* InflationCoin-IFLT, CoinMarketCap-rank-422, $0.0000390856, {2017-10-04},
* LiteDoge-LDOGE, CoinMarketCap-rank-423, $0.0000532677, {2017-10-04},
* Sovereign Hero-HERO, CoinMarketCap-rank-424, $162.407, {2017-10-04},
* Fantomcoin-FCN, CoinMarketCap-rank-425, $0.122599, {2017-10-04},
* Sumokoin-SUMO, CoinMarketCap-rank-426, $0.442529, {2017-10-04},
* Elixir-ELIX, CoinMarketCap-rank-427, $0.18745, {2017-10-04},
* Vsync-VSX, CoinMarketCap-rank-428, $0.00732182, {2017-10-04},
* Tychocoin-TYCHO, CoinMarketCap-rank-429, $0.139636, {2017-10-04},
* KekCoin-KEK, CoinMarketCap-rank-430, $0.0687398, {2017-10-04},
* Monster Byte-MBI, CoinMarketCap-rank-431, $0.040243, {2017-10-04},
* WavesGo-WGO, CoinMarketCap-rank-432, $0.0671783, {2017-10-04},
* DigitalDevelopersFund-DDF, CoinMarketCap-rank-433, $0.131237, {2017-10-04},
* BritCoin-BRIT, CoinMarketCap-rank-434, $0.0308449, {2017-10-04},
* Dinastycoin-DCY, CoinMarketCap-rank-435, $0.000514924, {2017-10-04},
* TrezarCoin-TZC, CoinMarketCap-rank-436, $0.00777867, {2017-10-04},
* FujiCoin-FJC, CoinMarketCap-rank-437, $0.000568531, {2017-10-04},
* Solaris-XLR, CoinMarketCap-rank-438, $1.22379, {2017-10-04},
* Megacoin-MEC, CoinMarketCap-rank-439, $0.0192304, {2017-10-04},
* Helleniccoin-HNC, CoinMarketCap-rank-440, $0.011203, {2017-10-04},
* Cream-CRM, CoinMarketCap-rank-441, $0.0136969, {2017-10-04},
* Unitus-UIS, CoinMarketCap-rank-442, $0.0129477, {2017-10-04},
* Scorecoin-SCORE, CoinMarketCap-rank-443, $0.0197153, {2017-10-04},
* UnbreakableCoin-UNB, CoinMarketCap-rank-444, $0.262573, {2017-10-04},
* Billionaire Token-XBL, CoinMarketCap-rank-445, $0.174999, {2017-10-04},
* Linx-LINX, CoinMarketCap-rank-446, $0.0692918, {2017-10-04},
* EMoneyPower-EMP, CoinMarketCap-rank-447, $0.0618569, {2017-10-04},
* BTSR-BTSR, CoinMarketCap-rank-448, $0.16888, {2017-10-04},
* FinCoin-FNC, CoinMarketCap-rank-449, $0.0428909, {2017-10-04},
* ProCurrency-PROC, CoinMarketCap-rank-450, $0.0415067, {2017-10-04},
* Bitradio-BRO, CoinMarketCap-rank-451, $0.0915622, {2017-10-04},
* Canada eCoin-CDN, CoinMarketCap-rank-452, $0.00529138, {2017-10-04},
* Jetcoin-JET, CoinMarketCap-rank-453, $0.132717, {2017-10-04},
* iDice-ICE, CoinMarketCap-rank-454, $0.315031, {2017-10-04},
* Moin-MOIN, CoinMarketCap-rank-455, $0.0682987, {2017-10-04},
* Eternity-ENT, CoinMarketCap-rank-456, $0.121267, {2017-10-04},
* RouletteToken-RLT, CoinMarketCap-rank-457, $0.0460802, {2017-10-04},
* Virtacoinplus-XVP, CoinMarketCap-rank-458, $0.0491671, {2017-10-04},
* Falcoin-FAL, CoinMarketCap-rank-459, $2.21174, {2017-10-04},
* Karbowanec-KRB, CoinMarketCap-rank-460, $0.0965424, {2017-10-04},
* BlakeStar-BLAS, CoinMarketCap-rank-461, $0.00168872, {2017-10-04},
* Newbium-NEWB, CoinMarketCap-rank-462, $0.00847553, {2017-10-04},
* DAS-DAS, CoinMarketCap-rank-463, $0.161999, {2017-10-04},
* Denarius-DNR, CoinMarketCap-rank-464, $0.254605, {2017-10-04},
* WomenCoin-WOMEN, CoinMarketCap-rank-465, $0.0171486, {2017-10-04},
* HempCoin-HMP, CoinMarketCap-rank-466, $0.000295928, {2017-10-04},
* DraftCoin-DFT, CoinMarketCap-rank-467, $0.218817, {2017-10-04},
* DT Token-DRACO, CoinMarketCap-rank-468, $0.00431432, {2017-10-04},
* BlockPay-BLOCKPAY, CoinMarketCap-rank-469, $0.0687067, {2017-10-04},
* OHM-OHM, CoinMarketCap-rank-470, $0.0126403, {2017-10-04},
* PostCoin-POST, CoinMarketCap-rank-471, $0.0227403, {2017-10-04},
* TrumpCoin-TRUMP, CoinMarketCap-rank-472, $0.0546856, {2017-10-04},
* 42-coin-42, CoinMarketCap-rank-473, $8167.67, {2017-10-04},
* Atomic Coin-ATOM, CoinMarketCap-rank-474, $0.0266497, {2017-10-04},
* FuturXe-FXE, CoinMarketCap-rank-475, $1.36972, {2017-10-04},
* Zero-ZER, CoinMarketCap-rank-476, $0.194462, {2017-10-04},
* Deutsche eMark-DEM, CoinMarketCap-rank-477, $0.0112818, {2017-10-04},
* CoinonatX-XCXT, CoinMarketCap-rank-478, $0.023403, {2017-10-04},
* Triangles-TRI, CoinMarketCap-rank-479, $4.22754, {2017-10-04},
* HoboNickels-HBN, CoinMarketCap-rank-480, $0.0051576, {2017-10-04},
* Rubies-RBIES, CoinMarketCap-rank-481, $0.0293372, {2017-10-04},
* Prototanium-PR, CoinMarketCap-rank-482, $1.4889, {2017-10-04},
* FUNCoin-FUNC, CoinMarketCap-rank-483, $0.0473826, {2017-10-04},
* Titcoin-TIT, CoinMarketCap-rank-484, $0.00487923, {2017-10-04},
* Cannacoin-CCN, CoinMarketCap-rank-485, $0.0512329, {2017-10-04},
* bitBTC-BITBTC, CoinMarketCap-rank-486, $4621.58, {2017-10-04},
* Elcoin-EL, CoinMarketCap-rank-487, $0.0195918, {2017-10-04},
* Francs-FRN, CoinMarketCap-rank-488, $0.0543166, {2017-10-04},
* CryptoWorldX Token-CWXT, CoinMarketCap-rank-489, $0.00364151, {2017-10-04},
* Electra-ECA, CoinMarketCap-rank-490, $0.0000100750, {2017-10-04},
* Virta Unique Coin-VUC, CoinMarketCap-rank-491, $0.00329281, {2017-10-04},
* MojoCoin-MOJO, CoinMarketCap-rank-492, $0.016202, {2017-10-04},
* PlatinumBAR-XPTX, CoinMarketCap-rank-493, $0.605799, {2017-10-04},
* ReeCoin-REE, CoinMarketCap-rank-494, $0.0000705100, {2017-10-04},
* Universe-UNI, CoinMarketCap-rank-495, $0.0229265, {2017-10-04},
* Rupaya-RUPX, CoinMarketCap-rank-496, $0.032138, {2017-10-04},
* Bitcoin Scrypt-BTCS, CoinMarketCap-rank-497, $0.0106204, {2017-10-04},
* Zurcoin-ZUR, CoinMarketCap-rank-498, $0.00202927, {2017-10-04},
* Interzone-ITZ, CoinMarketCap-rank-499, $0.31589, {2017-10-04},
* Dalecoin-DALC, CoinMarketCap-rank-500, $0.41401, {2017-10-04},
* Theresa May Coin-MAY, CoinMarketCap-rank-501, $0.00716551, {2017-10-04},
* Elementrem-ELE, CoinMarketCap-rank-502, $0.00579173, {2017-10-04},
* BriaCoin-BRIA, CoinMarketCap-rank-503, $0.443011, {2017-10-04},
* Sterlingcoin-SLG, CoinMarketCap-rank-504, $0.0345727, {2017-10-04},
* bitSilver-BITSILVER, CoinMarketCap-rank-505, $16.2544, {2017-10-04},
* Bolivarcoin-BOLI, CoinMarketCap-rank-506, $0.0182354, {2017-10-04},
* Flaxscript-FLAX, CoinMarketCap-rank-507, $0.0253993, {2017-10-04},
* Honey-HONEY, CoinMarketCap-rank-508, $0.551285, {2017-10-04},
* Emerald Crypto-EMD, CoinMarketCap-rank-509, $0.00721629, {2017-10-04},
* EcoCoin-ECO, CoinMarketCap-rank-510, $0.127247, {2017-10-04},
* NeuroDAO-NDAO, CoinMarketCap-rank-511, $0.752502, {2017-10-04},
* bitGold-BITGOLD, CoinMarketCap-rank-512, $1262.25, {2017-10-04},
* Tickets-TIX, CoinMarketCap-rank-513, $0.0000016537, {2017-10-04},
* BitcoinFast-BCF, CoinMarketCap-rank-514, $0.0255445, {2017-10-04},
* C-Bit-XCT, CoinMarketCap-rank-515, $0.00067447, {2017-10-04},
* Yocoin-YOC, CoinMarketCap-rank-516, $0.000999031, {2017-10-04},
* CampusCoin-CMPCO, CoinMarketCap-rank-517, $0.000716487, {2017-10-04},
* bitEUR-BITEUR, CoinMarketCap-rank-518, $1.17553, {2017-10-04},
* Tristar Coin-TSTR, CoinMarketCap-rank-519, $0.0188126, {2017-10-04},
* X-Coin-XCO, CoinMarketCap-rank-520, $0.00753439, {2017-10-04},
* KiloCoin-KLC, CoinMarketCap-rank-521, $0.000465029, {2017-10-04},
* BERNcash-BERN, CoinMarketCap-rank-522, $0.00122583, {2017-10-04},
* TileCoin-XTC, CoinMarketCap-rank-523, $0.000856937, {2017-10-04},
* PayCon-CON, CoinMarketCap-rank-524, $0.00364403, {2017-10-04},
* GPU Coin-GPU, CoinMarketCap-rank-525, $0.00206541, {2017-10-04},
* DROXNE-DRXNE, CoinMarketCap-rank-526, $0.00131011, {2017-10-04},
* Virtacoin-VTA, CoinMarketCap-rank-527, $0.0000148142, {2017-10-04},
* Bitcoin Planet-BTPL, CoinMarketCap-rank-528, $0.0134785, {2017-10-04},
* Asiadigicoin-ADCN, CoinMarketCap-rank-529, $0.00270563, {2017-10-04},
* GlobalToken-GLT, CoinMarketCap-rank-530, $0.00265743, {2017-10-04},
* NevaCoin-NEVA, CoinMarketCap-rank-531, $0.0265832, {2017-10-04},
* Master Swiscoin-MSCN, CoinMarketCap-rank-532, $0.00129047, {2017-10-04},
* Coinonat-CXT, CoinMarketCap-rank-533, $0.0061429, {2017-10-04},
* Litecoin Plus-LCP, CoinMarketCap-rank-534, $0.114609, {2017-10-04},
* BoostCoin-BOST, CoinMarketCap-rank-535, $0.00405844, {2017-10-04},
* Doubloon-BOAT, CoinMarketCap-rank-536, $0.00232203, {2017-10-04},
* CryptoEscudo-CESC, CoinMarketCap-rank-537, $0.000295928, {2017-10-04},
* Iconic-ICON, CoinMarketCap-rank-538, $0.066626, {2017-10-04},
* CrevaCoin-CREVA, CoinMarketCap-rank-539, $0.00105689, {2017-10-04},
* CHNCoin-CNC, CoinMarketCap-rank-540, $0.000938397, {2017-10-04},
* Tradecoin-TRADE, CoinMarketCap-rank-541, $0.00570718, {2017-10-04},
* Coimatic 2.0-CTIC2, CoinMarketCap-rank-542, $0.00371023, {2017-10-04},
* Veros-VRS, CoinMarketCap-rank-543, $0.0000648857, {2017-10-04},
* WalletBuildersCoin-WBC, CoinMarketCap-rank-544, $1.69123, {2017-10-04},
* Frazcoin-FRAZ, CoinMarketCap-rank-545, $0.00337556, {2017-10-04},
* Litecred-LTCR, CoinMarketCap-rank-546, $0.000861805, {2017-10-04},
* Kronecoin-KRONE, CoinMarketCap-rank-547, $0.011846, {2017-10-04},
* LiteCoin Ultra-LTCU, CoinMarketCap-rank-548, $0.0255649, {2017-10-04},
* Project-X-NANOX, CoinMarketCap-rank-549, $198694.0, {2017-10-04},
* LevoPlus-LVPS, CoinMarketCap-rank-550, $0.00787843, {2017-10-04},
* LiteBitcoin-LBTC, CoinMarketCap-rank-551, $0.00224366, {2017-10-04},
* Lex4All-LEX, CoinMarketCap-rank-552, $0.00506848, {2017-10-04},
* Ulatech-ULA, CoinMarketCap-rank-553, $0.027137, {2017-10-04},
* HarmonyCoin-HMC, CoinMarketCap-rank-554, $0.00416249, {2017-10-04},
* AppleCoin-APW, CoinMarketCap-rank-555, $0.0326366, {2017-10-04},
* Digital Money Bits-DMB, CoinMarketCap-rank-556, $0.00113648, {2017-10-04},
* SuperNET-UNITY, CoinMarketCap-rank-557, $33.6423, {2017-10-04},
* Arcade Token-ARC, CoinMarketCap-rank-558, $4.10502, {2017-10-04},
* Tao-XTO, CoinMarketCap-rank-559, $0.103776, {2017-10-04},
* CageCoin-CAGE, CoinMarketCap-rank-560, $0.0000297133, {2017-10-04},
* Bitpark Coin-BPC, CoinMarketCap-rank-561, $0.0396121, {2017-10-04},
* YbCoin-YBC, CoinMarketCap-rank-562, $0.965959, {2017-10-04},
* Stakecoin-STCN, CoinMarketCap-rank-563, $0.954204, {2017-10-04},
* YashCoin-YASH, CoinMarketCap-rank-564, $0.211377, {2017-10-04},
* LuckChain-BASH, CoinMarketCap-rank-565, $0.00263671, {2017-10-04},
* Bowhead-AHT, CoinMarketCap-rank-566, $0.219837, {2017-10-04},
* InPay-INPAY, CoinMarketCap-rank-567, $0.163944, {2017-10-04},
* Adelphoi-ADL, CoinMarketCap-rank-568, $0.063139, {2017-10-04},
* AsiaCoin-AC, CoinMarketCap-rank-569, $0.00142279, {2017-10-04},
* EarthCoin-EAC, CoinMarketCap-rank-570, $0.000127307, {2017-10-04},
* Ixcoin-IXC, CoinMarketCap-rank-571, $0.0671482, {2017-10-04},
* Janus-JNS, CoinMarketCap-rank-572, $0.0628412, {2017-10-04},
* Infinitecoin-IFC, CoinMarketCap-rank-573, $0.0000132847, {2017-10-04},
* CryptCoin-CRYPT, CoinMarketCap-rank-574, $0.167212, {2017-10-04},
* Pandacoin-PND, CoinMarketCap-rank-575, $0.0000288251, {2017-10-04},
* Woodcoin-LOG, CoinMarketCap-rank-576, $0.114101, {2017-10-04},
* TeslaCoin-TES, CoinMarketCap-rank-577, $0.0119506, {2017-10-04},
* Rustbits-RUSTBITS, CoinMarketCap-rank-578, $0.0234609, {2017-10-04},
* ShadowCash-SDC, CoinMarketCap-rank-579, $0.119766, {2017-10-04},
* StarCredits-STRC, CoinMarketCap-rank-580, $0.175866, {2017-10-04},
* iTicoin-ITI, CoinMarketCap-rank-581, $24.0722, {2017-10-04},
* Carboncoin-CARBON, CoinMarketCap-rank-582, $0.0000422754, {2017-10-04},
* SwapToken-TOKEN, CoinMarketCap-rank-583, $0.0000422754, {2017-10-04},
* Casino-CASINO, CoinMarketCap-rank-584, $0.642164, {2017-10-04},
* Zetacoin-ZET, CoinMarketCap-rank-585, $0.00382205, {2017-10-04},
* E4ROW-E4ROW, CoinMarketCap-rank-586, $0.142395, {2017-10-04},
* MetalCoin-METAL, CoinMarketCap-rank-587, $0.00710404, {2017-10-04},
* SmartCoin-SMC, CoinMarketCap-rank-588, $0.0232427, {2017-10-04},
* Shorty-SHORTY, CoinMarketCap-rank-589, $0.00524215, {2017-10-04},
* RussiaCoin-RC, CoinMarketCap-rank-590, $0.061685, {2017-10-04},
* FIMKrypto-FIMK, CoinMarketCap-rank-591, $0.000845508, {2017-10-04},
* NobleCoin-NOBL, CoinMarketCap-rank-592, $0.000210579, {2017-10-04},
* HitCoin-HTC, CoinMarketCap-rank-593, $0.0000422754, {2017-10-04},
* Vsync-XVS, CoinMarketCap-rank-594, $0.00422747, {2017-10-04},
* BTCtalkcoin-TALK, CoinMarketCap-rank-595, $0.00677074, {2017-10-04},
* Bitz-BITZ, CoinMarketCap-rank-596, $0.219926, {2017-10-04},
* BunnyCoin-BUN, CoinMarketCap-rank-597, $0.0000042808, {2017-10-04},
* UFO Coin-UFO, CoinMarketCap-rank-598, $0.000126826, {2017-10-04},
* Greencoin-GRE, CoinMarketCap-rank-599, $0.000126826, {2017-10-04},
* GlobalCoin-GLC, CoinMarketCap-rank-600, $0.00655269, {2017-10-04},
* NetCoin-NET, CoinMarketCap-rank-601, $0.000530612, {2017-10-04},
* Shadow Token-SHDW, CoinMarketCap-rank-602, $0.0583976, {2017-10-04},
* I0Coin-I0C, CoinMarketCap-rank-603, $0.0193978, {2017-10-04},
* Etheriya-RIYA, CoinMarketCap-rank-604, $0.255377, {2017-10-04},
* SuperCoin-SUPER, CoinMarketCap-rank-605, $0.00899945, {2017-10-04},
* Kobocoin-KOBO, CoinMarketCap-rank-606, $0.0159895, {2017-10-04},
* UltraCoin-UTC, CoinMarketCap-rank-607, $0.00883556, {2017-10-04},
* Cryptonite-XCN, CoinMarketCap-rank-608, $0.00107881, {2017-10-04},
* NewYorkCoin-NYC, CoinMarketCap-rank-609, $0.0000029938, {2017-10-04},
* MazaCoin-MZC, CoinMarketCap-rank-610, $0.000288805, {2017-10-04},
* Trollcoin-TROLL, CoinMarketCap-rank-611, $0.000649513, {2017-10-04},
* FuelCoin-FC2, CoinMarketCap-rank-612, $0.00333976, {2017-10-04},
* Machinecoin-MAC, CoinMarketCap-rank-613, $0.0168539, {2017-10-04},
* AmberCoin-AMBER, CoinMarketCap-rank-614, $0.00769412, {2017-10-04},
* Dashcoin-DSH, CoinMarketCap-rank-615, $0.0187274, {2017-10-04},
* BitBar-BTB, CoinMarketCap-rank-616, $9.32309, {2017-10-04},
* Version-V, CoinMarketCap-rank-617, $0.000694018, {2017-10-04},
* Anoncoin-ANC, CoinMarketCap-rank-618, $0.149369, {2017-10-04},
* Bitstar-BITS, CoinMarketCap-rank-619, $0.0133554, {2017-10-04},
* Malcoin-MALC, CoinMarketCap-rank-620, $5.87341, {2017-10-04},
* Piggycoin-PIGGY, CoinMarketCap-rank-621, $0.000625576, {2017-10-04},
* TagCoin-TAG, CoinMarketCap-rank-622, $0.0525914, {2017-10-04},
* CoExistCoin-COXST, CoinMarketCap-rank-623, $0.0251356, {2017-10-04},
* AurumCoin-AU, CoinMarketCap-rank-624, $1.00706, {2017-10-04},
* 8Bit-8BIT, CoinMarketCap-rank-625, $0.254386, {2017-10-04},
* GAIA-GAIA, CoinMarketCap-rank-626, $0.0122176, {2017-10-04},
* Veltor-VLT, CoinMarketCap-rank-627, $0.51204, {2017-10-04},
* Devcoin-DVC, CoinMarketCap-rank-628, $0.0000191387, {2017-10-04},
* Phoenixcoin-PXC, CoinMarketCap-rank-629, $0.00463356, {2017-10-04},
* Pakcoin-PAK, CoinMarketCap-rank-630, $0.00657107, {2017-10-04},
* Orbitcoin-ORB, CoinMarketCap-rank-631, $0.0866097, {2017-10-04},
* Rare Pepe Party-RAREPEPEP, CoinMarketCap-rank-632, $14.1299, {2017-10-04},
* SwagBucks-BUCKS, CoinMarketCap-rank-633, $0.890027, {2017-10-04},
* UniCoin-UNIC, CoinMarketCap-rank-634, $0.0852688, {2017-10-04},
* Krypstal-KRS, CoinMarketCap-rank-635, $0.00937655, {2017-10-04},
* BitAsean-BAS, CoinMarketCap-rank-636, $0.0466564, {2017-10-04},
* BitTokens-BXT, CoinMarketCap-rank-637, $0.415409, {2017-10-04},
* Goodomy-GOOD, CoinMarketCap-rank-638, $0.000507305, {2017-10-04},
* CoEval-COE, CoinMarketCap-rank-639, $5.12979, {2017-10-04},
* Ripto Bux-RBX, CoinMarketCap-rank-640, $0.00057448, {2017-10-04},
* CryptoForecast-CFT, CoinMarketCap-rank-641, $0.00448119, {2017-10-04},
* Flycoin-FLY, CoinMarketCap-rank-642, $0.974194, {2017-10-04},
* Truckcoin-TRK, CoinMarketCap-rank-643, $0.0013557, {2017-10-04},
* Stress-STS, CoinMarketCap-rank-644, $0.000338203, {2017-10-04},
* LottoCoin-LOT, CoinMarketCap-rank-645, $0.0000129355, {2017-10-04},
* The Cypherfunks-FUNK, CoinMarketCap-rank-646, $0.0000040823, {2017-10-04},
* FlutterCoin-FLT, CoinMarketCap-rank-647, $0.000568475, {2017-10-04},
* Darsek-KED, CoinMarketCap-rank-648, $0.014033, {2017-10-04},
* Mineum-MNM, CoinMarketCap-rank-649, $0.0190239, {2017-10-04},
* Slimcoin-SLM, CoinMarketCap-rank-650, $0.0118323, {2017-10-04},
* PayCoin-XPY, CoinMarketCap-rank-651, $0.0149164, {2017-10-04},
* Swing-SWING, CoinMarketCap-rank-652, $0.0673801, {2017-10-04},
* TEKcoin-TEK, CoinMarketCap-rank-653, $0.00012289, {2017-10-04},
* LanaCoin-LANA, CoinMarketCap-rank-654, $0.000211368, {2017-10-04},
* PureVidz-VIDZ, CoinMarketCap-rank-655, $0.00135523, {2017-10-04},
* Valorbit-VAL, CoinMarketCap-rank-656, $0.0000429005, {2017-10-04},
* Cryptojacks-CJ, CoinMarketCap-rank-657, $0.000414889, {2017-10-04},
* Universal Currency-UNIT, CoinMarketCap-rank-658, $0.0126277, {2017-10-04},
* Smoke-SMOKE, CoinMarketCap-rank-659, $0.0122192, {2017-10-04},
* QubitCoin-Q2C, CoinMarketCap-rank-660, $0.000634131, {2017-10-04},
* Ratecoin-XRA, CoinMarketCap-rank-661, $0.00140481, {2017-10-04},
* iCoin-ICN, CoinMarketCap-rank-662, $0.0051576, {2017-10-04},
* Pesobit-PSB, CoinMarketCap-rank-663, $0.00443892, {2017-10-04},
* Bottlecaps-CAP, CoinMarketCap-rank-664, $0.000803428, {2017-10-04},
* USDe-USDE, CoinMarketCap-rank-665, $0.000126826, {2017-10-04},
* WayGuide-WAY, CoinMarketCap-rank-666, $0.00143736, {2017-10-04},
* HOdlcoin-HODL, CoinMarketCap-rank-667, $0.00101461, {2017-10-04},
* GameUnits-UNITS, CoinMarketCap-rank-668, $0.0392411, {2017-10-04},
* Yacoin-YAC, CoinMarketCap-rank-669, $0.00114144, {2017-10-04},
* Blakecoin-BLC, CoinMarketCap-rank-670, $0.00875562, {2017-10-04},
* Cypher-CYP, CoinMarketCap-rank-671, $0.0207572, {2017-10-04},
* Putin Classic-PUTIC, CoinMarketCap-rank-672, $0.00384673, {2017-10-04},
* Bit20-BTWTY, CoinMarketCap-rank-673, $127446.0, {2017-10-04},
* VirtualCoin-VC, CoinMarketCap-rank-674, $0.0124712, {2017-10-04},
* ChessCoin-CHESS, CoinMarketCap-rank-675, $0.00231898, {2017-10-04},
* Freicoin-FRC, CoinMarketCap-rank-676, $0.00422754, {2017-10-04},
* SproutsExtreme-SPEX, CoinMarketCap-rank-677, $0.0000422754, {2017-10-04},
* KushCoin-KUSH, CoinMarketCap-rank-678, $0.0222054, {2017-10-04},
* SACoin-SAC, CoinMarketCap-rank-679, $0.0507305, {2017-10-04},
* RevolverCoin-XRE, CoinMarketCap-rank-680, $0.00528443, {2017-10-04},
* Dollarcoin-DLC, CoinMarketCap-rank-681, $0.0128094, {2017-10-04},
* GoldReserve-XGR, CoinMarketCap-rank-682, $0.00672179, {2017-10-04},
* Acoin-ACOIN, CoinMarketCap-rank-683, $0.0945773, {2017-10-04},
* Guncoin-GUN, CoinMarketCap-rank-684, $0.000586723, {2017-10-04},
* GoldBlocks-GB, CoinMarketCap-rank-685, $0.00721201, {2017-10-04},
* Prime-XI-PXI, CoinMarketCap-rank-686, $0.00646574, {2017-10-04},
* LTBcoin-LTBC, CoinMarketCap-rank-687, $0.000217307, {2017-10-04},
* TittieCoin-TTC, CoinMarketCap-rank-688, $0.0000843906, {2017-10-04},
* MTMGaming-MTM, CoinMarketCap-rank-689, $0.0351978, {2017-10-04},
* ParallelCoin-DUO, CoinMarketCap-rank-690, $0.348517, {2017-10-04},
* Grantcoin-GRT, CoinMarketCap-rank-691, $0.00245197, {2017-10-04},
* PetroDollar-XPD, CoinMarketCap-rank-692, $0.00162787, {2017-10-04},
* Cannation-CNNC, CoinMarketCap-rank-693, $0.0420393, {2017-10-04},
* Digitalcoin-DGC, CoinMarketCap-rank-694, $0.00387255, {2017-10-04},
* DigiCube-CUBE, CoinMarketCap-rank-695, $0.0000422754, {2017-10-04},
* QuazarCoin-QCN, CoinMarketCap-rank-696, $0.0169102, {2017-10-04},
* BiblePay-BBP, CoinMarketCap-rank-697, $0.00054958, {2017-10-04},
* GlobalBoost-Y-BSTY, CoinMarketCap-rank-698, $0.00795719, {2017-10-04},
* Joulecoin-XJO, CoinMarketCap-rank-699, $0.00286454, {2017-10-04},
* OctoCoin-888, CoinMarketCap-rank-700, $0.00192172, {2017-10-04},
* AquariusCoin-ARCO, CoinMarketCap-rank-701, $0.0684602, {2017-10-04},
* PX-PX, CoinMarketCap-rank-702, $0.00104947, {2017-10-04},
* IslaCoin-ISL, CoinMarketCap-rank-703, $0.0624697, {2017-10-04},
* Tigercoin-TGC, CoinMarketCap-rank-704, $0.00215605, {2017-10-04},
* PRCoin-PRC, CoinMarketCap-rank-705, $0.00684862, {2017-10-04},
* Nyancoin-NYAN, CoinMarketCap-rank-706, $0.000311941, {2017-10-04},
* Eurocoin-EUC, CoinMarketCap-rank-707, $0.0077057, {2017-10-04},
* Wyvern-WYV, CoinMarketCap-rank-708, $0.0574946, {2017-10-04},
* BigUp-BIGUP, CoinMarketCap-rank-709, $0.0000431891, {2017-10-04},
* Bitcurrency-BTCR, CoinMarketCap-rank-710, $0.000528752, {2017-10-04},
* LiteBar-LTB, CoinMarketCap-rank-711, $0.117837, {2017-10-04},
* HealthyWormCoin-WORM, CoinMarketCap-rank-712, $0.000803233, {2017-10-04},
* WMCoin-WMC, CoinMarketCap-rank-713, $0.00752945, {2017-10-04},
* Pascal Lite-PASL, CoinMarketCap-rank-714, $0.0241393, {2017-10-04},
* SatoshiMadness-MAD, CoinMarketCap-rank-715, $0.0000422754, {2017-10-04},
* Joincoin-J, CoinMarketCap-rank-716, $0.0340317, {2017-10-04},
* MustangCoin-MST, CoinMarketCap-rank-717, $0.131754, {2017-10-04},
* Evotion-EVO, CoinMarketCap-rank-718, $0.0261022, {2017-10-04},
* 020LondonCoin-020, CoinMarketCap-rank-719, $0.0000005173, {2017-10-04},
* Crypto-CTO, CoinMarketCap-rank-720, $0.00697544, {2017-10-04},
* Hacker Gold-HKG, CoinMarketCap-rank-721, $0.0048194, {2017-10-04},
* Coin(O)-CNO, CoinMarketCap-rank-722, $0.000733601, {2017-10-04},
* Evil Coin-EVIL, CoinMarketCap-rank-723, $0.00366597, {2017-10-04},
* UniBURST-UNIBURST, CoinMarketCap-rank-724, $0.0766529, {2017-10-04},
* Braincoin-BRAIN, CoinMarketCap-rank-725, $0.00760957, {2017-10-04},
* GuccioneCoin-GCC, CoinMarketCap-rank-726, $0.00359341, {2017-10-04},
* 300 Token-300, CoinMarketCap-rank-727, $240.97, {2017-10-04},
* Coin2.1-C2, CoinMarketCap-rank-728, $0.000718682, {2017-10-04},
* Marscoin-MARS, CoinMarketCap-rank-729, $0.00253651, {2017-10-04},
* Aricoin-ARI, CoinMarketCap-rank-730, $0.000508825, {2017-10-04},
* Chronos-CRX, CoinMarketCap-rank-731, $0.00096763, {2017-10-04},
* MACRON-MCRN, CoinMarketCap-rank-732, $0.00017765, {2017-10-04},
* Independent Money System-IMS, CoinMarketCap-rank-733, $0.0132675, {2017-10-04},
* Firecoin-FIRE, CoinMarketCap-rank-734, $0.718682, {2017-10-04},
* CacheCoin-CACH, CoinMarketCap-rank-735, $0.0167708, {2017-10-04},
* Bitzeny-ZNY, CoinMarketCap-rank-736, $0.000930059, {2017-10-04},
* KibiCoin-KIC, CoinMarketCap-rank-737, $0.00475246, {2017-10-04},
* Argentum-ARG, CoinMarketCap-rank-738, $0.00841933, {2017-10-04},
* DIBCOIN-DIBC, CoinMarketCap-rank-739, $0.0138265, {2017-10-04},
* BipCoin-BIP, CoinMarketCap-rank-740, $0.0422754, {2017-10-04},
* Catcoin-CAT, CoinMarketCap-rank-741, $0.0113298, {2017-10-04},
* Jin Coin-JIN, CoinMarketCap-rank-742, $0.00690408, {2017-10-04},
* SecureCoin-SRC, CoinMarketCap-rank-743, $0.00828257, {2017-10-04},
* Bitcoin 21-XBTC21, CoinMarketCap-rank-744, $0.0847199, {2017-10-04},
* GoldPieces-GP, CoinMarketCap-rank-745, $0.0550455, {2017-10-04},
* Ammo Rewards-AMMO, CoinMarketCap-rank-746, $0.000845508, {2017-10-04},
* AntiBitcoin-ANTI, CoinMarketCap-rank-747, $0.00376251, {2017-10-04},
* SpaceCoin-SPACE, CoinMarketCap-rank-748, $0.00330782, {2017-10-04},
* PLNcoin-PLNC, CoinMarketCap-rank-749, $0.00380479, {2017-10-04},
* BitcoinTX-BTX, CoinMarketCap-rank-750, $0.000778846, {2017-10-04},
* ICOBID-ICOB, CoinMarketCap-rank-751, $0.000591856, {2017-10-04},
* Vector-VEC2, CoinMarketCap-rank-752, $0.00380479, {2017-10-04},
* Spots-SPT, CoinMarketCap-rank-753, $0.00274278, {2017-10-04},
* CorgiCoin-CORG, CoinMarketCap-rank-754, $0.0000490641, {2017-10-04},
* Quatloo-QTL, CoinMarketCap-rank-755, $0.00791912, {2017-10-04},
* SOILcoin-SOIL, CoinMarketCap-rank-756, $0.0106541, {2017-10-04},
* Sativacoin-STV, CoinMarketCap-rank-757, $0.00854027, {2017-10-04},
* Dreamcoin-DRM, CoinMarketCap-rank-758, $0.0244215, {2017-10-04},
* RedCoin-RED, CoinMarketCap-rank-759, $0.000803233, {2017-10-04},
* ChanCoin-4CHN, CoinMarketCap-rank-760, $0.00892618, {2017-10-04},
* Kurrent-KURT, CoinMarketCap-rank-761, $0.00596083, {2017-10-04},
* Sling-SLING, CoinMarketCap-rank-762, $0.0543618, {2017-10-04},
* Gapcoin-GAP, CoinMarketCap-rank-763, $0.0049885, {2017-10-04},
* AgrolifeCoin-AGLC, CoinMarketCap-rank-764, $0.00875101, {2017-10-04},
* Halcyon-HAL, CoinMarketCap-rank-765, $0.0108225, {2017-10-04},
* Franko-FRK, CoinMarketCap-rank-766, $0.0853498, {2017-10-04},
* Unrealcoin-URC, CoinMarketCap-rank-767, $0.00769412, {2017-10-04},
* SecretCoin-SCRT, CoinMarketCap-rank-768, $0.0127249, {2017-10-04},
* Tattoocoin (Standard Edition)-TSE, CoinMarketCap-rank-769, $0.000582812, {2017-10-04},
* PonziCoin-PONZI, CoinMarketCap-rank-770, $0.0598197, {2017-10-04},
* BillaryCoin-BLRY, CoinMarketCap-rank-771, $0.00553808, {2017-10-04},
* Rimbit-RBT, CoinMarketCap-rank-772, $0.00043014, {2017-10-04},
* Torcoin-TOR, CoinMarketCap-rank-773, $0.152176, {2017-10-04},
* Marijuanacoin-MAR, CoinMarketCap-rank-774, $0.0370844, {2017-10-04},
* ARbit-ARB, CoinMarketCap-rank-775, $0.00612993, {2017-10-04},
* WARP-WARP, CoinMarketCap-rank-776, $0.0411762, {2017-10-04},
* Qibuck Asset-QBK, CoinMarketCap-rank-777, $0.0298125, {2017-10-04},
* AllSafe-ASAFE2, CoinMarketCap-rank-778, $0.00554364, {2017-10-04},
* BenjiRolls-BENJI, CoinMarketCap-rank-779, $0.00218524, {2017-10-04},
* Global Tour Coin-GTC, CoinMarketCap-rank-780, $0.00147964, {2017-10-04},
* Jewels-JWL, CoinMarketCap-rank-781, $0.00215605, {2017-10-04},
* Digital Rupees-DRS, CoinMarketCap-rank-782, $0.0000845508, {2017-10-04},
* SixEleven-611, CoinMarketCap-rank-783, $0.101472, {2017-10-04},
* Useless Ethereum Token-UET, CoinMarketCap-rank-784, $0.0105558, {2017-10-04},
* GBCGoldCoin-GBC, CoinMarketCap-rank-785, $0.00365214, {2017-10-04},
* Money-$$$, CoinMarketCap-rank-786, $0.000902486, {2017-10-04},
* RonPaulCoin-RPC, CoinMarketCap-rank-787, $0.0466904, {2017-10-04},
* Gold Pressed Latinum-GPL, CoinMarketCap-rank-788, $0.169059, {2017-10-04},
* JobsCoin-JOBS, CoinMarketCap-rank-789, $0.000380479, {2017-10-04},
* Allion-ALL, CoinMarketCap-rank-790, $0.00641088, {2017-10-04},
* PopularCoin-POP, CoinMarketCap-rank-791, $0.0000116909, {2017-10-04},
* Kittehcoin-MEOW, CoinMarketCap-rank-792, $0.0000016388, {2017-10-04},
* Uro-URO, CoinMarketCap-rank-793, $0.0320112, {2017-10-04},
* FlavorCoin-FLVR, CoinMarketCap-rank-794, $0.00184869, {2017-10-04},
* Comet-CMT, CoinMarketCap-rank-795, $0.0438583, {2017-10-04},
* Philosopher Stones-PHS, CoinMarketCap-rank-796, $0.0155996, {2017-10-04},
* BeaverCoin-BVC, CoinMarketCap-rank-797, $0.0120107, {2017-10-04},
* BiosCrypto-BIOS, CoinMarketCap-rank-798, $0.00176866, {2017-10-04},
* Eryllium-ERY, CoinMarketCap-rank-799, $0.007546, {2017-10-04},
* MindCoin-MND, CoinMarketCap-rank-800, $0.00287473, {2017-10-04},
* MiloCoin-MILO, CoinMarketCap-rank-801, $0.00329748, {2017-10-04},
* Creatio-XCRE, CoinMarketCap-rank-802, $0.00169102, {2017-10-04},
* Neuro-NRO, CoinMarketCap-rank-803, $0.00126826, {2017-10-04},
* TAGRcoin-TAGR, CoinMarketCap-rank-804, $0.000857939, {2017-10-04},
* SoonCoin-SOON, CoinMarketCap-rank-805, $0.00265167, {2017-10-04},
* Zayedcoin-ZYD, CoinMarketCap-rank-806, $0.00528443, {2017-10-04},
* Orlycoin-ORLY, CoinMarketCap-rank-807, $0.000887783, {2017-10-04},
* VIP Tokens-VIP, CoinMarketCap-rank-808, $0.000385681, {2017-10-04},
* TajCoin-TAJ, CoinMarketCap-rank-809, $0.00433022, {2017-10-04},
* Hexx-HXX, CoinMarketCap-rank-810, $0.0213914, {2017-10-04},
* G3N-G3N, CoinMarketCap-rank-811, $0.00405844, {2017-10-04},
* KingN Coin-KNC, CoinMarketCap-rank-812, $15.1346, {2017-10-04},
* Photon-PHO, CoinMarketCap-rank-813, $0.0000015518, {2017-10-04},
* BumbaCoin-BUMBA, CoinMarketCap-rank-814, $0.00135369, {2017-10-04},
* CompuCoin-CPN, CoinMarketCap-rank-815, $0.00152701, {2017-10-04},
* Pulse-PULSE, CoinMarketCap-rank-816, $0.00207275, {2017-10-04},
* Artex Coin-ATX, CoinMarketCap-rank-817, $0.00155557, {2017-10-04},
* BitCoal-COAL, CoinMarketCap-rank-818, $0.00617221, {2017-10-04},
* VapersCoin-VPRC, CoinMarketCap-rank-819, $0.0000353519, {2017-10-04},
* Destiny-DES, CoinMarketCap-rank-820, $0.0171336, {2017-10-04},
* Cabbage-CAB, CoinMarketCap-rank-821, $0.00260402, {2017-10-04},
* BitQuark-BTQ, CoinMarketCap-rank-822, $0.00380479, {2017-10-04},
* Blackstar-BSTAR, CoinMarketCap-rank-823, $0.0000429734, {2017-10-04},
* Steps-STEPS, CoinMarketCap-rank-824, $0.00143736, {2017-10-04},
* ZetaMicron-ZMC, CoinMarketCap-rank-825, $0.0000442213, {2017-10-04},
* Debitcoin-DBTC, CoinMarketCap-rank-826, $0.00146179, {2017-10-04},
* GameBet Coin-GBT, CoinMarketCap-rank-827, $0.00122599, {2017-10-04},
* Ride My Car-RIDE, CoinMarketCap-rank-828, $0.000253652, {2017-10-04},
* LeaCoin-LEA, CoinMarketCap-rank-829, $0.0000845722, {2017-10-04},
* Concoin-CONX, CoinMarketCap-rank-830, $0.0336512, {2017-10-04},
* Revenu-REV, CoinMarketCap-rank-831, $0.0205145, {2017-10-04},
* Solarflarecoin-SFC, CoinMarketCap-rank-832, $0.00154358, {2017-10-04},
* Beatcoin-XBTS, CoinMarketCap-rank-833, $0.0140838, {2017-10-04},
* Luna Coin-LUNA, CoinMarketCap-rank-834, $0.0131584, {2017-10-04},
* BlazeCoin-BLZ, CoinMarketCap-rank-835, $0.0000332850, {2017-10-04},
* Metal Music Coin-MTLMC3, CoinMarketCap-rank-836, $0.000253652, {2017-10-04},
* Printerium-PRX, CoinMarketCap-rank-837, $0.00169224, {2017-10-04},
* AnarchistsPrime-ACP, CoinMarketCap-rank-838, $0.00439664, {2017-10-04},
* Magnum-MGM, CoinMarketCap-rank-839, $0.00494622, {2017-10-04},
* iBank-IBANK, CoinMarketCap-rank-840, $0.00406269, {2017-10-04},
* Impact-IMX, CoinMarketCap-rank-841, $0.000167193, {2017-10-04},
* SongCoin-SONG, CoinMarketCap-rank-842, $0.000549264, {2017-10-04},
* FuzzBalls-FUZZ, CoinMarketCap-rank-843, $0.00363568, {2017-10-04},
* Cashcoin-CASH, CoinMarketCap-rank-844, $0.000634131, {2017-10-04},
* DAPPSTER-DLISK, CoinMarketCap-rank-845, $0.000171692, {2017-10-04},
* 1CRedit-1CR, CoinMarketCap-rank-846, $0.19399, {2017-10-04},
* Xonecoin-XOC, CoinMarketCap-rank-847, $0.0405844, {2017-10-04},
* SocialCoin-SOCC, CoinMarketCap-rank-848, $0.0122873, {2017-10-04},
* Wexcoin-WEX, CoinMarketCap-rank-849, $0.0676406, {2017-10-04},
* OsmiumCoin-OS76, CoinMarketCap-rank-850, $0.0183898, {2017-10-04},
* Dix Asset-DIX, CoinMarketCap-rank-851, $0.0000001622, {2017-10-04},
* CRTCoin-CRT, CoinMarketCap-rank-852, $0.202922, {2017-10-04},
* RSGPcoin-RSGP, CoinMarketCap-rank-853, $9.30059, {2017-10-04},
* EGO-EGO, CoinMarketCap-rank-854, $0.000258412, {2017-10-04},
* ImpulseCoin-IMPS, CoinMarketCap-rank-855, $0.000765181, {2017-10-04},
* Dollar Online-DOLLAR, CoinMarketCap-rank-856, $0.0203767, {2017-10-04},
* BowsCoin-BSC, CoinMarketCap-rank-857, $0.0027479, {2017-10-04},
* PosEx-PEX, CoinMarketCap-rank-858, $0.00621448, {2017-10-04},
* LetItRide-LIR, CoinMarketCap-rank-859, $0.000422754, {2017-10-04},
* Speedcash-SCS, CoinMarketCap-rank-860, $0.0550849, {2017-10-04},
* High Voltage-HVCO, CoinMarketCap-rank-861, $0.00934229, {2017-10-04},
* Vault Coin-VLTC, CoinMarketCap-rank-862, $0.000449311, {2017-10-04},
* DPAY-DPAY, CoinMarketCap-rank-863, $0.000169102, {2017-10-04},
* Save and Gain-SANDG, CoinMarketCap-rank-864, $0.00422647, {2017-10-04},
* BioBar-BIOB, CoinMarketCap-rank-865, $0.0143314, {2017-10-04},
* CCMiner-CCM100, CoinMarketCap-rank-866, $0.00367621, {2017-10-04},
* BnrtxCoin-BNX, CoinMarketCap-rank-867, $0.000525544, {2017-10-04},
* Cthulhu Offerings-OFF, CoinMarketCap-rank-868, $0.004554, {2017-10-04},
* Slevin-SLEVIN, CoinMarketCap-rank-869, $0.000169102, {2017-10-04},
* Zonecoin-ZNE, CoinMarketCap-rank-870, $0.00452347, {2017-10-04},
* Shilling-SH, CoinMarketCap-rank-871, $0.00240717, {2017-10-04},
* SydPak-SDP, CoinMarketCap-rank-872, $0.0546198, {2017-10-04},
* BBQCoin-BQC, CoinMarketCap-rank-873, $0.00017136, {2017-10-04},
* Antilitecoin-ALTC, CoinMarketCap-rank-874, $0.000253652, {2017-10-04},
* Bitvolt-VOLT, CoinMarketCap-rank-875, $0.000507305, {2017-10-04},
* NodeCoin-NODC, CoinMarketCap-rank-876, $0.00405844, {2017-10-04},
* Argus-ARGUS, CoinMarketCap-rank-877, $0.00589892, {2017-10-04},
* Rawcoin-XRC, CoinMarketCap-rank-878, $0.00956329, {2017-10-04},
* GeertCoin-GEERT, CoinMarketCap-rank-879, $0.00126826, {2017-10-04},
* P7Coin-P7C, CoinMarketCap-rank-880, $0.000169102, {2017-10-04},
* UCoin-U, CoinMarketCap-rank-881, $0.0021823, {2017-10-04},
* BurstOcean-OCEAN, CoinMarketCap-rank-882, $0.0274543, {2017-10-04},
* Sojourn-SOJ, CoinMarketCap-rank-883, $0.0110149, {2017-10-04},
* Selfiecoin-SLFI, CoinMarketCap-rank-884, $0.0000427916, {2017-10-04},
* JIO Token-JIO, CoinMarketCap-rank-885, $0.0024097, {2017-10-04},
* Enigma-XNG, CoinMarketCap-rank-886, $0.208037, {2017-10-04},
* BTCDragon-DRAGON, CoinMarketCap-rank-887, $0.00798198, {2017-10-04},
* MantraCoin-MNC, CoinMarketCap-rank-888, $0.000676406, {2017-10-04},
* Elysium-ELS, CoinMarketCap-rank-889, $0.000591856, {2017-10-04},
* Future Digital Currency-FDC, CoinMarketCap-rank-890, $0.000845508, {2017-10-04},
* PizzaCoin-PIZZA, CoinMarketCap-rank-891, $0.00164874, {2017-10-04},
* Powercoin-PWR, CoinMarketCap-rank-892, $0.0000422754, {2017-10-04},
* Californium-CF, CoinMarketCap-rank-893, $0.0187703, {2017-10-04},
* MikeTheMug-MUG, CoinMarketCap-rank-894, $0.00177843, {2017-10-04},
* Ebittree Coin-EBT, CoinMarketCap-rank-895, $0.00118489, {2017-10-04},
* Xiaomicoin-MI, CoinMarketCap-rank-896, $0.0000033215, {2017-10-04},
* Environ-ENV, CoinMarketCap-rank-897, $0.0000072302, {2017-10-04},
* Digital Credits-DGCS, CoinMarketCap-rank-898, $0.000126826, {2017-10-04},
* Abncoin-ABN, CoinMarketCap-rank-899, $0.00986313, {2017-10-04},
* CaliphCoin-CALC, CoinMarketCap-rank-900, $0.00228031, {2017-10-04},
* Xenixcoin-XEN, CoinMarketCap-rank-901, $0.0105428, {2017-10-04},
* InfChain-INF, CoinMarketCap-rank-902, $0.00766733, {2017-10-04},
* DynamicCoin-DMC, CoinMarketCap-rank-903, $1.00001, {2017-10-04},
* Tezos (Pre-Launch)-XTZ, CoinMarketCap-rank-904, $2.11982, {2017-10-04},
* ATBCoin-ATB, CoinMarketCap-rank-905, $0.854936, {2017-10-04},
* Kolion-KLN, CoinMarketCap-rank-906, $1.52339, {2017-10-04},
* MSD-MSD, CoinMarketCap-rank-907, $0.0847622, {2017-10-04},
* Pura-PURA, CoinMarketCap-rank-908, $0.425624, {2017-10-04},
* Fargocoin-FRGC, CoinMarketCap-rank-909, $7.58191, {2017-10-04},
* eBoost-EBST, CoinMarketCap-rank-910, $0.143736, {2017-10-04},
* Voise-VOISE, CoinMarketCap-rank-911, $0.0127205, {2017-10-04},
* Sphre AIR -XID, CoinMarketCap-rank-912, $0.291213, {2017-10-04},
* Ormeus Coin-ORME, CoinMarketCap-rank-913, $0.75926, {2017-10-04},
* Gokucoin-GOKU, CoinMarketCap-rank-914, $0.019936, {2017-10-04},
* eBTC-EBTC, CoinMarketCap-rank-915, $0.0442758, {2017-10-04},
* Macro-MCR, CoinMarketCap-rank-916, $5.06793, {2017-10-04},
* GulfCoin-MGC, CoinMarketCap-rank-917, $0.00473485, {2017-10-04},
* Cobinhood-COB, CoinMarketCap-rank-918, $0.0538569, {2017-10-04},
* BuzzCoin-BUZZ, CoinMarketCap-rank-919, $0.000809043, {2017-10-04},
* ClubCoin-CLUB, CoinMarketCap-rank-920, $0.38985, {2017-10-04},
* BTCGold-XBG, CoinMarketCap-rank-921, $0.00786323, {2017-10-04},
* Infinity Economics-XIN, CoinMarketCap-rank-922, $0.0192822, {2017-10-04},
* Attention Token of Media-ATM, CoinMarketCap-rank-923, $0.0263894, {2017-10-04},
* NamoCoin-NAMO, CoinMarketCap-rank-924, $0.000295914, {2017-10-04},
* Lampix-PIX, CoinMarketCap-rank-925, $0.0952757, {2017-10-04},
* bitqy-BQ, CoinMarketCap-rank-926, $0.0219693, {2017-10-04},
* DeusCoin-DEUS, CoinMarketCap-rank-927, $0.549538, {2017-10-04},
* Storjcoin X-SJCX, CoinMarketCap-rank-928, $0.51948, {2017-10-04},
* Golos Gold-GBG, CoinMarketCap-rank-929, $0.0902106, {2017-10-04},
* Rivetz-RVT, CoinMarketCap-rank-930, $0.536697, {2017-10-04},
* TechShares-THS, CoinMarketCap-rank-931, $0.529216, {2017-10-04},
* RHFCoin-RHFC, CoinMarketCap-rank-932, $0.00177557, {2017-10-04},
* ColossusCoinXT-COLX, CoinMarketCap-rank-933, $0.00025333, {2017-10-04},
* Magnetcoin-MAGN, CoinMarketCap-rank-934, $0.997573, {2017-10-04},
* Indorse Token-IND, CoinMarketCap-rank-935, $0.108083, {2017-10-04},
* DFSCoin-DFS, CoinMarketCap-rank-936, $0.0254324, {2017-10-04},
* YOYOW-YOYOW, CoinMarketCap-rank-937, $0.0417395, {2017-10-04},
* XTD Coin-XTD, CoinMarketCap-rank-938, $0.000126826, {2017-10-04},
* AdCoin-ACC, CoinMarketCap-rank-939, $0.262493, {2017-10-04},
* Social-SCL, CoinMarketCap-rank-940, $0.269605, {2017-10-04},
* President Trump-PRES, CoinMarketCap-rank-941, $0.00996542, {2017-10-04},
* Bitcloud-BTDX, CoinMarketCap-rank-942, $0.427489, {2017-10-04},
* Huncoin-HNC, CoinMarketCap-rank-943, $0.000845508, {2017-10-04},
* OX Fina-OX, CoinMarketCap-rank-944, $0.0160647, {2017-10-04},
* Chronologic-DAY, CoinMarketCap-rank-945, $8.36869, {2017-10-04},
* Pirate Blocks-SKULL, CoinMarketCap-rank-946, $0.00382149, {2017-10-04},
* Aureus-AURS, CoinMarketCap-rank-947, $3.53021, {2017-10-04},
* Bolenum-BLN, CoinMarketCap-rank-948, $0.0223758, {2017-10-04},
* WA Space-WA, CoinMarketCap-rank-949, $0.0150923, {2017-10-04},
* Wi Coin-WIC, CoinMarketCap-rank-950, $0.0109552, {2017-10-04},
* LandCoin-LDCN, CoinMarketCap-rank-951, $0.002134, {2017-10-04},
* SIGMAcoin-SIGMA, CoinMarketCap-rank-952, $0.0498466, {2017-10-04},
* GanjaCoin-MRJA, CoinMarketCap-rank-953, $0.0325943, {2017-10-04},
* UG Token-UGT, CoinMarketCap-rank-954, $0.302012, {2017-10-04},
* International Diamond-XID, CoinMarketCap-rank-955, $0.00604538, {2017-10-04},
* Masternodecoin-MTNC, CoinMarketCap-rank-956, $0.126784, {2017-10-04},
* Quotient-XQN, CoinMarketCap-rank-957, $0.0137395, {2017-10-04},
* PayPeer-PAYP, CoinMarketCap-rank-958, $0.0000845508, {2017-10-04},
* Bitcoin Unlimited (Futures)-BTU, CoinMarketCap-rank-959, $420.3, {2017-10-04},
* India Coin-INDIA, CoinMarketCap-rank-960, $0.000295928, {2017-10-04},
* STEX-STEX, CoinMarketCap-rank-961, $0.126952, {2017-10-04},
* KexCoin-KEXCOIN, CoinMarketCap-rank-962, $10.5689, {2017-10-04},
* HODL Bucks-HDLB, CoinMarketCap-rank-963, $0.212518, {2017-10-04},
* Cyder-CYDER, CoinMarketCap-rank-964, $0.00126826, {2017-10-04},
* EDRCoin-EDRC, CoinMarketCap-rank-965, $0.0365444, {2017-10-04},
* Tyrocoin-TYC, CoinMarketCap-rank-966, $0.223933, {2017-10-04},
* Target Coin-TGT, CoinMarketCap-rank-967, $0.017509, {2017-10-04},
* GeyserCoin-GSR, CoinMarketCap-rank-968, $0.0245197, {2017-10-04},
* Smart Investment Fund Token-SIFT, CoinMarketCap-rank-969, $4.72077, {2017-10-04},
* Kayicoin-KAYI, CoinMarketCap-rank-970, $0.00108348, {2017-10-04},
* MorningStar-MRNG, CoinMarketCap-rank-971, $0.00287473, {2017-10-04},
* Alphabit-ABC, CoinMarketCap-rank-972, $10.5718, {2017-10-04},
* BatCoin-BAT, CoinMarketCap-rank-973, $0.0000021024, {2017-10-04},
* Ethereum Movie Venture-EMV, CoinMarketCap-rank-974, $0.661693, {2017-10-04},
* AmsterdamCoin-AMS, CoinMarketCap-rank-975, $0.00357204, {2017-10-04},
* Paccoin-PAC, CoinMarketCap-rank-976, $0.0000001295, {2017-10-04},
* First Bitcoin Capital-BITCF, CoinMarketCap-rank-977, $0.274959, {2017-10-04},
* Internet of Things-XOT, CoinMarketCap-rank-978, $760.957, {2017-10-04},
* President Johnson-GARY, CoinMarketCap-rank-979, $0.121034, {2017-10-04},
* TeraCoin-TERA, CoinMarketCap-rank-980, $0.0000422754, {2017-10-04},
* Sakuracoin-SKR, CoinMarketCap-rank-981, $0.00122598, {2017-10-04},
* T-coin-TCOIN, CoinMarketCap-rank-982, $0.0000845508, {2017-10-04},
* TeslaCoilCoin-TESLA, CoinMarketCap-rank-983, $0.786788, {2017-10-04},
* PeopleCoin-MEN, CoinMarketCap-rank-984, $0.000972334, {2017-10-04},
* Flash-FLASH, CoinMarketCap-rank-985, $0.00372024, {2017-10-04},
* Ergo-EFYT, CoinMarketCap-rank-986, $7.37374, {2017-10-04},
* StrongHands-SHND, CoinMarketCap-rank-987, $0.0000000398, {2017-10-04},
* Facecoin-FC, CoinMarketCap-rank-988, $0.0167133, {2017-10-04},
* Zilbercoin-ZBC, CoinMarketCap-rank-989, $0.0290499, {2017-10-04},
* LePen-LEPEN, CoinMarketCap-rank-990, $0.0000436419, {2017-10-04},
* RabbitCoin-RBBT, CoinMarketCap-rank-991, $0.0000236580, {2017-10-04},
* Qora-QORA, CoinMarketCap-rank-992, $0.106724, {2017-10-04},
* Regacoin-REGA, CoinMarketCap-rank-993, $0.00333976, {2017-10-04},
* Voyacoin-VOYA, CoinMarketCap-rank-994, $2.83664, {2017-10-04},
* TodayCoin-TODAY, CoinMarketCap-rank-995, $0.00105689, {2017-10-04},
* iQuant-IQT, CoinMarketCap-rank-996, $0.341442, {2017-10-04},
* Etherx-ETX, CoinMarketCap-rank-997, $2.12493, {2017-10-04},
* Coupecoin-COUPE, CoinMarketCap-rank-998, $0.0000122150, {2017-10-04},
* Mind Gene-MG, CoinMarketCap-rank-999, $0.0114144, {2017-10-04},
* Antimatter-ANTX, CoinMarketCap-rank-1000, $0.0000420340, {2017-10-04},
* Aseancoin-ASN, CoinMarketCap-rank-1001, $0.00173329, {2017-10-04},
* Bankcoin-B@, CoinMarketCap-rank-1002, $0.591164, {2017-10-04},
* BetaCoin-BET, CoinMarketCap-rank-1003, $0.00965545, {2017-10-04},
* SnakeEyes-SNAKE, CoinMarketCap-rank-1004, $0.0520145, {2017-10-04},
* Bubble-BUB, CoinMarketCap-rank-1005, $0.0760957, {2017-10-04},
* MarxCoin-MARX, CoinMarketCap-rank-1006, $0.00141085, {2017-10-04},
* AMIS-AMIS, CoinMarketCap-rank-1007, $969.398, {2017-10-04},
* Suretly-SUR, CoinMarketCap-rank-1008, $3.49044, {2017-10-04},
* Dashs-DASHS, CoinMarketCap-rank-1009, $0.034539, {2017-10-04},
* Pabyosi Coin (Special)-PCS, CoinMarketCap-rank-1010, $0.0830289, {2017-10-04},
* GAY Money-GAY, CoinMarketCap-rank-1011, $0.0212223, {2017-10-04},
* AvatarCoin-AV, CoinMarketCap-rank-1012, $0.0294237, {2017-10-04},
* AsicCoin-ASC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1013, $0.00105988, {2017-10-04},
* BRAT-BRAT, CoinMarketCap-rank-1014, $0.000202817, {2017-10-04},
* GoldMaxCoin-GMX, CoinMarketCap-rank-1015, $0.00118371, {2017-10-04},
* RoyalCoin-ROYAL, CoinMarketCap-rank-1016, $0.00342431, {2017-10-04},
* Yescoin-YES, CoinMarketCap-rank-1017, $0.0000027681, {2017-10-04},
* LeviarCoin-XLC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1018, $0.033495, {2017-10-04},
* Animecoin-ANI, CoinMarketCap-rank-1019, $0.000126826, {2017-10-04},
* UR-UR, CoinMarketCap-rank-1020, $0.000590951, {2017-10-04},
* Sharkcoin-SAK, CoinMarketCap-rank-1021, $0.00266535, {2017-10-04},
* Wowecoin-WEC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1022, $0.116, {2017-10-04},
* RubleBit-RUBIT, CoinMarketCap-rank-1023, $0.00288718, {2017-10-04},
* FireFlyCoin-FFC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1024, $0.0000845508, {2017-10-04},
* Cubits-QBT, CoinMarketCap-rank-1025, $0.00122504, {2017-10-04},
* UNCoin-UNC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1026, $0.0000422754, {2017-10-04},
* 9COIN-9COIN, CoinMarketCap-rank-1027, $0.00507305, {2017-10-04},
* ZenGold-ZENGOLD, CoinMarketCap-rank-1028, $0.0417873, {2017-10-04},
* GoldUnionCoin-GUC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1029, $0.508108, {2017-10-04},
* Cashme-CME, CoinMarketCap-rank-1030, $0.0000845508, {2017-10-04},
* netBit-NBIT, CoinMarketCap-rank-1031, $0.0251116, {2017-10-04},
* Bitok-BITOK, CoinMarketCap-rank-1032, $0.0000418436, {2017-10-04},
* PeepCoin-PCN, CoinMarketCap-rank-1033, $0.0000101643, {2017-10-04},
* MobileCash-MBL, CoinMarketCap-rank-1034, $0.000718682, {2017-10-04},
* SoulCoin-SOUL, CoinMarketCap-rank-1035, $0.0000422754, {2017-10-04},
* Halloween Coin-HALLO, CoinMarketCap-rank-1036, $0.000212876, {2017-10-04},
* UniversalRoyalCoin-UNRC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1037, $0.000845508, {2017-10-04},
* RichCoin-RICHX, CoinMarketCap-rank-1038, $0.00486167, {2017-10-04},
* Blockchain Index-BLX, CoinMarketCap-rank-1039, $1.23151, {2017-10-04},
* Elacoin-ELC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1040, $0.0865884, {2017-10-04},
* IrishCoin-IRL, CoinMarketCap-rank-1041, $0.00160647, {2017-10-04},
* BestChain-BEST, CoinMarketCap-rank-1042, $0.000908706, {2017-10-04},
* MMXVI-MMXVI, CoinMarketCap-rank-1043, $0.00211377, {2017-10-04},
* FrankyWillCoin-FRWC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1044, $0.00249425, {2017-10-04},
* Wink-WINK, CoinMarketCap-rank-1045, $0.000236868, {2017-10-04},
* Motocoin-MOTO, CoinMarketCap-rank-1046, $0.00241, {2017-10-04},
* Royalties-XRY, CoinMarketCap-rank-1047, $0.0289406, {2017-10-04},
* Tellurion-TELL, CoinMarketCap-rank-1048, $0.0000845508, {2017-10-04},
* Bitcedi-BXC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1049, $0.00227601, {2017-10-04},
* TrickyCoin-TRICK, CoinMarketCap-rank-1050, $0.00596083, {2017-10-04},
* Granite-GRN, CoinMarketCap-rank-1051, $0.0106957, {2017-10-04},
* Topaz Coin-TOPAZ, CoinMarketCap-rank-1052, $0.0450225, {2017-10-04},
* Clinton-CLINT, CoinMarketCap-rank-1053, $0.00604538, {2017-10-04},
* Skeincoin-SKC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1054, $0.00228287, {2017-10-04},
* PokeCoin-POKE, CoinMarketCap-rank-1055, $0.0000845508, {2017-10-04},
* CyberCoin-CC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1056, $0.0000845508, {2017-10-04},
* MoneyCoin-MONEY, CoinMarketCap-rank-1057, $0.0000422754, {2017-10-04},
* The Vegan Initiative-XVE, CoinMarketCap-rank-1058, $0.000273267, {2017-10-04},
* Mavro-MAVRO, CoinMarketCap-rank-1059, $0.00553808, {2017-10-04},
* BlazerCoin-BLAZR, CoinMarketCap-rank-1060, $0.000630182, {2017-10-04},
* Advanced Internet Blocks-AIB, CoinMarketCap-rank-1061, $0.00670133, {2017-10-04},
* Wowcoin-WOW, CoinMarketCap-rank-1062, $0.0000845598, {2017-10-04},
* Global Business Revolution-GBRC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1063, $0.0000845508, {2017-10-04},
* ATMCoin-ATMC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1064, $0.845508, {2017-10-04},
* SportsCoin-SPORT, CoinMarketCap-rank-1065, $0.000634131, {2017-10-04},
* Neptune Classic-NTCC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1066, $0.000211377, {2017-10-04},
* Excelcoin-EXL, CoinMarketCap-rank-1067, $0.000253652, {2017-10-04},
* Hyper-HYPER, CoinMarketCap-rank-1068, $0.0229909, {2017-10-04},
* KashhCoin-KASHH, CoinMarketCap-rank-1069, $0.0000985890, {2017-10-04},
* Primulon-PRIMU, CoinMarketCap-rank-1070, $0.000110901, {2017-10-04},
* AlpaCoin-APC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1071, $0.244989, {2017-10-04},
* SHACoin-SHA, CoinMarketCap-rank-1072, $0.000803233, {2017-10-04},
* VegasCoin-VGC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1073, $0.000676406, {2017-10-04},
* FutCoin-FUTC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1074, $0.00152191, {2017-10-04},
* Bitgem-BTG, CoinMarketCap-rank-1075, $0.677458, {2017-10-04},
* Donationcoin-DON, CoinMarketCap-rank-1076, $0.000422754, {2017-10-04},
* Happy Creator Coin-HCC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1077, $0.000338203, {2017-10-04},
* Protean-PRN, CoinMarketCap-rank-1078, $0.0000422754, {2017-10-04},
* PinkDog-PDG, CoinMarketCap-rank-1079, $0.000169102, {2017-10-04},
* First Bitcoin-BIT, CoinMarketCap-rank-1080, $0.0113721, {2017-10-04},
* Quebecoin-QBC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1081, $0.000845508, {2017-10-04},
* Fazzcoin-FAZZ, CoinMarketCap-rank-1082, $0.00255517, {2017-10-04},
* Safe Trade Coin-XSTC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1083, $0.0000422754, {2017-10-04},
* PiCoin-PI, CoinMarketCap-rank-1084, $0.0126826, {2017-10-04},
* Digital Bullion Gold-DBG, CoinMarketCap-rank-1085, $0.00245197, {2017-10-04},
* TurboCoin-TURBO, CoinMarketCap-rank-1086, $0.0000422754, {2017-10-04},
* Lazaruscoin-LAZ, CoinMarketCap-rank-1087, $0.00147964, {2017-10-04},
* TheCreed-TCR, CoinMarketCap-rank-1088, $0.000253652, {2017-10-04},
* Aces-ACES, CoinMarketCap-rank-1089, $0.00019326, {2017-10-04},
* ZSEcoin-ZSE, CoinMarketCap-rank-1090, $0.00448119, {2017-10-04},
* PrismChain-PRM, CoinMarketCap-rank-1091, $0.000845508, {2017-10-04},
* TopCoin-TOP, CoinMarketCap-rank-1092, $0.000760957, {2017-10-04},
* Fonziecoin-FONZ, CoinMarketCap-rank-1093, $0.000295928, {2017-10-04},
* CBD Crystals-CBD, CoinMarketCap-rank-1094, $0.00131054, {2017-10-04},
* LinkedCoin-LKC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1095, $0.000169102, {2017-10-04},
* Axiom-AXIOM, CoinMarketCap-rank-1096, $0.0080746, {2017-10-04},
* InvisibleCoin-IVZ, CoinMarketCap-rank-1097, $0.380648, {2017-10-04},
* Xaucoin-XAU, CoinMarketCap-rank-1098, $0.0214336, {2017-10-04},
* DarkLisk-DISK, CoinMarketCap-rank-1099, $0.000634131, {2017-10-04},
* Avoncoin-ACN, CoinMarketCap-rank-1100, $0.000338203, {2017-10-04},
* WeAreSatoshi-WSX, CoinMarketCap-rank-1101, $0.00152191, {2017-10-04},
* UtaCoin-UTA, CoinMarketCap-rank-1102, $0.00228287, {2017-10-04},
* Birds-BIRDS, CoinMarketCap-rank-1103, $0.000169102, {2017-10-04},
* Moneta-MONETA, CoinMarketCap-rank-1104, $0.000295928, {2017-10-04},
* LAthaan-LTH, CoinMarketCap-rank-1105, $0.000338203, {2017-10-04},
* OCOW-OCOW, CoinMarketCap-rank-1106, $0.00329748, {2017-10-04},
* Bongger-BGR, CoinMarketCap-rank-1107, $0.0000641409, {2017-10-04},
* X2-X2, CoinMarketCap-rank-1108, $0.0000845508, {2017-10-04},
* Victoriouscoin-VTY, CoinMarketCap-rank-1109, $0.0000422754, {2017-10-04},
* BitCentavo-NBE, CoinMarketCap-rank-1110, $0.0000026437, {2017-10-04},
* UGAIN-GAIN, CoinMarketCap-rank-1111, $0.000171821, {2017-10-04},
* Golfcoin-GOLF, CoinMarketCap-rank-1112, $0.0000441708, {2017-10-04},
* SafeCoin-SFE, CoinMarketCap-rank-1113, $0.0000441827, {2017-10-04},
* XDE II-XDE2, CoinMarketCap-rank-1114, $1.63284, {2017-10-04},
* DeltaCredits-DCRE, CoinMarketCap-rank-1115, $0.114041, {2017-10-04},
* TeamUp-TEAM, CoinMarketCap-rank-1116, $0.000126239, {2017-10-04},
* BitAlphaCoin-BAC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1117, $0.00295703, {2017-10-04},
* Sync-SYNC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1118, $190.077, {2017-10-04},
* BagCoin-BGC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1119, $0.000741343, {2017-10-04},
* Peacecoin-PEC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1120, $0.0126535, {2017-10-04},
* FiboCoins-FBC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1121, $0.000751326, {2017-10-04},
* Opescoin-OPES, CoinMarketCap-rank-1122, $0.00115747, {2017-10-04},
* Operand-OP, CoinMarketCap-rank-1123, $0.00125657, {2017-10-04},
* Rcoin-RCN, CoinMarketCap-rank-1124, $0.0000429639, {2017-10-04},
* AxFunds-AXF, CoinMarketCap-rank-1125, $0.068043, {2017-10-04},
* Fuda Energy-FEI, CoinMarketCap-rank-1126, $0.00120212, {2017-10-04},
* SuperTurboStake-STRB, CoinMarketCap-rank-1127, $0.0000427916, {2017-10-04},
* Tattoocoin (Limited Edition)-TLE, CoinMarketCap-rank-1128, $0.126941, {2017-10-04},
* Psilocybin-PSY, CoinMarketCap-rank-1129, $0.0118792, {2017-10-04},
* GameLeagueCoin-GML, CoinMarketCap-rank-1130, $0.00603443, {2017-10-04},
* Opal-OPAL, CoinMarketCap-rank-1131, $0.0113957, {2017-10-04},
* Omicron-OMC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1132, $0.203463, {2017-10-04},
* ShellCoin-SHELL, CoinMarketCap-rank-1133, $0.0275796, {2017-10-04},
* EggCoin-EGG, CoinMarketCap-rank-1134, $0.0167526, {2017-10-04},
* HBCoin-HBC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1135, $0.000240424, {2017-10-04},
* Gycoin-GYC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1136, $0.000830838, {2017-10-04},
* Karmacoin-KARMA, CoinMarketCap-rank-1137, $0.0000429425, {2017-10-04},
* Dubstep-DUB, CoinMarketCap-rank-1138, $0.00106866, {2017-10-04},
* BITFID-FID, CoinMarketCap-rank-1139, $0.0862618, {2017-10-04},
* Digitalfund-DTF, CoinMarketCap-rank-1140, $0.000450796, {2017-10-04},
* Cycling Coin-CYC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1141, $0.00130572, {2017-10-04},
* MIYUCoin-MIU, CoinMarketCap-rank-1142, $0.0000431067, {2017-10-04},
* Cheapcoin-CHEAP, CoinMarketCap-rank-1143, $0.000129107, {2017-10-04},
* TerraNova-TER, CoinMarketCap-rank-1144, $15.917, {2017-10-04},
* Asset Backed Coin-ABC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1145, $0.102137, {2017-10-04},
* microCoin-MRC, CoinMarketCap-rank-1146, $0.0000440024, {2017-10-04},
* RoyalCoin 2-RYCN, CoinMarketCap-rank-1147, $0.00140934, {2017-10-04},
* FedoraShare-FEDS, CoinMarketCap-rank-1148, $0.0000081216, {2017-10-04},
* Yogold-YOG, CoinMarketCap-rank-1149, $0.00070467, {2017-10-04},
* Nexxus-NXX, CoinMarketCap-rank-1150, $0.00295089, {2017-10-04},
* Lepaoquan-HLB, CoinMarketCap-rank-1151, $0.00215339, {2017-10-04},
* Quartz-QRZ, CoinMarketCap-rank-1152, $0.0000368235, {2017-10-04},


