human-society
senso-concept-Mcs (society)

McsHitp-creation:: {2019-12-26},

overview of society

description::
× generic: a-society-of-organisms,

· human-society is a-society-of-organisms comprised of humans (= a-system of human-organizations).

· stxZhon: _stxVrb:{有} _stxSbjc:[[很多国家]{参}[赛]]。 Yǒu hěnduō guójiā cān sài. != {there are} [[many countries]{participate}[game]]

name::
* McsEngl.McsStn000009.last.html//dirStn//driMcs!⇒society,
* McsEngl.dirMcs/dirStn/McsStn000009.last.html!⇒society,
* McsEngl.country!⇒society,
* McsEngl.human-society!⇒society,
* McsEngl.nation!⇒society,
* McsEngl.state!⇒society,
* McsEngl.soc!⇒society,
* McsEngl.soc4.soct!⇒society,
* McsEngl.socHmn!⇒society,
* McsEngl.society!=McsStn000009,
* McsEngl.society!=human-society,
* McsEngl.society.human!⇒society,
* McsEngl.society//Earth!⇒society,
* McsEngl.society//socItnl!⇒society,
====== langoSinago:
* McsSngo.komuno!=society, {2024-03-10}
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.guójiā-国家!=society,
* McsZhon.国家-guójiā!=society,
* McsZhon.shèhuì-社会-(社會)!=society,
* McsZhon.社会-(社會)-shèhuì!=society,
====== langoEsperanto:
* McsEspo.socio!=society,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.κνν!=society,
* McsElln.κοινωνία-ανθρώπων!η!=society,

"Here are some translations of "society" into other languages:
* Arabic: مُجْتَمَع (mujtama)
* Brazilian Portuguese: sociedade
* Chinese: 社会 (shèhuì)
* Croatian: društvo
* French: société
* German: Gesellschaft
* Greek: κοινωνία (koinonia)
* Italian: società
* Japanese: 社会 (shakai)
* Korean: 사회 (sahoe)
* Polish: społeczeństwo
* Russian: общество (obshchestvo)
* Spanish: sociedad
* Swedish: samhälle
* Turkish: toplum
* Vietnamese: xã hội
[{2024-03-10 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/f7606800e37937c1]
">name society in other languages:
Society, a term that signifies a group of individuals living together in a more or less ordered community, has equivalents in many languages around the world. Below are translations of the word "society" into several other languages:
- Spanish: sociedad
- French: société
- German: Gesellschaft
- Italian: società
- Portuguese: sociedade
- Russian: общество (obshchestvo)
- Japanese: 社会 (shakai)
- Korean: 사회 (sahoe)
- Chinese (Simplified): 社会 (shèhuì)
- Arabic: مجتمع (mujtama‘)
- Hindi: समाज (samaj)
- Swahili: jamii
Each translation reflects the linguistic diversity across the globe and how the concept of community or society is universally recognized, though nuanced in its cultural interpretation."

name.individual of society

description::
· name of an-individual-society

name::
* McsEngl.society'att054-individual-name,
* McsEngl.society'name.individual,

ISO-3166 of society

description::
"ISO 3166 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) that defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, special areas of geographical interest, and their principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states). The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions."
[{2021-02-26} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_3166]

name::
* McsEngl.ISO-3166-code//society,
* McsEngl.society'ISO-3166-code,

01-node of society

description::
· any subsystem of a-society.
===
* human,
* human-organization,
* human-society,
===
* human-system,
* economic-system,
===

name::
* McsEngl.NdSoc!⇒Socnode,
* McsEngl.Socnode!=node-of-society,
* McsEngl.nodeSociety!⇒Socnode,
* McsEngl.society'01_node!⇒Socnode,
* McsEngl.society'att020-node!⇒Socnode,
* McsEngl.society'node!⇒Socnode,

organization (link) of society

consumption-organization (link) of society

production-organization (link) of society

Socadmn-organization (link) of society

02-human-view of society

description::
· the-view of a-society from humans only.
· ANY system of humans.

name::
* McsEngl.NdSocHumans!⇒Sochumnview,
* McsEngl.Sochmns!⇒Sochumnview,
* McsEngl.Sochumnview!=human-view-of-society,
* McsEngl.Socnode.human!⇒Sochumnview,
* McsEngl.Socview.human!⇒Sochumnview,
* McsEngl.SocviewHumn!⇒Sochumnview,
* McsEngl.humans-system-of-society!⇒Sochumnview,
* McsEngl.nodeSocietyHumans!⇒Sochumnview,
* McsEngl.society'02_humans-node!⇒Sochumnview,
* McsEngl.society'att021-humans-node!⇒Sochumnview,
* McsEngl.society'human-system!⇒Sochumnview,
* McsEngl.society'human-view!⇒Sochumnview,
* McsEngl.society'humans-node!⇒Sochumnview,
* McsEngl.society'Sochumnview!⇒Sochumnview,
* McsEngl.system.humans-of-society!⇒Sochumnview,

human of Sochumnview

description::
· any human related with a-society.

">member vs citizen of society:
Here's the breakdown between member and citizen of society:
**Member of Society:**
* A broader term. Anyone who participates in a community or social group can be considered a member.
* Doesn't have specific legal ties. You can be a member of a club, a sports team, or even an online forum.
* Focuses on involvement and contribution. Being a good member means following the group's norms and contributing positively.
**Citizen:**
* A specific legal status within a country. Citizens have certain rights and responsibilities defined by law.
* Rights include voting, holding office, and government protection.
* Responsibilities include paying taxes, obeying laws, and participating in civic duties (like jury duty).
**The Connection:**
* Often, being a citizen is a type of membership in a larger society.
* Citizenship grants a specific level of participation and influence within that society.
* However, you can be a member of society without being a citizen. For example, permanent residents or undocumented immigrants contribute to society but might not have full citizenship rights.
**In short:**
* **Member:** Anyone who participates in a social group.
* **Citizen:** A legal member of a country with specific rights and responsibilities."
[{2024-03-12 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/aa918eccc9307687]

name::
* McsEngl.Sochumn!=individual-of-society,
* McsEngl.human//society!⇒Sochumn,
* McsEngl.individual//society!⇒Sochumn,
* McsEngl.society'att064-human!⇒Sochumn,
* McsEngl.society'human!⇒Sochumn,
* McsEngl.society'individual!⇒Sochumn,
* McsEngl.society'Sochumnview/Sochumn!⇒Sochumn,

life-expectancy of Sochumn

description::
">life expectancy of humans:
The life expectancy of humans varies significantly across different countries and regions, largely due to factors such as healthcare quality, lifestyle, diet, economic stability, and social conditions. As of my last update in April 2023, the global average life expectancy was approximately 72.6 years according to the World Health Organization (WHO).
In high-income countries, life expectancy is generally higher, often exceeding 80 years. For example, countries like Japan, Switzerland, and Spain have some of the highest life expectancies, often attributed to their healthcare systems, diet, and social welfare programs.
Conversely, in many low-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, life expectancy can be significantly lower, sometimes below 60 years. This is due to a variety of factors, including higher rates of infectious diseases (such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria), lower access to healthcare, poor nutrition, and political instability.
It's also important to note that life expectancy can vary within countries based on factors such as gender, ethnicity, income, and education. Generally, women tend to live longer than men.
These figures are constantly changing due to improvements in healthcare, changes in lifestyle, and advancements in technology. For the most current life expectancy data, it would be best to refer to the latest reports from the WHO or the World Bank."
[{2024-03-27 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/24a948c6-3081-486f-9360-be8b947a5402]

name::
* McsEngl.Sochumn'life-expectancy,

Sochumn.SPECIFIC

description::
* citizen,
* citizenNo,
===
* producer,
===
* consumer,
===

name::
* McsEngl.Sochumn.specific,

Sochumn.citizen of society

description::
· any human PART of a-society.

name::
* McsEngl.Socctzn!=citizen-of-society,
* McsEngl.Sochumn.citizen!⇒Socctzn,
* McsEngl.Socmber!=Socctzn,
* McsEngl.citizen!⇒Socctzn,
* McsEngl.hmnMember-of-society!⇒Socctzn,
* McsEngl.citizen-of-society!⇒Socctzn,
* McsEngl.society'citizen!⇒Socctzn,
* McsEngl.society'att001-citizen!⇒Socctzn,
* McsEngl.society'citizen!⇒Socctzn,
* McsEngl.society'human-citizen!⇒Socctzn,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.πολίτης!ο!=Socctzn,

citizenship of Socctzn

description::
· the-sequencedNo-relation of a-citizen with his|her society.

name::
* McsEngl.citizenship,
* McsEngl.human'att129-citizenship!⇒citizenship,
* McsEngl.human'citizenship!⇒citizenship,
* McsEngl.society'att015-citizenship!⇒citizenship,
* McsEngl.society'citizenship!⇒citizenship,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ιθαγένεια!=citizenship,
* McsElln.υπηκοότητα!=citizenship, (old),

right (link) of Socctzn

population-density of Socctzn

description::
· people per square-kilometer.