* McsEngl.Autoasset.aggregate,

* circulating-supply,
* total-supply,
* max-supply,


The crypto-currency’s market capitalisation is roughly 0.25 per cent of the $73 trillion global stocks market, 0.083 per cent of the $217 trillion global real estate market and 0.033 per cent of the $544 trillion global derivatives market.
[ {2017-12-23}]



· chain-networks[a] to exist, need an incentive mechanism.
· they[a] create an internal digital exchange-value-unit[b] and reward with it[b] the-nodes that append the-chain with the new transactions using the-consensus-algorithm.
· this exchange-value-unit[b] is the-consensus-chain-asset.

* McsEngl.Autoasset.appending!⇒appending-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.Autoasset.consensus!⇒appending-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.Autoasset.native!⇒appending-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.Autoasset.protocol!⇒appending-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.appending-Autoasset, {2019-04-14},
* McsEngl.appending-token--of-Dnchain!⇒appending-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.chain-appending-asset!⇒appending-Autoasset, {2019-03-10},
* McsEngl.consensus-Evu--of-Dnchain!⇒appending-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.consensus-token--of-Dnchain!⇒appending-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.native-token--of-Dnchain!⇒appending-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.platform-token--of-Dnchain!⇒appending-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.protocol-token--of-Dnchain!⇒appending-Autoasset,

* blockchain-appending-asset,
* dagchain-appending-asset,
* consensus-currency,


· appendingNo-chain-asset is a-chain-asset which is-not-used as incentive in the-appending-algorithm.
"To sum up, some of the key differences between a digital token and a digital coin are as follows:
1. Digital coins have their blockchain network, but tokens are built upon an existing blockchain.
2. Digital coins can be used for processing payments, but tokens are suitable for multiple needs.
3. Digital coins are more difficult to create than tokens that can be built based on existing blockchain like Ethereum.
Digital coins are mostly distributed through mining, while tokens became popular through ICOs."

* McsEngl.appendingNo-chain-asset,
* McsEngl.chain-appendingNo-asset,
* McsEngl.Autoasset.appendingNo,


đ-currency is a-đ-asset which is:
* COMMODITY: the-đ-asset is backed with a-satisfier,
* ADOPTED: the more people use it, the strongest its position in the-market is-becoming,
* SCARE: has a known quantity,
* FUNGIBLE: mutually interchangeable,
· a-đ-currency like any currency, MUST have low volatility.
"A medium of exchange is an intermediary used in trade to avoid the inconveniences of a pure barter system". []

* McsEngl.Automoney!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.Autosoc'att009-money!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.Autosoc'money!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.Autoasset.currency!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.Autoasset.medium-of-exchange!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.Dcurrency!⇒DeCurrency, {2019-04-01},
* McsEngl.Dmoney!⇒DeCurrency, {2018-12-26},
* McsEngl.Dtcc-currency!⇒DeCurrency, {2018-05-10},
* McsEngl.Dtchain-currency!⇒DeCurrency, {2018-05-10},
* McsEngl.autonomated-currency!⇒DeCurrency, {2019-07-13},
* McsEngl.autonomous-currency!⇒DeCurrency, {2024-01-14},
* McsEngl.autonomous-trust--currency!⇒DeCurrency, {2019-07-13},
* McsEngl.chain-currency!⇒DeCurrency, {2018-01-26},
* McsEngl.crypto-chain--currency!⇒DeCurrency, {2018-05-22},
* McsEngl.crypto-currency!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.crypto--medium-of-exchange!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.cryptoasset--medium-of-exchange!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.cryptocash!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.cryptocoin!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.cryptocurrency!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.currency-token!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.d-stroke-small-currency!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.decentralized-cryptocurrency!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.decentralized-currency!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.decentralized-money!⇒DeCurrency, {2018-07-29},
* McsEngl.decentralized-trust-chain--currency!⇒DeCurrency, {2018-05-10},
* McsEngl.Dmoe!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.Dtcc-Moe!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.Dtcc-Moe-(cryptocurrency)!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.MoeCrypto!⇒DeCurrency, {2017-12-10},
* McsEngl.medium-of-exchange--cryptoasset!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.medium-of-exchange.cryptoasset!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.medium-of-exchange.token!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.medium-of-exchange.Đ-chain!⇒DeCurrency,
*!⇒DeCurrency, {2018-07-29},
* McsEngl.token--medium-of-exchange!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.tx-chain--medium-of-exchange!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.đ-currency!⇒DeCurrency, {2017-12-11},
* McsEngl.đ-currency-(decentralized-chain--currency)!⇒DeCurrency,
*!⇒DeCurrency, [literature]
* McsEngl.payment-token!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.VC-(Virtual-currency-[literature])!⇒DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.virtual-currency-[literature]!⇒DeCurrency,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.Ανόμισμα,
* McsElln.αποκεντρωτικό-νόμισμα,
* McsElln.αποκεντρωτικό-χρήμα,
* McsElln.αυτόνομης-εμπιστοσύνης--νόμισμα, {2019-07-13},
* McsElln.αυτόνομο-νόμισμα, {2019-07-13},
* McsElln.κρυπτονόμισμα,
* McsElln.νόμισμα--αυτόνομης-εμπιστοσύνης, {2019-07-13},

adoption of DeCurrency

The economist Hyman Minsky espoused the maxim that ‘everyone can create (issue) money, the problem is getting it accepted’.

* McsEngl.acceptance-of-DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.adoption-of-DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.DeCurrency'adoption,

* {2019-02-09},
* {2018-08-23} Richard-Black, Massive Worldwide Cryptocurrency Adoption is about to take place — But not in the way you think it will!,,

backness of DeCurrency

· only the-consensus--chain-currencies are backed by the-system itself.
· all the-others must-be-backe with a-commodity.

* McsEngl.backness-of-DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.DeCurrency'backness,

* backness-of-asset,

exchangeability of DeCurrency

· exchangeability with goods and services and other currencies is of the most important attribute a-đ-currency must-have.

* McsEngl.DeCurrency'exchangeability,
* McsEngl.DeCurrency'redeemability,
* McsEngl.exchangeability-of-DeCurrency,

* Convertibility to national currency: People-Powerd-Money,

cost-of-operation of DeCurrency

Just like conventional money systems, community currencies' operational costs require sustained funding.
The running costs of mainstream money often go unnoticed as they are built into the financial system as a whole, with mechanisms such as bank service charges, subscription for accounts and penalty fees raising funds to maintain operations.
"By A report by JPMorgan suggests that for over four weeks during the fourth quarter, bitcoin’s market price was lower than its mining costs on average.
According to the JPMorgan analysts, the cost of mining bitcoin during Q4 was averaging about $4,060 around the world, Bloomberg reports. According to them, starting late November when the price of bitcoin went below $4,000, it became uneconomical to mine bitcoin."

* McsEngl.DeCurrency'cost-of-operation,
* McsEngl.cost-of-operation--of-DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.operational-cost--of-DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.running-cost--of-DeCurrency,

price of DeCurrency

* McsEngl.DeCurrency'price,
* McsEngl.price-of-DeCurrency,

* price-of--chain-asset,

volatility of DeCurrency

If a-đ-currency has big volatility, it is NOT a viable currency.

* McsEngl.DeCurrency'volatility,
* McsEngl.volatility-of-DeCurrency,

info-resource of DeCurrency

* McsEngl.DeCurrency'Infrsc,
* McsEngl.resource-of-DeCurrency,

* {2019-06-29},
* {2018-08-15} Ana-Alexandre, Venezuela to Use Petro as Unit of Account for Salaries, Goods and Services,,
* {2018-04-12} James-Seibel, The Dai Stablecoin is a Game Changer for Ethereum and the Entire Cryptocurrency Ecosystem,,
* {2017-12-23} Yanis Varoufakis: 'Bitcoin is the perfect bubble, but blockchain is a remarkable solution',
* {2017-11-02} Future of Digital Currency May Not Involve Blockchains:,
* {2017-10-17} V-Buterin: On Medium-of-Exchange Token Valuations:,
=== BOOK:
People-Powered-Money {2015}: Designing, developing and delivering community currencies,

SERVICE of DeCurrency

· a-đ-asset is đ-currency if it is a universal medium-of-exchange in a-community (local, national, international).
· but this is its primary function because they can-have much more.

* McsEngl.DeCurrency'service,
* McsEngl.function-of-DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.service-of-DeCurrency,

* medium-of-exchange,
* store-of-value,
* unit-of-account,
* medium-of-control,

objective of DeCurrency

· objectives are the achievable, desired services.

* McsEngl.DeCurrency'objective,
* McsEngl.goal-of-DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.objective-of-DeCurrency,

unit-of-account- of DeCurrency

· unit-of-account-function is a-service of đ-currency, if the-đ-currency is-used as a-unit-of-measurment of exchange-value in a-society.

* McsEngl.DeCurrency'unit-of-account--service,
* McsEngl.unit-of-account--service-of-DeCurrency,

medium-of-control of DeCurrency

· medium-of-control-function is a-service of đ-currency, if the-đ-currency is-used to control people.

* McsEngl.DeCurrency'medium-of-control--service,
* McsEngl.medium-of-control--service-of-DeCurrency,

evaluation of DeCurrency

* McsEngl.DeCurrency'evaluation,

* freedom,
* irreversability,
* security,
* speed,

* adoption,
* volatility,

creating of DeCurrency

* McsEngl.DeCurrency'creating,
* McsEngl.DeCurrency'issuance,
* McsEngl.creating-DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.issuance-of-DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.production-of-DeCurrency,

* Issuance of community-currency: People-Powered-Money,

distributing of DeCurrency

To Varoufakis, money is inherently political.
The decisions regarding whether money is produced or not, how it is distributed and who receives it, all have significant political consequences, benefiting certain social groups over others.
Bitcoin’s central design feature, that it is not governed by a central bank or decision-making authority, means that responsibility for its distribution is forfeited.

* McsEngl.allocating-DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.DeCurrency'distributing,
* McsEngl.distributing-DeCurrency,

WHOLE of DeCurrency

* đ-currency-network,


* McsEngl.DeCurrency.specific,

* DeCurrency.International,
* DeCurrency.National,
* DeCurrency.Local,
* blockchain-DeCurrency,
* Dagchain-DeCurrency,
* DeCurrency.Discount,
* Bitcoin-BTC,
* Ethereum-ETH,


* international-DeCurrency,
* national-DeCurrency,
* community-DeCurrency,

* McsEngl.DeCurrency.spec-div.adoption,


* dominant-đ-currency,
* dominantNo-DeCurrency,

* McsEngl.DeCurrency.spec-div.dominancy,


* McsEngl.DeCurrency.backed-with-commodity,

* {2019-05-23} Helen-Partz,,
* {2019-02-24} Yashu-Gola, Russia to Regulate Crypto While Launching its Own Oil-Backed Cryptocurrency,,
* {2019-02-03} Francisco-Memoria, Iran Launches Gold-Backed Cryptocurrency 'PayMon',,


Đ-networks[a] to exist, need an incentive mechanism.
They[a] create an internal medium-of-exchange (digital exchange-value-unit)[b] and reward with it[b] the-nodes that append with the new transactions the-Đ-chain using the-consensus-algorithm.
This medium-of-exhange is the-consensus-cryptocurrency.

* McsEngl.DeCurrency.consensus,
* McsEngl.consensus-cryptocurrency,

* consensus--chain-asset,


Đ-networks, by solving the-double-spending-problem, can-create and other DCurrencies except consensus-one.
The-backness of these consensusNo-DCurrencies is the-entity that gives them exchange-value.

* McsEngl.DeCurrency.consensusNo,
* McsEngl.consensusNo-cryptocurrency,


· Legal-tender cryptocurrency.

· national-cryptocurrency is an-antiphasis if with 'cryptocurrency' we mean a-currency in a-decentralized-trust-and-crypto-chain--network.
"Putin answered by first explaining that Russia cannot have its own cryptocurrency, as cryptocurrency “by definition” cannot be owned by a centralized state, since it “goes beyond borders.”"

* McsEngl.CBDC!=Central-Bank-Digital-Currency,
* McsEngl.DeCurrency.central-bank!⇒CBDC,
* McsEngl.DeCurrency.dominant!⇒CBDC,
* McsEngl.DeCurrency.national!⇒CBDC,
* McsEngl.DeService.Central-bank--cryptocurrency!⇒CBDC,
* McsEngl.DeService.government-cryptocurrency!⇒CBDC,
* McsEngl.central-bank-digital-currency!⇒CBDC,
* McsEngl.conventional-DeCurrency!⇒CBDC,
* McsEngl.dominant-DeCurrency!⇒CBDC,
* McsEngl.government-DeCurrency!⇒CBDC,
* McsEngl.government-cryptocurrency!⇒CBDC,
* McsEngl.national-DeCurrency!⇒CBDC,
* McsEngl.national-cryptocurrency!⇒CBDC,
* McsEngl.mainstream-DeCurrency!⇒CBDC,
* McsEngl.state-issued-DeCurrency!⇒CBDC,

"Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) refers to the digital form of a country's fiat currency, which is issued and regulated by the nation's central bank. Unlike cryptocurrencies that operate on decentralized networks, CBDCs are centralized and are considered legal tender by the government. There are several potential advantages and reasons for countries to explore CBDCs:
1. **Efficiency and Lower Costs**: CBDCs can potentially enable faster and cheaper transactions, especially across borders. They can streamline payment systems and reduce reliance on intermediaries, lowering transaction fees.
2. **Financial Inclusion**: By providing a digital means of payment, CBDCs can help include unbanked or underbanked populations in the financial system. People without access to traditional banking services can participate in the digital economy with greater ease.
3. **Enhanced Security**: Being backed by the central bank, CBDCs offer a secure and stable digital payment option. They can be designed with advanced security features to protect against fraud and cyber-attacks.
4. **Monetary Policy Implementation**: CBDCs give central banks a new tool for implementing monetary policy. They can be used to directly influence spending and saving behaviors through programmable features.
5. **Combat Illicit Activities**: Digital currencies can offer improved traceability of transactions, helping combat financial crimes like money laundering and terrorism financing.
Countries are at various stages of CBDC development, from research and development to pilot projects, and in some cases, full deployment. The specific features and uses of CBDCs can vary significantly depending on the country's goals, regulatory environment, and existing financial infrastructure.
It's worth noting that the introduction of CBDCs also raises concerns about privacy, cybersecurity, and the potential impact on the traditional banking system. Balancing these considerations is a key challenge for policymakers."
[{2024-03-30 retrieved}]

* National--cryptocurrency-network,

info-resource of CBDC

* {2021-07-28} YANIS-VAROUFAKIS,
* {2021-07-27} Florian-Zandt,,
* {2019-11-10}, (part of its paper-money will-be-digitized with blockchain),
* {2018-05-22} Avi-Rosten, Marshall Islands Officially Make Crypto Their Sovereign National Currency,,
* {2018-05-21} Rainer-Michael-Preiss, National Government Digital Currencies Versus Globally Distributed Cryptocurrencies: in Depth,,
* {2018-02-28} New “Sovereign” Cryptocurrency Will Be Legal Tender in the Marshall Islands:,
* {2017-12-24} Israel Government Considering National Cryptocurrency: (A digital currency, registered with the government of Israel, would make black market transactions less possible.),
* {2017-10-19} Vitalik Buterin: Central Banks Lack Ability to Create their Own Digital Currencies:,
* {2017-10-17} WISeKey Introduces WISeCoin, a Cryptocurrency platform to enable countries to launch their own Cryptocurrencies Combining National Identities with Crypto Wallets:,
* {2017-10-15} BREAKING: Russia Issuing ‘CryptoRuble’:,
* {2017-09-25} Governments Are Testing Their Own Cryptocurrencies:,
* {2017-05-15} Palestine May Launch Its Own Cryptocurrency as Sovereign Legal Tender:,
* {2016-11-27} Senegal Introduces Cryptocurrency Based on its National Currency:,

* McsEngl.CBDC'Infrsc,

doing of CBDC


* McsEngl.CBDC'doing,
* McsEngl.DeService.government-currency,

evoluting of CBDC

"Up until now, only five countries have launched their own CBDC. DCash is available in St. Kitts and Nevis, Antigua and Barbuda, St. Lucia and Grenada as of March 2021, and the Bahamas’ Sand Dollar has been around since 2019."
[{2021-07-27} Florian-Zandt,]

"Up until now, only five countries have launched their own CBDC. DCash is available in St. Kitts and Nevis, Antigua and Barbuda, St. Lucia and Grenada as of March 2021, and the Bahamas’ Sand Dollar has been around since 2019."
[{2021-07-27} Florian-Zandt,]

* McsEngl.evoluting-of-CBDC,
* McsEngl.CBDC'evoluting,


"Up until now, only five countries have launched their own CBDC. DCash is available in St. Kitts and Nevis, Antigua and Barbuda, St. Lucia and Grenada as of March 2021, and the Bahamas’ Sand Dollar has been around since 2019."
[{2021-07-27} Florian-Zandt,]

* McsEngl.CBDC.specific,


"Digital renminbi (Chinese: 数字人民币; also abbreviated as digital RMB and e-CNY),[1] or Digital Currency Electronic Payment (DCEP, Chinese: 数字货币电子支付; pinyin: Shùzì huòbì diànzǐ zhīfù), is a central bank digital currency issued by China's central bank, the People's Bank of China.[2] It is the first digital currency to be issued by a major economy, undergoing public testing as of April 2021.[2][3] The digital RMB is legal tender[4] and has equivalent value with other forms of renminbi, also known as the Chinese yuan (CNY), such as bills and coins.[2]
The digital yuan is designed to move instantaneously in both domestic and international transactions.[2][5] It aims to be cheaper and faster than existing financial transactions.[2] The technology enables transactions to take place between two offline devices.[6][7]
The digital renminbi is seen by some commentators as a form of Chinese government surveillance and control over users and their financial transactions.[2][8]"
[{2024-03-04 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.CBDC.renminbi!⇒EvuDrmb,
* McsEngl.DCEP!=Digital-Currency-Electronic-Payment!⇒EvuDrmb,
* McsEngl.Digital-Currency-Electronic-Payment!⇒EvuDrmb,
* McsEngl.EvuDrmb!=digital-renminbi,
* McsEngl.e-CHY!⇒EvuDrmb,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.shùzì-rénmínbì-数字人民币!=EvuDrmb,
* McsZhon.数字人民币-shùzì-rénmínbì!=EvuDrmb,

">digital RMB:
Digital RMB, also known as the Digital Yuan or e-CNY, is the digital currency issued by the People's Bank of China (PBOC). It represents a digital version of the yuan, China's national currency, and is part of a broader initiative by the Chinese government to digitize its currency system. The digital RMB is designed to replace some of the cash in circulation, offering a more efficient, secure, and controlled mechanism for currency distribution and transaction.
Here are some key points about the digital RMB:
1. **Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC):** The digital RMB is an example of a Central Bank Digital Currency, which means it is issued and regulated by the country's central bank, ensuring its value is as stable as the physical currency.
2. **Not Cryptocurrency:** Unlike cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin or Ethereum, the digital RMB operates in a centralized system under the control of the PBOC. It does not use blockchain technology as a core for its operation but may incorporate certain elements of it for security and traceability.
3. **Privacy and Control:** The PBOC has stated that the digital RMB offers "controllable anonymity." Transactions can be made anonymously to a certain extent, but the government has the ability to track transactions for purposes such as combating money laundering, terrorism financing, and tax evasion.
4. **International Ambitions:** China aims to internationalize the yuan, and the digital RMB could play a significant role in this effort. It has the potential to facilitate cross-border transactions, reduce reliance on the global dollar system, and increase the yuan's usage in international trade and investment.
5. **Pilot Programs:** The digital RMB has been undergoing trials in several cities across China, where users can download a digital wallet app authorized by the PBOC to participate in transactions. These trials cover a wide range of use cases, from retail purchases to bill payments and transportation.
6. **Global Implications:** The introduction and potential international expansion of the digital RMB may have significant implications for global finance, potentially challenging the dominance of the US dollar in international transactions and reshaping the international financial landscape.
As the digital RMB continues to develop, its impact on domestic and international finance, digital currencies, and the broader economic landscape will be closely watched by governments, financial institutions, and international bodies around the world."
[{2024-03-30 retrieved}]


Complementary currencies are designed to sit alongside mainstream money to address objectives that the conventional money system can't.

* McsEngl.DeCurrency.dominantNo,
* McsEngl.complementary-DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.non-dominant-DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.parallel-DeCurrency,


* McsEngl.transnational-DeCurrency,


Community and complementary currencies
Although often used interchangeably, ‘community currency’ and ‘complementary currency’ strictly refer to subtly different phenomena.
Complementary currencies are designed to sit alongside mainstream money to address objectives that the conventional money system can't.
Community currencies - the prime subject of this book - are a subset of complementary currencies that are tied to a specific, demarcated and limited community.
This community could be, for example, geographical (local currencies); business-based (mutual­credit systems); or even online (digital currencies).
As such, a community currency is designed to meet the needs of this defined community, typically on a not-for-profit basis.
[People-Powerd-Money, {2015}]



"Privacy coin is defined as a cryptocurrency that hides data about its users. At a minimum, privacy coins hide identities. They also often hide the amount of cryptocurency traded and held in wallets.
Bitcoin is not a true privacy coin. Bitcoin users are identified by their public address and computer programs exist which can, in time, link those addresses to actual identities. Bitcoin transactions and wallets are also publicly visible data.
Nevertheless, there are many privacy coins. Zcash, Dash, and Monero are the 3 most popular options, but there are dozens more."

* McsEngl.DeCurrency.privacy,
* McsEngl.privacy-DeCurrency,



"First, what the heck is a stablecoin? In my own words, a stablecoin is a cryptocurrency that attempts to peg or fix a price to an external asset or currency. The most popular stablecoin is currently Tether, which pegs to $1USD. Most stablecoins have similar pegs to EUR, JPY, CNY, or fixed assets such as gold or silver. Some hope to eventually peg to some sort of CPI basket to protect against inflation."

* McsEngl.DeCurrency.stable!⇒stable-DeCurrency,
* McsEngl.stable-DeCurrency, {2019-04-11},
* McsEngl.stablecoin!⇒stable-DeCurrency,

info-resource of stable-DeCurrency

* McsEngl.stable-DeCurrency'Infrsc,

* Chronobank-Labour-Hour,
* {2019-04-28},
* {2019-03-20} Market-Mad-House,,
* {2019-01-24},


* McsEngl.stable-DeCurrency.specific,

=== USD:
* USDT-Tether,
* DAI-MakerDAO,
* GUSD-Gemini-Dollar,,
* USDC-USD-Coin,
=== EUR:
* Chronobank-Labour-Hour,


Non-medium-of-exchange is a-cryptoasset which is NOT a-medium-of-exhange.

* McsEngl.Autoasset.currencyNo!⇒DcurrencyNo,
* McsEngl.chain-currencyNo, {2019-03-09},
* McsEngl.cryptocurrencyNo!⇒DcurrencyNo,
* McsEngl.d-stroke-small-currencyNo!⇒DcurrencyNo,
* McsEngl.non-medium-of-exchange--of-txchain!⇒DcurrencyNo,
* McsEngl.token-of-txchain!⇒DcurrencyNo, [literature, CoinMarketCup]
* McsEngl.chain-currencyNo!⇒DcurrencyNo,


· claim-đ-asset is a-đ-asset if it creates a-claim for the-buyer and a-liability for the-seller.
· examples are debt-based and ownership-of-companies-based đ-assets.

* McsEngl.Autoasset.claim,
* McsEngl.Autoasset.liability,
* McsEngl.claim-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.liability-Autoasset,


* McsEngl.Autoasset.claimNo,
* McsEngl.Autoasset.liabilityNo,
* McsEngl.claimNo-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.liabilityNo-Autoasset,


· mutually interchangeable.

* McsEngl.Autoasset.fungible,
* McsEngl.fungible-Autoasset,


· Autoassets that can-NOT-be-exchanged for one another with no further considerations.
"NFTs are digital certificates of authenticity issued by their creators. As the owner of an NFT, you control where it is seen, if it can be transferred, when it is resold, and more. NFTs can fluctuate in value just like any other scarce asset or collectible.
NFTs “verify” content by minting it on the blockchain. The blockchain is a decentralized system of computers that is open for anyone to participate in. When you mint an NFT on the blockchain, essentially everyone in that system is saying “yep, this is the one!"
[{2021-05-31 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Autoasset.fungibleNo,
* McsEngl.ERC721,
* McsEngl.NFT'(Non-Fungible-Token),
* McsEngl.fungibleNo-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.non-fungible-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.non-fungible-token,

* {2021-05-31 retrieved},
* {2017-12-23} Gerald-Nash, The Anatomy of ERC721: Understanding Non-Fungible Ethereum Tokens:,


· we can-evaluate a-đ-asset as a-security, ONLY IF we have a-DEFINITION of security.
· such a-definition does-NOT-exist, only descriptions.
· take as example the-description of UN-SNA-2008:
"11.33 Financial claims can be distinguished as to whether they are negotiable or not.
A claim is negotiable if its legal ownership is readily capable of being transferred from one unit to another unit by delivery or endorsement.
While any financial instrument can potentially be traded, negotiable instruments are designed to be traded on organized and other markets.
Negotiability is a matter of the legal form of the instrument.
Those financial claims that are negotiable are referred to as securities.
Some securities may be legally negotiable, but there is not, in fact, a liquid market where they can be readily bought or sold.
Securities include shares and debt securities; listed financial derivatives, such as warrants, are sometimes considered to be securities."
· the same source-of-information, in paragraph 11.32, insists that the-ambiquity is-needed "because of financial inovation".
Security Tokens are digital assets subject to federal security regulations. In layman terms, they are the intersection of digital assets (tokens) with traditional financial products — a new technology improving old things.
If cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin are considered “programmable money” then you can consider Security Tokens a version of “programmable ownership.” This means that any asset with ownership can and will be tokenized (public & private equities, debt, real estate, etc).

* McsEngl.chain-security-Evu,
* McsEngl.đ-security!⇒chain-security-Evu,

2 Categories of Tokens
Utility Tokens: Digital coins used to transfer value or gain access to decentralized networks.
Security Tokens: Digital coins that represent shares in traditional financial assets.

* {2018-06-07} Derek-Edward-Schloss (Blockchain Author-Lawyer @derekedws), What the !@#$ is a Security Token?,,
* {2018-06-06} Adrian-Ciaffoncini, How Security Tokens Will Transform Traditional Finance,,


=== Michael Novogratz: Security Tokens will be a big story in 2018:


Equity tokens offer the right to co-ownership of a system. If necessary, equity tokens can be split into three elements — ownership, revenue, and governance.
Keep in mind that all equity products are securities and must comply with the laws of the jurisdiction in which they are offered and registered, and in many cases with the jurisdiction of the buyers as well.
... In September 2016, Lykke Corp issued its own equity as tokens on the blockchain. I haven’t done extensive research, but I believe this was the world’s first equity offering using blockchain technology.
... While an ICO can be the right tool for project finance, it’s generally the wrong tool for company finance. Why? Because projects have a dedicated outcome or goal, and the money goes to achieve that goal or fail, whereas companies often pivot, create new product lines, cross categories, and may have several projects going at any one time.
[{2017-11-06} David-Siegel, Equity Token Finance,]
Everyone is trying to avoid being an equity token because of the SEC, yet this is the type of token most people would probably most like to buy.
An equity token implies ownership and control.
Somewhat like a traditional stock, an equity token buys you into some level of ownership of an organization and it’s success.
To some extent, all tokens could be seen as having some equity like properties. []

* McsEngl.Autoasset.equity,
* McsEngl.equity-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.equity-token,
* McsEngl.share-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.stock-Autoasset,

* {2018-04-17} Dave-Sag, Tokenising Shares: Introducing ERC-884,,
* {2017-11-06} David-Siegel, Equity Token Finance,,


Ethereum was one the first major projects to implement founder’s tokens. The project was outlined by Vitalik Buterin in late 2013. He believed that Bitcoin needed a scripting language for application development. After failing to gain agreement, Vitalik joined Mihai Alisie, Anthony Diiorio, and Charles Hoskinson to develop Ethereum in early 2014.
The team went on to develop a series of proof-of-concepts. This process was labor-intensive and involved a certain level of risk given the were devoting their efforts to an unproven solution (Ethereum) rather than a more established protocol (Bitcoin).
The Ethereum project opted to pre-mine a certain number of tokens, distributing them to founders and employees. This no doubt helped them attract a larger, more qualified team, as well as lowered the risk of experimentation.
Since the launch of the Ethereum network, we’ve seen hundreds of developers and projects enter the blockchain space, resulting in accelerating innovation. The economic incentives of founder’s tokens are at least partially responsible for this explosion of interest and innovation.

* McsEngl.Autoasset.founder's-token,
* McsEngl.founder's-token,


Utility tokens, which may also be called app coins or app tokens, provide users with access to a product or service.
For example, Filecoin–which raised an ICO-record $257 million–plans to provide a decentralized cloud storage service that will take advantage of unused computer hard drive space.
ICO contributors received tokens that they will be able to use to purchase storage space from Filecoin once the service has launched.
Since total supply is fixed, utility tokens may appreciate over time if demand for the product or service increases.
However, investors should be wary of startups that describe their token as a utility or app coin but also market it as an investment because it is likely that regulators will consider the asset a security.
It is important to note that “utility token” is an organizational distinction–not a legal one.
The SEC has not given official guidance on utility tokens, so the industry does not [know] with certainty whether they are subject to securities regulations.
Utility Tokens are intended to provide digital access to an application or service.

* McsEngl.Autoasset.utility!⇒utility-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.consumer-token!⇒utility-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.product-or-service-Autoasset!⇒utility-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.service-or-product-Autoasset!⇒utility-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.utility-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.utility-token!⇒utility-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.đ-utility!⇒utility-Autoasset,

2 Categories of Tokens
Utility Tokens: Digital coins used to transfer value or gain access to decentralized networks.
Security Tokens: Digital coins that represent shares in traditional financial assets.
Consumer tokens — These tokens represent a unit of service in a business. They are the equivalent of consumer digital goods and the right to participate in an economy.

* {2018-04-19} Phil-J-Bonello, A Framework for Valuing Governance Tokens: 0x,,
* {2018-03-04} The Fundamental Principles of Utility Tokens in the Blockchain Ecosystem:,
* {2017-02-02} Will-Warren, The difference between App Coins and Protocol Tokens:,

tax of utility-Autoasset

· the-Republic-of-San-Marino will-treat the-utility-tokens as foreign-currency for tax purposes.

* McsEngl.utility-Autoasset'tax,


As defined in the Sweetbridge “Discount Token Whitepaper”:
In brief, discount tokens are digital assets that give their holders a limited right to receive discounts on purchases of products or services from an organization — a company, a coop, or a blockchain network.
Unlike gift cards, discount tokens are not invalidated when used (“burned” in blockchain parlance), but remain in possession of the holders. The specific size of the discount that each token realizes for its owner is designed to grow in step with the overall utilization of the network.


06_governance-system of Autonet

"Governance in a decentralized project is difficult, because by definition there are no central authorities to make decisions for the project.
In Dash, such decisions are made by the network, that is, by the owners of masternodes."
· a-chain-governance-system is a-project-governance-system and not an-organization-governance-system.
"In its purest form it[governance] describes the structures and decision-making processes that allow a state, organization or group of people to conduct affairs."
"Crypto governance encompasses polemics and debates over how we coordinate to make decisions on changing the rules of the protocol, which may include anything from minor upgrades to changing consensus algorithms to allocating block rewards and managing commonly-held treasury capital to anything else beyond and in between.
It involves many stakeholder groups such as node operators, network providers (miners or validators), core developers, end-users, speculators, and exchanges, to name a few.
These are diverse groups with varying incentives that sometimes collude and come in conflict with each other."
"Governance is the process by which people in a community:
1. Reach consensus on subjective matters of collective action that cann ot be captured entirely by software algorithms;
2. Carry out the decisions they reach; and
3. Alter the governance rules themselves via Constitutional amendments."
A chain is only as strong as its weakest link, and in a blockchain that link lies in the form of its founders.
Getting nodes to achieve consensus is easy compared to the difficulty of getting humans to achieve consensus.
The greatest challenge that new blockchains must solve isn't speed or scaling – it's governance.
[{2018-07-16} Kai-Sedgwick, Why Governance is the Greatest Problem for Blockchains To Solve,]
A governance model for a public ledger will define the rules and policies that control the evolution of the node software, issuance of coins, and the reward model by which participants are incentivized.
The stakeholders whose interests and motivations must be balanced are those running the consensus nodes, those building applications on the platform, those businesses relying on those applications, the end-users of those applications, and relevant regulatory bodies.
Why Blockchain Governance Matters
As with organisms, the most successful blockchains will be those that can best adapt to their environments.
Assuming these systems need to evolve to survive, initial design is important, but over a long enough timeline, the mechanisms for change are most important.
As a result, I believe governance is the most vital problem in the space.
While all blockchains offer financial incentives for maintaining consensus on their ledgers, no blockchain has a robust on-chain mechanism that seamlessly amends the rules governing its protocol and rewards protocol development. As a result, first-generation blockchains empower de facto, centralized core development teams or miners to formulate design choices.
Tezos takes a fundamentally different approach by creating governance rules for stakeholders to approve of protocol upgrades that are then automatically deployed on the network. When a developer proposes a protocol upgrade, they can attach an invoice to be paid out to their address upon approval and inclusion of their upgrade. This approach provides a strong incentive for participation in the Tezos core development and further decentralizes the maintenance of the network. It compensates developers with tokens that have immediate value rather than forcing them to seek corporate sponsorships, foundation salaries, or work for Internet fame alone.
Recently, new blockchains equipped with built in governance system tried to cope with this problem.
Dash is the forerunner to implement governance system in their blockchain.
Dash, who call themselves as the “First Self Governing, Self Funding Protocol”,proposed a decentralized management system based on the masternode voting mechanism in 2015.
Dash has been steadily developed using this governance system.
Recently the price of Dash surpassed over $100 {March 16th, 2017}.
A stable governance structure may be the reason for the increased value.

More and more recent cryptocurrencies have governance systems.
Qtum, a Chinese cryptocurrency, has governance system named the “Judgement Committee”.
Dfinity and Tezos also have governance systems.
Needless to say BOScoin has a governance system as well.
If these systems are implemented in blockchain, the blockchain can adjust and evolve itself according to the contemporary environment.
If these systems work successfully, we can build a true Dao(Decentralized Autonomous Organization) self-governing community which is the dream of blockchain enthusiasts.
I believe these kinds of democratic systems are the key to sustaining and growing the cryptocurrency ecosystem.
Cryptocurrencies equipped with a governance structure will be the next wave of blockchain technology.
Myung Sahn Juhn


* McsEngl.Autonet'06_governance!⇒Autonet-govc,
* McsEngl.Autonet'governance!⇒Autonet-govc,
* McsEngl.Dchain-govc!⇒Autonet-govc, {2019-04-02},
* McsEngl.Autonet-govc, {2019-06-17},
* McsEngl.Dchain-netAeGovernance-system!⇒Autonet-govc,
* McsEngl.chain-gov!⇒Autonet-govc,
* McsEngl.chain-governance!⇒Autonet-govc,
* McsEngl.decentralized-chain--governance-system!⇒Autonet-govc,
* McsEngl.governance-of-Dnchain!⇒Autonet-govc,
* McsEngl.governance-system--of-Dnchain!⇒Autonet-govc,

stakeholder of Autonet-govc (link)

automation-degree of Autonet-govc

· the-degree of on|off-chain construction.

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'automation-degree, {2019-03-17},
* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'built-in,

decentralization-degree of Autonet-govc

· in what degree the-governing is-perfomed by all its stackholders.
"The governance process is more of a human issue and if it’s not formally defined, even though the network is decentralized from an architectural standpoint, it can remain centralized in its decision-making processes.
... Leaving any selfish reasons behind, a blockchain’s governance should be as decentralized as possible in order to maximize the network’s resilience to all sorts of attacks. Sometimes, even at the expense of efficiency and innovation. With over $2 billion worth of digital assets having been stolen to date, you can’t accuse anyone of willing to be security-first!"

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'centralization-degree,
* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'decentralization-degree,
* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'inclusivity,
* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'participation-degree,

transparency-degree of Autonet-govc

· the-degree of visibility on all decisioning.

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'transparency-degree,
* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'opacity-degree,
* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'openness,

accountability of Autonet-govc

· decisioners must-be accountable to those who will-be-affected by their decisions.

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'accountability,

responsiveness of Autonet-govc

· if it is-reacting quickly and positively.

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'responsiveness,

effectiveness of Autonet-govc

· the-degree to which it is successful in producing a desired result.

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'effectiveness,

rule of Autonet-govc

· rule is a-description of a-governing-process.

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'rule,

* protocol,
* system-variables,

governing of Autonet-govc

· governing|decisioning is about controlling[a] a-chain-net.
· is this[a] decentralized or not?
· is this[a] automated and in what degree?
· decisioning is about making and implementing decisions.

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'administering!⇒Dchain-governing,
* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'controlling!⇒Dchain-governing,
* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'decisioning!⇒Dchain-governing,
* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'governing!⇒Dchain-governing,
* McsEngl.Dchain-governing, {2019-04-13},

* balancing-interests,
* coordinating,
* directing,
* dispute-managing,
* entity-changing,
* funding,
* goal-setting,
* voting,

decision-making of Autonet-govc

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'decision-making,
* McsEngl.Dchain-governing'decision-making,

deciding-on-consensus of Autonet-govc

"Deciding whether to adopt changes to the consensus rules of the network.
This is primarily what on-chain governance refers to.
Decred is the only project I know of that’s already doing this.
There is a formally defined process for changing the consensus rules, it is defined within the protocol itself.
That process involves 75% of voting tickets saying Yes to the change within a voting period of 8064 blocks (~4 weeks)."

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'deciding-on-consensus-changes,

deciding-on-fund of Autonet-govc

"Deciding how to spend a project fund.
There are quite a few blockchains now that put some proportion of the block reward into a fund for developing the project.
Most of these projects (and all of the ones I’m interested in) aspire to decentralizing control of how these funds are spent.
Dash has been doing this with a fairly simple DAO setup, operated by the votes of MasterNodes, for almost three years now."

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'deciding-on-fund-spending,

decision-implementing of Autonet-govc

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'decision-implementing,
* McsEngl.Dchain-governing'decision-implementing,

goal-setting of Autonet-govc

"he [Turner (2006)] proposes that project governance provides the structure through which the objectives of the project are set, and the means of attaining those objectives and monitoring performance are determined."

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'goal-setting,
* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'objective-setting,
* McsEngl.Dchain-governing'goal-setting,

entity-changing of Autonet-govc

· evolving the-structure and the-doings of a-chain-ecosystem.
"Vlad Zamfir's pointed denunciation of what he referred to as "Szabo's law", or the notion that changes in the underlying protocol of a decentralized network for any reason other than technical maintenance should be taboo."

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'entity-changing,
* McsEngl.Dchain-governing'entity-changing,

adapting of Autonet-govc

"As with organisms, the most successful blockchains will be those that can best adapt to their environments. Assuming these systems need to evolve to survive, initial design is important, but over a long enough timeline, the mechanisms for change are most important."

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'adapting-to-environment,
* McsEngl.Dchain-governing'adapting-to-environment,

auto-updating of Autonet-govc

whether a-new-version or policy is applied automatically or manually.
Dash has no auto-updating function so have a penalty policy to urge the masternode to maintain the latest program.

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'auto-updating,
* McsEngl.Dchain-governing'auto-updating,

directing of Autonet-govc

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'directing,
* McsEngl.Dchain-governing'directing,

problem-solving of Autonet-govc

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'problem-solving,
* McsEngl.Dchain-governing'problem-solving,

dispute-managing of Autonet-govc

"We should admit that we collectively have an obligation to manage the disputes that will arise from the operation of global public blockchains to the best of our crypto legal ability, so that as many people as possible can enjoy the benefits of global public blockchains."