name::
* McsEngl.Socctzn'population-density,
* McsEngl.society'population-density,

life-expectancy of Socctzn

description::
·

name::
* McsEngl.Socctzn'life-expectancy,

median-age of Socctzn

description::
"Median age is the age that divides a population into two numerically equally sized groups - that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older. It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population."
[{2021-02-23} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_median_age]

name::
* McsEngl.Socctzn'median-age,

Socctzn.SPECIFIC

description::
·

name::
* McsEngl.Socctzn.specific,

Socctzn.aggregate

description::
· the-aggregate of citizens.

name::
* McsEngl.SochumnAggt.citizen,
* McsEngl.aggregate-citizens,

Socctzn.resident

description::
· a-citizen who lives in this society.

name::
* McsEngl.Socctzn.resident,
* McsEngl.resident-citizent,

Socctzn.residentNo

description::
· a-citizen who lives in another society.

name::
* McsEngl.Socmber.residentNo,

Socctzn.single

description::
· not married citizen.

name::
* McsEngl.Socctzn.single,

Socctzn.single.socChina-India

description::
"Why Are So Many Men in China and India Single?
Last Modified Date: December 23, 2020
If your chances of finding a date were 1 in 70 million, you might decide to stay home for the night. But that figure isn't speculation for young men in China and India, due in part to policies that for decades have prompted families to strongly prefer raising sons instead of daughters.
Those two nations -- the most populous on Earth -- are facing an unprecedented crisis that will prevent millions of men from marrying or even having serious relationships with women. The fact that there are approximately 35 million more men than women in each of those countries has already brought serious consequences, from widespread depression to financial distress.
As of 2020, a majority -- 50 million -- of the men are younger than 20, and in the years to come, they will enter a much-changed workforce and have to come to terms with being alone, without families of their own. "In the future, there will be millions of men who can’t marry, and that could pose a very big risk to society," said Li Shuzhuo, a demographer at Xi’an Jiaotong University in China.
Is being married better?
A study found that only 21 percent of single people have credit card debt, compared with 27 percent of married couples and 36 percent of couples with kids.
On average, the age at which people get married today in the United States is 28; in 1950 the average age was 22.
In America, the average cost of a wedding is more than $26,000 USD, while the average cost of raising a child exceeds $245,000."
[{2020-12-24} https://www.wisegeek.com/why-are-so-many-men-in-china-and-india-single.htm]

name::
* McsEngl.Socctzn.single.socChina-India,

Sochumn.citizenNo of society

description::
· humans of society but non-citizens.

name::
* McsEngl.Socforeigner,
* McsEngl.Sochumn.citizenNo!⇒Socforeigner,
* McsEngl.foreigner-of-society!⇒Socforeigner,
* McsEngl.hmnMemberNo-of-society!⇒Socforeigner,
* McsEngl.society'att030-hmnMemberNo!⇒Socforeigner,
* McsEngl.society'hmnMemberNo!⇒Socforeigner,

Socforeigner.refugee of society

description::
"a person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster.
synonyms: displaced-person DP escapee fugitive asylum-seeker runaway exile ιmigrι stateless-person outcast returnee reffo"
[{2020-12-20} Google-dict]

name::
* McsEngl.Socrefugee,
* McsEngl.Socforeigner.refugge!⇒Socrefugee,
* McsEngl.human.refugge!⇒Socrefugee,
* McsEngl.refugge-of-society!⇒Socrefugee,
* McsEngl.society'att031-refugge!⇒Socrefugee,
* McsEngl.society'att031-refugge!⇒Socrefugee,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.πρόσφυγας!ο!=Socrefugee,

Socrefugee.society-hosting

description::
"Countries hosting the world’s refugees:
* Turkey 🇹🇷: 3,568,259
* Iran 🇮🇷: 3,425,091
* Germany 🇩🇪: 2,075,445
* Pakistan 🇵🇰: 1,743,785
* Uganda 🇺🇬: 1,463,523
* Russia 🇷🇺: 1,277,672
* Poland 🇵🇱: 971,129
* Bangladesh 🇧🇩: 952,384
* Lebanon 🇱🇧: 818,861
* France 🇫🇷: 612,934
* Cameroon 🇨🇲: 473,887
* Czechia 🇨🇿: 435,212
* USA 🇺🇸: 363,059
* UK 🇬🇧: 328,989
* Spain 🇪🇸: 317,751
* Italy 🇮🇹: 296,181
* Egypt 🇪🇬: 294,632
* Sweden 🇸🇪: 277,726
* Iraq 🇮🇶: 273,716
* Austria 🇦🇹: 258,613
* India 🇮🇳: 242,835
* Netherlands 🇳🇱: 218,457
* Switzerland 🇨🇭: 182,474
* Bulgaria 🇧🇬: 176,297
* Greece 🇬🇷: 160,761
* Belgium 🇧🇪: 151,408
* Canada 🇨🇦: 140,621
* Romania 🇷🇴: 105,621
* Mexico 🇲🇽: 95,579
* Nigeria 🇳🇬: 91,275
* Ireland 🇮🇪: 81,256
* Norway 🇳🇴: 75,311
* Denmark 🇩🇰: 67,772
* Brazil 🇧🇷: 67,522
* South Africa 🇿🇦: 66,596
* Australia 🇦🇺: 54,430
* Afghanistan 🇦🇫: 52,159
* Estonia 🇪🇪: 40,806
* Angola 🇦🇴: 25,514
* Japan 🇯🇵: 17,406
* Indonesia 🇮🇩: 9,785
* Argentina 🇦🇷: 4,094
* South Korea 🇰🇷: 3,825
* Ukraine 🇺🇦: 2,520
* Libya 🇱🇾: 2,208
* New Zealand 🇳🇿: 1,791
* UAE 🇦🇪: 1,399
* Israel 🇮🇱: 1,207
* Philippines 🇵🇭: 856
* Saudi Arabia 🇸🇦: 454
* China 🇨🇳: 320
* Kazakhstan 🇰🇿: 308
* Cuba 🇨🇺: 174
* Monaco 🇲🇨: 17
* Turkmenistan 🇹🇲: 14
* Bahamas 🇧🇸: 10
* Fiji 🇫🇯: 5"
[{2023-10-04 retrieved} https://twitter.com/stats_feed/status/1709541432820904205]

name::
* McsEngl.Socrefugee.society-hosting,

Socforeigner.immigrant of society

description::
· a-foreigner for work.

name::
* McsEngl.Socforeigner.immigrant!⇒Socimmigrant,
* McsEngl.Socimmigrant,
* McsEngl.human.immigrant!⇒Socimmigrant,
* McsEngl.immigrant-of-society!⇒Socimmigrant,
* McsEngl.society'att032-immigrant!⇒Socimmigrant,
* McsEngl.society'immigrant!⇒Socimmigrant,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.μετανάστης!ο!=Socimmigrant,

Socforeigner.resident of society

description::
· foreigner-resident is a-non-citizen that lives in a-society with more rights than a-tourist.

name::
* McsEngl.SocForeinger.resident!⇒SocrsdtForeigner,
* McsEngl.SocrsdtForeigner,
* McsEngl.citizenNo.resident-foreigner!⇒SocrsdtForeigner,
* McsEngl.society'att037-resident-foreigner!⇒SocrsdtForeigner,
* McsEngl.society'resident-foreigner!⇒SocrsdtForeigner,
* McsEngl.foreigner-resident!⇒SocrsdtForeigner,

SocrsdtForeigner.temporary

description::
"A temporary resident is a foreign national granted the right to stay in a country for a certain length of time (e.g. with a visa or residency permit), without full citizenship. This may be for study, business, or other reasons."
[{2021-01-21} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temporary_resident]

name::
* McsEngl.SocrsdtForeigner.temporary,
* McsEngl.temporary-foreigner-resident,

SocrsdtForeigner.permanent

description::
"Permanent residency is a person's resident status in a country of which they are not citizen but where they have the right to reside on a permanent basis. This is usually for a permanent period; a person with such status is known as a permanent resident. In the United States, such a person is officially referred to as a Lawful Permanent Resident (LPR).[1]
Permanent residency itself is distinct from right of abode, which waives immigration control for such persons. Persons having permanent residency still require immigration control if they do not have right of abode. However, a right of abode automatically grants people permanent residency. This status also gives work permit in most cases.[1] In many western countries, the status of permanent resident confers a right of abode upon the holder despite not being a citizen of the particular country."
[{2021-01-21} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permanent_residency]

name::
* McsEngl.SocrsdtForeigner.permanent,
* McsEngl.permanent-foreigner-resident,

Socforeigner.turist of society

description::
· a-foreigner to see current-society.

name::
* McsEngl.Socforeigner.turist!⇒Socturist,
* McsEngl.society'att033-turist!⇒Socturist,
* McsEngl.society'turist!⇒Socturist,