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'dispute-managing,
* McsEngl.Dchain-governing'dispute-managing,

voting of Autonet-govc

"Voting is a zero-sum game, meaning that whomever wins does so at the expense of someone else.
As a result, voting promotes competition, not cooperation.
Players might coordinate as a means of gaining an edge (“if you vote for X this time, I’ll give you Y next time”), but ultimately, “winning” the vote means beating someone else."
· stake-voting is plutocratic.

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'voting,
* McsEngl.Dchain-governing'voting,

evaluation of Autonet-govc

"Blockchain governance decisions matter, because they influence how blockchains work, how they are used, and what kind of communities spring up around them. These things, in turn, affect the broader society and ultimately matter to everyone."

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'evaluation,

problem of Autonet-govc

GOVERNANCE - A general-purpose public ledger should be governed by representatives from a broad range of market sectors, each with world-class expertise in their respective industries, and also selected to provide global geographic representation for all markets. Those that are governing need technical expertise so they can competently manage the technical roadmap. They need business expertise so they can manage business operations of the organization. They need expertise in economics and currency markets so they can manage the cryptocurrency. They need legal expertise to help navigate the evolving regulatory environment. In other words, governance should be by those globally recognized as world leaders in their respective industries, and representative of every market in the world.

"Existing blockchain governance is focused on proof of work vs proof of stake, incorrectly rewarding the few at the expense of the many."

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'problem,
* McsEngl.Autonet-benefitNo.governance,


It should be also observed that existing cryptocurrencies are heterogeneous systems with clear separation of roles (transaction issuers, transaction approvers).
Such systems create unavoidable discrimination of some of their elements which in turn creates conflicts and makes all elements spend resources on conflict resolution.
[] {2016}

* McsEngl.conflict-resolution--of-Autonet,
* McsEngl.Autonet-benefitNo.conflict-resolution,

info-resource of Autonet-govc

* {2019-10-15} Daniel-Larimer,,
* {2019-05-30},
* {2019-04-16} SFOX, Bitcoin Governance: What are BIPs and how do they work?,
* {2019-04-01} Adriana-Hamacher,,
* {2019-03-31} Kirill-Shilov,,
* {2019-03-14} Banov.Martin, Szabo's Law, Crypto-Libertarianism, Techno-Utopias, & Decentralized Governance Part 1,,
* {2010-02-24},
* {2019-01-26} Zamfir.Vlad, Against Szabo’s Law, For A New Crypto Legal Systemm,,
* {2019-12-03} Matus-Steis, Governance Models of Blockchain Protocols,,
* {2018-11-28} CleanApp, The Wood-Zamfir Governance Debates,,
* {2018-10-05} Stephen-O'Neal, Corrupt Governance? What We Know About Recent EOS Scandal,,
* {2018-10-05} Vlad-Zamfir, My Intentions for Blockchain Governance,,
* {2018-09-30} Vlad-Zamfir, Blockchain Governance 101,,
* {2018-04-30} Leopold-Bosankic, Blockchain governance: takeaways from nine projects,,
* {2018-06-20} Daniel-Larimer, Decentralized Blockchain Governance,,
* {2018-06-20},
* {2018-06-08} Dean-Eigenmann, Against community governance: Highlighting my concerns for community governance and systems with no hierarchies.,
* {2018-05-23} Rachel-Rose-O'Leary, Experimental Voting Effort Aims to Break Ethereum Governance Gridlock,,
* {2018-04-26} Haseeb-Qureshi, Blockchains should not be democracies,,
* {2018-03-30} Dan-Larimer, The Limits of Crypto-economic Governance:,
* {2018-03-28} Vitalik-Buterin, Governance, Part 2: Plutocracy Is Still Bad,,
* {2018-01-11} Nadia-Eghbal, The problem with voting:,
* {2018-01-01} Dan-Larimer, Proof of Good Governance:,
* {2017-12-19} Avoiding Paralysis: Comparative Analysis of Community Governance in Digital Currencies:,
* {2017-12-17} Vitalik-Buterin, Notes on Blockchain Governance:,
* {2017-12-01} Vlad-Zamfir, Against on-chain governance:,
* {2017-11-28} Fred-Ehrsam, Blockchain Governance: Programming Our Future:,
* {2017-10-12} SmartCash Implements Community Governance, Following Dash, Others:,
* {2017-08-04} Who Should Control A Blockchain?,

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc'Infrsc,


* McsEngl.Autonet-govc.specific,

* blockchain--Autonet-govc,
* Dagchain--Autonet-govc,
* on-chain--Autonet-govc,
* on-chainNo--Autonet-govc,
* Bitcoin:  Non-systematic
* Ethereum: Non-systematic
* BOSnet:   Democratic Congress (One node = One vote)


* McsEngl.Autonet-govc.spec-div.on-automation,

* on-chain--gov,
* off-chain--gov,
* on-off-chain--gov,


· there-is NO such a-thing as "pure" or 100% on-chain--chain-gov.
· for the first time with the-chain-nets we manage to automate SOME governing-functions, to put them on-chain.
· this created the-impression that we can-automate ALL the-governance-system, without even understanding all the-attributes of such a-system.
“On-chain governance” refers to the idea that the blockchain nodes automatically upgrade when an on-chain governance process decides on an upgrade and that it’s time to install it. No hard forks required.

* McsEngl.algorithmic-governance--of-Autonet,
* McsEngl.Autonet-govc.algorithmic,
* McsEngl.Autonet-govc.automated,
* McsEngl.Autonet-govc.on-chain,
* McsEngl.Autonet'algorithmic-governance,
* McsEngl.Autonet'goverment-by-automation,
* McsEngl.Autonet'governance.on-chain,
* McsEngl.Autonet'onchain-governance,
* McsEngl.goverment-by-automation--of-Autonet,
* McsEngl.on-chain-govc,
* McsEngl.on-chain-governance,

* {2018-03-27} Will-Warren, Governance in 0x Protocol:,

voter-apathy of on-chain-govc

"or example, the Aragon AGP-5 proposal attracted voters controlling 9.30% of the circulating supply. However, in terms of participating wallet addresses, this accounted for just 0.12% (25 wallets out of over 20,000). This only goes to strengthen the case against on-chain voting as leading to plutocracy.
... There are many reasons why a stakeholder may choose not to vote; from complicated polling procedure, to lack of strong opinion or expertise on the matter in hand. Or they simply speculate on coin price and couldn’t care less about its development and future.
But when faced with a tangible incentive, more stakeholders appear to have a compelling reason to vote."

* McsEngl.on-chain-govc'voter-apathy,


"Bitcoin and Ethereum use off-chain governance where the Bitcoin Improvement Proposals (BIPs) and Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs), respectively are submitted, discussed in online meetings and if agreed upon implemented."
"With off-chain governance (the current norm), a node operator has to consciously decide whether to install a hard fork to have his node be consensus-compatible with the nodes of operators who also decided to install that hard fork.
With off-chain blockchain governance, node operators’ decision processes are absolutely necessary parts of blockchain governance, and therefore node operators are necessary participants in blockchain governance."

* McsEngl.Autonet-govc.on-chainNo,
* McsEngl.on-chainNo-governance,


* McsEngl.Autonet-govc.on-and-off-chain,
* McsEngl.Autonet'governance.on-and-off-chain,

07_program of Autonet

· DeProgram is any computer-program used in a-Đ-network.

* McsEngl.Autonet'07_program!⇒DeProgram,
* McsEngl.Autonet'program!⇒DeProgram,
* McsEngl.DeProgram, {2022-06-25},
* McsEngl.DeProgram/di-prógram/!⇒DeProgram,
* McsEngl.Dprogram!⇒DeProgram,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netAaProgram!⇒DeProgram,
* McsEngl.chain-program, {2019-03-11},
* McsEngl.decentralized-chain--program!⇒DeProgram,
* McsEngl.program.chain-network!⇒DeProgram,
* McsEngl.transaction-chain-program!⇒DeProgram,
* McsEngl.Đ-program!⇒DeProgram,


* blockchain-program,
* Dagchain--program,
* client-program,
* smart-contract,
* chain-explorer,
* DeApp,
* wallet-program,


· client-of--chain-network is a-program that implements the-protocol of a-Đ-network.

* McsEngl.client-program-of-Autonet,
* McsEngl.Autonet'client-program,
* McsEngl.DeProgram.client,

* Đ-blockchain-client,
* ĐDagchain-client,


· smart-contract is a-contract recorded on a-chain using a-programing-language that can-be-executed automatically if a-condition is met.
· Đ-smart-contract is a-contract recorded on a-Đ-chain using a-programing-language.
"A smart contract is a computer protocol with a purpose to digitally verify the negotiation of a contract. They not only define the rules and penalties related to an agreement in the same way that a traditional contract does, but it can also automatically enforce those obligations. If and when the pre-defined rules are met, the agreement is automatically enforced. The smart contract code facilitates, verifies, and enforces the negotiation or performance of an agreement or transaction. It is the simplest form of decentralized automation."
"SmartContracts aim to facilitate agreements carried out among several parties remotely, w/o the need for a legal system, lawyers or courts."

* McsEngl.Autonet'smart-contract!⇒DeContract,
* McsEngl.Autonet'on-chain-program!⇒DeContract, {2018-12-27},
* McsEngl.Dcontract!⇒DeContract, {2019-04-14},
* McsEngl.DeContract, {2022-03-01},
* McsEngl.DeContract/di-cóntrakt/!⇒DeContract,
* McsEngl.algorithmic-contract!⇒DeContract, {2024-03-04}
* McsEngl.autonomous-contract!⇒DeContract, {2019-06-16},
* McsEngl.chain-smart-contract!⇒DeContract,
* McsEngl.crypto-contract!⇒DeContract,
* McsEngl.decentralized-chain--smart-contract!⇒DeContract,
* McsEngl.decentralized-contract!⇒DeContract,
* McsEngl.programmable-contract!⇒DeContract,
* McsEngl.Đ-smart-contract!⇒DeContract,
* persistent-script, [Buterin.Vitalik]
* stored-procedure, [Zamfir.Vlad]

01_party of DeContract

· the-humans involved in the-agreement of a-smart-contract.

* McsEngl.DeContract'01_party,
* McsEngl.DeContract'att001-party,
* McsEngl.DeContract'party-att001,

02_Autoasset of DeContract

· every smart-contract involves some chain-Evus.

* McsEngl.DeContract'02_Autoasset,
* McsEngl.DeContract'att002-Autoasset,
* McsEngl.DeContract'Autoasset-att002,

03_Dnet of DeContract

* McsEngl.DeContract'03_Dnet,
* McsEngl.DeContract'att003-Dnet,
* McsEngl.DeContract'Dnet-att003,


04_rule of DeContract

· the-relations set in the-smart-contract among its parties and chain-Evus.

* McsEngl.DeContract'04_rule,
* McsEngl.DeContract'att04-rule,
* McsEngl.DeContract'rule-att04,

triggering-event of DeContract

· triggering-event is an-event i.e. deadlines that trigger the-execution of a-DeContract.

* McsEngl.DeContract'triggering-event,

05_developer of DeContract

* McsEngl.DeContract'05_developer,

06_programing-language of DeContract

* McsEngl.DeContract'06_programing-language,
* McsEngl.DeContract'att006-programing-language,
* McsEngl.DeContract'programing-language-att006,

07_doc-language of DeContract

* McsEngl.DeContract'07_doc,
* McsEngl.DeContract'att007-doc,
* McsEngl.DeContract'doc-att007,

· DeContract is a-doc written a-programing-language.

08_evaluation of DeContract

"keeping complex logic outside of blockchains is important for both security and scalability. Nodes on the network should not be required to compute complex untrusted programs just to stay synced with the network."
[ {2017-10-12}]
"Daniel Larimer @bytemaster7
The free market will determine whether people want immutable or mutable smart contracts. Many different multisig/governance policies are possible. #eosio supports both, the market will decide what works. We have all seen the chaos created by broken #ethereum immutable contracts."

* McsEngl.DeContract'08_evaluation,
* McsEngl.DeContract'att008-evaluation,
* McsEngl.DeContract'evaluation-att008,

benefit of DeContract

* McsEngl.DeContract'benefit,

* automation,
* cost-effectiveness,
* immutability,

problem of DeContract

* McsEngl.DeContract'problem,

* immutability,
* machine-readable,
* security,


· "Smart contract risk is and will be an ever-present factor in DeFi.
No matter how many times something has been audited, no matter how many eyes look at it one day a contract may be exploited.
Decide to use DeFi and plan your positions, their distribution and size accordingly."
[{2023-07-31 retrieved} Lefteris Karapetsas]

* McsEngl.DeContract'problem.risk,


"Also, the immutable nature creates another hindrance for legally binding contracts – what if a mistake is made in the contract and it needs to be corrected/amended. There is no way to change the contents of the contract."

* McsEngl.DeContract-problem.immutability,


"they are technically not legally binding agreements since they are instructions of code which is readable by machine only. This becomes one of its biggest weaknesses as well since if something goes wrong, you can’t prove malicious intent in the court of law as it is not a legally binding contract."

* McsEngl.DeContract-problem.machine-readable,

09_law of DeContract

* McsEngl.DeContract'09_law,
* McsEngl.DeContract'att009-law,
* McsEngl.DeContract'law-att009,

* {2019-02-26},


"While traditional legal contracts are ultimately enforced by coercion and the ability to physically seize assets in case one party to the contract does not fulfill their obligations, smart contracts are enforced by computers that ensure the contracts are executed exactly as they are programmed. This “self-enforcing” property of smart contracts can reduce the risk involved in certain types of contracts."

* McsEngl.DeContract'10_relation-to--legal-contract,
* McsEngl.DeContract'att010-relation-to--legal-contract,
* McsEngl.DeContract'relation-to--legal-contract-att010,

11_resource of DeContract

* McsEngl.DeContract'11_resource,
* McsEngl.DeContract'attResource,
* McsEngl.DeContract'Infrsc,

* {2020-04-25} Domain Specific Languages for smart contracts:,
* {2019-06-12} Faisal-Khan,,
* {2019-02-08},
* {2018-08-29} Mayank-Pratap, Everything You Need to Know About Smart Contracts: A Beginner’s Guide: Introducing Smart Contracts and its features in an efficient way,,
* {2018-05-23} Jack-Tanner, Indorse launches the first 100% Upgradeable Smart Contract on the Ethereum mainnet!,,
* {2018-03-05} Michiel-Mulders, Comparison of Smart Contract Platforms,,
* {2016-04-20},
* The Chainlink network provides reliable tamper-proof inputs and outputs for complex smart contracts on any blockchain,
* javascript-DeContract:,

12_structure of DeContract

* McsEngl.DeContract'12_structure,
* McsEngl.DeContract'attStructure,
* McsEngl.DeContract'structure,


13_DOING of DeContract

* McsEngl.DeContract'13_doing,
* McsEngl.DeContract'attDoing,
* McsEngl.DeContract'doing,


14_evoluting of DeContract

* McsEngl.DeContract'14_evoluting,
* McsEngl.DeContract'attEvoluting,
* McsEngl.evoluting-of-DeContract,
* McsEngl.DeContract'evoluting,

=== concept:
"Smart contracts are computer programs that can automatically execute an agreement based on programmed logic.
The concept of integrating technology and legal contracts dates back to the 1950s when scholars built computational methods that could enforce legal rules without involving traditional legal processes. Smart contracts were formally defined by Nick Szabo in 1997:
'Smart contracts combine protocols with user interfaces to formalize and secure relationships over computer networks. Objectives and principles for the design of these systems are derived from legal principles, economic theory, and theories of reliable and secure protocols'.
In recent years, blockchain technology has enabled a new breed of smart contracts with immutable storage of agreement terms, cryptographic authorization, and integrated transfers of value."

info-rescource of DeContract

* {2022-02-19},

* McsEngl.Dconctract'Infrsc,


* McsEngl.DeContract.specific,

* blockchain--smart-contract,
* Dagchain-DeContract,


"Ricardian contracts have improved on the limitations of the smart contracts by converting human-readable legal contract between multiple parties into machine-readable software code which can be executed with all the features of the smart contract."

* McsEngl.DeContract.Ricardian,


"Scatter is a multi-blockchain signature, identity, and reputation provider for Windows, Mac, Linux, Android, and iOS."

* McsEngl.DeProgram.Scatter,
* McsEngl.Scatter-desktop-program,

DeApp of Scatter

· Scatter-DeApp is a-DeApp that uses Scatter to interact with.

* McsEngl.Scatter'DeApp,


RIDL of Scatter

"Scatter's RIDL ( Reputation and Identity Layer ) allows Identities registered with it to become unique across all networks and Blockchains, gain and give reputation, and take part in a global effort to elevate the entire web's safety by creating a decentralized blacklist/whitelist of applications in a Sybil resistant manner."

* McsEngl.Scatter'RIDL,

downloading Scatter

* McsEngl.Scatter'downloading,

* (Linux, Mac, Win),

Chrome-extension of Scatter

"Can I still use the chrome extension?
We have moved away from the chrome extension to a dedicated desktop application, with mobile coming soon. The extension is still available to support systems like Chromebooks, but should not be used if you can use the desktop version. For more information about why you should no longer be using the extension read this article.
Please note that the Scatter desktop version and extension version have incompatible backup formats."
[ {2018-11-02}]

* McsEngl.Scatter'Chrome-extension,

info-resource of Scatter

* McsEngl.Scatter'Infrsc,

* importing keys:,

08_app of Autonet

McsHitp-creation:: {2016-02-24},

· Đ-app-(decentralized-crypto-chain--application) is a-Đ-program which runs on top of one or more Đ-networks usually using Đ-smart-contracts.
DeApp or decentralized-app is an-app running on a-decentralized-network.
DeApp CAN-HAVE a-front-end-code or user-interface written on any language.
Definition of a DeApp
For an application to be considered a DeApp (pronounced Dee-app, similar to Email) it must meet the following criteria:

The application must be completely open-source, it must operate autonomously, and with no entity controlling the majority of its tokens. The application may adapt its protocol in response to proposed improvements and market feedback but all changes must be decided by consensus of its users.

The application's data and records of operation must be cryptographically stored in a public, decentralized blockchain in order to avoid any central points of failure.

The application must use a cryptographic token (bitcoin or a token native to its system) which is necessary for access to the application and any contribution of value from (miners / farmers) should be rewarded in the application’s tokens.

The application must generate tokens according to a standard crytptographic algorithm acting as a proof of the value nodes are contributing to the application (Bitcoin uses the Proof of Work Algorithm).
"As opposed to traditional, centralized applications, where the backend code is running on centralized servers, dApps have their backend code running on a decentralized P2P network. Decentralized applications consist of the whole package, from backend to frontend."
"A decentralized application (DApp) uses blockchain technology for the authentication and data storage components of an application’s platform. Blockchain applications are decentralized applications, meaning they move data control and identity management from central authorities and organizations to individual users."
"What is a "decentralized" app?
Decentralized apps are a new type of software program designed to exist on the Internet in a way that is not controlled by any single entity. Where bitcoin is a decentralized value exchange, a decentralized application aims to achieve functionality beyond transactions that exchange value. Many types of decentralized apps are starting to emerge as blockchain technology continues to progress. More companies and individuals are seeing the potential for what can be achieved in decentralizing not just money but almost any type of computing imaginable.
Decentralized apps potentially represent the next generation of computing. In a completely decentralized world all things occur using peer-to-peer networks and the idea of centralized entities are non-existent. This distributed future is still being designed and built but the early stages of development are looking promising."

* McsEngl.Autonet'08_app!⇒DeApp,
* McsEngl.Autonet'app!⇒DeApp,
* McsEngl.Atapp!⇒DeApp, {2018-10-12},
* McsEngl.D-app!⇒DeApp,
* McsEngl.D-stroke-application-(Đ-app)!⇒DeApp,
* McsEngl.DApp!⇒DeApp,
* McsEngl.Dapp!⇒DeApp,
* McsEngl.DeApp, {2022-06-25},
* McsEngl.DeApp/di-ap/!⇒DeApp,
* McsEngl.DeApp!=decentralized-application,
* McsEngl.Dcc-app!⇒DeApp, {2018-01-18},
* McsEngl.Dchain-based-app!⇒DeApp,
* McsEngl.Autonet'DeApp!⇒DeApp,
* McsEngl.Dtapp!⇒DeApp,
* McsEngl.Dtcc-app!⇒DeApp,
* McsEngl.automated-trust--app!⇒DeApp, {2018-10-12},
* McsEngl.chain-DeApp, {2019-03-16},
* McsEngl.chain-app!⇒DeApp,
* McsEngl.crypto-chain--app!⇒DeApp,
* McsEngl.dApp!⇒DeApp,
* McsEngl.decentralized-application!⇒DeApp,
* McsEngl.decentralized-crypto-chain--application!⇒DeApp,
* McsEngl.decentralized-trust-and-crypto-chain--application!⇒DeApp,
* McsEngl.Đ-app!⇒DeApp,
* McsEngl.Đ-application!⇒DeApp,

01_Dchain-net of DeApp

* McsEngl.DeApp'01_Dchain-net,
* McsEngl.DeApp'att002-Dchain-net,
* McsEngl.DeApp'Dchain-net-att002,

· a-DeApp by definition works on a-Dchain-net.

02_node of DeApp

* McsEngl.DeApp'02_node,
* McsEngl.DeApp'att001-node,
* McsEngl.DeApp'node0att001,

· as-a-document has a-structure of nodes.

03_lagPrograming of DeApp

* McsEngl.DeApp'03_lagPrograming,
* McsEngl.DeApp'att003-lagPrograming,
* McsEngl.DeApp'lagPrograming-att003,


04_license of DeApp

* McsEngl.DeApp'04_license,
* McsEngl.DeApp'att007-license,
* McsEngl.DeApp'license-att007,


cost-of-usage of DeApp

"Free Usage
Application developers need the flexibility to offer users free services; users should not have to pay in order to use the platform or benefit from its services. A blockchain platform that is free to use for users will likely gain more widespread adoption. Developers and businesses can then create effective monetization strategies."

* McsEngl.DeApp'cost-of-usage,
* McsEngl.DeApp'att004-cost-of-usage,
* McsEngl.DeApp'cost-of-usage-att004,

05_human of DeApp

* McsEngl.DeApp'05_human, {2019-03-11},
* McsEngl.DeApp'att005-human,
* McsEngl.DeApp'human-att005,


* McsEngl.DeApp'developer,
* McsEngl.DeApp'human.developer,

human.END-USER of DeApp

"Support Millions of Users
Disrupting businesses such as Ebay, Uber, AirBnB, and Facebook, require blockchain technology capable of handling tens of millions of active daily users. In certain cases, applications may not work unless a critical mass of users is reached and therefore a platform that can handle mass number of users is paramount."

* McsEngl.DeApp'end-user,
* McsEngl.DeApp'user,
* McsEngl.DeApp'human.end-user,


* McsEngl.DeApp'DAU-(daily-active-user),
* McsEngl.DeApp'daily-active-user-(DAU),

* {2019-05-30} Alex-Wearn, Measuring DApp Usage,,

06_evaluation of DeApp

* McsEngl.DeApp'06_evaluation,
* McsEngl.DeApp'att006-evaluation,
* McsEngl.DeApp'evaluation-att006,

benefit of DeApp


"They are designed to avoid any single point of failure."

* McsEngl.DeApp-benefit.decentralization,

problem of DeApp


* McsEngl.DeApp'07_attMisc,
* McsEngl.DeApp'attMisc,

confidence-of-user of DeApp

"When you combine real money with a lack of undo buttons, a lack of password resets, and a lack of a central place that fixes all the problems, the risk of something going wrong increases and therefore the user’s confidence decreases."

* McsEngl.DeApp'confidence-of-user,

08_resource of DeApp

* McsEngl.DeApp'08_resource,
* McsEngl.DeApp'attResource,

* definition:,
* Universal DeApp Store:,
* Zero to DApp:,
* {2022-12-05},
* {2019-03-02},
* {2019-01-15} 2018 DeApp Market Report,,
* {2019-01-17},
* {2018-10-21} Elie-Steinbock, The State of DeApp Development — Blockchain Summer 2018,,
* {2018-10-18} Patrick-Stanley, App Mining: Fueling the Development of Decentralized Apps, ttps://,
* {2018-10-12} James-Todaro, OpenCare powered by MedX is now live on Ethereum Mainnet,,
* {2018-10-11} Ryan-&-Muneeb, A Path to Decentralization,,
* {2018-08-22} William-Quigley, How Ethereum nearly killed VGO, the world’s most popular DApp,,
* {2018-05-29} William-Mougayar, Where Are All The Decentralized Applications?,
* {2018-04-11} Chris-McCann, State of the DApps: 5 Observations From Usage Data (April 2018),,

09_DOING of DeApp

* McsEngl.DeApp'09_doing,
* McsEngl.DeApp'attDoing,

service of DeApp

· because decentralization is NOT cheap, the-service of a-chain-app MUST ablolutely require decentralization.

* McsEngl.DeApp'service,

10_evoluting of DeApp

"Easy Upgrades and Bug Recovery
Businesses building blockchain based applications need the flexibility to enhance their applications with new features.
All non-trivial software is subject to bugs, even with the most rigorous of formal verification. The platform must be robust enough to fix bugs when they inevitably occur."

* McsEngl.DeApp'10_evoluting,
* McsEngl.DeApp'attEvoluting,


* application,


* centralized-application,


* McsEngl.DeApp.specific,

* blockchain-DeApp,
* Dagchain-DeApp,
=== per service:
* Autoasset-wallet--DeApp,
* exchange-DeApp,
* gambling-DeApp,
* game-DeApp,

=== per chain:
* Aeterinity-DeApp,
* Blockstack-DeApp,
* Eos-DeApp,
* Ethereum-DeApp,
* Lisk-DeApp,
* Neo-DeApp,
* Steemit-DeApp,
* Tron-DeApp,
* Neo-net:,

=== instances:
* ChronoBank-DeApp,
* D.Tuble:,
* Dmail:,
* Everipedia-DeApp,
* Graphite:, Encrypted, shareable, decentralized personal data,

09_wallet of Autonet

· wallets are containers for private keys.

* McsEngl.Autonet'09_wallet!⇒Dwallet,
* McsEngl.Autonet'wallet!⇒Dwallet,
* McsEngl.D-stroke-chain-wallet!⇒Dwallet,
* McsEngl.D-stroke-wallet!⇒Dwallet,
* McsEngl.Dchain-wallet!⇒Dwallet, {2019-05-24},
* McsEngl.Dwallet, {2019-06-18},
* McsEngl.Dcc-wallet!⇒Dwallet,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netAeWallet!⇒Dwallet,
* McsEngl.Dcc-wlt!⇒Dwallet,
* McsEngl.decentralized-crypto-chain--wallet!⇒Dwallet,
* McsEngl.transaction-chain-wallet!⇒Dwallet,
* McsEngl.wallet-of-Dnchain!⇒Dwallet,
* McsEngl.Đ-wallet!⇒Dwallet,
* McsEngl.Đ-wlt!⇒Dwallet,

account of Dwallet

· chain-account is the public and private keys needed to manage the cryptographic information on the-tx-chain.
· the-information on Đ-chain is encrypted in order to be-viewed and stored publicly but owned privately.
· this way this information can-represent exchange-value.
· the-cryptographic-system used is-called "public-key-cryptography".
· it uses a-public-address (public-key) to 'store' information (exchage-value) and a-private-address (private-key) to 'use|spend' this information (exchange-value).

* McsEngl.Daccount, {2019-06-18},
* McsEngl.Dchain-account!⇒Daccount, {2019-05-24},
* McsEngl.Dwallet'account!⇒Daccount,
* McsEngl.account-of--Dchain-wallet!⇒Daccount,

address of Daccount

· address-of-Daccount is the-public-key-of-the-account[a] or any human readable name associated with it[a].

* McsEngl.D-stroke-chain-address,
* McsEngl.address-of-Autonet,
* McsEngl.Autonet'address,
* McsEngl.Daccount'address,
* McsEngl.Daccount'name,
* McsEngl.Daccount'public-address,
* McsEngl.chain-address,
* McsEngl.decentralized-chain--address,
* McsEngl.Đ-address,

public-key of Daccount

· public-address is the-public known string of symbols that function as the-name of a-container of information (chain-Evus) for the-user who has the corresponded private-key to use|spend.
· this way h|she can-spent chain-Evus.

* McsEngl.Daccount'public-key,
* McsEngl.Autonet'public-key,
* McsEngl.public-key--of-Autonet,

private-key of Daccount

· private-address is the-secret string of symbols with which a-user have access (ownership) of Đ-chain information.
· this way h|she can-spent chain-Evus.

* McsEngl.Daccount'private-key,
* McsEngl.Autonet'private-address,
* McsEngl.Autonet'private-key,
* McsEngl.private-address--of-Autonet,
* McsEngl.private-key--of-Autonet,

asset of Dwallet

· the-đ-assets the-wallet contains.

* McsEngl.Dwallet'asset,
* McsEngl.EvuChn-of--chain-wallet!⇒Dwallet'asset,

info-resource of Dwallet

* McsEngl.Dwallet'Infrsc,

* social-recovery-wallet:,
* {2018-11-29} The Gnosis Safe is live on mainnet,, 2FA,

sending of Dwallet

* McsEngl.Dwallet'sending,

* email-sending,
* public-key-sending,
* SMS-sending,
* username-sending,


* McsEngl.Dwallet.specific,

* blockchain-wallet,
* Dagchain-wallet,
* Android-wallet,
* desktop-wallet,
* web-wallet,

10_statistics of Autonet

Quantifiable information about many attributes of a-txchain-network.

* McsEngl.Autonet'10_statistics,
* McsEngl.Autonet'statistics,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netApStatistics,
* McsEngl.chain-statistics,
* McsEngl.chain-stats, {2018-01-28},
* McsEngl.decentralized-chain--statistics,
* McsEngl.transaction-chain-statistics,
* McsEngl.statistics-of-Autonet,
* McsEngl.Đ-statistics,
* McsEngl.Dcc-stat,

* GitHub commits:,


* Blockchain-statistics,
* adoption-of-Autonet,
* aggregate-addresses,
* aggregate-circulating-Autoasset,
* distribution-of-Autoasset,
* Đ-nodes,
* transaction-fee,
* transactions-per-second,
* transactions-per-day,
* rich-list,

adoption of Autonet

"A blockchain will reach mass adoption once the normal users start using dApps without even knowing that behind the scenes is the blockchain technology."

* McsEngl.adoption-of-Autonet,
* McsEngl.Autonet'adoption,

* {2019-06-14} Jon-Porter, Facebook’s cryptocurrency to debut next week backed by Visa, Mastercard, Uber, and others: WSJ,,
* {2018-12-05} 7 Major EU Countries to Go Big on Blockchain: What It Means for Crypto,,
* {2017-10-13} Slovenia Aims to Become the Leading Blockchain Technology Destination in Europe:,

11_organization of Autonet

· Autonet-ozn is an-organization (= system of humans with administering functions) stakeholder.

* McsEngl.Autonet'11_organization!⇒Autonet-ozn,
* McsEngl.Autonet'organization!⇒Autonet-ozn,
* McsEngl.Dledger-organization!⇒Autonet-ozn,
* McsEngl.Autonet'ogn!⇒Autonet-ozn,
* McsEngl.Autonet-ozn, {2019-06-21},
* McsEngl.Dchain-netAeOgn!⇒Autonet-ozn,
* McsEngl.chain-ogn!⇒Autonet-ozn, {2019-03-10},
* McsEngl.chain-organization!⇒Autonet-ozn,
* McsEngl.cryptocurrency-venture!⇒Autonet-ozn,
* McsEngl.organization-of-Dnchain!⇒Autonet-ozn,
* McsEngl.transaction-chain-organization!⇒Autonet-ozn,

ICO of Autonet-ozn

DEFINITION of 'Initial Coin Offering (ICO)'
An unregulated means by which funds are raised for a new cryptocurrency venture. An Initial Coin Offering (ICO) is used by startups to bypass the rigorous and regulated capital-raising process required by venture capitalists or banks. In an ICO campaign, a percentage of the cryptocurrency is sold to early backers of the project in exchange for legal tender or other cryptocurrencies, but usually for Bitcoin.

Also called an Initial Public Coin Offering (IPCO).

BREAKING DOWN 'Initial Coin Offering (ICO)'
When a cryptocurrency startup firm wants to raise money through an Initial Coin Offering (ICO), it usually creates a plan on a whitepaper which states what the project is about, what need(s) the project will fulfill upon completion, how much money is needed to undertake the venture, how much of the virtual tokens the pioneers of the project will keep for themselves, what type of money is accepted, and how long the ICO campaign will run for. During the ICO campaign, enthusiasts and supporters of the firm's initiative buy some of the distributed cryptocoins with fiat or virtual currency. These coins are referred to as tokens and are similar to shares of a company sold to investors in an Initial Public Offering (IPO) transaction. If the money raised does not meet the minimum funds required by the firm, the money is returned to the backers and the ICO is deemed to be unsuccessful. If the funds requirements are met within the specified timeframe, the money raised is used to either initiate the new scheme or to complete it.

Early investors in the operation are usually motivated to buy the cryptocoins in the hope that the plan becomes successful after it launches which could translate to a higher cryptocoin value than what they purchased it for before the project was initiated. An example of a successful ICO project that was profitable to early investors is the smart contracts platform called Ethereum which has Ethers as its coin tokens. In 2014, the Ethereum project was announced and its ICO raised $18 million in Bitcoins or $0.40 per Ether. The project went live in 2015 and in 2016 had an ether value that went up as high as $14 with a market capitalization of over $1 billion.

ICOs are similar to IPOs and crowdfunding. Like IPOs, a stake of the startup or company is sold to raise money for the entity's operations during an ICO operation. However, while IPOs deal with investors, ICOs deal with supporters that are keen to invest in a new project much like a crowdfunding event. But ICOs differ from crowdfunding in that the backers of the former are motivated by a prospective return in their investments, while the funds raised in the latter campaign are basically donations. For these reasons, ICOs are referred to as crowdsales.

Although there are successful ICO transactions on record and ICOs are poised to be disruptive innovative tools in the digital era, investors are cautioned to be wary as some ICO or crowdsale campaigns are actually fraudulent. Because these fund-raising operatives are not regulated by financial authorities such as the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC), funds that are lost due to fraudulent initiatives may never be recovered.

Read more: Initial Coin Offering (ICO) Definition | Investopedia
Follow us: Investopedia on Facebook

* McsEngl.Autonet-ozn'ICO!⇒ICO,
* McsEngl.ICO,
* McsEngl.ICO-(Initial-Coin-Offering)!⇒ICO,
* McsEngl.Initial-Coin-Offering!⇒ICO,

evaluation of ICO

Like the-dot-com-bubble there-is an excessive speculation with ICOs.
- do not invest on promises, see a-product.
- check contact information.
- find refund policies.
[hmnSngo.2017-09-30] ===
In 2017, ICOs have collectively raised over $2.3 bln.
Many of these startups received millions in contributions without even a working prototype of their product.
In the eyes of some investors, this has lead to speculations that the ICO market has already entered bubble territory.
It is yet to see how many teams will actually be in a position to keep the promises made to investors and to deliver their product.
[ {2017-10-04}]

* McsEngl.ICO'evaluation,

info-resource of ICO

* McsEngl.ICO'Infrsc,

* {2018-02-23} 46% of Last Year’s ICOs Have Failed Already:,
* {2018-02-03} Wulf-Kaal, Initial Coin Offerings: the top 25 jurisdictions and their comparative regulatory responses,,
* {2018-01-10} Initial Country Offering as Next Big Thing For ICOs: Expert Blog:,
* {2017-12-15} $4 Billion: ICO Fundraising Hits New Milestone as Regulators Curtail Hype:,
* {2017-10-20} Tezos Founders Enter Legal Battle for Control of $400m in Raised ICO Funds:,
* {2017-10-15} 9 Mistakes We Made During Our ICO (And How to Overcome Them):,
* {2017-09-27} Vitalik Buterin Explains Flaws in ICOs and Scaling Issues in Ethereum:,
* {2017-09-24} How Blockchain and ICOs Are Changing the Funding Game for Startups:,
* {2017-09-11} What Risks Investors and Authorities See in ICOs,
* {2017-09-03} Jamie-Burke, The Next Stage in ICOs: The Community Token Economy (CTE),,
* {2017-09-02} Altcoin Founder Slams Need For ICOs After Alternative Experiment:,
* {2017-08-22} Estonia could offer ‘estcoins’ to e-residents,
* {2017-06-09} V-Buterin: Analyzing Token Sale Models:,
* {2017-06-19} ICOs: New Model of Blockchain Capitalism:,
* {2017-05-24} ICO: Three Ways of Conducting It, and How Companies Choose One:,
* {2017-05-16} The ICO Bubble:,
* {2017-04-19} ICO Market: from $6,000 to $150 mln. Overview with Waves CEO:,


* McsEngl.ICO'specific,

* Blockchain-ICO,


What is a DAICO?
It’s an improvement on the ICO fundraising model that incorporates certain aspects of DAO’s.
The idea was suggested by Vitalik Buterin in January 2018 and is aimed at making ICO’s more secure by involving investors in the initial project development process.
It will further enable token holders to vote for the refund of the contributed funds if they are not happy with the progress being made by developers.
For projects that implement the DAICO concept, it will force a level of accountability on developers and give token holders additional peace of mind that they are guaranteed to either see at least a minimum viable product or get their money back.

* McsEngl.DAICO,

* {2018-02-13} Chrisjan Pauw, What is a DAICO, Explained:,


The year 2017 saw 882 successful ICOs.
They collected $5.9 billion and made 4,700 promises in their white papers, almost one half of them scheduled for 2018.

=== the-start:
The first ICO is typically attributed to Mastercoin.
Mastercoin’s ICO in 2013 raised over $5 million in Bitcoins through the sales of their own Mastercoin tokens.

resource Autonet-ozn

* McsEngl.Autonet-ozn'Infrsc,


GENERIC of Autonet-ozn

* stakeholder-of--chain-net,


* McsEngl.Autonet-ozn.specific,

* bridge-ogn,
* exchange-ogn,
* foundation-ogn,
* merchant-ogn,
* mining-pool-ogn,
* wallet-ogn,
* venture-capital--ogn,
* blockchain-ogn,
* Dagchain-ogn
* Akasha International, Zug,,
* Bitcoin Suisse AG, Baar,,
* Bitfinitum GmbH, Zug,,
* Blockchain for Social Impact Coalition,,
* Blockchain Source, Zug,,
* Crypto AG, Zug,,
* Cryptocash AG, Uster,,
* Ethereum Foundation, Baar,,
* IFZ Zug,,
* InfoGuard AG, Zug,,
* iprotus, Walchwil,,
* MME Legal, Zug,,
* Monetas AG, Zug,,
* Mount10, Baar,,
* Netmon GmbH, Zurich,,
* Patria Digitalis, Zug,,
* Sapphire Innovation, Zug,,
* Shapeshift, Zug,,
* Xapo GmbH, Zug,,


· chain-sector is the-set of all organizations involved in chain-nets.

">statistics of DLT-sector:
The Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) sector is experiencing significant growth and transformation. As of 2023, the market size of the distributed ledger market was valued at USD 3.44 billion, and it's predicted to reach a staggering USD 103.15 billion by 2030, representing a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 62.55% from 2024 to 2030. This growth is driven by various factors, including the rising demand for transparency and traceability in supply chain management and the increasing popularity of smart contract-based solutions.
DLT, which includes technologies like blockchain, hashgraph, and holochain, is being applied in various sectors like banking, financial services, insurance, government and public sectors, healthcare, and more. Its applications range from payments and smart contracts to supply chain management and compliance management. Geographically, North America is leading in the adoption and development of DLT, with significant contributions from blockchain-based startups and supportive government initiatives. Europe, too, is witnessing substantial growth in this market, partly due to stringent regulations like the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).
The technology's potential in capital markets is particularly noteworthy. The Global Financial Markets Association (GFMA) highlights DLT's transformative benefits for capital markets, including cost-saving, operational efficiency, innovation-led growth, and new liquidity pools. For instance, DLT could potentially save approximately $20 billion annually in global clearing and settlement costs. However, widespread adoption in securities markets is still in its nascent stages, largely due to regulatory and technological challenges.
Despite the promising prospects, there are barriers to the widespread adoption of DLT. These include the need for harmonized global regulatory and legal frameworks, interoperability among DLT-based markets, and the advancement of technical solutions around scalability and cybersecurity. Collaboration among industry participants and regulators is essential to overcome these barriers and advance the development of DLT-based markets.
In summary, the DLT sector is rapidly growing, with significant opportunities across various industries. However, its full potential is yet to be realized, pending the resolution of regulatory, technological, and adoption challenges【】【】【】."
[{2024-01-03 retrieved}]

">statistics of DLT-sector:
Distributed ledger technology (DLT) is a broader term that encompasses blockchain technology, as well as other distributed ledger architectures. Here are some key statistics about the DLT sector:
**Market Size:**
* The global DLT market is projected to reach $24.64 billion by 2027, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 37.7%.
**Venture Capital Investments:**
* Global VC, PE, and M&A investments in DLT reached $57.4 billion in 2022.
**DLT Use Cases:**
* DLT is being used in a variety of industries, including finance, healthcare, supply chain management, and government.
**DLT Developer Growth:**
* The number of active DLT developers has increased significantly in recent years. In 2022, there were approximately 36,000 active DLT developers.
**DLT Job Market:**
* There is a growing demand for DLT developers. In 2022, the average salary for a DLT developer was over $120,000 per year.
**DLT Regulation:**
* The regulation of DLT technology is still evolving, but governments around the world are taking steps to address the potential risks and benefits of DLT.
**Additional Statistics:**
* The number of DLT startups has increased significantly in recent years. In 2021, there were over 15,000 DLT startups worldwide.
* The amount of data stored on DLTs is growing rapidly. In 2022, the total amount of data stored on DLTs was over 4 billion gigabytes.
* DLT is being used to create new financial instruments, such as decentralized finance (DeFi) and non-fungible tokens (NFTs).
* DLT is being used to improve the efficiency of supply chains.
* DLT is being used to create more secure and transparent voting systems.
The DLT sector is still in its early stages of development, but it has the potential to revolutionize many industries. As the technology continues to mature, we can expect to see even more adoption and innovation in the years to come."
[{2024-01-03 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Autonet'organization.sector,
* McsEngl.Autonet'sector,
* McsEngl.Autonet-ozn.sector,
* McsEngl.chain-sector,
* McsEngl.cryptocurrency-sector,
* McsEngl.industry.chain-net,
* McsEngl.sctrPdn.Autonet,


Bridges/gateways are the recommended method of moving funds into or out of the network. They simplify the process of moving funds from one blockchain-based crypto currency to another.

* McsEngl.bridge--chain-ogn,
* McsEngl.Autonet-ozn.bridge,
* McsEngl.Autonet-ozn.gateway,

* BlockTrades,
* ShapeShift,


Providing Safety, Speed, and Convenience
This website enables users to rapidly and safely purchase cryptocurrencies without the hassles typically associated with purchasing through a centralized cryptocurrency exchange. Unlike a traditional exchange, you don't need to maintain a balance on our site. Instead, you simply send in the desired amount of cryptocurrency you wish to spend, and we transfer to your wallet an equivalent amount of the cryptocurrency you are buying. This protects you from possible losses that can occur when you hold your cryptocurrency on a exchange that is vulnerable to attacks by hackers.
Purchases can also be made very rapidly (speed is dependent on the underlying confirmation speeds of the currencies being converted between) and large purchases do not tend to move market prices the way they do when placing an order on a centralized exchange.

* McsEngl.BlockTrades,


ShapeShift is a new piece of infrastructure in Bitcoinland. It is how digital currency exchange should work. From start to finish you can change currencies in under ten seconds, no account required.
Let's assume you have Bitcoin and you want Litecoin. It goes like this:
1. Select Bitcoin as the input and Litecoin as the output
2. Provide your Litecoin address in the box, then click the Start button
3. ShapeShift will generate a BTC deposit address for you. Please send your BTCs to this generated address. (Don't send more than the Deposit Limit).
That's it. In a few moments, your Litecoin will be sent to you.
No emails or passwords. No lengthy sign­up process. No accounts. No bid and ask orders. No friction.

* McsEngl.ShapeShift-ogn,
* McsEngl.ShapeShift,



What exchange rate do you use?
Jon April 05, 2016 22:12
The exchange rate is our own, derived from several market sources and based on the amount we feel comfortable exchanging at that fixed rate (whether you do small or large order, the rate stays the same - no slippage).
We earn a profit to the extent we can source coins in other markets for a lower cost to replenish our reserves.


What’s your fee structure?
January 08, 2017 11:04
ShapeShift does not charge a per exchange fee, while our exchange rates depend on the depth and spread of particular coin pairs and markets.
This means the amount that ShapeShift makes on any particular transaction varies based on current market conditions.
Depending on the liquidity and spread of a particular coin/coin pair, ShapeShift's spread usually falls in the range of about 0.5-1% or so.


"The European Blockchain Partnership (EBP) is an initiative to develop an EU strategy on blockchain and build a blockchain infrastructure for public services."
[{2022-06-30 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Autonet-ozn.EBP,
* McsEngl.EBP-(European-Blockchian-Partnership),


· crypto-exchange-organization is a-company on which people trade chain-Evus.

* McsEngl.Autonet'exchange-organization!⇒Dchain-exchange-ogn,
* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn, {2018-03-04},
* McsEngl.crypto-exchange-organization!⇒Dchain-exchange-ogn,
* McsEngl.transaction-chain--exchange-organization!⇒Dchain-exchange-ogn,
* McsEngl.Đ-exchange!⇒Dchain-exchange-ogn,

IEO of exchange-ogn

"IEOs are a form of initial token offerings. They are quite similar to ICOs, but they take place primarily on crypto exchanges. In other words, the crypto exchange serves as an issuer platform and the main venue for the token offering.
The reason why crypto-exchanges attract so many people is the variety of coins, payment methods and user protection. Almost any reputable crypto exchange has an AML/KYC procedure both for individual customers and for companies that it partners with.
To list a token on an exchange, a company has to comply with the legal requirements both in the country where it’s registered and in the country from which the exchange operates. In most cases, some sort of due diligence or legal opinion has to be provided. That’s another security layer that will ensure your participation in the IEO from unwanted surprises. Crypto-scams simply can’t make it to major exchanges."

* McsEngl.IEO-Initial-Exchange-Offering,

residence of exchange-ogn

· the-residence-of-an-exchange is the-economic-territory determined by the-exchange's center of predominant economic-interest.

* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn'base,

website of exchange-ogn

* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn'website,

fee of exchange-ogn


* McsEngl.fee-of--Dchain-exchange-ogn,
* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn'fee,

* Lykke    0
* Bittrex  0.25%
* EtherDelta 0.3%
* Cashilla 1% plus 1€ for fiat deposit,

asset of exchange-ogn

· the different assets an-exchange offers.

* McsEngl.asset-of--Dchain-exchange-ogn,
* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn'asset,

liquidity of asset of exchange-ogn

"The order book is also known as the market depth, and can be used to provide an indication of the liquidity of a cryptocurrency. Liquidity refers to the ability of a cryptocurrency to bought and sold quickly without affecting the price. The larger the trading volume of a cryptocurrency, the higher the liquidity and vice versa.
... In addition, more liquid cryptocurrencies are significantly harder to manipulate, making them less likely to fall prey to pump and dump schemes that are prevalent within the cryptocurrency space.
If you are ever worried about the liquidity of a cryptocurrency, make sure to look at the order book to get a sense of the market depth."
[Mycryptopedia Newsletter]

* McsEngl.Autoasset-exchange-ogn'asset'liquidity,

buyer of exchange-ogn

A-buyer of a-cryptoasset sets the-bid-price.

* McsEngl.buyer-of--Dchain-exchange-ogn,
* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn'buyer,

seller of exchange-ogn

A-seller of a-cryptoasset sets the-ask-price.

* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn'seller,
* McsEngl.seller-of--Dchain-exchange-ogn,

maker of exchange-ogn

Maker is the party that provides an order, and a Taker is the party that fills it.

* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn'maker,
* McsEngl.maker-of--Dchain-exchange-ogn,

taker of exchange-ogn

Maker is the party that provides an order, and a Taker is the party that fills it.

* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn'taker,
* McsEngl.taker-of--Dchain-exchange-ogn,

order of exchange-ogn

· an-order is an-instruction to buy or sell a-Autoasset on a-Dchain-exchange-ogn.

* McsEngl.Autoasset'order!⇒Autoasset-order,
* McsEngl.Autoasset'trade-order!⇒Autoasset-order,
* McsEngl.Autoasset-order,
* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn'order!⇒Autoasset-order,


* McsEngl.Autoasset-order.specific,

* buy-order,
* sell-order,
=== division on time
* market-order,
* time-condition-order,
=== price division
* limit-order,
* price-condition-order,
* stop-loss--order,


· a-market-order is an-order to be-executed immediately at the current market-prices.



· a-limit-order is an-order to BUY a-Autoasset at no more than a specific price, or to SELL it at no less than a specific price.

* McsEngl.Autoasset-order.limit,
* McsEngl.limit-order--of-Autoasset,

order-book of exchange-ogn

· a-container of orders.

* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn'market-depth,
* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn'order-book,
* McsEngl.order-book--of--Dchain-exchange-ogn,

trading-bot of exchange-ogn

"A trading bot is effectively a software program that interacts directly with a financial exchange by means of an application programming interface (API). An API can be thought of as a software intermediary that allows two applications to communicate with each other. A similar process occurs between a trading bot software program and a cryptocurrency exchange. By being able to access exchange data, trading bots can place buy or sell orders on a trader’s behalf, depending on how market data has been interpreted. Market data can include: price movement, volume, time and much more. Crypto trading bots are generally very customizable, allowing a trader to program a trading bot in accordance with their preferences."

* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn'trading-bot,

evaluation of exchange-ogn

* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn'evaluation,


info-resource of exchange-ogn

* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn'Infrsc,

* {2018-10-15}, How to choose a cryptocurrency exchange,,
* {2018-06-12} Ali-Raza, HitBTC Halts Services To Japan Amidst Tangle With Regulators,,
* {2018-05-11} S. Korea’s Largest Crypto Exchange Upbit Investigated By Police, Markets React,,
* {2018-01-17} Binance CEO: The Future of Cryptocurrency:,
* {2017-10-20} Will Decentralized Exchanges Replace Peer-to-Peer Exchanges Completely?,
* {2017-09-30} 11 Japanese Bitcoin Exchanges Earn Regulatory Licensure:,
* {2017-09-27} Why Decentralized Exchange Protocols Matter:,


* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.specific,

* blockchain--exchange-ogn,
* Dagchain--exchange-ogn,
* centralized--exchange-ogn,
* centralizedNo--exchange-ogn,
* BitPay-exchange,
* BitStamp-exchange,
* Blockchain-exchange,
* Changenlly-exchange,
* Coinbase-exchange,
* EtherDelta: decentralized trading platform for Ether and Ethereum-based tokens,
* Kraken-exchange,
* KuCoin,
* LakeBTC-exchange,
* Liqui-exchange,
* LiteBit-exchange,
* Poloniex-exchange,
* QuadrigaCX-exchange,
* ShapShift-exchange,


* McsEngl.CEX-(centralized-exchange),
* McsEngl.centralized--Dchain-exchange-ogn,
* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.centralized,

While the daily trade volumes between notable cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin and Ether, may very well be in the tens of millions – the daily trades between all of the other crypto-assets entering the market, most of which are less than two years old, are also approaching these large trade volumes. The problem is, despite the decentralized and trustless nature of cryptocurrencies, the majority of this trading takes place on centralized exchanges, which are subject to fraud and hacking.
It seems as though there are monthly reports in the media about hacking attempts on major cryptocurrency exchanges. Looking deeper into the cause, one feature that many of these attacks have in common is that they are directed at centralized exchanges, which keep all of their user's information including their private keys to access their Blockchain currency stored in a data ‘silo.’ This means that a hacker would only have to get into the system once to access every user's information.
As notable investor Arif Akhtar emphasizes, by using a centralized exchange you are trusting that the exchange will not lose your money (whether from a hardware failure or other negligence), will keep your funds secure against theft or hacking, will not steal your funds internally, and will not go out of business. In short, centralized exchanges require you as the user to put a lot of trust into something that is currently unregulated and may not even be operating in the same country as you.

* Having a safe CEX: proof of solvency and beyond,,


One of the main benefits of DEXs is that they are trustless and non-custodial, they allow users to trade their funds without having to hand them over to a centralized entity for a certain amount of time.

* McsEngl.DEX-(Decentralized-EXchange),
* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.centralizedNo,
* McsEngl.Dexchange,
* McsEngl.centralizedNo--Dchain-exchange-ogn,
* McsEngl.decentralized--Dchain-exchange-ogn,
* McsEngl.decentralized-exchange-ogn,
* McsEngl.on-chain--exchange-ogn,

* {2019-04-23},
* {2018-09-06} Scott-Winges, Decentralized Exchanges 101: All you need to know,,
* {2018-06-21} Gary-Basin, The State of Decentralized Exchanges,,
* {2018-06-14} Justin-Chan, Decentralized Exchanges as the Future of Cryptocurrency Trading (PART I),,
* {2018-05-14} Dean-Eigenmann, Introducing DEXY: Mainnet beta launched! A permissionless decentralized exchange,,
* {2018-04-06} Dean-Eigenmann, Why 0x is not as trustless as it may seem,,
* {2018-02-12} Bitfinex, Announcing EOSfinex: Bitfinex to Build High Performance Decentralized Exchange on the EOS.IO Platform,,
* {2017-10-18} Loi Luu: Why We Need ‘Trustless’ Cryptocurrency Exchanges:,
* {2015-09-27} World's First Decentralized Fintech Exchange OpenLedger Launches:,

* ForkDelta:, ForkDelta is a decentralized Ethereum Token Exchange with the most ERC20 listings of any exchange. ForkDelta currently acts as an open source, updated interface for EtherDelta's smart contract with an active and public development team,


* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.semi-centralized,
* McsEngl.semi-decentralized--exchange-org,



* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.spec-div.volume,

* on-24h-voluem:,

exchange-ogn.Binance (Hong-Kong)

Binance is the world’s leading cryptocurrency exchange. In the first 3 months from inception, profits amounted to $7,500,000 USD. In the 2nd quarter, profits amounted to $200,000,000 USD.

* McsEngl.Binance--Dchain-exchange-ogn,
* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.Binance,


* CEO: Changpeng-Zhao,

exchange-ogn.Bitfinex (Hong-Kong)

* McsEngl.Bitfinex--Dchain-exchange-ogn,
* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.Bitfinex,

exchange-ogn.BitPay {2011}

BitPay was founded in 2011, while Bitcoin was still in its infancy. We saw the potential for bitcoin to revolutionize the financial industry, making payments faster, more secure, and less expensive on a global scale.

We started BitPay with the intention of making it easy for businesses to accept bitcoin payments, and we are currently the largest bitcoin payment processor in the world, serving more than 60,000 merchants on six continents.

Payment processing was our first contribution to the Bitcoin ecosystem, but it is not our last. We're building open source software to power the next applications of Bitcoin. Bitcoin's future looks very bright, and we plan on remaining on the forefront of this technology, creating more tools and services for everyone to use in innovative new ways.

* McsEngl.BitPay--Dchain-exchange-ogn,
* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.BitPay,


How works:
Order your card for $9.95. Once your ID has been verified, your card will arrive within 7-10 business days.
When your card arrives in the mail, activate the card at and create a cardholder account.
Load your card with dollars using any bitcoin wallet, or via direct deposit through your employer.
Spend dollars anywhere Visa® debit cards are accepted, or withdraw cash from any Visa®-compatible ATM.

exchange-ogn.Bitstamp (3rd - EU)

Bitstamp is a European Union based bitcoin marketplace. It allows people from all around the world to safely buy and sell bitcoins.
No. We are providing a service. You are always buying bitcoins from another individual, who is selling them. All we do is provide a safe and simple environment to trade. We guarantee that buyers get their bitcoins and sellers get their money at agreed price.
This morning, Bitstamp announced that it has received a license from the Luxembourg Ministry of Finance to operate as a payment institution, and according to the company, this license applies to the European Union as a whole. “With this,” says Dan Morehead, the chairman of Bitstamp and the CEO of Pantera Capital, a firm that specializes in investments related to bitcoin, “Bitstamp is able to do business in all 28 countries of the EU.”
... FIFTEEN MONTHS AGO, hackers lifted more than $5 million from the bitcoin exchange operated by Bitstamp, a Slovenian company that aspired to push the digital currency across Western Europe. The hack wasn’t nearly as large or as devastating as the one that pilfered $460 million from Mt. Gox and sent the Japan-based exchange, then one of the world’s largest, spiraling into bankruptcy. But it was yet another black eye for bitcoin, the digital currency that holds so much promise as an alternative to fiat currencies but has never really broken into the mainstream.

* McsEngl.Bitstamp--Dchain-exchange-ogn,
* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.Bitstamp,

* blockchain-Đbexchange,



Bitstamp Ltd.
5 New Street Square
London EC4A 3TW
United Kingdom

Bitstamp Europe S.A.
10 rue Antoine Jans
L-1820 Luxembourg

Bitstamp USA Inc.
2930 Magnolia Street
Berkeley, CA 94705
United States

exchange-ogn.Bittrex (USA)

We provide individuals and businesses a world class experience to buy and sell cutting-edge cryptocurrencies and digital tokens. Based and fully regulated in the USA, Bittrex is the go-to spot for traders who demand lightning fast trade execution, stable wallets, and industry-best security practices. Whether you are new to trading and cryptocurrencies, or a veteran to both, was created for you!

* McsEngl.Bittrex--Dchain-exchange-ogn,
* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.Bittrex,

exchange-ogn.Blockhain {2011}

Blockchain is the world’s most popular Bitcoin wallet. It is often confused with the core innovation that Bitcoin introduced. Founded in 2011, the company is one of the oldest and biggest Bitcoin’s companies.
Experiencing a rapid expansion in the last few years, the company has passed 6.7 million users, and the amount of Dwallets created on the platform is constantly increasing.
Blockchain is the world’s most popular Bitcoin wallet, and home to the most widely used Bitcoin APIs and trusted block explorer and search engine. It is recognized as the strongest, most trusted brand in Bitcoin.

* McsEngl.Blockchain--Dchain-exchange-ogn,
* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.Blockchain,

exchange-ogn.Changenlly-exchange {2016}

Changelly, an automated cryptocurrency exchange and a relatively new player on the market of cryptocurrency exchanges, made its services available to its users in April 2016 after six months of a successful beta.
Changelly launched in 2013 as an instant exchange app, similar to the well-known ShapeShift. Rather than being a traditional exchange that requires users register before trading against an order book, with variable depth and the problems of slippage that can result, it aggregates rates from the largest trading platforms and offers a single rate. The commission is just 0.5%. By fundamentally rethinking the way cryptocurrencies are exchanged, Changelly aims to remove technical impediments to customers engaging with this critical element of the cryptocurrency world’s infrastructure.

* McsEngl.Changenlly--Dchain-exchange-ogn,
* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.Changenlly,


Other cryptocurrency trading services charge you with withdrawal fees and commissions. We have a reasonable fee of 0.5%.


1 BTC = 023.69664034 ZEC,
1 BTC = 057.98876409 DASH,
1 BTC = 072.59264636 XMR,
1 BTC = 087.7577885 ETH,
1 BTC = 219.63516402 REP,
1 BTC = 237.42056798 LTC,
1 BTC = 262.5505738 FCT,
1 BTC = 706.47412891 ETC,
1 BTC = 914.12273926 SBD,
1 BTC = 919.07541013 NBT,
1 BTC = 002,186.00736684 RADS,
1 BTC = 003,086.5626495 EXP,
1 BTC = 005,702.06699928 STEEM,
1 BTC = 005,749.10888812 LSK,
1 BTC = 006,724.72344574 MAID,
1 BTC = 007,403.29446603 AEON,
1 BTC = 008,836.26402756 STRAT,
1 BTC = 018,537.39920289 AMP,
1 BTC = 021,466.13716861 NAV,
1 BTC = 028,985.50724637 FCN,
1 BTC = 030,688.96731624 LBC,
1 BTC = 034,387.89546079 NLG,
1 BTC = 046,019.3281178 ARDR,
1 BTC = 144,927.53623188 NXT,
1 BTC = 146,735.14306676 XRP,
1 BTC = 179,856.11510791 XEM,
1 BTC = 222,222.22222222 QCN,
1 BTC = 257,367.13421696 DSH,

1 BTC = 04,444,444.44444444 DOGE,
1 BTC = 10,822,510.82251082 XDN,
1 BTC = 15,797,788.30963665 BCN,

exchange-ogn.Coinbase (USA {2012})

Founded in June of 2012, Coinbase is a bitcoin wallet and platform where merchants and consumers can transact with the new digital currency bitcoin. We're based in San Francisco, California.
Bitcoin is the world's most widely used alternative currency with a total market cap of approximately $5.3 billion. The bitcoin network is made up of thousands of computers run by individuals all over the world.
Bitcoin, made simple.
Coinbase is an international digital wallet that allows you to securely buy, use, and accept bitcoin currency ›

* McsEngl.Coinbase--Dchain-exchange-ogn,
* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.Coinbase,



Coinbase Exchange is the leading platform to trade bitcoin.




Coinbase opens bitcoin exchange in UK
Company targets British enthusiasm for digital currency as it eyes an international expansion
[Financial Times Briefing 2015-04-29]

exchange-ogn.Huobi-Global (Singapore)

* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.Huobi-Global,
* McsEngl.Huobi-Global--Dchain-exchange-ogn,

exchange-ogn.Kraken-exchange (USA {2011})

Founded in 2011, San Francisco-based Kraken is the largest Bitcoin exchange in euro volume and liquidity and also trading Canadian dollars, US dollars, British pounds and Japanese yen. Kraken is consistently rated the best and most secure Bitcoin exchange by independent news media. Kraken was the first Bitcoin exchange to have trading price and volume displayed on the Bloomberg Terminal, the first to pass a cryptographically verifiable proof-of-reserves audit, and is a partner in the first cryptocurrency bank. Kraken is trusted by hundreds of thousands of traders, the Tokyo government's court-appointed trustee, and Germany's BaFin regulated Fidor Bank.

* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.Kraken,
* McsEngl.Kraken--Dchain-exchange-ogn,

exchange-ogn.KuCoin (Hong-Kong)

"KuCoin is a relatively new entrant to the world of crypto exchanges, but that hasn’t held it back. Originally launching in China it later moved to Hong Kong to avoid the crackdown. This has proven a good move, as interest hasn’t faded and user numbers subsequently soared. A dozen or more cryptocurrencies now post seven-figure daily volumes, with ETH — its most popular coin — notching up more than $3 million a day. There is also an active market for BTC against Tether. Overall volumes top $50 million.
KuCoin's reputation has grown solidly over recent weeks and months, perhaps because the exchange has taken a sustainable approach to token listings and publicises the coins it includes to provide greater exposure both for itself and the coin communities. Fees are just 0.1%, with discounts for KuCoin holders. Perhaps best of all, they are famous for their outstanding customer service."

* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.KuCoin,
* McsEngl.KuCoin--Dchain-exchange-ogn,

exchange-ogn.LakeBTC (CHINA)

Location Addr: Suite 613, 231-1 Ludi Avenue, Kunshan, Jiangsu, China
LakeBTC project was started in early 2013 as a virtual bitcoin exchange initially for traders and other financial professionals interested in cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology. Later that year, the exchange was incorporated and operated under the current domain name. Today, LakeBTC stands for Lake Banking Technology Company.
With years of experience trading treasuries, agency bonds, currencies, commodities, interest rates, volatilities and all types of derivatives and structured products, LakeBTC is dedicated to building a bitcoin platform for pricing, liquidity, security, derivatives and indexes. On LakeBTC, individuals, merchants and institutions can easily trade bitcoins, lock down the prices, manage their exposures, and hedge their risks.
Today, as cryptocurrencies gained more and more exposures to the general public, LakeBTC is becoming one of the best bitcoin platforms around the globe. Our years of risk management and internal control experience in financial industries build the most solid foundation for ensuring customers' fund and privacy being safe and secure. LakeBTC is one of the Big Four exchanges in the world that determinesCoinDesk Bitcoin Price Index (BPI).

* McsEngl.LakeBTC--Dchain-exchange-ogn,
* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.LakeBTC,



Our years of risk management and internal control experience in financial industries build the most solid foundation for ensuring customers' fund and privacy being safe and secure.

To protect your fund, we implemented a number of rigorous mechanisms including SSL encryption, cold storage, 2-step verification, SMS withdrawal confirmation, trade notifications and so on.

High availability and fast trade matches, even under enormouse amount of load, are two attributes that are critical to high liquidity and make us stand out in the crowd.

Besides, we also provide highly-secure market data and trading API's for advanced users who prefer arbitrages, market making, or alogrithm trading.

exchange-ogn.Liqui ({2016})

Liqui is the latest exchange to add ChronoBank’s TIME token. The exchange launched on 1 September 2016, and is still a relatively new but fast-growing entrant to the cryptocurrency world. Its team of seven are located in various countries and jurisdictions around the world, and in a short period of time have managed to build a strong business that has gained the trust of an increasing number of traders thanks to its user-friendly interface, commitment to user support and rapid listing of some of the most popular and promising Ethereum-based tokens?—?including Iconomi, Golem and Wings.
One of Liqui’s unique features is its deposit accounts that allow users to earn annual interest of 24% for BTC and ETH, within a fixed limit. The exchange’s trading API has recently been implemented, and in the near future a Tether (USDT) market is expected. Liqui has established a reputation for pro-active cooperation with leading market-makers and businesses within the cryptocurrency industry.

* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.Liqui,
* McsEngl.Liqui--Dchain-exchange-ogn,

exchange-ogn.LiteBit-exchange (Netherlands {2013})

LiteBit is a young innovative company established in Zoetermeer, The Netherlands. LiteBit exists now more than two year and we, as a team, are very proud of that! LiteBit ensures that you and others can buy & sell bitcoins easily, safely and quickly. All our employees work accurately with a aim for the customer. We provide all kinds of services to make your life with crypto currency easier, quicker and more efficient. Did you try out our price alerts for bitcoin or any other crypto currency? It’s free!
Besides LiteBit we develop new applications that are using Blockchain Technology. We are also known as 2525 Ventures B.V.
Kenny Rokven
“I started LiteBit on 7th of december in 2013. I am responsible for all general business of LiteBit. ”

* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.LiteBit,
* McsEngl.LiteBit--Dchain-exchange-ogn,

exchange-ogn.Lykke (Swiss)

What is Lykke?
Lykke is a movement to build one global marketplace that is a level playing field where everyone has access.
We start with foreign exchange and expand to equities, fixed income, commodities and other asset classes.
Lykke Corp is incorporated in Switzerland and issued it's shares on the blockchain (Lykke Coins).
"Lykke is one of the first 9 exchanges that the #Blockchain Transparency Institute (BTI) has named as BTI Verified, along with @krakenfx, @coinbase, @Poloniex, @BittrexExchange, Liquid, Gate, @Bitso"

* McsEngl.Lykke, {2019-06-05},
* McsEngl.Lykke--Dchain-exchange-ogn!⇒Lykke,
* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.Lykke!⇒Lykke,
Why did we choose the name Lykke?
Lykke was the surname of Richard's grandmother on his father's side. The word means luck and happiness. His father explained to them that they are Lykke.

fee of Lykke

What is the business-model?
Commissions & fees at Lykke Wallet are essentially zero. Lykke will make money on providing liquidity, issuance services and consulting.

* McsEngl.Lykke'fee,

blockchain of Lykke

block-explorer of Lykke

"Explore the Blockchain. Search transaction, assets, addresses or blocks"

* McsEngl.Lykke'blockchain-explorer,


asset of Lykke

* McsEngl.Lykke'asset,
* McsEngl.Lykke-asset,
* McsEngl.Lykke'Evu,
* McsEngl.Lykke'token,


LyCI-Index of Lykke

"LyCI is a weighted index that consolidates and tracks a selection of the worlds top performing cryptocurrencies. It provides a snapshot of the crypto market in one single, easily understandable measure."

"The LyCI Index was introduced by Lykke at the end of 2018 and represents a market-cap weighted basket of the top-25 crypto assets, rebalanced minute-by-minute."

* McsEngl.LyCI, /lusi/
* McsEngl.LyCI-Index!⇒LyCI,
* McsEngl.Lykke'Lykke-crypto-index!⇒LyCI,
* McsEngl.Lykke'crypto-index-LyCI!⇒LyCI,
* McsEngl.Lykke'LyCI-Index!⇒LyCI,
* McsEngl.Lykke-crypto-index!⇒LyCI,

constituent of LyCI

"LyCI is a weighted index which means that the proportion of each digital asset contained in the group is dependent on their total market capitalization. LyCI takes the current mid-market prices of the 25 cryptocurrencies with the largest market capitalization – i.e. those that are worth the most in terms of total asset value."

* McsEngl.LyCI'constituent,

At the time of writing the cryptocurrencies with the highest market cap and corresponding weights are (data from coinmarketcap):
* BTC 63.02 %
* ETH 11.92 %
* XRP 7.67 %
* BCH 3.23 %
* LTC 2.91 %
* EOS 2.66 %
* XLM 1.08 %
* TRX 1.03 %
* ADA 0.98 %
* XMR 0.66 %
* DASH 0.59 %
* IOTA 0.54 %
* ATOM 0.51 %
* ETC 0.41 %
* NEO 0.37 %
* XTZ 0.35 %
* XEM 0.34 %
* MKR 0.32 %
* ONT 0.29 %
* ZEC 0.24 %
* BTG 0.20 %
* VET 0.19 %
* BAT 0.19 %
* DOGE 0.16 %
* QTUM 0.13 %,

info-resource of LyCI

* McsEngl.LyCI'Infrsc,

* specification:,

Lykke-coin of Lykke

What is a Lykke coin?
A Lykke coin is a colored coin that is issued by Lykke Corp.
One Lykke colored coin is 0.01 (one one-hundredth) of one share of Lykke Corp. 100 Lykke colored coins are one share of Lykke Corp.
Lykke Corp has committed 2.5 Mio Lykke Corp shares (20% of Lykke's capital) for issuance as Lykke colored coins, which means that a total of 250 Mio Lykke colored coins will be outstanding.
Lykke Corp makes a market for its coins so that citizens can sell their coins and cash out.
See Lykke Coinprism Metadata

What's the total supply of Lykke coins?
Total number of Lykke Coins issued is 1,285,690,000. The ownership structure is stored on the blockchain:

* McsEngl.DvLKK,
* McsEngl.Lykke'Lykke-coin!⇒DvLKK,

LyCI-Service-token of Lykke

"The LyCI Service token, allows customers to purchase the top 25 cryptocurrencies tracked by the LyCI Index in one click.
... Richard Olsen, CEO of Lykke and previously co-founder of Oanda said “... The LyCI service token is the first token of its kind and makes it easy for investors to pick these winners, diversify risk and simplify the management of a broad universe of cryptos”."

* McsEngl.DvLYCI, /di-vi-lusi/
* McsEngl.LyCI-service-crypto-token!⇒DvLYCI,
* McsEngl.LyCI-token!⇒DvLYCI,
* McsEngl.Lykke'LyCI!⇒DvLYCI,
* McsEngl.Lykke'LyCI-service-token!⇒DvLYCI,

ticker of DvLYCI


* McsEngl.DvLYCI'ticker,

* ticker of Autoasset,

service-fee of DvLYCI

"1.45% p.a. deducted from the basket value on a minute-by-minute basis."

* McsEngl.DvLYCI'service-fee,

terms-of-service of DvLYCI


* McsEngl.DvLYCI'terms-of-service,

service-methodology of DvLYCI


* McsEngl.DvLYCI'service-methodology,

evaluation of DvLYCI

* McsEngl.DvLYCI'evaluation,

* benefit,
* problem,

evaluation.benefit of DvLYCI

* McsEngl.DvLYCI'benefit,

* reduces risk by spreading your investment,
* saves you time by evalating performance of individual Autoassets,

evaluation.problem of DvLYCI

* unfortunately Autoassets are Bitcoin dependent in a significant degree,
· DvLYCI even though reduces the-risk by spreading your investment, continues to be-related to Bitcoin volatility.
* only in pair with USD,

* McsEngl.DvLYCI'problem,

info-resource of DvLYCI

* McsEngl.DvLYCI'Infrsc,

* {2019-06-16} Andrew-Douglas, Could Cryptocurrency Index Products such as Lykke’s LyCI be the Retail Gateway to Crypto Investing?,
* {2019-06-06} Tendai-Tomu,,
* {2019-01-29},


* McsEngl.DvLYCI'generic,

* ERC20-token,
* utility-token,

PayLyCI of Lykke

"Pay LyCI tracks the top 10 cryptocurrencies that can be used to buy and sell goods and services. Similar to traditional currency, the value of these cryptocurrencies may rise or fall. It is considered a matter of near certainty that blockchain solutions will change how we pay for goods or services but exactly which, if any, of the current solutions will be the ones that our children use on a daily basis is still uncertain. As a result, users can benefit hugely from exposure and access to a single weighted collection of these different currencies, so that you have all the benefits of diversification and upside of growth potential."
"#PayLyCI is a crypto token you can buy only at Lykke.
Behind it, there's a complex algorithm that identifies, tracks & buys for you the top 10 payment crypto coins.
If the top 10 reshuffle, LyCI will automatically update the constituents of your portfolio"

* McsEngl.DvPLYCI,
* McsEngl.Lykke'PayLyCI!⇒DvPLYCI,
* McsEngl.PayLyCI-of-Lykke!⇒DvPLYCI,

SmartLyCI of Lykke

"Smart LyCI tracks the top 10 blockchain projects working on improving how contractual agreements are recorded and settled. Smart contracts aim to facilitate agreements to be carried out among two or more parties remotely, without the need for a legal system, lawyers or courts. They render transactions traceable, transparent, and irreversible by recording the terms digitally on the blockchain. They ensure that the amount agreed is held in the system — not by a third party — and is only released once the terms of the contract are settled. No party can run away with the money and there are no hefty commissions to lawyers or agents."

* McsEngl.DvSLYCI,
* McsEngl.Lykke'SmartLyCI,

human of Lykke

* McsEngl.Lykke'human,

* Olsen.Richard, CEO,

info-resource of Lykke

* McsEngl.Lykke'Infrsc,

*, (company)
* email:,
*, (wallet)
*, (ideas)

exchange-ogn.OKEx (Malta)

* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.OKEx,
* McsEngl.OKEx-Dchain-exhange-ogn,

exchange-ogn.Poloniex-exchange (USA)

We are a US-based cryptocurrency exchange offering maximum security and advanced trading features.

* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.Poloniex,
* McsEngl.Poloniex--Dchain-exchange-ogn,

exchange-ogn.QuadrigaCX (Canada)

Quadriga CX is a Canadian Cryptocurrency exchange platform, with offices in Vancouver, BC. Our goal is to provide an easy to use platform to simplify the process of buying and selling Bitcoins.

* McsEngl.Dchain-exchange-ogn.QuadrigaCX,
* McsEngl.QuadrigaCX--Dchain-exchange-ogn,


· foundation is an-organization that promotes and supports a-chain-net.
"One of the greatest challenges of building a cryptocurrency platform is ensuring you create a decentralized system of governance to manage, fund, maintain and expand the project.
This key element has been absent in every major currency to date, so the natural response is to create a not-for-profit foundation that is tasked with maintaining the core protocol and promoting the coin, but is not really connected to the coin holders in any meaningful way."