Sochumn.diaspora

description::
">diaspora definition:
Diaspora literally means "to scatter about" and refers to a large group of people who share a common heritage or homeland but are now spread out across different regions of the world. There are several ways the term is used:
* Historically, it refers to the **Jewish people** who were forced out of Israel and settled in other parts of the world.
* More generally, it describes any group of people who have been dispersed from their homeland, often involuntarily, like the **African diaspora** caused by the slave trade.
* It can also refer to any migration or flight from a country or region.
* Diaspora can even apply to the spread of a culture or language, like the **diaspora of English** as a global language.
Here are some key points about diasporas:
* They maintain a connection to their homeland, even though they are physically separated from it.
* They often maintain their culture and traditions, even as they adapt to their new surroundings.
* Diasporas can be a source of strength and identity for their members.
I hope this helps!"
[{2024-03-12 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/9986f1175f56ac9a]

name::
* McsEngl.Sochumn.diaspora!⇒Socdiaspora,
* McsEngl.diaspora!⇒Socdiaspora,
* McsEngl.society'att063-diaspora!⇒Socdiaspora,
* McsEngl.society'diaspora!⇒Socdiaspora,

Sochumn.stratification

description::
"Social stratification refers to a society's categorization of its people into groups based on socioeconomic factors like wealth, income, race, education, gender, occupation, social status, or derived power (social and political). As such, stratification is the relative social position of persons within a social group, category, geographic region, or social unit.[1][2][3]
In modern Western societies, social stratification is typically defined in terms of three social classes: the upper class, the middle class, and the lower class; in turn, each class can be subdivided into the upper-stratum, the middle-stratum, and the lower stratum.[4] Moreover, a social stratum can be formed upon the bases of kinship, clan, tribe, or caste, or all four.
The categorization of people by social stratum occurs most clearly in complex state-based, polycentric, or feudal societies, the latter being based upon socio-economic relations among classes of nobility and classes of peasants. Historically, whether or not hunter-gatherer, tribal, and band societies can be defined as socially stratified, or if social stratification otherwise began with agriculture and large-scale means of social exchange, remains a debated matter in the social sciences.[5] Determining the structures of social stratification arises from inequalities of status among persons, therefore, the degree of social inequality determines a person's social stratum. Generally, the greater the social complexity of a society, the more social stratification exists, by way of social differentiation.[6]"
[{2020-07-06} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_stratification]

">social classes:
Social class is a system of stratification in which people are grouped into a hierarchy based on socioeconomic factors. These factors can include income, education, occupation, and wealth.

There are many different ways to define and measure social class. One common approach is to use a three-class model, which divides society into upper, middle, and lower classes.
* The upper class is typically composed of people who have inherited wealth or who have achieved high levels of success in business or other professions. They have a great deal of power and influence, and they often live a very comfortable lifestyle.
* The middle class is typically composed of people who have a college degree and who work in professional or managerial occupations. They have a moderate level of income and wealth, and they enjoy a standard of living that is comfortable but not extravagant.
* The lower class is typically composed of people who have not completed high school and who work in low-paying jobs. They have a low level of income and wealth, and they often struggle to make ends meet.

Social class is not a fixed system. People can move up or down the social ladder over time, depending on their circumstances. However, it is generally more difficult to move up in social class than it is to move down.

Social class has a significant impact on people's lives. It affects their access to education, healthcare, and employment. It also affects their political power, their social status, and their self-esteem.

There are a number of different theories about social class. Some theories argue that social class is based on economic factors, while others argue that it is based on cultural factors. There is no single theory that can explain all of the factors that contribute to social class, but it is clear that it is a complex and important issue."
[{2023-11-24 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/c1af9c61a2bb70d9?hl=en&pli=1]

name::
* McsEngl.Sochumn.stratification,
* McsEngl.social-class,
* McsEngl.social-stratification,
* McsEngl.society'att014-stratification,
* McsEngl.society'social-class,
* McsEngl.society'stratification,
* McsEngl.stratification-of-society,

Sochumn.resident of society

description::
· resident is a-citizen-resident or a-citizenNo-resident.

name::
* McsEngl.Sochumn.resident!⇒Socrsdt,
* McsEngl.Socrsdt!=resident-of-society,
* McsEngl.resident-of-society!⇒Socrsdt,
* McsEngl.society'att038-resident!⇒Socrsdt,
* McsEngl.society'resident!⇒Socrsdt,

residency of society

description::
· the-relation of society with a-resident.
===
"Residency is the act of establishing or maintaining a residence in a given place. Residency is a concept which heavily affects the legal rights and responsibilities that are available to a person, including eligibility to vote, eligibility to stand for political office, eligibility to access government services, responsibility to pay taxes, and on and so forth."
[{2021-01-21} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domicile_(law)]

name::
* McsEngl.residency-society,
* McsEngl.society'residency,

Socrsdt.aggregate

description::
">population of society includes non-citizens?
Yes, the population of a society absolutely includes non-citizens.
Here's why:
* **Citizenship is a legal status:** It defines your rights and responsibilities within a country.
* **Membership in society is broader:** It refers to anyone who lives in or contributes to a community.
* **Non-citizens can be residents:** This includes permanent residents with green cards, temporary residents with work or student visas, and even undocumented immigrants.
* **They contribute to society:** Non-citizens work, pay taxes, use services, and participate in the community, all of which are factors in a society's population.
For example, imagine a town with 10,000 residents. Maybe 8,000 are citizens, and 2,000 are non-citizens with various immigration statuses. The total population of the society is still 10,000, even though not everyone has citizenship.

>the population includes non residents?
The answer depends on how a specific country or organization defines "population." There are generally two ways to look at it:
**Resident Population:**
* This is the most common definition used for official statistics.
* It refers to people who have their usual residence in that place.
* This can include citizens and permanent residents who live there for an extended period.
* Non-residents, such as tourists or business visitors on short stays, are typically not counted in the resident population.
**Total Population:**
* This is a broader concept that may include non-residents in some cases.
* It's less frequently used for official statistics but might be relevant for studies on resource consumption or social impacts.
* Whether non-residents are included depends on the specific context. For example, a study on tourist spending might consider the total number of people present in a location, including non-residents.
**So, to answer your question definitively:**
* Resident population: **Generally excludes non-residents.**
* Total population: **May or may not include non-residents depending on the definition used.**

>the population includes non resident citizens?
No, the population of a country typically does not include non-resident citizens. Here's why:
* **Population refers to usual residents:** The focus is on people who live in the country most of the time.
* **Non-resident citizens are those living elsewhere:** They might have citizenship but don't have their usual residence in that country.
There can be some gray areas, though. For example:
* **Citizens on short trips abroad:** If a citizen is on a vacation or business trip outside the country for a short period, they might still be considered part of the population.
* **Citizens stationed overseas for work:** Military personnel or embassy staff might be a special case depending on how long they're expected to be away.
However, for most purposes, non-resident citizens are not counted in the population. They might be tracked in separate statistics on citizens living abroad."
[{2024-03-12 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/aa918eccc9307687]

name::
* McsEngl.Socppln!=population-of-society,
* McsEngl.Socrsdt.aggregate!⇒Socppln,
* McsEngl.population-of-society!⇒Socppln,

growth of population

description::
· increase/decrease per year.

"Population growth in 2022:
* Lithuania -1.0%
* Latvia -1.0%
* Bulgaria -0.8%
* Ukraine -0.6%
* Romania -0.5%
* Greece -0.5%
* Croatia -0.5%
* Japan -0.4%
* Hungary -0.3%
* Poland -0.2%
* Italy -0.2%
* Estonia -0.2%
* Spain -0.1%
* Russia -0.1%
* Belarus -0.1%
* Czech 0.1%
* Finland 0.1%
* France 0.2%
* Netherlands 0.2%
* Austria 0.3%
* Belgium 0.3%
* Denmark 0.4%
* UK 0.4%
* Sweden 0.6%
* Turkey 0.6%
* USA 0.6%
* Ireland 0.7%
* Switzerland 0.7%
* Canada 0.8%
* Norway 0.8%
* Argentina 0.9%
* India 0.9%
* Germany 0%
* Slovakia 0%
* Slovenia 0%
* South Korea 0%
* Bangladesh 1.0%
* Mexico 1.0%
* Australia 1.1%
* Saudi Arabia 1.4%
* Egypt 1.8%
* Pakistan 1.9%
* Nigeria 2.5%
* Niger 3.8%
[{2023-09-19 retrieved} https://twitter.com/stats_feed/status/1704025736141586903]

name::
* McsEngl.Socppln'growth,
* McsEngl.growth-of-population,
* McsEngl.population-growth,
* McsEngl.society'population/growth,