Wholesaler or retailer who may buy goods from any or all sources for resale to anyone and everyone for profit, using chain-assets.

* McsEngl.Autonet-ozn.merchant,


ConsenSys Ventures will have to deal with some of the more established players in the Blockchain VC space such as Pantera Capital, Barry Silbert's Digital Currency Group, Adam Draper's Boost VC, Blockchain Capital and Fred Wilson's Union Square Ventures.

* McsEngl.Autonet-ozn.ventrure-capital,
* McsEngl.chain-ventrure-capital--organization,
* McsEngl.chain-VC--organization,
* McsEngl.ventrure-capital.chain-ogn,


Accenture strives to be at the forefront of blockchain innovation and its practical, real world application.
We provide our clients with a complete view of the blockchain-based technology landscape and its potential business implications. Our global team of experts works with each client to help build smart strategies around effective use-cases, investment and implementation.
Blockchain has the potential to drive profound, positive change. We are working closely with leaders from across a broad range of industries, governments, consortia, the academic community and our key technology alliances to move technology forward so that, ultimately, it can help to improve the way the world lives and works.

* McsEngl.Accenture-company,
* McsEngl.Autonet-ozn.Accenture,

The Chain Platform
Our solutions enable institutions to design, deploy, and operate blockchain networks that can power any type of asset in any market.



Coin Center, the industry’s leading public policy research and advocacy center.

* McsEngl.Autonet-ozn.Coin-Center,
* McsEngl.Coin-Center,


CoinDesk is the world leader in news and information on digital currencies such as bitcoin, and its underlying technology – the blockchain.

We cover news and analysis on the trends, price movements, technologies, companies and people in the bitcoin and digital currency world.

Our per-minute Bitcoin Price Index, a derived measure of bitcoin's value based on an agreed set of criteria, also serves as a point of reference for those involved in the bitcoin industry.

If you're new to bitcoin, read our straightforward guides on the basics of what bitcoin is, why people use it, where to buy bitcoins and how to spend them. We also explain the basics of bitcoin mining, how to set up a bitcoin miner, and how bitcoin transactions work.

Digital currency is a rapidly evolving industry and we believe one of the biggest developments in internet history in the making.

There are bitcoin exchanges, merchants accepting and promoting bitcoin, investors, traders, startups and developers all contributing to the ecosystem. There are also regulatory bodies all over the world trying to understand more about bitcoin, take a stance on it and assign guidelines to companies trading in or otherwise involved with bitcoin.

We strive to cover news accurately, fairly, objectively and responsibly. Obtaining original comment, corroborating information from other sources, and showcasing original opinion are fundamental to this. View our editorial policy here.

CoinDesk is an independent publication with reporters all over the world. If you're interested in writing for us, whether as a freelancer or occasional contributor, get in touch or check out our Jobs page.

If you have a question or a story, send us a tip. Contact us for anything else.

* McsEngl.Autonet-ozn.CoinDesk,
* McsEngl.CoinDesk,


Digital Currency Group (DCG), the blockchain industry’s most active investor

* McsEngl.Autonet-ozn.Digital-Currency-Group-(DCG),
* McsEngl.Digital-Currency-Group-(DCG),


Expanding Blockchain Technology Around the World
The Global Blockchain Business Council (GBBC) brings together the world’s leading businesses and business leaders to highlight the latest innovations and advances in Blockchain technology.
The GBBC is committed to fostering partnerships, raising awareness of the potential of this groundbreaking technology and providing a forum for education, collaboration and partnership.
By Alicia Naumoff {2017-01-22},
The Blockchain Council Announced in Davos That Bitcoin Price Will Grow as Trump Takes Office
The Bitfury Group that develops Bitcoin mining hardware and operates mining farms has announced that in collaboration with the international law firm Covington it has launched the Global Blockchain Business Council (GBBC).

The announcement was made at the event held alongside the World Economic Forum’s annual meeting in Davos.

It happened just before the new United States President Donald Trump sent jitters down the spine of the world’s political and financial elite announcing at his inauguration: “From this day forward, a new vision will govern our land.” Trump has promised the American people “challenges” and “hardships” on the way of “getting the job done.” The price of Bitcoin took a cue from that message and immediately shot forward.

Top heads sighted

A number of technology, banking and financial experts and thought leaders were spotted at the Davos event where the Blockchain council has been created. They include former Swedish Prime Minister and senior advisor at Covington Carl Bildt, former Estonian President Toomas Hendrik, Dr. Wei Wang, founding chairman of China Mergers & Acquisitions (CMAA), and Don Tapscott the author of the best-seller “Blockchain Revolution”, just to name a few.

The Bitfury Group is a global team of experts in technology, business, communications, security and civil society, who are all big believers in the potential of Blockchain to open new doors for global economic opportunity and prosperity.

The main idea behind the Council is to bring together leading businesses, executives and government authorities to collaborate driving forward development and adoption of Blockchain technology around the globe.

A resource center and an educational forum

Valery Vavilov, the CEO of Bitfury Group, described the newly established Council as “a much-needed forum for businesses, innovators and technologists” to join forces and facilitate the advancement of Blockchain technology.

The GBBC will fulfill the role of a resource center and an educational forum to foster collaboration and partnerships across industries. It will assist companies by raising awareness of the potential of Blockchain technology and help engaging businesses interested in developing within the Blockchain space.

Covington brings to the table its broad-based experience in advising their clients in connection with policies, regulation litigation, enforcement and investigation, privacy and data security, consumer protection and transactional matters related to distributed ledger technology.

Sebastian Vos, Co-Chair of Covington’s global public policy and government affairs practice, said:

“Through advocacy and international engagement, Covington looks forward to working with the Global Blockchain Business Council to unlock the potential of Blockchain technology.”

Blockchain revolution

We saw how the Internet revolutionized many industries. We are now witnessing Blockchain technology steadily changing our approach to commerce, communications, financial services, entertainment industries, and many other spheres.

A lot has been said about the beauty of this technology and how it allows for any asset to be digitized, transferred and recorded on transparent and extremely secure ledgers.

Blockchain is marching across industries sweeping away slow, expensive and hackable intermediaries. When talking about the ways to facilitate this process, many experts often emphasize the need to increase collaboration between businesses and government authorities. Well, some are moving from words to deeds.

To learn more about the Global Blockchain Business Council please visit

* McsEngl.Autonet-ozn.GBBC,
* McsEngl.Global-Blockchain-Business-Council,


About Guardtime
Who we are
We are a team of over 100 cryptographers, network architects, hardware engineers, software developers and security architects, with decades of experience building cybersecurity solutions for enterprise, financial, telecommunications service providers, and military customers among others.

In 2007 we invented Keyless Signature Infrastructure, the first and only blockchain platform for ensuring the integrity of systems, networks and data at industrial scale.

What we do
We build products using our technology that solve problems no one else can solve. Examples include Anti-Tamper hardware designed to resist nation-state reverse engineering, a quantum-immune replacement for RSA digital signatures, cryptographic provenance tracking for software and IOT life cycles, insider threat mitigation and deterministic data loss prevention.

What we believe
We believe that integrity must be the basis for building reliable, resilient and secure systems. For the last 40 years security has come to mean confidentiality and encryption. Integrity has largely been forgotten, primarily because there hasn't been the tools to address it. Our contrarian view is that confidentiality is what you get when your systems have integrity.

If you can guarantee integrity (of systems, of processes, of supply chains) then you can guarantee the absence of compromise and replace a security strategy based on hope (that your security is working) with one based on mathematical certainty.

Office locations

The Netherlands
Pinnacle Tower, Rapenburgerstraat 177/S,
1011 VM Amsterdam,
The Netherlands

Irvine, CA
United States
5151 California Ave,
Irvine, CA 92617,
United States

A. H. Tammsaare tee 60,
Tallinn, 11316,

Kόόni 5b,
Tartu, 51004,

Please e-mail us at

For press inquiries: and +1 (415) 625-8555

* McsEngl.Autonet-ozn.Guardtime,


The Hyperledger Project is a collaborative effort created to advance blockchain technology by identifying and addressing important features for a cross-industry open standard for distributed ledgers that can transform the way business transactions are conducted globally. The Project is a Linux Foundation Collaborative Project and implements many open source best practices familiar to other leading projects.

To facilitate an open ecosystem, the Hyperledger Project was structured with an open governance model.

The Technical Steering Committee (TSC) will provide leadership regarding the technical direction of the Hyperledger Project.
The Board of Directors will manage business leadership for the Hyperledger Project including governance, marketing and operational decisions.
For more information on the Hyperledger Project's Governance Model, IP Policy, Antitrust Guidelines, and other operational aspects, please read the Hyperledger Project Charter

* McsEngl.Autonet-ozn.hyperledger,
* McsEngl.HyperLedger-project,

* {2018-07-17} Tech Giant Oracle Launches Blockchain Cloud Service Platform,,
* {2018-01-30},
* {2017-04-18},

project of HyperLedger

lifecycle of project


Project Lifecycle
The term “project” within the Hyperledger Project will refer to a collaborative endeavor to deliver a work item. There may be some projects that are intended to produce a document, such as a requirements or use cases document, a whitepaper, or analysis. Others may be to develop a new capability, or refactor (or remove) an existing capability for the Hyperledger technology releases. Such projects may take the form of a new component (e.g. a new repository) or may propose additions, deletions or changes to an existing repository(s).

Many other open source initiatives leverage an incubation process for new work items, and this seems to have a desired effect of encouraging new ideas and tracks of work, while at the same time providing clear guidance to the broader community as to what is real and supported, versus what is still in the exploratory/experimental/developmental phases.

Therefore the Hyperledger Project has adopted a similar lifecycle process as follows:
Projects are in one of five possible states:
End of Life
Projects may not necessarily move through those states in a linear way and may go through several iterations.


Project Proposals shall be submitted to the TSC for review, using a Proposal Template. Proposals that are approved shall enter into an Incubation state, unless they are of a refactoring nature, in which case they will be turned over to the relevant project maintainer(s) to handle as they deem fit.

A Proposal must:

have a clear description
have a well-defined scope
identify committed development resources
identify initial maintainers
be vendor neutral

Approved project proposals enter into Incubation. For new components/modules, a repository will be created under the hyperledger Github org, and optionally under Gerrit and JIRA, if requested. New features/capabilities should be handled through pull requests labeled with tags that identify the project and tag it as “incubator” (and will ideally be capable of being enabled/disabled with feature-flags).

Projects in Incubation may overlap with one another. Entering Incubation is meant to be fairly easy to allow for community exploration of different ideas.

Once a project qualifies to be declared Active, the project’s maintainers can then vote to request a graduation review by the TSC.

Projects seeking to graduate from Incubation must:

have fully functional code base
have test coverage commensurate with other Active projects
have an active and diverse community of developers
have a history of releases that follow the Active release process
Entering Incubation does not guarantee that the project will eventually get to Active state. Projects may never get to Active state.

The criteria to exit Incubation are defined in the Incubation Exit Criteria document.


Projects that have successfully exited the Incubation phase are in the Active phase.

Anyone may propose that a project be deprecated, by submitting a rationale and identifying a substitute project/component (if any). The maintainers of the project shall vote on such a request and if it passes, make that recommendation to the TSC. Members of the community that disagree with the request shall make their case before the TSC. The TSC shall consider all points of view and render a final decision to deprecate or not.


A Deprecated project will be maintained for a six month period by its community, after which it will be removed from any subsequent formal releases. Notice will be given to the public of the project’s deprecation. After the six-month deprecation period, the project will be labeled End of Life.

end of Life

A project that is no longer actively developed or maintained.

Autonet-ozn.DAO (link)


"International Association for Trusted Blockchain Applications
INATBA offers public and private developers and users of DLT a global forum to interact with regulators and policymakers and bring blockchain technology to the next stage."
[{2023-03-29 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Autonet-ozn.INATBA,
* McsEngl.INATBA,
* McsEngl.International-Association-for-Trusted-Blockchain-Applications,

12_evaluation of Autonet

* McsEngl.Autonet'12_evaluation!⇒Autonet'evaluation,
* McsEngl.Autonet'evaluation,
* McsEngl.Dledger-evaluation!⇒Autonet'evaluation,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netAeEvaluation!⇒Autonet'evaluation,
* McsEngl.Đ-eval!⇒Autonet'evaluation,

Throughout all the years I've been working as a software engineer, there has never been a technology breakthrough that I thought had more potential to change people's lives for the better than Bitcoin.

“Wherever trust is a problem, blockchain can be a solution.”
- Amanda Gutterman

Blockchain Features
Blockchains have the following properties.
The data that is on the blockchain will exist as long as there is some node in the network still operating. Once data has been put in a block, it can never be removed.
Using public-private key cryptography, all data are verifiably signed and cannot be modified by a third party.
No Downtime
Using the blockchain, zero downtime systems can finally be realized.
Advanced Features for the Blockchain
Mijin is not only a simple platform for creating points or custom currencies, but will have many advanced features.
Support for Multiple Assets
Unlike Bitcoin that has only a single digital asset, Mijin supports any arbitrary asset, allowing you to freely create and manage all your assets. We call these.
Support for Multi-signature Accounts
Mijin supports m-of-n multi-signature accounts at the platform level. You can designate multiple signatory accounts that need to sign off on transactions from an account. This can be useful for managing departmental budgets for companies or governments.
Smart Contract Support
Mijin will allow for powerful computational contracts and programs to be run in a decentralized and verifiable manner.

Over a year ago, Marc Andreessen, the doyen of Silicon Valley's venture capitalists, listed the blockchain's distributed consensus model as the most important invention since the Internet itself.

This is why blockchain technology is so exciting – it is not just about an incremental improvement in utility e.g. escrow smart contracts, it is not just about dramatically lowering the cost of setting up a trusted business, see the Great Unbundle blog, it is also about the ability to quickly and cheaply experiment with new money creation models.

Blockchain technology allows the elimination of any centralized point of failure, storing all the platform data on all system nodes in a distributed fashion.

info-resource of Autonet'evaluation

* {2019-07-01},
* {2019-06-04} Tony-Sheng, To avoid bias, hold no coins,,
* {2019-02-03},
* {2018-10-15} Nouriel-Roubini, The Big Blockchain Lie,,
* {2018-06-14} Wesley-Graham, The Four Major Things Missing in The Blockchain Industry,,
* {2018-03-01} Why Bill Gates’ Remarks on Bitcoin ‘Deaths’ are Flawed at Every Level:,
* {2018-02-27} Bill-Gates: 'The main feature of crypto currencies is their anonymity.',
* {2017-11-19},
* {2017-09-17} Daniel-Jeffries, The Empire Strikes Back with a Coordinated War on Crypto:,
* {2017-09-09} Αρης-Χατζηστεφάνου, Από τις τουλίπες στα bitcoins: μια φούσκα δρόμος,
* Blockchain Comparison: Nxt, Ardor, NEM, Ethereum, Bitcoin,,


* Dledger-Con,
* Dledger-Pro,
* Blockchain-evaluation,


The use cases differ, but the benefits derived from using the technology remain unchanged: transparency, immutability, redundancy and security.

* McsEngl.chain-benefit, {2019-03-12},
* McsEngl.Autonet'!⇒Autonet-benefit,
* McsEngl.Autonet'advantage!⇒Autonet-benefit,
* McsEngl.Autonet'benefit!⇒Autonet-benefit,
* McsEngl.Autonet'pro!⇒Autonet-benefit,
* McsEngl.Dledger-advantage!⇒Autonet-benefit,
* McsEngl.Dledger-benefit!⇒Autonet-benefit,

info-resource of chain-benefit

* McsEngl.chain-benefit'Infrsc,

* {2019-03-19} when the-electricity was-down,
* {2018-06-01} Ross-Garlick, The Great Decentralization of Everything: Energy generation and food production are next,,
* {2018-03-21} Sergio-Pereira, Year is 2020, Decentralized Trust is already enabling new Business Models,,
* {2017-12-10} Preethi Kasireddy, Fundamental challenges with public blockchains,,
* {2017-06-23} Daniel-Jeffries, Why Everyone Missed the Most Important Invention in the Last 500 Years:,


* McsEngl.Autonet-benefit.specific,

* decentralized-trust,
* double-spending,
* immutability,


"in code, we trust"
· chain-net technology is-built to eliminate the-reliance on centralized-trust.
· chain-net is NOT trustless, chain-net created the-decentralized-trust.
"The main benefit of blockchain technology is the ability for parties to share a ledger without having to rely on a central authority. Blockchains are decentralized."

* McsEngl.Autonet-benefit.autonomated-trust,
* McsEngl.Autonet-benefit.decentralized-trust,
* McsEngl.automated-trust--Autonet-benefit,
* McsEngl.decentralized-trust--Autonet-benefit,

* {2019-06-13} MIT Technology Review Insights,,


"double-spend protection is the main reason blockchains exist in the first place."

* McsEngl.Autonet-benefit.double-spending-protection,


"The dirty secrets of blockchains: they don’t scale (yet), aren’t really decentralized, distribute wealth poorly, lack killer apps, and run on a controlled Internet."
[{2018-04-08} Naval-Ravikant,]
· what matters is that blockchains and cryptocurrency, originally founded in a-vision of using technology to escape from the-failures of human-politics, have essentially all but replicated it.
[{2018-03-28} V-Buterin,]
"In truth, blockchains (like A.I., genetic engineering, and others) are a risky emerging technology. They could do harm in many ways, including:
- Unstoppable decentralized/autonomous organizations coordinating and incentivizing wrongdoing
- Mass adoption of cryptocurrencies wreaking economic and political havoc
- Decentralized networks performing surveillance for governments, corporations, or peers"

* McsEngl.Autonet'evaluation.con!⇒Autonet-benefitNo,
* McsEngl.Autonet'advantageNo, {2019-02-23},
* McsEngl.Autonet'con!⇒Autonet-benefitNo,
* McsEngl.Autonet'problem!⇒Autonet-benefitNo,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netAeProblem!⇒Autonet-benefitNo,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netAeEvaluation.con!⇒Autonet-benefitNo,
* McsEngl.Autonet-problem, {2019-04-01},
* McsEngl.Dledger-drwaback!⇒Autonet-benefitNo,
* McsEngl.Dledger-evaluation.con!⇒Autonet-benefitNo,
* McsEngl.D-stroke-problem!⇒Autonet-benefitNo,
* McsEngl.Dcc-pbm!⇒Autonet-benefitNo,
* McsEngl.Dcc-problem!⇒Autonet-benefitNo,
* McsEngl.chain-advantageNo!⇒Autonet-benefitNo, {2019-02-16},
* McsEngl.chain-con!⇒Autonet-benefitNo,
* McsEngl.transaction-chain-issue!⇒Autonet-benefitNo,
* McsEngl.transaction-chain-problem!⇒Autonet-benefitNo,
* McsEngl.problem-of-Dnchain!⇒Autonet-benefitNo,
* McsEngl.Đ-pbm!⇒Autonet-benefitNo,
* McsEngl.Đ-problem!⇒Autonet-benefitNo,

info-resource of benefitNo

* McsEngl.Autonet-benefitNo'Infrsc,

* {2019-03-17} John-Saddington,,
* {2019-02-27} P.-H.-Madore,,
* {2018-04-05} Kai-Stinchcombe, Blockchain is not only crappy technology but a bad vision for the future:,
* {2019-12-10} Preethi-Kasireddy,,
* {2017-09-24} How to tell if your computer is secretly mining cryptocurrency, and what to do about it:,


* McsEngl.Autonet-benefitNo.specific,

* blockchain-net--problem,
* bandwidth-problem,
* computations-problem,
* storage-problem,
* security-problem,
* scalability-problem,
* interoperability-problem,
* sustainability-problem,
* adoption-problem,
* centralization-on-appending--problem,
* conflict-resolution--problem,
* distribution-of-chain-asset--problem,
* evoluting-management--problem,
* forking-a-chain--problem,
* governance-problem,
* immutability-problem,
* micropayment-problem,
* resource-efficiency-on-appending--problem,
* size-of-chain--problem,
* speculation-on-chain-asset--problem,
* transaction-fees--problem,


Because of the lack of scalability, interoperability, and developability, end consumer use cases are not realized.
Blockchain has not yet bridged the gap from core technology to actual applications, and at this point, remains theoretical rather than practical."

* McsEngl.Autonet-benefitNo.applicability,
* McsEngl.Autonet-benefitNo.service,
* McsEngl.applicability--Autonet-problem,


"Ease of use may be the most critical component of scaling to mass adoption."
[{2019-05-17} Daniel-Larimer,]

* McsEngl.Autonet'usability,
* McsEngl.Autonet-benefitNo.ease-of-use,
* McsEngl.Autonet-benefitNo.usability,
* McsEngl.Autonet-benefitNo.user-interface,
* McsEngl.ease-of-use--Autonet-problem,
* McsEngl.usability-of-Autonet,

* The Standard for Blockchain Usability,


Blockchain networks exist in isolation with no communication or interoperability between them.
Bitcoin cannot communicate with Ethereum which cannot communicate with private chains."

* McsEngl.Autonet-benefitNo.isolability,
* McsEngl.isolability--Autonet-problem,


· Dchain-anonymity is a-benefit and a-problem.
· it is a-problem for Dchain-governance and Autoasset-distribution.
"crypto-communities are anonymous online-communities that anyone is free to join, and where everyone can easily feel unaccountable under the-shield of anonymity, so it is an-environment that encourages scummy-behavior much more than others."

* McsEngl.Autonet'anonymity-problem,
* McsEngl.Autonet-benefitNo.anonymity,
* McsEngl.anonymity-problem--of-Autonet,

* {2019-06-19} Jeremy-Epstein, Why Blockchain-based Governance Requires In-Person Identity Verification,,

problem.GOVERNANCE (link)


· inequality of Autoasset distribution.

* McsEngl.Autonet-benefitNo.distribution,
* McsEngl.crypto-inequality,


"How Much Energy Does It Take to “Mine” Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin?
It takes more than 3 times as much energy to "mine" a dollar's worth of bitcoin than to mine the same value in gold.
Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies are a relatively new way to make financial transactions, and while most people may have little understanding of how it all works, one thing is certain:
It takes a lot of energy.
In fact, according to recent research from the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, it takes more energy to do all of the work involved in cryptocurrency "mining" than it does to extract precious metals such as gold.
That's because although cryptocurrency is "mined," it's not done with picks and shovels.
Instead, it involves completing a load of arithmetical processes to set up "blockchains" -- virtual ledgers that record transactions.
An astronomical amount of electricity is needed to power the computers that perform these calculations.
To mine a dollar's worth of bitcoin requires about 17 megajoules (MJ) of energy, which is more than three times the amount of energy required to mine a dollar's worth of copper or gold."

* McsEngl.Autonet'energy-consumption,

* blockchain-energy-consumption,


SECURITY - If public platforms are to facilitate the transfer of trillions of dollars of value, we have to expect them to be targeted, and we have to prepare for this. To do so requires a consensus algorithm that provides the best security one can achieve, with the security properties of the algorithm formally proven. Vectors of security vulnerabilities shouldn’t be mitigated; they should be eliminated entirely. Other public DLT platforms are trading off decentralization (and so potentially compromising security) for performance gains.

* McsEngl.Autonet'security,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netAeSecurity,
* McsEngl.chain-security,
* McsEngl.transaction-chain-security,
* McsEngl.Đ-security,

* {2019-11-20} government attact on Bitcoin:,
* {2019-02-19} Helen-Partz, MIT Technology Review: Although Touted for Security, Blockchain Is Still Hackable,,
* {2018-05-15} Daniel-Goldman, The Verge Hack, Explained: Time Warps, Mining Exploits, Denial of Service, and More!,, MUST READ,
* {2017-11-20} Major Risk For Mobile Android Wallet Users:,
* {2017-10-13} This AirSwap ICO Investor Lost $80,000 on a Failed Transaction:,

* Blockchain-security,
* Dagchain-security,
* scammers,


"More people lose money due to faulty key security and phishing attacks than they do to centralized consensus systems. Everyone is so worried about pools and 21 producers that they miss the elephant in the room. #eosio #eth"
[{2019-05-30} Daniel-Larimer,]

* McsEngl.Autonet-benefitNo.loss-of-money,


· scammer is a-malicious-individual who try to trick people into handing him their details or Autoassets directly.

* McsEngl.Autonet-benefitNo.scammer,
* McsEngl.scammer--Autonet-problem,



"Phishing is a type of social engineering attack often used to steal user data, including login credentials and credit card numbers. It occurs when an attacker, masquerading as a trusted entity, dupes a victim into opening an email, instant message, or text message."

* McsEngl.Autonet-benefitNo.phishing-attack,


"an act of pretending to be another person for the purpose of entertainment or fraud."
[Google dictionary]

* McsEngl.Autonet-benefitNo.impersonation,


The rise and success of Bitcoin during the last six years proved the value of blockchain technology.
However, this technology also has a number of drawbacks, which prevent it to be used as a one and only global platform for cryptocurrencies.
Among these drawbacks, an especially notable one is the impossibility of making micro-payments, which have increased importance for the rapidly developing Internet-of-Things industry.
Specifically, in the currently available systems one must pay a fee for making a transaction; so, transferring a very small amount just makes no sense since one would have also to pay the fee which is many times larger.
On the other hand, it is not easy to get rid of the fees since they serve as an incentive for the creators of the blocks.
[] {2016}

* McsEngl.micropayment-of-Autonet,
* McsEngl.Autonet-benefitNo.micropayment,


"The privacy problem.
The main strength of distributed ledgers is also their main weakness: the history of all events is available for anyone to read. This severely limits a direct application of distributed ledgers.
For example, in ledger-based payment systems such as Bitcoin [Nak09], every payment transaction reveals the payment’s sender, receiver, and amount. This not only reveals private financial details of individuals and businesses using the system,1 but also violates fungibility, a fundamental economic property of money. This lack of privacy becomes more severe in smart contract systems like Ethereum [Woo17], wherein transactions not only contain payment details, but also embed function calls to specific applications. In these systems, every application’s internal state is public, and so is the history of function calls associated to it.
This problem has motivated prior work to find ways to achieve meaningful privacy guarantees on ledgers. For example, the Zerocash protocol [BCG+14] provides privacy-preserving payments, and Hawk [KMS+16] enables general state transitions with data privacy, that is, an application’s data is hidden from third parties.
However, all prior work is limited to hiding the inputs and outputs of a state transition but not which transition function is being executed. That is, prior work achieves data privacy but not also function privacy. In systems with a single transition function this is not a concern.2 In systems with multiple transition functions, however, this leakage is problematic. For example, Ethereum currently supports thousands of separate ERC-20 “token” contracts [Eth18], each representing a distinct currency on the Ethereum ledger; even if these contracts each individually adopted a protocol such as Zerocash to hide details about token payments, the corresponding transactions would still reveal which token was being exchanged. Moreover, the leakage of this information would substantially reduce the anonymity set of those payments."

* McsEngl.Autonet-benefitNo.privacy,
* McsEngl.Autonet'privacy,
* McsEngl.chain-privacy,
* McsEngl.privacy-of-Autonet,


"The re-execution problem.
Public auditability in the aforementioned systems (and many others) is achieved via direct verification of state transitions. This creates two problems. First, validating a transaction involves re-executing the associated computation and so, to discourage denial-of-service attacks whereby users send transactions that take a long time to validate, current systems introduce mechanisms such as gas to make users pay more for longer computations. Second, even with such mechanisms, validating an expensive transaction may simply not be economically profitable, a problem known as the “Verifier’s Dilemma” [LTKS15]. These problems have resulted in Bitcoin forks [Bit15] and Ethereum attacks [Eth16].
In sum, there is a dire need for techniques that facilitate the use of distributed ledgers for rich applications, without compromising privacy (of data or functions) or relying on unnecessary re-executions. Prior works only partially address this need, as discussed in Section 1.2 below."

* McsEngl.Autonet're-execution,
* McsEngl.chain--re-execution,


* McsEngl.Autonet-benefitNo.scalability,
* McsEngl.Autonet'scalability,
* McsEngl.chain-scalability,
* McsEngl.scalability-of-Autonet,

* size-of-chain,
* transactions-per-second,
* network-bandwidth,
* data-storage,


* {2019-05-16} Sam-Kazemian,,


* Lightning-network,
* sharding,
* sidechain,


"Sharding is the only practical and fundamental way to scale blockchain from the bottom up, while at the same time preserving its original intention of being a decentralized ledger open to everyone. It is the deepest level solution that makes the fewest compromises when bringing performance benefits. The other solutions have severe limitations. DPoS violates blockchain's original 'core value' of decentralization by reverting back to semi-centralization. Off-chain solutions such as state channels require trust relationships between the client and the state channel provider. DAGs require way too many network transmissions to be wieldy in an open environment. Sharding is the only solution that has been proven to sustainably improve TPS in a decentralized, secure manner.
MultiVAC believes that the most robust scaling solutions are built bottom-up from the infrastructural ground level. For this reason, we use blockchain sharding as our core scalability approach."

* McsEngl.sharding-of-Dchain,


STABILITY - Without technical and legal mechanisms to enforce the decisions of the governing body, public platforms are at risk of devolving into chaos. Strong security and mature governance will enable a stable platform - one that engenders the necessary trust and confidence among those that would build commercial or sensitive applications on it.

* McsEngl.Autonet-benefitNo.stability,
* McsEngl.Autonet'stability,

13_law of Autonet

· a-chain-net to exist must-issue money-(cryptocurrency).
· since {1971} money is-backed by thin-air and controlled by governments and financial-institutions.
· this destroyed the-link (the-invisible-hand) of money with real-economy and was one of the-reasons that drived the-world into the-2008-global-cirisis.
· chain-nets decentralize the-control of money.
· obviously there-is a-conflict between the-usefulness-of-chain-nets and the-control of money by governments and financial-institutions.
· that's why the-government-law on chain-assets varies substantially from country to country and is still UNDEFINDED or CHANGING in many of them [wikipedia].
"Crypto law is a collection of protocols for handling and preventing disputes that arise in blockchain governance."

* McsEngl.Autonet'13_law,
* McsEngl.DeLaw,
* McsEngl.Autonet'law!⇒DeLaw,
* McsEngl.Autonet'legality!⇒DeLaw,
* McsEngl.Autonet'legislation!⇒DeLaw,
* McsEngl.Dledger-law!⇒DeLaw,
* McsEngl.D-stroke-law!⇒DeLaw,
* McsEngl.Dcc-law!⇒DeLaw,
* McsEngl.chain-law!⇒DeLaw,
* McsEngl.lawAutonet!⇒DeLaw,
* McsEngl.Đ-law!⇒DeLaw,

problem of DeLaw

REGULATORY COMPLIANCE - We expect that governments will continue to increase oversight of public ledgers and associated cryptocurrencies and tokens. We consider that a distributed public ledger must be capable of enabling appropriate Know Your Customer (KYC) and Anti Money Laundering (AML) checks.

* McsEngl.DeLaw'problem,
* McsEngl.Autonet'regulatory-compliance,

info-resource of DeLaw

* McsEngl.DeLaw'resource,

* A boutique crypto ∧ blockchain corporate and litigation law firm,
* {2019-06-12},
* {2019-02-08} Andrea-Tinianow, When Blockchains Crash, Who Can You Sue? Is there someone whom we could sue if a blockchain network were to crash and, if so, under what theory of liability?,
* {2019-01-26} Zamfir.Vlad, Against Szabo’s Law, For A New Crypto Legal Systemm,,
* {2018-03-10} Best CryptoCurrency Jurisdictions of the World ( Part 1/3 ):,
* {2017-12-23} Belarus Legalizes Cryptocurrency Payments & Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs):,
* {2017-11-25} Zimbabwean Central Bank Considers Bitcoin ‘Illegal’:,
* {2017-09-10} Estonia Can't Make Its Own Digital Currency:,
* {2017-09-10},
* Kin fund against SEC,


* law,


* McsEngl.DeLaw.specific,

* blockchain-law,
* tax-law,


"The European Commission recognises the importance of legal certainty and a clear regulatory regime in areas pertaining to blockchain-based applications.
The EU strongly supports a EU-wide rules for blockchain to avoid legal and regulatory fragmentation. The Commission adopted a comprehensive package of legislative proposals for the regulation of crypto-assets in order to increase investments and ensure consumer and investor protection.
This package updates certain financial market rules for crypto-assets, and creates a legal framework for regulatory sandboxes of financial supervisors in the EU for using blockchains in the trading and post-trading of securities."
[{2022-06-30 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.DeLaw.Eu!⇒EulBlockchain,
* McsEngl.EulBlockchain,
* McsEngl.lawEus.blockchain!⇒EulBlockchain,

Markets in Crypto Assets (MiCA) regulation: the most comprehensive regulatory framework for crypto assets adopted to date.
The European Parliament adopted the MiCA regulation on April 20. The bill is set to enter into force across the EU by the middle of 2024. The EU now hopes that other countries will adopt these rules.
[{2023-04-26 retrieved}]
* McsEngl.{techInfo'2023-04-20}-MiCA-EU-regulation,


* McsEngl.Autoasset'tax-law,
* McsEngl.chain-tax,

* tax report:,
* {2019-05-22},
* {2019-03-03},
* {2018-06-11} David-Siegel, Crypto Tax Summary,,
* {2018-03-04} Belgian Tax Authority To Search For Taxpayers Using Foreign Crypto Exchanges:,
* {2018-01-07} Crypto Tax Tips To Start 2018 Right:,

=== {2017-11} Usa chain-tax:
While the IRS had initially asked Coinbase to turn over information on all of its users, a court case brought on by Coinbase decided in Nov. 2017 that only information on “high volume” users needed to be given to the IRS.

14_environment of Autonet

* McsEngl.Autonet'14_environment,
* McsEngl.Autonet'environment,

* Dao,
* resource,

ecosystem of Autonet

· ecosystem-of--chain-net is anything, biotic and abiotic, RELATED to a-chain-net.

* McsEngl.Autonet'ecosystem,
* McsEngl.ecosystem-of-Autonet,

industry of Autonet

· the-set of chain-nets and its organizations.

* McsEngl.Dblockchain-net'sector!⇒chain-industry,
* McsEngl.Dchain-industry,
* McsEngl.Autonet'industry!⇒chain-industry,
* McsEngl.Autonet'sector!⇒chain-industry,

job of chain-industry

* McsEngl.blockchain-job!⇒jobAutonet,
* McsEngl.chain-industry'job!⇒jobAutonet,
* McsEngl.cryptocurrency-job!⇒jobAutonet,
* McsEngl.job.003-chain-industry!⇒jobAutonet,
* McsEngl.job.chain-industry!⇒jobAutonet,
* McsEngl.job-of--chain-industry!⇒jobAutonet,



* McsEngl.Autonet'attMisc,

decentralization of Autonet

· chain-decentralization[a] is a-measure of control of chain-attributes by stakeholders.
· 'decentralized', 'centralized', 'heavily', 'enough', ... are specific definite or definiteNo measures of it[a].
· in literature, often we see advocates of one chain-net to evaluate other nets as centralized.
· as always, the-problem[b] of miscommunication comes from the-fact that we use UNDEFINED NAMES in our texts|speeches and which[b] is impossible to solve with current technology (= paper-texts, pdf-files, simple-html-files, ...).
· in chain-decentralization people evaluate it without defining (= uniquely identifying) what attributes by what stakeholders they mean.
· decentralization[a] is an ambiguous name and most important UNDEFINED name used in chain-net literature.
· this is in contrast to most of its[a] users who are programers and they know that just a single undefined-variable in programing-text is the-cause of failure of entire programs.
· there are many types of decentralization: trust, storage, governance, different degrees 50%, 75%, 100%, ...
· the first type of chain-decentralization was "the-decentralized-trust".
· digital-money, because it is just information, need a trusted entity for book-keeping.
· Bitcoin-network replaced the central trusted entities of payment-systems with a-decentralized one with no human involvement but dependent of computer processing power.
· at the same time the-chain-networks have another type of decentralization, "the-decentralized-storage" because information is stored in many computers and not in a central one.
· but "decentralized-governance" never achieved in chain-networks for the simple fact they operate on accounts (token) and not on humans which govern the-networks.
· a-chain-net is decentralized if there are no humans that CONTROL|POWER (append-tx, read-tx, programe, develop) it at own will on all chain-net-attributes.

* McsEngl.chain-centralization!⇒chain-decentralization, {2019-02-14},
* McsEngl.chain-decentralization, {2019-02-13},
* McsEngl.Autonet'decentralization!⇒chain-decentralization,
* McsEngl.decentralization-of-Dnchain!⇒chain-decentralization,

info-resource of decentralization

* McsEngl.chain-decentralization'Infrsc,

* {2020-08-24} Daniel-James-Larimer, Subjective Decentralization,,
* {2019-10-05}
* {2019-01-30} Angela-Walch, Deconstructing 'Decentralization': Exploring the Core Claim of Crypto Systems, Crypto Assets: Legal and Monetary Perspectives (OUP, Forthcoming),,
* {2018-09-03} Tony-Sheng, Let's ditch "decentralized",,
* {2017-02-06} Vitalik-Buterin, The Meaning of Decentralization,,


· the first type of chain-decentralization was "the-decentralized-trust".
· digital-money, because it is just information, need a trusted entity for book-keeping.
· Bitcoin-network replaced the central trusted entities of payment-systems with a-decentralized one with no human involvement but dependent of computer processing power.
· the-decentralized-trust of a-chain-net has an important attribute: it is automated.
· it is not performed by humans, but with computers.
· of course, humans write the-code that computers execute.
· decentralized-trust is the-ability of the-network to be-controlled NOT CENTRALLY.
· this attribute is THE-REVOLUTION this technology brought to society.
· in my opinion, it is the missing attribute in our goal to create non-antagonistic-societies, and the-cause of failure of "existing-socialism" 1917 experiment.
"The Trust Revolution will transform everything.
We can now rearchitect systems and society enabling guaranteed execution of agreements, and build fidelity, fairness and equitability into the application of societal rule systems, as everything we do can be rebased on a sounder trust foundation.
... We would achieve maximal decentralization of a blockchain network if every person on the planet owned precisely one full node device connected to the network."
"Many of us are guilty of describing blockchains as “trustless” systems. However, I’ve come to realize that the term “trustless” is ambiguous, confusing, and most importantly, inaccurate.
Blockchains don’t actually eliminate trust. What they do is minimize the amount of trust required from any single actor in the system. They do this by DISTRIBUTING TRUST among different actors in the system via an economic game that incentivizes actors to cooperate with the rules defined by the protocol."
[{2018-02-03} Preethi-Kasireddy, ELI5: What do we mean by “blockchains are trustless”?,]

* McsEngl.automated-decentralized-trust--chain-decentralization,
* McsEngl.chain-decentralization.appendace,
* McsEngl.Autonet'trust,
* McsEngl.Autonet'trustless-attribute,

* {2020-08-20}
* {2018-08-07} Camilo-Lascano-Tribin, Decentralizing Trust: On Blockchain and its potential to change the way we trust one another,,


· storage-decentralization is the-quantity of nodes that store the-chain.