muslims of society/population

description::
"Muslim population (% of their total population):
* Maldives 🇲🇻- 100%
* Mauritania 🇲🇷 - 99.9%
* Somalia 🇸🇴 - 99.8%
* Afghanistan 🇦🇫 - 99.7%
* Iran 🇮🇷 - 99.4%
* Algeria 🇩🇿 - 99%
* Morocco 🇲🇦 - 99%
* Niger 🇳🇪 - 98.3%
* Tajikistan 🇹🇯 - 97.9%
* Tunisia 🇹🇳 - 97.8%
* Palestine 🇵🇸 - 97.5%
* Azerbaijan 🇦🇿 - 97.3%
* Yemen 🇾🇪 - 97.2%
* Jordan 🇯🇴 - 97.2%
* Libya 🇱🇾 - 97%
* Pakistan 🇵🇰 - 96.5%
* Saudi Arabia 🇸🇦 - 96.2%
* Sudan 🇸🇩 - 96%
* Iraq 🇮🇶 - 95-98%
* Bangladesh 🇧🇩 - 91%
* Egypt 🇪🇬 - 90-94.7%
* Turkey 🇹🇷 - 89-98%
* Uzbekistan 🇺🇿 - 88.7%
* Indonesia 🇮🇩 - 86.7%
* Syria 🇸🇾 - 86%
* Kyrgyzstan 🇰🇬 - 80-90%
* Qatar 🇶🇦 - 77.5%
* Kuwait 🇰🇼 - 74.6%
* UAE 🇦🇪 - 72%
* Kazakhstan 🇰🇿 - 70.2%
* Lebanon 🇱🇧 - 67.8%
* Malaysia 🇲🇾 - 63.5%
* Albania 🇦🇱 - 58.8%
* Nigeria 🇳🇬 - 47-49%
* Tanzania 🇹🇿 - 35.2%
* Israel 🇮🇱 - 18%
* Singapore 🇸🇬 - 15.6%
* India 🇮🇳 - 14.6%
* Russia 🇷🇺 - 10-12%
* France 🇫🇷 - 8.8%
* Sweden 🇸🇪 - 7.1%
* Germany 🇩🇪 - 5.4-5.7%
* Canada 🇨🇦 - 4.9%
* Italy 🇮🇹 - 4.8%
* UK 🇬🇧 - 3.3%
* Australia 🇦🇺 - 3.2%
* Norway 🇳🇴 - 3.2%
* Spain 🇪🇸 - 2.6%
* Greece 🇬🇷 - 2-3.7%
* USA 🇺🇲 - 1.1%
* Argentina 🇦🇷 - 0.9%
* Romania 🇷🇴 - 0.3-1.0%
* Japan 🇯🇵 - 0.1%
* South Korea 🇰🇷 - 0.1%
* North Korea 🇰🇵 - 0.1%
* Brazil 🇧🇷 - 0.02-0.7%
* Mexico 🇲🇽 - 0.01%
* Vatican City 🇻🇦 - 0%"
[{2024-01-07 retrieved} https://twitter.com/stats_feed/status/1743643048750571922]

name::
* McsEngl.Socppln'muslims,
* McsEngl.muslims-of-society,

unbanked of society/population

description::
"World's most unbanked countries (adult unbanked population):
* 🇲🇦 Morocco: 71%
* 🇻🇳 Vietnam: 69%
* 🇪🇬 Egypt: 67%
* 🇵🇭 Philippines: 66%
* 🇲🇽 Mexico: 63%
* 🇳🇬 Nigeria: 60%
* 🇵🇪 Peru: 57%
* 🇨🇴 Colombia: 54%
* 🇮🇩 Indonesia: 51%
* 🇦🇷 Argentina: 51%
* 🇰🇪 Kenya: 44%
* 🇷🇴 Romania: 42%
* 🇰🇿 Kazakhstan: 41%
* 🇺🇦 Ukraine: 37%
* 🇺🇾 Uruguay: 36%
* 🇿🇦 South Africa: 31%
* 🇹🇷 Turkey: 31%
* 🇧🇷 Brazil: 30%
* 🇧🇬 Bulgaria: 28%
* 🇨🇱 Chile: 26%
* 🇷🇺 Russia: 24%
* 🇮🇳 India: 20%
* 🇬🇷 Greece: 15%
* 🇵🇱 Poland: 13%
* 🇺🇸 USA: 7%
* 🇪🇸 Spain: 6%
* 🇫🇷 France: 6%
* 🇮🇹 Italy: 6%
* 🇰🇷 South Korea: 5%
* 🇬🇧 UK: 4%
* 🇦🇹 Austria: 2%
* 🇯🇵 Japan: 2%
* 🇩🇪 Germany: 1%
* 🇦🇺 Australia: 0%
* 🇨🇦 Canada: 0%
* 🇩🇰 Denmark: 0%
* 🇳🇴 Norway: 0%
According to Merchant Machine, 2021
[{2024-01-07 retrieved} https://twitter.com/stats_feed/status/1743982983634162019]

name::
* McsEngl.Socppln'unbanked,
* McsEngl.society'population/unbanked,
* McsEngl.unbanked-population,

Sochumn.ethnic-group of society

description::
"An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestry, language, history, society, culture, nation, religion, or social treatment within their residing area.[1][2][3] Ethnicity is sometimes used interchangeably with the term nation, particularly in cases of ethnic nationalism, and is separate from, but related to the concept of races.
Ethnicity can be an inherited status or based on the society within which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, ancestry, origin myth, history, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, art or physical appearance. Ethnic groups often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool."
[{2021-02-23} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnic_group]

name::
* McsEngl.Sochumn.ethnic-group,
* McsEngl.ethnic-group//society,
* McsEngl.society'att041-ethnic-group,
* McsEngl.society'ethnic-group,

Sochumn.aggregate

description::
· any aggregate of humans in a-society

name::
* McsEngl.Sochumn.aggregate!⇒SochumnAggt,
* McsEngl.SochumnAggt!=aggregate-human-of-society,

specific-tree-of-SochumnAggt::
* aggregate-residents,
* aggregate-citizens,

sociality-relation of Sochumnview

description::
· the-relations of the-citizens of a-society.

name::
* McsEngl.relation.sociality-of-society,
* McsEngl.sociality-relation--of-society,
* McsEngl.society'sociality,
* McsEngl.society'att002-sociality,
* McsEngl.society'sociality-att002,

socialitation-system of Sochumnview

description::
· a-human-socialitation (system of humans for a-goal) part of a-human-society.

name::
* McsEngl.socialitation-system--of-society,
* McsEngl.society'att025-socialitation,
* McsEngl.society'socialitation,
* McsEngl.stnHmn'societal,
* McsEngl.system.socialitation-of-society,

organization (link) of society

group (link) of society

name::
* McsEngl.society'att005-group!⇒group,
* McsEngl.society'group!⇒group,

language of Sochumnview

description::
· without a-language, there is no society.

name::
* McsEngl.society'att009-language,
* McsEngl.society'language,
* McsEngl.society'language,

language.aggregate of society

description::
"Number of Languages Spoken by Country:
1. 🇵🇬 Papua New Guinea - 840
2. 🇮🇩 Indonesia - 710
3. 🇳🇬 Nigeria - 524
4. 🇮🇳 India - 453
5. 🇺🇸 United States - 335
6. 🇦🇺 Australia - 319
7. 🇨🇳 China - 305
8. 🇲🇽 Mexico - 292
9. 🇨🇲 Cameroon - 275
10. 🇧🇷 Brazil - 228
11. 🇨🇩 DR Congo - 214
12. 🇨🇦 Canada - 195
13. 🇵🇭 Philippines - 191
14. 🇷🇺 Russia - 159
15. 🇲🇾 Malaysia - 144
17. 🇳🇵 Nepal - 129
18. 🇹🇿 Tanzania - 126
19. 🇲🇲 Myanmar - 126
21. 🇻🇳 Vietnam - 112
23. 🇩🇪 Germany - 95
24. 🇫🇷 France - 95
25. 🇵🇪 Peru - 94
27. 🇪🇹 Ethiopia - 91
28. 🇨🇴 Colombia - 89
29. 🇹🇭 Thailand - 88
30. 🇬🇭 Ghana - 87
31. 🇵🇰 Pakistan - 85
32. 🇬🇧 United Kingdom - 85
33. 🇮🇷 Iran - 84
35. 🇸🇩 Sudan - 76
36. 🇰🇪 Kenya - 72
38. 🇲🇱 Mali - 71
41. 🇳🇿 New Zealand - 65
44. 🇹🇷 Turkey - 54
45. 🇮🇱 Israel - 53
46. 🇳🇱 Netherlands - 50
47. 🇺🇦 Ukraine - 48
48. 🇻🇪 Venezuela - 48
50. 🇮🇹 Italy - 47
53. 🇳🇴 Norway - 47
54. 🇸🇳 Senegal - 46
56. 🇧🇩 Bangladesh - 45
57. 🇺🇬 Uganda - 45
60. 🇿🇦 South Africa - 42
61. 🇦🇫 Afghanistan - 42
62. 🇦🇷 Argentina - 40
65. 🇩🇰 Denmark - 39
67. 🇫🇮 Finland - 38
69. 🇺🇿 Uzbekistan - 37
70. 🇸🇪 Sweden - 37
71. 🇧🇪 Belgium - 36
72. 🇦🇹 Austria - 36
73. 🇹🇼 Taiwan - 35
74. 🇪🇸 Spain - 34
75. 🇬🇷 Greece - 34
78. 🇨🇭 Switzerland - 33
82. 🇸🇬 Singapore - 31
83. 🇴🇲 Oman - 31
84. 🇧🇹 Bhutan - 31
86. 🇷🇴 Romania - 29
87. 🇰🇭 Cambodia - 29
89. 🇮🇶 Iraq - 27
90. 🇵🇱 Poland - 27
92. 🇦🇪 United Arab Emirates - 27
95. 🇬🇪 Georgia - 27
97. 🇨🇿 Czech Republic - 26
99. 🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia - 25
101. 🇸🇾 Syria - 24
104. 🇿🇼 Zimbabwe - 24
105. 🇷🇸 Serbia - 24
107. 🇪🇬 Egypt - 23
109. 🇵🇹 Portugal - 23
110. 🇩🇿 Algeria - 22
111. 🇭🇺 Hungary - 21
115. 🇯🇵 Japan - 19
117. 🇶🇦 Qatar - 18
120. 🇨🇱 Chile - 17
127. 🇱🇺 Luxembourg - 16
129. 🇲🇦 Morocco - 15
136. 🇲🇳 Mongolia - 14
142. 🇮🇪 Ireland - 13
152. 🇭🇰 Hong Kong - 11
162. 🇲🇷 Mauritania - 8
175. 🇵🇼 Palau - 6
176. 🇰🇷 South Korea - 5
181. 🇧🇸 Bahamas - 5
186. 🇲🇨 Monaco - 5
198. 🇹🇴 Tonga - 4
204. 🇧🇧 Barbados - 3
209. 🇬🇱 Greenland - 3
216. 🇮🇸 Iceland - 2
223. 🇻🇦 Vatican City - 2
224. 🇰🇵 North Korea - 1"
[{2024-02-14 retrieved} https://twitter.com/SonuMandel1/status/1757794069726540050]

name::
* McsEngl.society'language.aggregate,

language.official of society

description::
·

name::
* McsEngl.society'language.official,

language.officialN of society

description::
·

name::
* McsEngl.society'language.officialNo,

communication-media of Sochumnview

description::
"Media is the communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data.[1][2] The term refers to components of the mass media communications industry, such as print media, publishing, the news media, photography, cinema, broadcasting (radio and television), digital media, and advertising.[3]"
[{2021-02-24} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Media_(communication)]

name::
* McsEngl.communication-media//society,
* McsEngl.society'att046-communication-media,
* McsEngl.society'communication-media,

telephone-line of society

description::
"telephone lines: Fixed telephone lines that connect a subscriber's terminal equipment to the public switched telephone network and that have a port on a telephone exchange. Integrated services digital network channels and fixed wireless subscribers are included."
[{2021-02-24} https://wolframalpha.com]

name::
* McsEngl.society'att047-telephone-line,
* McsEngl.society'telephone-line,

mobile-cellular-subscription of society

description::
"mobile cellular subscriptions: Subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Postpaid and prepaid subscriptions are included."
[{2021-02-24} https://wolframalpha.com]

name::
* McsEngl.society'att048-mobile-cellular-subscription,
* McsEngl.society'mobile-cellular-subscription,

internet-usage of society

description::
·

name::
* McsEngl.society'att049-internet-usage,
* McsEngl.society'internet-usage,

IP-addresses of society

description::
"IP addresses: Total number of IP addresses in .COM, .NET, .ORG, .INFO, .BIZ, and .US domains."
[{2021-02-24} https://wolframalpha.com]

name::
* McsEngl.society'att050-IP-addresses,
* McsEngl.society'IP-addresses,

religion of Sochumnview

description::
"religion overview:
Religion is a complex and multifaceted human phenomenon that encompasses a wide range of beliefs, practices, and traditions. It plays a significant role in the lives of billions of people worldwide and has had a profound influence on human history, culture, ethics, and society. Here is a broad overview of religion:

1. Definition: Religion is a system of beliefs, practices, rituals, and moral values that often revolves around the worship of one or more deities, spirits, or a higher power. It provides a framework for understanding the nature of existence, the purpose of life, and the human relationship with the divine or spiritual realm.

2. Types of Religions: There are various types of religions, including:
- **Monotheistic Religions:** These religions believe in the existence of a single, all-powerful God. Examples include Christianity, Islam, and Judaism.
- **Polytheistic Religions:** These religions worship multiple deities or gods, each associated with different aspects of life or nature. Examples include Hinduism and ancient Greek and Roman religions.
- **Pantheistic and Animistic Religions:** Some belief systems see divinity in everything (pantheism), while others attribute spirits to natural objects or phenomena (animism).
- **Non-Theistic and Atheistic Beliefs:** Some philosophical and religious systems, like Buddhism and certain forms of Confucianism, do not emphasize a personal deity. Atheism, as mentioned earlier, is the absence of belief in any gods.

3. Religious Texts: Many religions have sacred texts, scriptures, or holy books that contain teachings, stories, and guidelines for adherents. Examples include the Bible in Christianity, the Quran in Islam, the Bhagavad Gita in Hinduism, and the Tao Te Ching in Taoism.

4. Worship and Rituals: Religions often involve rituals, ceremonies, and acts of worship, which can include prayer, meditation, festivals, and pilgrimages. These rituals vary widely between different religious traditions.

5. Morality and Ethics: Religion frequently provides a moral and ethical framework that guides the behavior and decision-making of its followers. It can define what is right and wrong and often includes principles for living a virtuous life.

6. Religious Institutions: Religions are often organized into institutions, such as churches, mosques, temples, and monasteries, which serve as places of worship and community for believers. Clergy or religious leaders are responsible for guiding their congregations.

7. Influence on Society: Religion has played a significant role in shaping cultures, art, law, politics, and social norms throughout history. It can provide a sense of identity, community, and purpose for individuals and societies.

8. Interfaith Relations: In a globalized world, there is a growing awareness of and interaction between different religious traditions, leading to interfaith dialogue, cooperation, and sometimes conflict.

9. Diversity and Belief Systems: There is a vast diversity of belief systems, and even within a single religion, there can be different sects or denominations with varying interpretations and practices.

10. Secularism: In some societies, there is a trend toward secularism, where religion is separated from political and public life, and an emphasis is placed on the separation of church and state.

Religion is a deeply personal and complex aspect of human culture and spirituality, and it continues to be a subject of study, debate, and reflection in the modern world. It can be a source of inspiration, guidance, and comfort for many, while also being a source of controversy and division in some cases."
[{2023-10-22 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/4a04509b-fc51-4426-981b-17a07acdb69a]

name::
* McsEngl.religion//culture//society,
* McsEngl.society'att040-religion,
* McsEngl.society'religion,
* McsEngl.society'culture/religion,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.θρησκεία-κοινωνίας!η!=religion,

people of religion

description::
"% of people that believe in God or a supreme being:
* Indonesia 🇮🇩 - 93%
* Turkey 🇹🇷 - 91%
* Brazil 🇧🇷 - 84%
* South Africa 🇿🇦 - 83%
* Mexico 🇲🇽 - 78%
* USA 🇺🇸 - 70%
* Argentina 🇦🇷 - 62%
* Russia 🇷🇺 - 56%
* India 🇮🇳 - 56%
* Poland 🇵🇱 - 51%
* Italy 🇮🇹 - 50%
* Canada 🇨🇦 - 46%
* Hungary 🇭🇺 - 29%
* Australia 🇦🇺 - 29%
* Spain 🇪🇸 - 28%
* Germany 🇩🇪 - 27%
* UK 🇬🇧 - 25%
* Belgium 🇧🇪 - 20%
* France 🇫🇷 - 19%
* Sweden 🇸🇪 - 18%
* South Korea 🇰🇷 - 18%
* China 🇨🇳 - 9%
* Japan 🇯🇵 - 4%"
[{2023-10-22 retrieved} https://twitter.com/stats_feed/status/1716129840292937909]

name::
* McsEngl.religion'people,

religion.Buddhism

description::
"Buddhism is a religion that is based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama. The main principles of this belief system are karma, rebirth, and impermanence. Buddhists believe that life is full of suffering, but that suffering can be overcome by attaining enlightenment. Nirvana (a state of perfect happiness) can be obtained by breaking away from (material) attachments and purifying the mind. However, different doctrines vary on the practices and paths followed in order to do so.[6]"
[{2024-05-06 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_teachings#Buddhism]

name::
* McsEngl.Buddhism-religion,
* McsEngl.religion.Buddhism,
* McsEngl.society'att072-Buddhism,
* McsEngl.society'Buddhism,