· asset-decentralization is the-quantity of humans that own the-assets of the-net.

* McsEngl.chain-decentralization.asset,

* {2019-03-09},


· development-decentralization is the-quantity of developers of the-net.

* McsEngl.chain-decentralization.development,

immutability of Autonet

"Immutability is without a doubt, one of the core principles of the technology."

* McsEngl.Autonet'immutability,
* McsEngl.Autonet-att.immutability,

* {2019-07-04},

crypto-economics of Autonet

· the-use of economic-incentives to append the-chain of transactions by consensus without a central authority.
The cryptography underlying these systems is what makes the P2P communication within the networks secure and the economics is what incentivizes all actors to contribute to the network so that it thrives over time.

* McsEngl.Autonet'crypto-economics,
* McsEngl.crypto-economics--of-Autonet,

* {2017-08-28} Josh-Stark, Making Sense of Cryptoeconomics:,
* {2017-06-4} Nick-Tomaino, Cryptoeconomics 101,,

double-counting of Autonet

"Core logic in the blockchain system is designed to prevent double-counting of assets and to record ownership and transfers."
[ [Maslova.Natalia]]

* McsEngl.Autonet'double-counting-of-assets-prevention,

data-storage of Autonet

"blockchains are relatively expensive to store data on, it turns out that they don't make great file systems."
"We believe that not using blockchains for data storage is necessary for scalability"
[ {2017-10-12}]

* McsEngl.Autonet'data-storage,

zero-knowledge-proof of Autonet

"Being able to answer a question of “Does a user have enough money to send to another user” without knowing who the user is, or exactly how much they have, is one of the primary use cases for Zero-Knowledge Proofs in blockchain."

* McsEngl.Autonet'zero-knowledge-proof,

info-resource of Autonet

* McsEngl.Autonet'Infrsc,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netAeResource,
* McsEngl.Dchain-resource,
* McsEngl.resource-of-Autonet,

* {2019-06-14} Jon-Porter, Facebook’s cryptocurrency to debut next week backed by Visa, Mastercard, Uber, and others: WSJ,,
* {2019-06-13} Blockchain’s real promise: Automating trust,,
* {2019-05-30},
* {2019-05-28} Tony-Sheng, Satoshi's vision for bitcoin as told by its predecessors,,
* {2019-04-06} Joseph-Lubin,,
* {2018-12-12} Demiro-Massessi, Public Vs Private Blockchain In A Nutshell, ("it really all starts with identity management"),,
* {2018-12-04} Ash-Bennington, 10 Qs In Crypto: Ari Paul,,
* {2018-11-24} US Military’s DARPA Program Hops on the ‘Blockchain Not Bitcoin’ Bandwagon,,
* {2018-02-18} Chris-Dixon, Why Decentralization Matters:,
* {2017-11-11} Over 26,000 Blockchain Projects Were Developed Last Year; 8% Remain Active:,
* {2017-09-10} Estonia Can't Make Its Own Digital Currency:,
* {2008-10-31} Satoshi-Nakamoto, Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System,,
* {2001} Nick-Szabo, Trusted Third Parties Are Security Holes,,

* tutorial:,
* autonomous-network, David-Irvine,,

event of Autonet

* McsEngl.Dchain-event,
* McsEngl.Autonet'event,


DOING of Autonet

* McsEngl.Dchain-doing, {2019-04-06},
* McsEngl.Autonet'activity!⇒Dchain-doing,
* McsEngl.Autonet'doing!⇒Dchain-doing,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netAeDoing!⇒Dchain-doing,
* McsEngl.Dledger-doing!⇒Dchain-doing,
* McsEngl.chain-doing!⇒Dchain-doing,


* McsEngl.Dchain-doing.specific,

* reading--chain-doing,
* creating--chain-doing,
* destroying--chain-doing,
* upgrading--chain-doing,
* appending--chain-doing,
* scaling--chain-doing,
* governing--chain-doing,
* programing--chain-doing,
* learning--chain-doing,
* service--chain-doing,
* transaction,
* blockchain--chain-doing,
* Dagchain--chain-doing,

Dchain-doing.TRANSACTION (link)


"An operation could be a transfer of a coin but also other actions allowed by the blockchain as updating or creating an asset, voting, posting a blog or comment, claim vesting shares, ...
Several operations can be grouped in 1 single Tx!"

* McsEngl.Dchain-doing.action,
* McsEngl.Dchain-doing.operation,
* McsEngl.action-of-Dchain,
* McsEngl.operation-of-Dchain,


· the-process of creating a-chain-net.

* McsEngl.Autonet'creating,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netAeCreating,
* McsEngl.Dchain-doing.creating,
* McsEngl.Dledger-creating,


· the-evolution of the-Dchain-protocol mainly defines the-type of governance of the-Dchain-net.
One of the important arguments in the blockchain space is that of whether hard forks or soft forks are the preferred protocol upgrade mechanism.
To updade means to bring someone or something up to date, whereas to upgrade means to raise or improve something to a higher standard.
The difference between these two is particularly apparent in the world of computers: an update is not always and improvement!

* McsEngl.Autonet'protocol-upgrate-mechanism,
* McsEngl.Autonet'upgrading,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netAeProtocol-upgrade-mechanism,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netAeUpgrading,
* McsEngl.evoluting-of-Dprotocol,
* McsEngl.Dprotocol'evoluting,
* McsEngl.Dprotocol'updating,
* McsEngl.Dprotocol'upgrading,

Hardfork (link)

Softfork (link)



Dchain-doing.GOVERNING (link)


Money received (ICO) to build the system.
Dash's previously mentioned treasury system uses a portion of the block rewards to fund development of the project and its ecosystem, making it the first self-funded digital currency. Each month, 6,650 DASH are available to fund Dash's development team and other projects approved by the Dash community. At current prices, that equates to an annual development budget in excess of $23 mln.

* McsEngl.Dchain-governing'funding,
* McsEngl.Autonet'funding,
* McsEngl.funding-of-Autonet,
* McsEngl.Dchain-doing.funding,


Connections between public blockchains are already implemented by exchanging data through exchanges. That is, in the case of a registered blockchain in exchanges, exchange can be performed in such a way that the exchange performs relaying. The advantage of this approach is that people can easily identify and use services because they are done in the same way as exchanges between fiat currencies such as the Korean Won and the US Dollar.

* McsEngl.cross-chain-interoperability,
* McsEngl.interchain-communicating,
* McsEngl.Dchain-doing.interchain-communicating,


* McsEngl.Dchain-doing.learning,
* McsEngl.Autonet'learning,
* McsEngl.learning.chain-net,

* university-of-Nicosia:,
{2018-06-20} Tom-Abate, Stanford computer scientists launch the Center for Blockchain Research: The new center will address blockchain’s practical, legal and societal challenges, and develop a curriculum to facilitate its use across a variety of fields and applications,,

15_service of Autonet

· Dchain-service is a-Dchain-doing for its end-users.
Dan Hedl @danheld
"Currently, #1 use case for crypto is speculation"
"Although currency transactions are the most common applications of the blockchain technology, some groups are also attempting to transfer other digital assets, such as financial products and services, logistics information, property ownership, identity etc."
"The-service of a-blockchain-network and the-service of its consensus-money is the-same."

* McsEngl.Autonet'15_service!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.Autonet'service!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.D-stroke-chain-service!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.D-stroke-service!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.Dchain-doing.service!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.Autonet'adoption!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.Autonet'application!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.Autonet'usage!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.Autonet'use-case!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.Autonetservice!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.DeService,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netAeAdoption!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netAeApplication!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netAeService!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netAeUsage!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.Dchain-service, {2019-04-05},
* McsEngl.Dledger-service!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.Dservice!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.Dtcc-svc!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.chain-service!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.service-of-Dnchain!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.transaction-chain-netAeAdoption!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.transaction-chain-netAeApplication!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.transaction-chain-netAeService!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.transaction-chain-netAeUsage!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.transaction-chain-service!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.transaction-chainAeService!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.tx-chain-netAeAdoption!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.tx-chain-netAeApplication!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.tx-chain-netAeService!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.tx-chain-netAeUsage!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.use-case--of-Dnchain!⇒DeService,
* McsEngl.Đ-service!⇒DeService, (D-stroke-service)
* McsEngl.Đ-svc!⇒DeService,

DeApp of DeService

· a-Dchain-service is-done by the-Dchain-net or by a-DeApp of it.

* McsEngl.DeService'DeApp,

info-resource of DeService

* McsEngl.DeService'Infrsc,

* {2018-11-01},
* {2018-05-31} Matteo-Gianpietro-Zago, 50+ Examples of How Blockchains are Taking Over the World,,
* {2018-02-01} How can blockchain serve society?,
* {2017-11-22} 5 Essential Blockchain Predictions That Will Define 2018:,
* {2017-10-04} From Messengers to Food Reviews, Companies Incorporate Blockchain into Apps:,
* {2017-09-05} The Top 3 Ways Blockchain Matter in the Future:,
* {2016-12-13} Beyond bitcoin: 4 surprising uses for blockchain:
* {2016-11-28} 5 Blockchain Applications That Are Shaping Your Future:,
* {2016-04-27} ECB Reveals Plans for Blockchain E-Governance,
* {2016-04-10} Match & Teach Me: Blockchain, Psychometrics To Help Teach Refugees:,
* {2016-04-09} Blockchain: Overhyped or Underexplored, It Will Be Deployed At Scale:,
* {2016-04-08} Filipino Breach: How Blockchain Can Bring Privacy Revolution To Masses:,
* {2016-04-06} Blockchain Goes On A Brand Protection Mission, Fights Counterfeiting:,
* {2016-03-16} Response to Marcella Atzori: can the blockchain provide governance?
* {2016-01-08} The Top 10 Blockchain Startups to Watch in 2016:,
* European Blockchain Services Infrastructure:,


* McsEngl.DeService.specific,

* Academic-degree-DeService,
* Administering-decentralized-DeService,
* Asset-exchange-DeService,
* Banking-DeService,
* Birth-certificate-DeService,
* Blockchain-DeService,
* blockchainNo-DeService,
* Blockchain-service-providing,
* Charity-DeService,
* Cloud-computing-DeService,
* Cloud-storage-DeService,
* Content-providing-DeService,
* Crownd-funding-DeService,
* Economy-DeService,
* Energy-sector-DeService,
* Exchange-DeService,
* Financial-sector-DeService,
* Freight-DeService,
* General-purpose-computing-DeService,
* Gold-exchange-DeService,
* Healthcare-sector-DeService,
* Identification-DeService,
* Info-tech-sector-DeService,
* Intellectual-property-DeService,
* Invoice-managing-DeService,
* Land-registry-DeService,
* Legal-sector-DeService,
* Manufacturing-sector-DeService,
* Marketplace-DeService,
* Medium-of-exchange-DeService,
* Money-transfer-DeService,
* Music-service-DeService,
* Notarization-DeService,
* Programmable-contract-DeService,
* Proof-of-existance-DeService,
* Recruitmen-sector-DeService,
* Record-DeService,
* Smart-contract-DeService,
* Social-security-DeService,
* Startup-funding-DeService,
* Supply-chain-sector-DeService,
* Tech-info-DeService,
* Trade-sector-DeService,
* Transportation-sector-DeService,
* Voting-DeService,
* Wedding-certificate-DeService,
* Welfare-benefit-DeService,
* Will-DeService,

Transactionchain stores timestamped (=chain) and unchanged (only appendable) information with many applications.


* Academic-degree--service,
* Birth-certificate--service,
* Charity-service,
* Exchange-value--service,
* Land-info--service,
* Music-service,
* Program-service,
* Voting-service,
* Wedding-certificate--service,
* Will-service,


* McsEngl.Autonet'service-industry-division,
* McsEngl.Autonet'service-sector-division,
* McsEngl.DeService.sector-division,
* McsEngl.industry-division--of-DeService,
* McsEngl.sector-division--of-DeService,

* {2017-02-07} Banking Is Only The Start: 27 Big Industries Where Blockchain Could Be Used,

* Public-sector,
* PublicNo-sector,
* Banking-sector,
* Energy-sector,
* Financial-sector,
* Food-sector,
* Healthcare-sector,
* Hospitality-sector,
* Info-tech-sector,
* Insurance-sector,
* Job-sector,
* Legal-sector,
* Manufacturing-sector,
* Music-sector,
* Recruitment-sector,
* Trade-sector,
* Transportation-sector,


* McsEngl.DeService.public-sector,
* McsEngl.DeService.sctrPdn.public,
* McsEngl.sctrPdn.DeService.public,
* McsEngl.public-sector-DeService,

* {2018-06-15} Connor-Blenkinsop, Blockchain Platform to Score Politicians, Increasing Accountability and Voter Engagement,,
* {2017-11-07} Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission Plans Blockchain-Based Electronic Payment System:,
* {2017-10-13} Race towards the First “Crypto-Country” in the World:,

* Governance-society--txchain-service,


* McsEngl.DeService.automobile,
* McsEngl.DeService.sctrPdn.automobile,
* McsEngl.sctrPdn.DeService.automobile,
* McsEngl.automobile-DeService,

* {2018-03-30} Audi Is Exploring Blockchain For Its Distributional Network:,



* {2018-11-29} Nsikak.John, Blockchain can change the face of renewable energy in Africa. Here’s how,,
* the-energy-blockchain-could-bitcoin-be-a-catalyst-for-the-distributed-grid?

* Grid+: Grid+ leverages the Ethereum blockchain to give consumers direct access to wholesale energy markets,
* PowerLedger: Power Ledger is a blockchain-based peer-to-peer energy trading platform enabling consumers and businesses to sell their surplus solar power to their neighbours without a middleman,
* Solar-DAO:, Become a PV Solar Plant co-Owner Get SDAO tokens to get a part of PV Solar Plant
* WePower:, WEPOWER IS A BLOCKCHAIN-BASED GREEN ENERGY TRADING PLATFORM It enables to finance green energy projects, to invest into and trade green energy,


“Bitcoin—or more precisely, the underlying technology that allows it to function, called distributed ledgers, or blockchain—could allow what many see as a radical rewiring of the financial sector.”

* McsEngl.DeFi!⇒DeServiceFin,
* McsEngl.Dfinance-service!⇒DeServiceFin, {2019-04-27},
* McsEngl.DeServiceFin,
* McsEngl.decentralized-finance!⇒DeServiceFin,

DeFi stands for “decentralized finance” and refers to the ecosystem comprised of financial applications that are being developed on top of blockchain systems.
DeFi may be defined as the movement that promotes the use of decentralized networks and open source software to create multiple types of financial services and products. The idea is to develop and operate financial DApps on top of a transparent and trustless framework, such as permissionless blockchains and other peer-to-peer (P2P) protocols.
Currently, the three largest functions of DeFi are:
* Creating monetary banking services (e.g., issuance of stablecoins)
* Providing peer-to-peer or pooled lending and borrowing platforms
* Enabling advanced financial instruments such as DEX, tokenization platforms, derivatives and predictions markets
Within those three fields, there are several types of DeFi services. A few other examples of products and use cases include funding protocols, software development tools, index construction, subscription payment protocols, and data analysis applications. DeFi dApps may also be used for KYC, AML, and other identity management services.
Decentralized finance brings numerous benefits when compared to traditional financial services. Through the use of smart contracts and distributed systems, deploying a financial application or product becomes much less complex and secure. For instance, many dApps are being developed on top of the Ethereum blockchain, which provides reduced operational costs and lower entry barriers.
Summing up, the DeFi movement is shifting traditional financial products to the open source and decentralized world, which removes the need for intermediaries, reduces overall costs, and greatly improves security."

* {2020-08-14},
* {2019-05-15}
* {2019-05-20},
* {2019-04-07} Tyler-Durden,,
* central-bankers-told-they-should-be-sprinting-toward-blockchain,


* Banking-DeService,
* Money-DeService,
* Startup-funding-DeService,


* McsEngl.accounting-DeService,
* McsEngl.DeService.accounting,

* {2017-11-17},


* McsEngl.DeService.auditing-financial-transactions,

* {2018-03-17} Big Four Giant PwC Announces Blockchain Auditing Service:,


* McsEngl.DeService.banking,
* McsEngl.banking-DeService,

* {2017-05-18} Bank Blockchain Pilot in India Sees Transactions Going From Weeks to Hours:,
* Polybius Bank will combine features of modern banking, IoT, Big Data and Blockchain-based technologies while also meeting security and UX requirements,
* Humaniq is a simple and secure 4th generation mobile bank. We are developing a completely new banking experience by dissolving all the barriers of archaic banks such as the need to come to a branch, doing endless paperwork, dealing with hard-to-use, buggy mobile apps, and protecting data with hard-to-remember, complex passwords.We have created a safe, strong financial tool, specifically designed to be used by people who are undereducated or who don't possess identification. Most of them live in emerging economies on less than two dollars a day. We believe we can change that. Learn more about Humaniq…


* McsEngl.DeService.lending,

* {2019-05-27},


* McsEngl.DeService.donation,
* McsEngl.donation-DeService,

* Ethereum-dApp,
* Ethereum-based Donation Platform,


* McsEngl.DeService.escrow,
* McsEngl.escrow-DeService,






* McsEngl.DeService.funding,
* McsEngl.funding-DeService,

* Crowdfunding,
* Startup-funding,


* McsEngl.crowdfunding-DeService,
* McsEngl.DeService.crowdfunding,

ICO (link)::

* {2017-10-08} Blockchain Crowdfunding Is Attracting Hundreds Of Millions Of Dollars — And It's Growing Fast:,

* Startup-crowdfunding,


* McsEngl.DeService.startup-funding,
* McsEngl.startup-funding-DeService,

* Neufund-ogn,


Neufund is building a blockchain-based and investor-directed platform which bridges the world of cryptocurrency and equity. The fund unlocks the resources of cryptocurrency and blockchain to fund startups and all forms of technological innovation and disruption.

* McsEngl.Neufund-ogn,


Medium-of-exchange-Đ-service is the first service of the-Đ-networks.
They created a-đ-currency and managed transactions with it.

* McsEngl.DeService.medium-of-exchange,
* McsEngl.Autonet'đ-currency,
* McsEngl.chain-currency-DeService,
* McsEngl.medium-of-exchange--DeService,
* McsEngl.chain-currency-DeService,

* blockchain--medium-of-exchange--service,
* Dagchain--medium-of-exchange--service,

* {2017-09-27} Japan Considers Launching J-Coin, Eliminating Cash Before Tokyo 2020 Games:,
* {2015-12-28},
* next-country-to-go-cashless-plans-national-digital-currency,

* Government-cryptocurrency,
* Lending-money--service,
* Payment--service,
* Transfering-money--service,

* McsEngl.Autonet',
* McsEngl.Dchain-netAeServiceAsMoney-lending,
* McsEngl.Dtcc-svcAsMoney-lending,
* McsEngl.lending-DeService,
* McsEngl.Đ,

* {2017-10-11} Need Personal Loans? Blockchain Is Here:,

* Micromoney: "We are the 1st Pioneer Blockchain Credit Bureau as well as a Transparent Social and Green Microfinance company",
* Ripio Credit Network: A global peer-to-peer credit network based on co-signed smart contracts,
* Blockchain-Backed Loans,



* McsEngl.DeService.payment,
* McsEngl.payment-DeService,

* {2019-03-28},
* {2019-03-19},
* {2017-10-20} Gates Foundation Launches Blockchain-based Mobile Payments Solution:,

* Bitcoin-network, the-first,
* Raiden Network:, on top of Ethereum-net, using state-channels,
* The Global Unified Payment Network,
* UTRUST is a revolutionary payment platform that empowers buyers to pay with cryptocurrencies while providing a groundbreaking purchase protection mechanism,



* {2018-11-26} Sadie-Williamson, How Blockchains Are Changing the Food Service Industry, (loyalty programs),
* Artificial Intelligence x Blockchain Building the world's most trusted and intelligent restaurant discovery service,







* Blockchain for electronic health records,
* platform connecting patients and doctors worldwide on a decentralized network.,


* McsEngl.accommodation-sector-DeService,
* McsEngl.DeService.accommodation-sector,
* McsEngl.DeService.hospitality-sector,
* McsEngl.DeService.sctrPdn.hospitality,
* McsEngl.sctrPdn.DeService.hospitality,
* McsEngl.hospitality-sector-DeService,



* McsEngl.DeService.information,
* McsEngl.DeService.knowledge,
* McsEngl.DeService.sctrPdn.information,
* McsEngl.sctrPdn.DeService.information,
* McsEngl.information-DeService,
* McsEngl.knowledge-DeService,
* McsEngl.information-DeService,




* {2018-06-15} Marie-Huillet, Oxford Profs Plan Launch of World's First Blockchain-Based, Decentralized University,,

* Tutellus:,
* ODEM: ODEM is not an online education platform. To address the inherent weaknesses of online learning, we combine a real-world classroom learning experience with the agility and flexibility of the best parts of online education,


* McsEngl.DeService.forcasting,
* McsEngl.DeService.prediction,
* McsEngl.forcasting-DeService,

* {2019-03-21},

* prediction-markets:,


* McsEngl.decentralized-insurance,

* {2019-04-27},




* {2016-10-14} Argentina-Based Notarization Platform Launches Public Beta, Brings Bitcoin to Legal Industry:,
* Agrello: Have your own AI counselor help you create and manage smart-contract-based legal agreements. No coding or legal skills required,

* revolutionizes deals and resolves contract disputes,


* McsEngl.DeService.manufacturing,
* McsEngl.DeService.sctrPdn.manufacturing,
* McsEngl.sctrPdn.DeService.manufacturing,
* McsEngl.manufacturing-DeService,

* {2016-06-08} blockchain-watch-manufactures-start-using-blockchain-to-confirm-authenticity-of-luxury-goods,
- Upon the sale or transfer of assets, the original owner performs a simple operation on the blockchain to automatically transfer their right to ownership to the new owner.


* McsEngl.Autonet',

* pink-floyd-blockchain-technology-music-could-be-truly-revolutionary-1569649,




* Cloud-computing,
* Cloud-storage,
* Content-providing,
* General-purpose-computing,
* News,
* Notarization,
* Record-keeping,
* Render-Token: distributed GPU rendering on the blockchain,
* Search-engine,
* Security,
=== Specific:
* Blockstack: decentralized-internet,
* THE DOME Decentralized platform using blockchain technology to create global network by offering people tokens for sharing private Wi-Fi networks. This would let users to get free internet access almost in every part of the globe and dismiss high payments for 4g(LTE) data use,


* McsEngl.DeService.001-arbitration,
* McsEngl.DeService.arbitration-001,
* McsEngl.decentrlized-arbitration,
* McsEngl.decentrlized-court,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.διαιτησία-αποκεντρωμένη!=DeServiceArbitration,


info-resource of DeServiceArbitration

* McsEngl.DeServiceArbitration'Infrsc,

* {2020-03-16} Hitoshi-Matsushima, Shunya-Noda, Mechanism Design with Blockchain Enforcement,,


* McsEngl.AI-DeService,
* McsEngl.artificial-intelligence-DeService,
* McsEngl.DeService.AI,
* McsEngl.DeService.artificial-intelligence,


DeService.BLOCKSTACK (link)


* McsEngl.DeService.blogging,
* McsEngl.blogging-DeService,

* Steemit:,



* DFINITY-network,


* McsEngl.DeStorage,
* McsEngl.decentralized-storage!⇒DeStorage,

* {2020-10-15},
* {2020-06-05},
* sia-v103-comes-out-aims-at-revolution-in-blockchain-cloud-storage,
* cloud-storage-meets-bitcoin-blockchain-siacoin-takes-on-amazon-google-microsoft,

* DatProject:,
* (IPFS producers),
* Gaia:,


* McsEngl.DeService.content-providing,
* McsEngl.content-providing-DeService,

* {2017-10-14} Can Blockchain Technology Challenge YouTube, Netflix?,

*, Lino's mission is to create a Value-sharing Content Economy where content creators, viewers, and all other contributors are fully and fairly incentivized to maximize long-term economic growth in a sustainable way,
*, DECENT: Blockchain Content Distribution Platform,


* McsEngl.DeService.decentralized-internet,
* McsEngl.decentralized-internet-DeService,

* Blockstack,


* McsEngl.DeService.encyclopedia,
* McsEngl.decentralized-encyclopedia,
* McsEngl.encyclopedia-DeService,

* Everipedia:,


* McsEngl.DeService.general-purpose-computing,
* McsEngl.general-purpose-computing-DeService,

* SONM is a decentralized worldwide fog supercomputer for general purpose computing from site hosting to scientific calculations,
The purpose of SONM project is to replace traditional Proof-of-Work cryptocurrency mining prevalent in the blockchain community at the moment.


* McsEngl.DeService.interchain-communication,
* McsEngl.interchain-transaction--service,
* McsEngl.interchain-communication--service,
* McsEngl.shared-ledgers--service,

* The Third Generation Blockchain Network: A multi-tier blockchain system designed to address unsolved questions of scalability, privacy, and interoperability in blockchain networks,
* the internet of blockchains,
* A decentralized and open-source cross platform cryptocurrency,
*, this-site,
* Neo:,


* McsEngl.DeService.IoT,
* McsEngl.IoT-DeService,

* Iota-Autonet,



* What Could Blockchain Do for Journalism?,
* The Future of News on the Blockchain,


* McsEngl.DeService.notarization,
* McsEngl.notarization-DeService,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.συμβολαιογραφική-υπηρεσία,

* brings-bitcoin-to-legal-industry,


* McsEngl.DeService.programmable-contract,
* McsEngl.programmable-contract-DeService,

* Blockchain--programmable-contract---txchain-service,
* Dagchain--programmable-contract---txchain-service,
* Lisk-LSK-network {2016},
* Ethereum-ETH-network {2015},
* BOScoin-BOS-network,
* Dfinity-DFN-network,
* NEO-network,
* Qtem-network,
* Rootstock-RSK-network,
* Tezos-network,


The opening for a blockchain intern at Disney illustrates that banks and financial institutions are no longer the only companies looking at blockchain solutions.
The blockchain can find applications in any industry where records need to be securely maintained and processed – whether they be land records, medical records or shipping records.
We can expect companies in other industries to follow Disney's lead and start looking at blockchain solutions in the near future.
Factom showed how a blockchain that stores hashes can be used as a proof of existence for any digital data.

* McsEngl.DeService.document-keeping,
* McsEngl.DeService.record-keeping,
* McsEngl.document-keeping-DeService,
* McsEngl.record-keeping-DeService,

* {2019-05-15} document management,
* student-credintials:,

* Academic-degrees,
* Intellectual-property,
* Land-registry,
* Medical-records-registry,
* Proof-of-existence,
* Shipping-registry,
* Strudents-credentials,
* Vehicle-registry,
* Wedding-agreement,


* McsEngl.academic-credential-DeService,
* McsEngl.DeService.academic-credential,
* McsEngl.DeService.academic-degrees,
* McsEngl.DeService.student-credential,
* McsEngl.student-credential-DeService,

* {2019-02-27},
* {2019-01-13},
* {2017-10-11} Australian University Issues Academic Credentials to Students on a Blockchain:,
* {2017-10-04} Malta's Government Is Putting Academic Certificates on a Blockchain:,

* The Open Initiative for Blockchain Certificates,


* McsEngl.DeService.certificate-managing,
* McsEngl.certificate-managing-DeService,

* {2019-05-03}, OpenCerts,

* academic-credential,
* professional-certification,
* The Open Initiative for Blockchain Certificates,


{2023-03-15} INATBA Launches Task Force to Drive the Future of Digital Credentials! []

* McsEngl.DeService.credential,
* McsEngl.credential-DeService,


* McsEngl.DeService.intellectual-property,
* McsEngl.intellectual-property-DeService,

* {2019-05-24},
* {2018-12-08} Chinese Internet Court Uses Blockchain to Protect Online Writer’s Intellectual Property,,


* McsEngl.DeService.registry-of-companies,
* McsEngl.registry-of-companies-DeService,

* {2019-05-09},


* McsEngl.DeService.verification-of-data,
* McsEngl.verification-of-data-DeService,

* {2019-01-28} Nick-Theile, Blockusign App: A Pragmatic Approach to Smart Contracts and Anchoring Data to the Blockchain Using Blockstack,,




This isn't the first connection that Disney has with the blockchain.
Way back in 2014, the first blockchain wedding took place at Disneyland, Florida.
David Mondrus and Joyce Bayo registered their wedding agreement on the blockchain, eliminating the role of both religious and government officials.






* {2019-04-11},
* {2017-10-05} LevelNet, the World's First Cyber Security Platform Announces Token Sale:,






* begin-sending-physical-products-via-blockchain,


* McsEngl.asset-exchange-DeService,
* McsEngl.DeService.asset-exchange,

* Gold-exchange--service,


The government in Singapore has turned to Blockchain developing a system to prevent invoice fraud cases.

* McsEngl.DeService.invoice-managing,
* McsEngl.invoice-managing-DeService,



* {2023-02-06},
* {2022-06-23},
* {2020-07-28},
* {2019-06-13} MIT Technology Review Insights,,
* {2019-06-09},
* {2019-05-15},
* {2019-04-11},
* {2019-03-26},
* {2019-03-05},
* {2019-01-23},
* {2019-01-17},
* {2018-11-21} South Korea Science, Food Ministries to Use Blockchain for Tracing Beef Supply Chain,,
* {2018-10-08},
* {2018-05-29} Australia’s First Blockchain Supply Chain System Unveiled at Port of Brisbane,,
* {2017-11-08} Shipping Giant UPS Joins Blockchain in Trucking Alliance:,

* International logistics service on blockchain,
* WaBi: place secure anti-counterfeit labels on consumer products in China and internationally,


* McsEngl.DeService.freight,
* McsEngl.DeService.handover,
* McsEngl.freight-DeService,
* McsEngl.handover-DeService,



Project Provenance began with a frustration for how little we know about the things we buy
We are now a growing collective with backgrounds in software design, product manufacturing and data science. Our base is in London, but our mission is global. Our common goal is to deliver meaningful change to commerce through open and accessible information about products and supply chains.

* McsEngl.Provenance-ogn,

* The woman whose mum inspired her to track ethical food
By Matthew Wheeler
Business reporter
13 February 2017


* McsEngl.DeService.sctrPdn.transportation,
* McsEngl.sctrPdn.DeService.transportation,
* McsEngl.DeService.transportation,
* McsEngl.sctrPdn.transportation-DeService,
* McsEngl.transportation-DeService,



"Microsoft Azure already features a wide range of Blockchain solutions, including Ethereum, Chain Core, Corda, Nxt, Lisk, and Waves.
Together, they form an elaborate ecosystem known as Blockchain as a Service, which supports the creation of all kinds of Blockchain projects for all kinds of purposes and for companies of any size."

* McsEngl.BaaS,
* McsEngl.DeService.chain-service-providing,
* McsEngl.Dchain-as-a-service,
* McsEngl.blockchain-as-a-service,

* {2018-10-09} Veronica-Torras,,
* {2017-10-04} Oracle Joins the Blockchain Craze, Uses Hyperledger Fabric:,
- Emercoin joined the Microsoft Azure program in January 2016, becoming one of the first partners and blockchain implementing service providers. On this day, the Emercoin Blockchain Engine has become the first Microsoft Azure Market application to provide blockchain services to end users around the world.


"We might say someday that blockchains did to governance what the internet did to communication."
"blockchains could serve as a centerpiece for a new way of organizing large chunks of human society."
[{2022-07-13 retried}]
"Blockchain technology and dApps have the ability to decentralize power from existing authorities in business, law, and technology to a broad set of stakeholders.
This shift will disrupt current business, economic and social paradigms.
Transaction costs and barriers to entry in various industries will be reduced in these industries.
The result will likely be an increase in economic exchange and prosperity."

* McsEngl.Dgoverning-service!⇒DeSrvcGvng,
* McsEngl.DeService.administering!⇒DeSrvcGvng,
* McsEngl.DeService.governing!⇒DeSrvcGvng,
* McsEngl.DeSrvcGvng!=decentralized-automated-governing-service, {2019-04-26},
* McsEngl.Dgoverning!⇒DeSrvcGvng, {2019-04-27},
* McsEngl.administering--Dchain-service!⇒DeSrvcGvng,
* McsEngl.governing--Dchain-service!⇒DeSrvcGvng,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.αποκεντρωτικής-διακυβέρνησης-υπηρεσία!=DeSrvcGvng,

* {2021-08-16} Moving beyond coin voting governance:,,
* {2020-12-30},
* {2020-01-20} Primavera-de-Filippi, Blockchain Technology and Decentralized Governance: The Pitfalls of a Trustless Dream,,
* {2019-03-25} Duncan-McCann, Miranda-Hall, Digital Self-control: algorithms, accountability, and our digital selves,,
* {2019-02-14},
* {2018-05-21} Vitalik-Buterin and Glen-Weyl, Liberation Through Radical Decentralization,,

* society-governing--Dchain-service,
* city-governing--Dchain-service,
* organization-governing--Dchain-service,
* Aragon,

DeSrvcGvng.ORGANIZATION (link)


* McsEngl.DeGvgCity,

* {2021-10-31},
* {2019-04-27},
* {2019-03-18},
* {2019-02-16} Marie-Huillet, Norway: Anarcho-Capitalist Smart City Adopts Crypto as Sole Recognized Medium of Exchange,,


The need to look beyond the currency and investigate the potential use of the technology in industries outside payments is often emphasized. So should global governments be embracing Blockchain?
Backing e-government platforms with Blockchain can solve a number of issues that arise when dealing with public authorities nowadays. Citizens feel so disconnected from their governments and think the general level of state bureaucracy is unbelievable. Therefore, digitization of state services in general and especially the integration of Blockchain in this sphere is an interesting process to follow.

* McsEngl.DeService.governing.society,
* McsEngl.DeService.public-sector,
* McsEngl.DeService.sctrPdn.public,
* McsEngl.sctrPdn.DeService.public,
* McsEngl.DeService.society-governing,
* McsEngl.DeSrvcGvng.society,
* McsEngl.administering-society-DeService,
* McsEngl.governing-society-DeService,
* McsEngl.government-services-on-Dledger,
* McsEngl.public-services-on-Dledger,
* McsEngl.society-governing-DeService,
* McsEngl.state-services-on-Dledger,

* {2019-05-25},
* {2019-04-23} Vit-Jedlicka,,
* {2018-06-15} book: Myungsan-Jun, Blockchain Government: A next form of infrastructure for the twenty-first century,,
* {2017-10-01} Dubai Will Issue First Ever State Cryptocurrency:,
* {2017-09-11} Will blockchain transform the public sector?,


* Decentralized-society,
* Government-cryptocurrency-service,
* Land-registry--service,
* Social-security--service,
* Voting-service,
* Welfare-benefit--service,



Japan is embarking on a sweeping project to unify all property and land registries across urban, farmland and forested areas on a single blockchain-powered ledger. In incorporating some 230 million plots and 50 million buildings registered across the country, the ledger will also include collateral details and sale prices of properties. The register will be tested in select cities in summer 2018. If successful, the Japanese government will place its entire property register on a blockchain over the next five years.
[ {2017-09-27}]
Ghana has been playing around with Blockchain to apply it in land registry with 28 communities involved in the project to enable tamper-resistant property ownership.
For instance, Sweden is working to back real estate transactions with Blockchain technology, enabling all parties involved to easily track the progress of agreements.

* McsEngl.DeService.real-estate-transaction,
* McsEngl.real-estate-transaction-DeService,

* Record-keeping-Đ-service,
* Society-governing-Đ-service,

* {2017-07-06} Sweden Officially Started Using #Blockchain to Register Land and Properties:,
* {2017-04-04},



* China recently announced that they would put their entire social security system on a Blockchain,
[ 2016-11-13]


* McsEngl.Dvoting,

* {2021-05-26} Vitalik-Buterin, Blockchain voting is overrated among uninformed people but underrated among informed people,,
* {2020-11-16} (Blockchain voting is a spectacularly dumb idea for a whole bunch of reasons.),
* {2019-05-07},
* {2018-08-21} JP-Buntinx, 4 Blockchain Voting Projects Disrupting the World One Step at a Time,,
* {2018-06-09} Crypto Valley’s Zug to Run Switzerland’s First Blockchain-Based Municipal Vote,,
* {2018-05-02} BOSCoin Develops Electronic Voting System based on Homomorphic Encryption that Guarantees Anonymity and Singular Votes,,

evaluation of Dvoting

· problems:
* alter ballot,
* suppress ballot,
* learn sectret vote,
* learn user's identity,
* learn user's IP,

* McsEngl.Dvoting'evaluation,


* Blockchain--voting,

* McsEngl.Dvoting.specific,


The UK has been exploring the use of Blockchain to manage and monitor the distribution of welfare benefits.