religion.Confucianism

description::
"Confucianism is a complex school of thought, sometimes also referred to as a religion, revolving around the principles of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. It was developed in the Spring and Autumn period during the Zhou dynasty. The main concepts of this philosophy include ren (humaneness), yi (righteousness), li (propriety/etiquette), zhong (loyalty), and xiao (filial piety), along with strict adherence to social roles. This is illustrated through the five main relationships Confucius interpreted to be the core of society: ruler-subject, father-son, husband-wife, elder brother-younger brother, and friend-friend. In these bonds, the latter must pay respect to and serve the former, while the former is bound to care for the latter.[6][7]"
[{2024-05-06 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_teachings#Confucianism]

name::
* McsEngl.Confucianism-religion,
* McsEngl.religion.Confucianism,
* McsEngl.society'att071-Confucianism,
* McsEngl.society'Confucianism,

religion.Taoism

description::
"Daoism (or Taoism) is a philosophy centered on living in harmony with the Dao (Tao) (Chinese: 道; pinyin: Dào; lit. 'Way'), which is believed to be the source, pattern and substance of all matter.[9] Its origin can be traced back to the late 4th century B.C.E. and the main thinkers representative of this teaching are Laozi and Zhuang Zhou.[6] Key components of Daoism are Dao (the Way) and immortality, along with a stress on balance found throughout nature. There is less emphasis on extremes and instead focuses on the interdependence between things. For example, yin and yang (lit. 'dark and bright') do not exemplify the opposition of good against evil, but instead represents the interpenetration of mutually-dependent opposites present in everything; "within the Yang there exists the Yin and vice versa".[9]
The basis of Daoist philosophy is the idea of "wu wei", often translated as "non-action". In practice, it refers to an in-between state of "being, but not acting". This concept also overlaps with an idea in Confucianism as Confucius similarly believed that a perfect sage could rule without taking action. Daoism assumes any extreme action can initiate a counter-action of equal extremity, and so excessive government can become tyrannical and unjust, even when initiated with good intentions.[9]"
[{2024-05-06 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_teachings#Taoism]

name::
* McsEngl.Taoism-religion,
* McsEngl.religion.Taoism,
* McsEngl.society'att073-Taoism,
* McsEngl.society'Taoism,

literacy of Sochumnview

description::
"Literacy is popularly understood as an ability to read and write in at least one method of writing, an understanding reflected by mainstream dictionaries."
[{2021-02-23} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literacy]

name::
* McsEngl.literacy//society,
* McsEngl.society'att042-literacy,
* McsEngl.society'literacy,

power of Sochumnview

description::
">what is social-power?
Social power is the ability of an individual or group to influence the thoughts, feelings, or actions of others within a social context. It can be exercised through various means, such as reward power, coercive power, legitimate power, referent power, and expert power.
* **Reward power** is the ability to provide rewards, such as money, status, or approval, to influence others. For example, a boss may use reward power to get their employees to work harder.
* **Coercive power** is the ability to punish others, such as by firing them or giving them a bad reference, to influence them. For example, a parent may use coercive power to get their child to clean their room.
* **Legitimate power** is the power that comes from a position of authority. For example, a police officer has legitimate power to give someone a ticket.
* **Referent power** is the power that comes from being admired or respected by others. For example, a celebrity may have referent power to influence people's fashion choices.
* **Expert power** is the power that comes from having specialized knowledge or skills. For example, a doctor may have expert power to influence a patient's treatment decisions.
Social power can be a positive or negative force. When used responsibly, it can help to achieve goals and make positive changes. However, when used irresponsibly, it can lead to abuse, exploitation, and conflict.
There are several different theories about how social power works. One of the most influential theories is the five-factor theory of social power, which was developed by John French and Bertram Raven in 1959. This theory identifies five bases of social power: reward power, coercive power, legitimate power, referent power, and expert power.
Another important theory of social power is the social exchange theory, which was developed by George Homans in 1958. This theory suggests that social power is based on the exchange of resources between people. For example, a person with reward power has something that others want, such as money or status. In exchange for these resources, the person with reward power can influence the behavior of others.
Social power is a complex and fascinating topic that has been studied by sociologists, psychologists, and political scientists for many years. It is a crucial concept for understanding how people interact with each other and how social structures are maintained."
[{2024-01-16 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/a75bd18fc1507fc3]

name::
* McsEngl.power-in-society,
* McsEngl.social-power,
* McsEngl.society'att068-power,
* McsEngl.society'power,

culture of Sochumnview

description::
* language,
* codes of conduct,
* worldview,
* customs,
* habits,
* religion,
* arts,
* dress,
* food,
* holiday,

"Culture (/ˈkʌltʃər/) is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and norms found in human societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in these groups.[1]
Humans acquire culture through the learning processes of enculturation and socialization, which is shown by the diversity of cultures across societies.
A cultural norm codifies acceptable conduct in society; it serves as a guideline for behavior, dress, language, and demeanor in a situation, which serves as a template for expectations in a social group. Accepting only a monoculture in a social group can bear risks, just as a single species can wither in the face of environmental change, for lack of functional responses to the change.[2] Thus in military culture, valor is counted a typical behavior for an individual and duty, honor, and loyalty to the social group are counted as virtues or functional responses in the continuum of conflict. In the practice of religion, analogous attributes can be identified in a social group."
[{2021-02-26} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture]

· stxZhon: 美国 文化 跟 中国 文化 不 一样。 :: _stxSbj:[Měiguó wénhuà (gēn) Zhōngguó wénhuà] _stxVrb:{bù} _stxSbjc:[yīyàng]. != American culture and Chinese culture are not the same.

name::
* McsEngl.Sochumnview/culture,
* McsEngl.culture//Sochumnview,
* McsEngl.society'att053-culture,
* McsEngl.society'culture,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.wénhuà-文化!=culture,
* McsZhon.文化-wénhuà!=culture,

descriptionLong::
">culture definition:
Culture is a complex and multifaceted concept that has been defined in many different ways by anthropologists, sociologists, and other scholars. However, there are some common themes that emerge from these various definitions.

**Broadly speaking, culture can be defined as the shared knowledge, beliefs, values, customs, and traditions of a group of people.** This shared knowledge and understanding allows members of a group to communicate effectively with each other, cooperate in achieving common goals, and make sense of the world around them.
**Culture is also dynamic and constantly evolving.** As societies change, their cultures adapt to reflect these new realities. This can be seen in the way that new technologies, social movements, and political ideologies can shape a culture.
**Culture is also learned.** Individuals are not born with a culture; they learn it from their parents, peers, and other members of their society. This learning process takes place through a variety of means, including socialization, education, and observation.

**Here are some of the key elements of culture:**
* **Values:** Values are the principles that guide people's behavior. They are often expressed in proverbs, sayings, and stories.
* **Beliefs:** Beliefs are the ideas that people hold about the world. They can be about religion, politics, or any other aspect of life.
* **Norms:** Norms are the rules that govern people's behavior. They can be formal, such as laws, or informal, such as customs.
* **Customs:** Customs are the traditional ways of doing things in a particular society. They can be related to anything from how people eat to how they celebrate holidays.
* **Symbols:** Symbols are objects or actions that have a special meaning for a particular society. They can be anything from flags to religious icons.
* **Arts:** The arts are the creative expressions of a particular society. They can include painting, sculpture, music, dance, and literature.

Culture is an important part of what makes us human. It gives us a sense of identity, belonging, and purpose. It also helps us to understand and interact with the world around us."
[{2023-11-23 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/e7eea9056c8bb363?hl=en&pli=1]
* art,
** architecture,
** cinema,
** literature,
** music,
* fashion,
* religion,
* sports,
* television,

sector (link) of culture

culture.SPECIFIC

description::

name::
* McsEngl.culture.specific,

place of society

description::
· a-place associated with a-society.

name::
* McsEngl.Socplace!=place-of-society,
* McsEngl.geography-of-society!⇒Socplace,
* McsEngl.place-of-society!⇒Socplace,
* McsEngl.society'geography!⇒Socplace,
* McsEngl.society'place!⇒Socplace,
* McsEngl.society'att018-place!⇒Socplace,
* McsEngl.society'space!⇒Socplace,
* McsEngl.space-of-society!⇒Socplace,
* McsEngl.territory-of-society!⇒Socplace,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.χώρος-κοινωνίας!ο!=Socplace,

total-area of society

description::
"Country Size Comparison:
* 1. 🇷🇺 Russia - 17.1M km²
* 2. 🇨🇦 Canada - 10M km²
* 3. 🇨🇳 China - 9.7M km²
* 4. 🇺🇸 USA - 9.4M km²
* 5. 🇧🇷 Brazil - 8.5M km²
* 6. 🇦🇺 Australia - 7.7M km²
* 7. 🇮🇳 India - 3.3M km²
* 8. 🇦🇷 Argentina - 2.8M km²
* 9. 🇰🇿 Kazakhstan - 2.7M km²
* 10. 🇩🇿 Algeria - 2.4M km²
* 12. 🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia - 2.1M km²
* 13. 🇲🇽 Mexico - 2M km²
* 14. 🇮🇩 Indonesia - 1.9M km²
* 15. 🇸🇩 Sudan - 1.9M km²
* 17. 🇮🇷 Iran - 1.6M km²
* 18. 🇲🇳 Mongolia - 1.6M km²
* 19. 🇵🇪 Peru - 1.3M km²
* 23. 🇲🇱 Mali - 1.2M km²
* 24. 🇿🇦 South Africa - 1.2M km²
* 25. 🇨🇴 Colombia - 1.1M km²
* 26. 🇪🇹 Ethiopia - 1.1M km²
* 29. 🇪🇬 Egypt - 1M km²
* 30. 🇹🇿 Tanzania - 945.1K km²
* 31. 🇳🇬 Nigeria - 923.8K km²
* 32. 🇻🇪 Venezuela - 916.4K km²
* 33. 🇵🇰 Pakistan - 881.9K km²
* 36. 🇹🇷 Turkey - 783.6K km²
* 39. 🇦🇫 Afghanistan - 652.2K km²
* 40. 🇸🇴 Somalia - 637.7K km²
* 43. 🇺🇦 Ukraine - 603.5K km²
* 46. 🇰🇪 Kenya - 580.4K km²
* 47. 🇫🇷 France - 551.7K km²
* 48. 🇾🇪 Yemen - 528K km²
* 49. 🇹🇭 Thailand - 513.1K km²
* 50. 🇪🇸 Spain - 506K km²
* 54. 🇸🇪 Sweden - 450.3K km²
* 55. 🇺🇿 Uzbekistan - 447.4K km²
* 56. 🇲🇦 Morocco - 446.6K km²
* 57. 🇮🇶 Iraq - 438.3K km²
* 60. 🇯🇵 Japan - 377.9K km²
* 61. 🇩🇪 Germany - 357.1K km²
* 62. 🇵🇭 Philippines - 342.4K km²
* 64. 🇫🇮 Finland - 338.4K km²
* 67. 🇳🇴 Norway - 323.8K km²
* 69. 🇵🇱 Poland - 312.7K km²
* 70. 🇴🇲 Oman - 309.5K km²
* 71. 🇮🇹 Italy - 301.3K km²
* 74. 🇳🇿 New Zealand - 270.5K km²
* 76. 🇪🇭 Western Sahara - 266K km²
* 77. 🇬🇼 Guinea - 245.9K km²
* 78. 🇬🇧 UK - 242.9K km²
* 79. 🇺🇬 Uganda - 241.6K km²
* 81. 🇷🇴 Romania - 238.4K km²
* 87. 🇸🇾 Syria - 185.2K km²
* 88. 🇰🇭 Cambodia - 181K km²
* 89. 🇺🇾 Uruguay - 181K km²
* 91. 🇹🇳 Tunisia - 163.6K km²
* 92. 🇧🇩 Bangladesh - 147.6K km²
* 93. 🇳🇵 Nepal - 147.2K km²
* 95. 🇬🇷 Greece - 132K km²
* 97. 🇰🇵 North Korea - 120.5K km²
* 103. 🇧🇬 Bulgaria - 110.9K km²
* 104. 🇨🇺 Cuba - 109.9K km²
* 106. 🇮🇸 Iceland - 103K km²
* 107. 🇰🇷 South Korea - 100.2K km²
* 108. 🇭🇺 Hungary - 93K km²
* 109. 🇵🇹 Portugal - 92.1K km²
* 110. 🇯🇴 Jordan - 89.3K km²
* 111. 🇷🇸 Serbia - 88.4K km²
* 112. 🇦🇿 Azerbaijan - 86.6K km²
* 113. 🇦🇹 Austria - 83.9K km²
* 115. 🇨🇿 Czech Republic - 78.9K km²
* 118. 🇮🇪 Ireland - 70.3K km²
* 119. 🇬🇪 Georgia - 69.7K km²
* 120. 🇱🇰 Sri Lanka - 65.6K km²
* 124. 🇭🇷 Croatia - 56.6K km²
* 127. 🇸🇰 Slovakia - 49K km²
* 129. 🇪🇪 Estonia - 45.2K km²
* 130. 🇩🇰 Denmark - 43.1K km²
* 131. 🇳🇱 Netherlands - 41.9K km²
* 132. 🇨🇭 Switzerland - 41.3K km²
* 133. 🇧🇹 Bhutan - 38.4K km²
* 134. 🇹🇼 Taiwan - 36.2K km²
* 137. 🇧🇪 Belgium - 30.5K km²
* 138. 🇱🇸 Lesotho - 30.4K km²
* 139. 🇦🇲 Armenia - 29.7K km²
* 143. 🇧🇮 Burundi - 27.8K km²
* 144. 🇭🇹 Haiti - 27.8K km²
* 145. 🇷🇼 Rwanda - 26.3K km²
* 150. 🇮🇱 Israel - 20.8K km²
* 153. 🇫🇯 Fiji - 18.3K km²
* 154. 🇰🇼 Kuwait - 17.8K km²
* 160. 🇶🇦 Qatar - 11.6K km²
* 161. 🇯🇲 Jamaica - 11K km²
* 163. 🇱🇧 Lebanon - 10.5K km²
* 164. 🇨🇾 Cyprus - 9.3K km²
* 165. 🇵🇷 Puerto Rico - 8.9K km²
* 166. 🇵🇸 Palestine - 6.2K km²
* 171. 🇼🇸 Samoa - 2.8K km²
* 172. 🇱🇺 Luxembourg - 2.6K km²
* 181. 🇹🇴 Tonga - 747 km²
* 182. 🇸🇬 Singapore - 710 km²
* 185. 🇮🇲 Isle of Man - 572 km²
* 186. 🇬🇺 Guam - 549 km²
* 189. 🇵🇼 Palau - 459 km²
* 190. 🇸🇨 Seychelles - 452 km²
* 191. 🇨🇼 Curaηao - 444 km²
* 196. 🇬🇩 Grenada - 344 km²
* 197. 🇲🇹 Malta - 316 km²
* 198. 🇲🇻 Maldives - 300 km²
* 202. 🇲🇭 Marshall Islands - 181 km²
* 203. 🇦🇼 Aruba - 180 km²
* 204. 🇱🇮 Liechtenstein - 160 km²
* 209. 🇬🇬 Guernsey - 78 km²
* 211. 🇧🇲 Bermuda - 54 km²
* 215. 🇹🇻 Tuvalu - 26 km²
* 216. 🇳🇷 Nauru - 21 km²
* 217. 🇲🇨 Monaco - 2 km²
* 218. 🇻🇦 Vatican City - 0.44 km²
[{2023-10-30 retrieved} https://twitter.com/SonuMandel1/status/1718974413050437855]

name::
* McsEngl.society'size,
* McsEngl.society'total-area,
* McsEngl.society'area,

land-area of society

description::
·

name::
* McsEngl.society'land-area,
* McsEngl.society'area.land,

forest-area of society

description::
"Forest area (% of land area):
* 🇸🇷 Suriname: 97.4%
* 🇬🇾 Guyana: 93.6%
* 🇬🇦 Gabon: 91.3%
* 🇫🇮 Finland: 73.7%
* 🇸🇪 Sweden: 68.7%
* 🇯🇵 Japan: 68.4%
* 🇰🇷 South Korea: 64.4%
* 🇲🇪 Montenegro: 61.5%
* 🇸🇮 Slovenia: 61.5%
* 🇧🇷 Brazil: 59.4%
* 🇪🇪 Estonia: 57%
* 🇱🇻 Latvia: 54.8%
* 🇨🇴 Colombia: 53.3%
* 🇻🇪 Venezuela: 52.4%
* 🇮🇩 Indonesia: 49.1%
* 🇦🇹 Austria: 47.3%
* 🇻🇳 Vietnam: 46.7%
* 🇹🇭 Thailand: 38.9%
* 🇨🇦 Canada: 38.7%
* 🇳🇿 New Zealand: 37.6%
* 🇪🇸 Spain: 37.2%
* 🇭🇷 Croatia: 34.7%
* 🇺🇸 US: 33.9%
* 🇲🇽 Mexico: 33.8%
* 🇳🇴 Norway: 33.4%
* 🇩🇪 Germany: 32.7%
* 🇮🇹 Italy: 32.3%
* 🇨🇭 Switzerland: 32.1%
* 🇫🇷 France: 31.5%
* 🇹🇷 Turkey: 28.9%
* 🇮🇳 India: 24.3%
* 🇳🇬 Nigeria: 23.7%
* 🇨🇳 China: 23.4%
* 🇦🇺 Australia: 17.4%
* 🇩🇰 Denmark: 15.7%
* 🇿🇦 South Africa: 14.1%
* 🇮🇪 Ireland: 11.4%
* 🇦🇷 Argentina: 10.4%
* 🇮🇱 Israel: 6.5%
* 🇵🇰 Pakistan: 4.8%
* 🇦🇪 UAE: 4.5%
* 🇦🇫 Afghanistan: 1.9%
* 🇸🇦 Saudi Arabia: 0.5%
* 🇪🇬 Egypt: 0%
*
* 🌍 World: 31.2%"
[{2023-10-04 retrieved} https://twitter.com/stats_feed/status/1709410615469453429]