* McsEngl.DeService.welfare-benefit,
* McsEngl.welfare-benefit-DeService,


* McsEngl.DeService.decentralized-economy!⇒DeSrvcEcon,
* McsEngl.DeService.economy!⇒DeSrvcEcon,
* McsEngl.Dsociety'economy!⇒DeSrvcEcon,
* McsEngl.DeSrvcEcon!=decentralized-autonomous-economy's-service, {2023-12-12},
* McsEngl.Deconomy-service, {2019-04-16},
* McsEngl.blockchain-decentralized-economy!⇒DeSrvcEcon,
* McsEngl.chain-economy!⇒DeSrvcEcon,
* McsEngl.collaborative-economy!⇒DeSrvcEcon,
* McsEngl.decentralized-economy!⇒DeSrvcEcon,
* McsEngl.decentralized-trust--economy!⇒DeSrvcEcon, {2018-05-10},
* McsEngl.economy--Dchain-service!⇒DeSrvcEcon,
* McsEngl.participative-economy!⇒DeSrvcEcon,
* McsEngl.token-economy!⇒DeSrvcEcon,
* McsEngl.tokenized-economy!⇒DeSrvcEcon,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.Αοικονομία,
* McsElln.αποκεντρωτικής-αυτόνομης-οικονομίας--υπηρεσία,


* McsEngl.DeService.human-resources-industry,
* McsEngl.DeService.job-market,
* McsEngl.DeService.recruitment,
* McsEngl.DeService.sctrPdn.job,
* McsEngl.sctrPdn.DeService.job,
* McsEngl.DeSrvcEcon'recruitment-sector,
* McsEngl.job-market-DeService,
* McsEngl.recruitment-sector-DeService,
* McsEngl.workforce-DeService,

* {2020-10-16},
* {2019-03-13} Marie-Fincher, 5 Ways Blockchain Technology Can Revolutionize Human Resource Management,,
* {2018-10-22} Andrew-Spence, THE BLOCKCHAIN WORK REVOLUTION,,
* {2017-10-18} Ethereum, Blockchain Can Help Building Decentralized Workforce Network:,
* is an ambitious and wide-ranging blockchain project, aimed at disrupting the HR/recruitment/finance industries in a similar way to how Uber disrupted the taxi business and how Upwork represented an evolution in freelancing,

* LaborX,
* APPII, CV verification,
* Ethereum-dApp,
* Jobeum,


* McsEngl.DeService.sharing-economy,
* McsEngl.DeSrvcEcon'sharing-economy,
* McsEngl.sharing-economy-DeService,

* universal-sharing-network:,


The Nxt Marketplace feature allows you to list items for sale and make sales on the blockchain.

You do not need to rely on external market sites to conduct your business. Instead, transactions are done between seller and buyer directly.

* McsEngl.DeService.marketplace,
* McsEngl.DeSrvcEcon'marketplace,
* McsEngl.marketplace-DeService,

* {2019-02-24} Sofocles, Create loyal customers with cryptocurrencies,,

* IoT data marketplace,


* McsEngl.DeService.real-asset-tokenization,
* McsEngl.DeService.traditional-asset-digitization,
* McsEngl.DeSrvcEcon'traditional-asset-tokenization,
* McsEngl.digitization-of-traditional-assets-DeService,
* McsEngl.tokenization-of-real-asset,
* McsEngl.traditional-asset-digitization-DeService,

* {2017-12-03} Yaroslav-Levishchev, Tokenization Might Replace Securitization:,
* {2017-08-30},

* LAToken: making real assets tradable in crypto,


* McsEngl.DeSrvcEcon'Infrsc,

* Algorand:,
* {2019-01-07} David-Z-Morris, Vitalik Buterin Thinks This Man’s Ideas Can Break America’s Political Logjam,,
* {2017-11-03} Radar-Relay, The Path to the Token Economy: Considerations for onboarding the world to the fifth economic system:,
* {2017-03-30} How Amir Taaki Tried to Build Bitcoin Economy in Syria While Fighting ISIS:,
* {2016-08-01} Fred-Ehrsam, Blockchain Tokens and the dawn of the Decentralized Business Model:,


"Decentralized Identifiers (DID) is the foundational technical component that makes decentralized identity possible. Unlike centralized identifiers commonly used today (email addresses, usernames, etc.), DIDs are generated, owned, and controlled by individuals, not companies or other centralized entities. There are many different approaches to creating DID protocols, but they all revolve around the same concept: user-owned unique identifiers tied to a set of cryptographic keys and routing endpoints. While it’s not difficult to create a basic DID protocol, creating a robustly decentralized and scalable network without resorting to trusted validator nodes, utility tokens, and other mechanisms, is incredibly challenging."
"While strictly financial transactions can be completely anonymous, political transactions only have value if able to ensure that the entities involved in it are legitimately entitled to be a part of the decision in question."

* McsEngl.DID!=decentralized-identifier,
* McsEngl.Did, {2021-06-14},
* McsEngl.DeService.ID!⇒Did,
* McsEngl.DeService.identification!⇒Did,
* McsEngl.decentralized-ID!⇒Did,
* McsEngl.decentralized-identifier!⇒Did,
* McsEngl.identification-DeService!⇒Did,

=== news:
* {2022-06-23},
* {2020-06-10},
* {2019-07-14},
* {2019-05-13},
* {2019-05-09} Rich-McAteer,,
* {2019-04-08},
* {2018-10-23},
* {2018-10-12} Blockgenic,,
* {2018-10-12},
* {2018-06-20} Word-Economic-Forum, Refugees can pay for their shopping by simply looking into a camera,,
* {2018-02-13} Helen-Partz, Microsoft To Implement Blockchain-Based ID System:,
* {2017-11-24} Zug Citizens Begin Digital ID Registration on an Ethereum Blockchain:,
* {2017-11-15} Blockchain Digital Identification in Canada Coming in 2018:,
* {2017-10-07} Governments Eye Blockchain in Their Creation of National Identity Systems:,
* {2017-10-04} Singapore Regulator, Banks Complete KYC Blockchain Prototype:,
* {2017-05-26} “Identity on the blockchain” — chapter 3:,
* {2017-05-15} RegTech: New Blockchain Platform Seeks To Disrupt Identity Industry:,
* {2017-02-13} Elena-Mesropyan, 21 Companies Leveraging Blockchain for Identity Management and Authentication:,
* {2015-11-14},
* Decentralized-Identity-Foundation:,,
*, Your universal digital passport
Simple, secure, self-sovereign identity on Ethereum
Self-sovereign identity puts you 100% in control of your identity and data
* World-Identity-Network:,

* Bitcoin-ID-service,
* Blockchain-ID-service,
* Everest:,
* NuID:,
* (ONT ID),
* (digital identity),
*, (civic)

ION of Did

"We’re thrilled to see ION make the leap to Bitcoin mainnet for its public beta. ION is an open, public, permissionless ‘Layer 2’ network built on open source code that anyone can review, run, and contribute to. From the very start, ION has been developed as a decentralized network designed to operate independently of centralized parties and trusted intermediaries, including Microsoft. ION doesn’t rely on special utility tokens, trusted validator nodes, or additional consensus mechanisms; the deterministic progression of Bitcoin’s linear block chronology is the only consensus it requires. The core promise of DID technology is to empower all individuals and entities with ownership and control over their identities, which aligns well with our mission of empowering every person to work, play, and achieve more. To deliver on that promise, we have chosen a different path from some of the more centralized approaches to DID technologies—and we believe ION exemplifies that choice.
ION is an open source, Apache 2 licensed project developed in DIF, which you can contribute to via the ION and Sidetree repos on GitHub. The ION reference implementation is comprised of the following key components:
* ION’s core service module (TypeScript)
* Bitcoin node (Bitcoin Core)
* IPFS node (JS IPFS)
* MongoDB (selected for its familiarity among developers)"

* McsEngl.Did'ION,
* McsEngl.ION,

decentralized-identity-foundation of Did

Enable a world where decentralized identity solutions allow entities to gain control over their identities and allow trusted interactions.
Provide a neutral and inclusive place for the decentralized identity community to collaborate.
DIF cultivates ideas & emerging specifications by enabling industry-wide discussions, experimentation (testing of hypothesis) and demonstration of interoperability.
DIF encourages a contribution led approach based on open source code contributions to developing an interoperable identity stack composed which can be used and adopted without restrictions.
DIF collaborates closely with standardization bodies to ensure more matured concepts or specifications can be formalized standards in the most suitable organizations."

* McsEngl.DIF'(decentralized-identity-foundation),
* McsEngl.decentralized-identity-foundation,


* McsEngl.DeService.collaboration,
* McsEngl.collaboration-DeService,




* skype-inventor-jaan-tallinn-wants-to-use-bitcoin-technology-to-s/


* McsEngl.DeService.decentralized-society!⇒Dsociety,
* McsEngl.Dsociety-service, {2019-04-16},
* McsEngl.decentralized-society--Dchain-service!⇒Dsociety,
* McsEngl.peer-to-peer-governance-society--Dchain-service!⇒Dsociety,
* McsEngl.self-governance-society--Dchain-service!⇒Dsociety,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.αποκεντρωτικής-αυτόνομης-κοινωνίας--υπηρεσία,

* DeSrvcEcon,
* Dgovernance-of-society,

* Bitnation,
* Libertaria,


Bitnation is the world's first Decentralized Borderless Voluntary Nation (DBVN). Bitnation started in July 2014 and hosted the world’s first blockchain marriage, birth certificate, refugee emergency ID, World Citizenship, DBVN Constitution and more. The website proof-of-concept, including the blockchain ID and Public Notary, is used by tens of thousands of Bitnation Citizens and Embassies around the world. Bitnation is the winner of UNESCO’s Netexplo Award 2017, and has been featured by the Wall Street Journal, Bloomberg, BBC, CNN, WIRED, VICE, TechCrunch, The Economist, Russia Today among many others.

* McsEngl.Bitnation,

* (Colombia)



Fermat is a Decentralized, Blockchain enabled, Modular App Platform that unleashes the P2P “Internet of People” Economy.
Fermat seeks to deliver the better world, initially promised by Bitcoin. Through a decentralized app framework that incentivizes collaborative development, shared ownership and hyper-customization of modular software, the Project aims to unshackle free markets, by removing intermediaries from their current levels of influence, and to earn widespread mainstream adoption.
Fermat's central premise is that there is a path to software development that is smarter, better and more efficient than the status quo. The Fermat framework allows anyone from anywhere to collaborate and mutually profit from shared ownership of modular applications: it enables an open-ended stream of micropayments to authors of reusable software components that can be perpetually combined and recombined across an ever-expanding library of useful, highly-customizable, peer-to-peer commercial applications (apps).
The blockchain-enabled system is built to be user-controlled, censorship-resistant and flexible – a platform for person-to-person exchange of goods, service, assets and data, free from the whims, risks, costs and interference of unwanted, self-interested third parties who put their priorities ahead of those of the people directly involved in the exchange.
Our roadmap to a better world starts from the view of mass adoption. Our first step is to envision a future where cryptocurrency is mass-adopted; fiat currencies are already completely digitized; and people have the freedom to choose which electronic currency to use, where to store them and how and when to exchange that purchasing power.
In this future people manage multiple online identities, using the one that best fits their current needs in each situation. They transact with whatever privacy level they choose. They not only have money on their devices, but a whole suite of software that can use their digital money to enable and sustain all kinds of p2p business models. Fermat is making this possible.
I envision a future where humans are more important than legal fictions like companies and corporations and non-objective realities like nations and states.

* McsEngl.DeService.fermat-framwork,
* McsEngl.fermat-framwork-DeService,



* McsEngl.DeService.spatial,
* McsEngl.spatial-DeService,

* on Ethereum-net,


"Blockchains are a technology which is all about providing guarantees about process integrity. If a process is run on a blockchain, the process is guaranteed to run according to some pre-agreed code and provide the correct output. No one can prevent the execution, no one can tamper with the execution, and no one can censor and block any users' inputs from being processed."

* McsEngl.DeService.process-integrity,
* McsEngl.process-integrity--DeService,

evoluting of Autonet

">timeline of decentralized-ledger-tech:
Here's a timeline of the development of decentralized ledger technology (DLT):
* Haber & Stornetta introduce the concept of a blockchain to timestamp digital documents.
* Merkle tree, a data structure for organizing and verifying data, is invented.
* Chaum introduces Hashcash, a system for anti-spam that uses cryptography to create computationally expensive tokens.
* Nick Szabo proposes the concept of a smart contract, a self-executing contract that is enforced by code.
* Satoshi Nakamoto releases the Bitcoin whitepaper, introducing the world to blockchain technology and cryptocurrency.
* Bitcoin is launched, marking the first real-world implementation of blockchain technology.
* Ethereum is proposed by Vitalik Buterin, introducing the concept of smart contracts and decentralized applications (DApps).
* The term "distributed ledger technology" (DLT) is coined to encompass blockchain and other similar technologies.
* Ethereum is launched, becoming the first widely used platform for building DApps.
* R3 CEV is formed by more than 40 banks to develop enterprise-grade blockchain solutions.
* The DAO, a decentralized autonomous organization, raises $150 million in an Ethereum ICO but is later hacked for $60 million.
* The cryptocurrency market experiences a major bull run, with Bitcoin reaching a peak of over $20,000.
* The cryptocurrency market crashes, leading to a significant decline in the value of many cryptocurrencies.
* Central banks around the world begin exploring the potential of central bank digital currencies (CBDCs).
* The COVID-19 pandemic accelerates the adoption of DLT for various applications, including supply chain management and healthcare.
* NFTs, or non-fungible tokens, become a popular use case for blockchain technology, allowing for the ownership and trade of digital assets.
* The metaverse emerges as a new frontier for DLT applications, with potential for decentralized social networks and virtual economies.
* DLT continues to mature and expand into new areas, with increasing adoption by governments, businesses, and individuals.
* DLT is poised to play an increasingly important role in shaping the future of technology and society.
This timeline highlights the key milestones in the development of DLT, from its early theoretical foundations to its widespread adoption in various industries and applications. As DLT continues to evolve, it has the potential to revolutionize many aspects of our lives, from finance and commerce to governance, healthcare, and social interactions."
[{2024-01-13 retrieved}]

* McsEngl.Autonet-evoluting,
* McsEngl.DeNet-evoluting, {2019-03-16},
* McsEngl.Autonet'evoluting!⇒Autonet-evoluting,
* McsEngl.evoluting-of-Dnchain!⇒Autonet-evoluting,

* {2020-04-05},
* {2020-01-20},
* {2019-03-08},
* {2019-02-28} Shannon-Voight, George Gilder’s Ten Laws of the Cryptocosm,,
* {2018-09-08} Michael-K.-Spencer, Ethereum 2.0 and the Future of Scalable Blockchain, There’s new ways to think about the blockchain stack in 2018,,
* {2018-08-17} Steve-Fiorillo, Bitcoin History: Timeline, Origins and Founder,,
* {2018-01-02} Andrew-Keys, 18 Blockchain Predictions for 2018:,
* {2017-08-24} Fred Ehrsam: Funding the Evolution of Blockchains,

* blockchain-network--evoluting,


· name: from DeNet to Autonet.

* McsEngl.Autonet'{2030i10},



* McsEngl.Autonet'{2020i10},


* McsEngl.Autonet-evoluting'2019-lanunced,

=== new chain-networks:
* Cosmos-net, {2019-03-13},


* McsEngl.Autonet-evoluting'2018-launched,

=== new chain-networks:
* Ontology-net, {2018-06-30},
* Tron-net, {2018-06-25},
* Eos-net, {2018-06-14},

=== lightning-network:
Lightning Network’s Pizza Day? First Ever Physical Purchase On Lightning Network


* McsEngl.Autonet-evoluting'2017-launched,

=== new chain-networks:

=== Notation:
I am-using "D-stroke = Đ" (unicode #272 character) to denote decentralized-crypto-technology.

=== Usa taxation:
While the IRS had initially asked Coinbase to turn over information on all of its users, a court case brought on by Coinbase decided in Nov. 2017 that only information on “high volume” users needed to be given to the IRS.

=== IBM is the top provider of Blockchain:
Juniper Research has released the results of a survey indicating that International Business Machines (IBM) is the top provider of Blockchain among all other companies, with 43% of the vote. Instead of “International Business Machines,” IBM could very well stand for “International Blockchain Model” in the near future.
On the same survey entitled, “Blockchain Enterprise Survey,” Microsoft came in second with 20% of the vote, followed by Accenture. Several factors were noted on the rise of IBM to the number one spot; however, most of them were credited to the use of Hyperledger and other research development efforts.

=== New name:
"Decentralized-Transaction-Chain--network" from "Decentralized-Ledger--network".

=== ICO:
French distributed cloud computing network has closed its ICO in just three hours, having raised its target of $12 mln.
... iEx joins a host of startups in the crypto space and further afield to have closed hugely successful crowd sale schemes well ahead of schedule.
Recent examples include the Digital Liquid Venture Fund, which earlier this month reached its $10 mln target in six hours. Humaniq and Matchpool also feature among 2017’s high flyers.


* McsEngl.Autonet-evoluting'2016-launched,

* Zcash-network {2016-10-28},
* Lisk-network {2016-05-24},
* Waves-network {2016-04-15},
* Steem-network {2016-03-24},
* Decred-network {2016-02-08},
* PIVX-network {2016-01-29},
=== Industry:
By the end of 2016, there are almost 500 blockchain startups globally that have attracted more than $1.8 billion in investment. In 2016, traditional investment volume in blockchain industry is $496 million


* McsEngl.Autonet-evoluting'2015-launched,

=== new chain-networks:
* Bitshares2-network {2015-10-13},
* Stellar-network {2015-09-30},
* Ethereum-network {2015-07-30},
* NEM-network {2015-03-29},

=== Graphene:
On November 5th, 2015, Cryptonomex licensed Graphene to the BitShares community and the blockchain was upgraded to BitShares 2.0.
Later, in 2016, Graphene was released under MIT license to the public.


* McsEngl.Autonet-evoluting'2014-launched,

=== new chain-networks:
* Dash-network {2014-01-19},
* FairCoop-network {2014-01-07},

=== Ethereum presale:
Ethereum Raises 3,700 BTC in First 12 Hours of Ether Presale:
"The presold ether will be created in the Genesis Block around that time; until then, the 7.4 million ETHs already sold are just claims on coins that have yet to be created. The site's wording is careful in saying that the presold ETH are neither a store of value nor shares in the company, wording that simply keeps the presale on the right side of the law."


* McsEngl.Autonet-evoluting'2013-launced,

=== new chain-networks:
* Emercoin-network {2013-12-11},
* Nxt-network {2013-11-24},
=== Proof-of-Stake:
Sunny King created Peercoin (PPC) in 2013 to become the first cryptocurrency to implement Proof of Stake while still keeping Proof of Work (PoW).

Blockchain assets and colored coins approaches emerged around 2013, when several protocols utilizing Bitcoin’s blockchain were implemented.
Alt coins continued to proliferate in 2011 and 2012, either based on bitcoin or on Litecoin.By 2013, there were 20 alt coins vying for position in the market. By the end of 2013, this number had exploded to 200, with 2013 quickly becoming the "year of the alt coins." The growth of alt coins continued in 2014, with more than 500 alt coins in existence at the time of writing. More than half the alt coins today are clones of Litecoin.
In 2013, we saw the invention of an alternative to proof of work, called proof of stake, which forms the basis of many modern alt coins.


* McsEngl.Autonet-evoluting'2012-launched,

=== new chain-networks:
* Peercoin-network {2012-08-19},
* Ripple-network {2012},

=== Peercoin:
Peercoin was introduced in August 2012 and is the first alt coin to use a hybrid proof-of-work and proof-of-stake algorithm to issue new currency.


* McsEngl.Autonet-evoluting'2011-launched,

=== new chain-networks:
* Litecoin-network {2011-10-07},
* Namecoin-network {2011-04-17},

=== script-proof-of-work:
In September 2011, Tenebrix was launched. Tenebrix was the first cryptocurrency to implement an alternative proof-of-work algorithm, namely scrypt, an algorithm originally designed for password stretching (brute-force resistance). The stated goal of Tenebrix was to make a coin that was resistant to mining with GPUs and ASICs, by using a memory-intensive algorithm. Tenebrix did not succeed as a currency, but it was the basis for Litecoin, which has enjoyed great success and has spawned hundreds of clones.

=== first altcoin:
Based on the date of announcement, the first alt coin that was a fork of bitcoin appeared in August 2011; it was called IXCoin. IXCoin modified a few of the bitcoin parameters, specifically accelerating the creation of currency by increasing the reward to 96 coins per block.



* McsEngl.Autonet'{2010i10},


* McsEngl.Autonet-evoluting'2010-launched,

=== pizza-buying:
On May 22nd, 2010 someone bought a pizza for 10,000 bitcoins.

=== name-registration-system:
Namecoin - created in 2010, Namecoin is best described as a decentralized name registration database. In decentralized protocols like Tor, Bitcoin and BitMessage, there needs to be some way of identifying accounts so that other people can interact with them, but in all existing solutions the only kind of identifier available is a pseudorandom hash like 1LW79wp5ZBqaHW1jL5TCiBCrhQYtHagUWy. Ideally, one would like to be able to have an account with a name like "george". However, the problem is that if one person can create an account named "george" then someone else can use the same process to register "george" for themselves as well and impersonate them. The only solution is a first-to-file paradigm, where the first registerer succeeds and the second fails - a problem perfectly suited for the Bitcoin consensus protocol. Namecoin is the oldest, and most successful, implementation of a name registration system using such an idea.


* McsEngl.Autonet-evoluting'2009-launched,

{2009-01-03 18:15:05}
=== Block#0: Bitcoin genesis block.
=== Block#1: {Timestamp 2009-01-09 02:54:25}
The first block the-network added.

=== Birth, Satoshi-Nakamoto whitepaper:
On 31st Oct 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto released a white paper titled: "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System", which marked the birth of blockchain in our world.

=== Nick Szabo:
In 2005, Nick Szabo came out with the concept of "secure property titles with owner authority", a document describing how "new advances in replicated database technology" will allow for a blockchain-based system for storing a registry of who owns what land, creating an elaborate framework including concepts such as homesteading, adverse possession and Georgian land tax. However, there was unfortunately no effective replicated database system available at the time, and so the protocol was never implemented in practice.

=== Wei-Dai:
Bitcoin is the first implementation of a concept called "cryptocurrency", which was first described in 1998 by Wei Dai on the cypherpunks mailing list, suggesting the idea of a new form of money that uses cryptography to control its creation and transactions, rather than a central authority.
The first Bitcoin specification and proof of concept was published in 2009 in a cryptography mailing list by Satoshi Nakamoto.
Satoshi left the project in late 2010 without revealing much about himself.
The community has since grown exponentially with many developers working on Bitcoin.

roadmap of Autonet

a plan or strategy intended to achieve a particular goal.
[Google dictionary]

* McsEngl.Autonet-evoluting'roadmap,
* McsEngl.Autonet'roadmap,
* McsEngl.roadmap-of-Autonet,

main-net-launch of Autonet

· the-time when the-main-net is-released.

* McsEngl.Autonet-evoluting'main-net-launch,
* McsEngl.Autonet'main-net-release,

hardfork of Autonet

Protocol upgrades (formerly known as hard forks)
The basic difference between the two is that soft forks change the rules of a protocol by strictly reducing the set of transactions that is valid, so nodes following the old rules will still get on the new chain (provided that the majority of miners/validators implements the fork), whereas hard forks allow previously invalid transactions and blocks to become valid, so clients must upgrade their clients in order to stay on the hard-forked chain. There are also two sub-types of hard forks: strictly expanding hard forks, which strictly expand the set of transactions that is valid, and so effectively the old rules are a soft fork with respect to the new rules, and bilateral hard forks, where the two rulesets are incompatible both ways.

* McsEngl.Autonet-evoluting'hardfork!⇒chain-hardfork,
* McsEngl.Autonet'hardfork!⇒chain-hardfork,
* McsEngl.chain-hardfork,
* McsEngl.hardfork-of-Dnchain!⇒chain-hardfork,

evaluation of hardfork

The benefits commonly cited for the two are as follows.
- Hard forks allow the developers much more flexibility in making the protocol upgrade, as they do not have to take care to make sure that the new rules “fit into” the old rules
Aside from this, one major criticism often given for hard forks is that hard forks are “coercive”. The kind of coercion implied here is not physical force; rather, it’s coercion through network effect. That is, if the network changes rules from A to B, then even if you personally like A, if most other users like B and switch to B then you have to switch to B despite your personal disapproval of the change in order to be on the same network as everyone else.
Proponents of hard forks are often derided as trying to effect a “hostile take over” of a network, and “force” users to go along with them. Additionally, the risk of chain splits is often used to bill hard forks as “unsafe”.

* McsEngl.chain-hardfork'evaluation,

softfork of Autonet

The basic difference between the two is that soft forks change the rules of a protocol by strictly reducing the set of transactions that is valid, so nodes following the old rules will still get on the new chain (provided that the majority of miners/validators implements the fork), whereas hard forks allow previously invalid transactions and blocks to become valid, so clients must upgrade their clients in order to stay on the hard-forked chain.

* McsEngl.Autonet-evoluting'softfork!⇒chain-softfork,
* McsEngl.Autonet'softfork!⇒chain-softfork,
* McsEngl.chain-softfork,
* McsEngl.softfork-of-Dnchain!⇒chain-softfork,

evaluation of softfork

The benefits commonly cited for the two are as follows.
- Soft forks are more convenient for users, as users do not need to upgrade to stay on the chain
- Soft forks are less likely to lead to a chain split
- Soft forks only really require consent from miners/validators (as even if users still use the old rules, if the nodes making the chain use the new rules then only things valid under the new rules will get into the chain in any case); hard forks require opt-in consent from users

* McsEngl.chain-softfork'evaluation,

info-resource of Autonet-evoluting

* {2017-06-24} Forkology: A Study of Forks for Newbies,,

* McsEngl.Autonet-evoluting'Infrsc,


* McsEngl.Autonet'whole-part-tree,

* Autonet,
* chain-industry,
* chain-net--ecosystem,
* International-human-society,
* Sympan,

* node,
* chain,


* McsEngl.Autonet'generic-specific-tree,

* Autonet,
* peer-to-peer-network,
* Internet,
* computer-network,
* computer-system,
* info-tech,
* technology,
* product-satisfier,
* satisfier,
* human-economic-entity,
* human-entity,
* entity,

· :
* ,

* ,


* McsEngl.Autonet.specific,

* blockchain-network,
* Dagchain-network (Directed-Acyclic-Graph--net),
=== on appending
* permision-to-append--Dchain-net,
* permisionless-to-append--Dchain-net,
=== on joining
* permision-to-join--Dchain-net,
* permisionless-to-join--Dchain-net,
=== on appending-joining
* public--chain-net,
* publicNo--chain-net,
* currency--chain-net,
* currencyNo--chain-net,
=== on client:
* Graphene--chain-net,
* 3rd-generation--chain-net,
* Aidos-Kuneen,
* Byteball-network,
* HyperCash,
* Iota-network,

* {2017-10-14} Blockchain Project Ecosystem:,


· on Dchain:
* blockchain-network,
* Dagchain-network,
* multi--chain-network, (inter-chain, independent|dependent)
* one--chain-network,


· centrally-controlled--chain-net is a-chain-net (= appends its chain algorithmically) with a-central-entity that controls it, its development, appendability, joiness, view of data, asset quantity, etc.
Blockchains can be built that require permission to read the information on the blockchain, that limit the parties who can transact on the blockchain and that set who can serve the network by writing new blocks into the chain.
For example, Ripple runs a permissioned blockchain. The startup determines who may act as transaction validator on their network, and it has included CGI, MIT and Microsoft as transaction validators, while also building its own nodes in different locations around the world.

* McsEngl.central--Dchain-net, {2019-03-09},
* McsEngl.centralized-controlled--Dchain-net, {2018-11-05},
* McsEngl.centralized-trust-and-crypto-chain--network, {2018-05-23},
* McsEngl.centrally-controlled--Dchain-net,
* McsEngl.Autonet.centralized-controlled, {2018-11-05},

* {2018-03-31} An Inside Look At China’s Government Controlled Cryptocurrency Project:,
* {2017-10-06} Singapore Central Bank Reveals Blockchain Breakthrough in Interbank Payments:,
* {2017-01-02} Christoph Jentzsch: Public vs Private chain:,

asset of central--chain-net

* McsEngl.asset-of--central--Dchain-net,
* McsEngl.central--chain-net'asset,


relation to crypto-chain--net

Private blockchains provide incredible operational efficiencies.
Implementing a private blockchain means that efficiency is your main goal, not decentralization.
But if the goals are decentralization, interoperability and independent security, a public blockchain is going to be more important.

* McsEngl.private-chain--net'relation-to-public,
* McsEngl.public-chain--net'relation-to-private,

* {2018-04-05} ConsenSys: Blockchain vs. Distributed Ledger Technologies: Part 1 of a comparative analysis between Ethereum, Hyperledger Fabric and R3 Corda:,


* Blockchain-publicNo-network,


· decentralized-controlled--chain-net is a-chain-net which is-controlled by ALL its-members.

* McsEngl.Autonet.decentralized-controlled,
* McsEngl.centrally-controlled--Dchain-net,
* McsEngl.decentralized-controlled--Dchain-net,


· permission-to-appending--chain-net is the-chain-net where NOT anyone can-create an-appender-node.
"Blockchains are described as either permissioned or permissionless in relation to the ability to participate as a validator node."

* McsEngl.Autonet.permission-to-appending,
* McsEngl.permission-to-appending--Dchain-net,


· permissionless-to-appending--chain-net is the-chain-net where anyone can-create an-appender-node.

* McsEngl.Autonet.permissionless-to-appending,
* McsEngl.permissionless-to-appending--Dchain-net,


· permission-to-join--chain-net is the-chain-net where NOT anyone can-join to use the-network.

* McsEngl.Autonet.openNo,
* McsEngl.Autonet.permissioned-to-join,
* McsEngl.permissioned-to-join--Dchain-net,

* {2019-04-14},

Autonet.joining.PERMISSIONED.NO (open)

· permissionless-to-join--chain-net is the-chain-net where anyone can-join to use the-network.

* McsEngl.Autonet.permissionless-to-join,
* McsEngl.permissionless-to-join--Dchain-net,


· public--chain-net is a-chain-net in which anyone can append and join the-network.
· public--chain-net is a-chain-net in which anyone can-have ACCESS to it and can-READ the-chain.

* McsEngl.Autonet.public,
* McsEngl.permissionless--chain-network,
* McsEngl.privateNo--chain-network,
* McsEngl.public--Dchain-net,

* public--blockchain-net,


· publicNo--chain-net is a-chain-net in which NOT anyone can append and join the-network.
· non-public--chain-net is a-chain-net in which NOT anyone can-have access to it.

* McsEngl.Autonet.publicNo,
* McsEngl.non-public-crypto-chain--net,
* McsEngl.permissioned--chain-network,
* McsEngl.private--chain-network,
* McsEngl.publicNo--chain-network,


Dagchain-network is a-Dtchain-network whose Dtchain-file is a-DAG (Directed-Acyclic-Graph).

* McsEngl.Autonet.Dagchain!⇒Dagchain-net,
* McsEngl.Dchain-netAsDagchain!⇒Dagchain-net,
* McsEngl.chainDag-net!⇒Dagchain-net, {2018-01-28},
* McsEngl.chainDag-network!⇒Dagchain-net, {2018-01-23},
* McsEngl.Dag-chain--net!⇒Dagchain-net, {2018-01-28},
* McsEngl.Dagchain-network!⇒Dagchain-net,
* McsEngl.Dagchain-net,
* McsEngl.decentralized-crypto-chain.Dag-network!⇒Dagchain-net,
* McsEngl.decentralized-crypto-transaction-Dag-chain--network!⇒Dagchain-net, {2018-01-28},
* McsEngl.Directed-Aciclyc-Graph--network!⇒Dagchain-net,
* McsEngl.Dccd-net!⇒Dagchain-net, {2018-01-22},
* McsEngl.Dctcd-net!⇒Dagchain-net, {2018-01-28},
* McsEngl.Ddcnet!⇒Dagchain-net,
* McsEngl.Ddcnet-(decentralized-Dagchain--network)!⇒Dagchain-net, {2017-10-15},
* McsEngl.Dtcd-net!⇒Dagchain-net,
* McsEngl.Ddc-net!⇒Dagchain-net,
* McsEngl.Đ.Dag-network!⇒Dagchain-net, {2018-01-22},
* McsEngl.ĐD-net!⇒Dagchain-net, {2018-01-28},

* {2015-09-11} DagCoin: a cryptocurrency without blocks:,
* {2015-09-11} Sergio-Demian-Lerner DagCoin:,


* Aidos-Kuneen--network,
* Byteball-network,
* IOTA-network,
* RaiBlocks-network,


Medium-of-exchange--Dtc-network is a-txchain-network that creates and manages a-cryptocurrency.

* McsEngl.DeCurrency-Autonet, {2019-06-22},
* McsEngl.Autonet.currency!⇒DeCurrency-Autonet,
* McsEngl.Autonet.cryptocurrency!⇒DeCurrency-Autonet,
* McsEngl.Autonet.medium-of-exchange!⇒DeCurrency-Autonet,
* McsEngl.chain-netMoe!⇒DeCurrency-Autonet,
* McsEngl.cryptocoin-network!⇒DeCurrency-Autonet,
* McsEngl.cryptocurrency-network!⇒DeCurrency-Autonet,
* McsEngl.currency--Dchain-net, {2019-03-09},
* McsEngl.chain-currency--network!⇒DeCurrency-Autonet,
* McsEngl.decentralized-money-system!⇒DeCurrency-Autonet, [Antonopoulos],
* McsEngl.medium-of-exchange--chain-net!⇒DeCurrency-Autonet,

currency of currency-net (link)


* blockchain--đ-currency-network,
* Dagchain--đ-currency-network,
* Petro--đ-currency-net,


Venezuelan President Maduro has ordered the issuance of the first 100 mln Petros, an oil-backed national cryptocurrency.
He also indicated that each Petro would have the value of a single barrel of oil.
... The first national meeting of Petro miners will occur on January 14, along with the publication of the whitepaper.

* McsEngl.Petro--chain-currency-network,
* McsEngl.chain-netMoe.Petro,

* {2018-01-10} State Cryptocurrency ‘Petro’ is Illegal, Declares Venezuela’s Congress:,
* {2018-01-07} President Maduro: Venezuela to Issue First 100 Million Petros:,


Non-cryptocurrency--Đ-network is a-Đ-network with its MAIN-SERVICE other than a-đ-currency-service.

* McsEngl.Autonet.currencyNo,
* McsEngl.Autonet.cryptocurrencyNo,
* McsEngl.Autonet.medium-of-exchangeNo,
* McsEngl.chain-netMoeNo,
* McsEngl.cryptocoinNo-network,
* McsEngl.cryptocurrencyNo-network,
* McsEngl.chain-currencyNo-network,
* McsEngl.medium-of-exchangeNo--Đ-network,
* McsEngl.non-cryptocurrency--Đ-network,
* McsEngl.non-đ-currency--Đ-network,
* McsEngl.non-medium-of-exchange--Đ-network,


* McsEngl.Autonet.cross-chain,
* McsEngl.Autonet.multi-chain,
* McsEngl.cross-chain--Dchain-net,
* McsEngl.multi-chain--Dchain-net,

* {2019-07-18},
* {2019-05-16},

* blockchain-multi-chain-net,
* Cosmos-network:,
* Komodo-platform:,
* Ontology-net: supports collaboration among chain networks with protocol groups,
* Pantos: standards for cross-chain token transfers,
* Polkadot: a-network of connected blockchains,



Bitcoin was the first generation blockchain; Ethereum was the second.
Now we are entering a 3.0 phase, where features such as scalability, interoperability (side chains), treasury systems and on-chain governance play key roles.

* McsEngl.3rd-generation--Dchain-net,
* McsEngl.Autonet.3rd-generation,


Graphene™ is a software platform for deploying third generation cryptographically secure decentralized ledgers known as blockchains.
You can see Graphene as a toolkit for real-time blockchains. Graphene based systems have orders of magnitude better performance than first-generation Bitcoin-derived systems or even the second generation “Bitcoin 2.0” systems that constitute its current closest competitors. Graphene based systems offer a broad range of financial services distinguished by their transparency and inherent incorruptibility.
Graphene is the underlying technology that powers blockchains such as Steem, BitShares and Peerplays.[1]
Graphene technology was developed by Cryptonomex.

* McsEngl.Autonet.Graphene,
* McsEngl.Graphene--Dchain-net,


this webpage was-visited times since {2017-07-02}

page-wholepath: / worldviewSngo / dirTchInf / Autonet

This page uses 'locator-names', names that when you find them, you find the-LOCATION of the-concept they denote.
Type CTRL+F "McsLag4.words-of-concept's-name", to go to the-LOCATION of the-concept.
Clicking on the-green-BAR of a-page you have access to the-global--locator-names of my-site.
A-preview of the-description of a-global-name makes reading fast.
Abbreviations have no description.

• author: Kaseluris.Nikos.1959
• email:
• edit on github:,
• twitter: @synagonism

• version.last.dynamic: McsTchInf000015.last.html,
• version.9-0-0.2021-04-09: (8-188) ../../dirMiwMcs/dirTchInf/filMcsDtcnet.9-0-0.2021-04-09.html,
• version.8-0-0.2018-10-16: ../../dirMiwMcs/dirTchInf/FilMcsDtcnet.8-0-0.2018-10-16.html,
• version.6-0-0.2017-11-26: ../../dirMiwMcs/dirTchInf/FilMcsDcnet.6-0-0.2017-11-26.html,
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• version.2-0-0.2017-10-04: ../../dirMiwMcs/dirTchInf/filMcsDLgrnet.2-0-0.2017-10-04.html,
• version.1-0-0.2017-07-27: ../../dirMiwMcs/dirTchInf/FilMcsDcnet.1-0-0.2017-07-27.html,
• version.0-1-0.2017-07-02.created: ../../dirMiwMcs/dirTchInf/filMcsDLgrnet.0-1-0.2017-07-02.html,

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