name::
* McsEngl.forest-area--of-society,
* McsEngl.society'forest-area,

water-area of society

description::
* **Internal waters:** Include rivers, lakes, and portions of seas very close to a country's shores.
* **Territorial waters:** Extend 12 nautical miles out from the coast and are considered part of a country's sovereign territory.
* **Exclusive economic zone (EEZ):** Extends 200 nautical miles from the coast, giving a country the right to manage resources like fishing and exploration within that zone.
[{2024-05-10 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/c8e99763428804f0]

name::
* McsEngl.society'water-area,
* McsEngl.society'area.water,

territorial-waters of society

description::
* **Territorial waters:** Extend 12 nautical miles out from the coast and are considered part of a country's sovereign territory.
* **Exclusive economic zone (EEZ):** Extends 200 nautical miles from the coast, giving a country the right to manage resources like fishing and exploration within that zone.
[{2024-05-10 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/c8e99763428804f0]

name::
* McsEngl.society'territorial-waters,
* McsEngl.territorial-waters,

exclusive-economic-zone of society

description::
* **Territorial waters:** Extend 12 nautical miles out from the coast and are considered part of a country's sovereign territory.
* **Exclusive economic zone (EEZ):** Extends 200 nautical miles from the coast, giving a country the right to manage resources like fishing and exploration within that zone.
[{2024-05-10 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/c8e99763428804f0]

name::
* McsEngl.EEZ!=exclusive-economic-zone,
* McsEngl.exclusive-economic-zone,
* McsEngl.society'exclusive-economic-zone,

continent of society

description::
·

name::
* McsEngl.society'continent,

border of society

description::
"Political borders are physical or imaginary lines that separate one sovereign state from another. They are often delineated by natural features such as rivers, mountains, or deserts, but they can also be arbitrary lines drawn on maps. Political borders serve to define the territory over which a government has jurisdiction and to regulate the movement of people and goods across them."
[{2024-01-18 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/8f016c808efff4d1]

name::
* McsEngl.political-border,
* McsEngl.society'borders

border-length of society

description::
·

name::
* McsEngl.society'border-length,

climate of society

description::
"climate of a country:
A country's climate is the long-term average of weather conditions, including temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind, and sunshine. It is influenced by a variety of factors, including latitude, altitude, proximity to the sea, and prevailing winds. Different countries have different climates, and the climate of a country can have a significant impact on its environment, economy, and culture.
For example, countries located near the equator tend to have tropical climates, with high temperatures and abundant rainfall throughout the year.
Countries located at higher latitudes tend to have temperate climates, with distinct seasons and moderate temperatures.
Countries located in polar regions tend to have cold climates, with low temperatures and limited precipitation.
The climate of a country can also be affected by local factors, such as the presence of mountains or large bodies of water. For example, mountains can create rain shadows, which are areas that receive less rainfall than surrounding areas. Large bodies of water can moderate temperatures, making them warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer.
The climate of a country is important because it can affect a wide range of factors, including agriculture, tourism, and public health. For example, a country with a warm, sunny climate may be well-suited for agriculture, while a country with a cold, snowy climate may be a popular destination for winter sports. The climate can also affect public health, as extreme heat or cold can lead to health problems."
[{2024-05-12 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/b85caae104773d9b]

name::
* McsEngl.Socclimate!=climate-of-society,
* McsEngl.Socclimate//Socplace//Sochumnview//society,
* McsEngl.Socplace'climate!⇒Socclimate,
* McsEngl.society'att076-climate!⇒Socclimate,
* McsEngl.society'climate!⇒Socclimate,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.κλίμα-χώρας!το!=Socclimate,

time-zone of society

description::
× generic: time-zone,
">time-zone within a society:
The concept of a "time-zone within a society" could refer to several different phenomena, depending on the context. Here are a few interpretations:
* 1. **Geographical Time Zones:** Large countries may span multiple time zones, leading to different parts of the society being in different official time zones. For example, the United States has multiple time zones, including Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific Time Zones. This geographical division means that society within the country operates on different official times depending on the location.
* 2. **Social Time Zones:** This could refer to the unofficial, social schedules that different groups within a society follow, which might vary significantly from the official time zone. For example, different communities or professions might have distinct rhythms and schedules that govern their day-to-day activities, such as farmers waking up and starting their day earlier than office workers in the same geographical area.
* 3. **Cultural Perception of Time:** Different cultures within a society may have varying perceptions of time, which can affect schedules, punctuality, and the value placed on time. For instance, some cultures may be more flexible with time (polychronic cultures), while others are very strict and punctual (monochronic cultures).
* 4. **Daylight Saving Time (DST) Observance:** Within the same geographical time zone, some parts of a society may choose to observe DST while others do not, creating a temporary shift in the effective time zone. An example is the state of Arizona in the U.S., where most of the state does not observe DST, unlike the rest of the Mountain Time Zone.
* 5. **Digital Time Zones:** In today's digital and globalized world, people often operate in multiple "time zones" simultaneously, especially in terms of work and communication with others around the world. This can lead to a society where individuals' schedules are influenced not just by the local time zone but also by the needs and schedules of international contacts.
* Each of these interpretations reflects different ways that time zones can exist "within a society," impacting its structure, daily rhythms, and the way its members interact with each other and the world."
[{2024-04-07 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/5687155f-383f-4b25-ad4b-730ca4a3ceb9]

name::
* McsEngl.society'att051-time-zone,
* McsEngl.society'time-zone,
* McsEngl.time-zone-of-society,
* McsEngl.timezone-of-society,

city of society

description::
"(n) city, metropolis, urban center (a large and densely populated urban area; may include several independent administrative districts) "Ancient Troy was a great city""
[{2021-11-21 retrieved} http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=city]

· stxZhon: 纽约 是 大 城市。 ::_stxSbj:[niǔyuē] _stxVrb:{shμ} _stxSbjc:[dà[chιngshμ]]。 != [New York] {is} [big city]

name::
* McsEngl.city//society,
* McsEngl.society'att043-city,
* McsEngl.society'city,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.chιngshμ-城市!=city,
* McsZhon.城市-chιngshμ!=city,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.πόλη!η!=city,

population of city

description::
· World's 20 biggest cities by population:
* Tokyo-Yokohama - 37.73 million,
* Jakarta - 33.75 million,
* Delhi - 32.22 million,
* Guangzhou-Foshan - 26.94 million,
* Mumbai - 24.97 million,
* Manila - 24.92 million,
* Shanghai - 24.07 million,
* Sao Paulo - 23.08 million,
* Seoul-Incheon - 23.01 million,
* Mexico City - 21.80 million,
* New York - 21.50 million,
* Cairo - 20.29 million,
* Dhaka - 18.62 million,
* Beijing - 18.52 million,
* Kolkata - 18.50 million,
* Bangkok - 18.00 million,
* Shenzhen - 17.61 million,
* Moscow - 17.33 million,
* Buenos Aires - 16.71 million,
* Lagos - 16.63 million,
[{2023-08-19 retrieved} https://twitter.com/stats_feed/status/1692796009842098385]

name::
* McsEngl.city'population,

city.capital

description::
· "A capital city or just capital is the municipality holding primary status in a country, state, province, department, or other subnational entity, usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the government's offices and meeting places; the status as capital is often designated by its law or constitution. In some jurisdictions, including several countries, different branches of government are in different settlements, sometimes meaning multiple official capitals. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place.
English-language news media often use the name of the capital city as an alternative name for the government of the country of which it is the capital, as a form of metonymy. For example, "relations between Washington and London" refers to "relations between the United States and the United Kingdom".[1]"
[{2023-08-19 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capital_city]

name::
* McsEngl.capital-city//society,
* McsEngl.city.capital,
* McsEngl.society'att044-capital-city,
* McsEngl.society'capital-city,

road of society

description::
"(n) road, route (an open way (generally public) for travel or transportation)"
[{2022-01-14 retrieved} http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=road]

name::
* McsEngl.road,
* McsEngl.society'att061-road,
* McsEngl.society'road,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.lù-路!=road,
* McsZhon.路-lù!=road,
====== langoEsperanto:
* McsEspo.strato!=road,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.δρόμος!ο!=road,
* McsElln.οδός!η!=road,
* McsElln.στράτα!η!=road,

road.street

description::
"(n) street (a thoroughfare (usually including sidewalks) that is lined with buildings) "they walked the streets of the small town"; "he lives on Nassau Street""
[{2022-01-14 retrieved} http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=street]

=== mǎlù-马路!=street:
· stxZhon: 北京 的 马路 很宽。 :: _stxSbj:[Běijīng(de)mǎlù] _stxSbjc:[hěn kuān]。 != [Beijing street] [very wide]

name::
* McsEngl.road.street,
* McsEngl.street,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.mǎlù-马路!=street,
* McsZhon.马路-mǎlù!=street,

landscape of society

description::
">natural vs cultural landscape:
A **natural landscape** is the original landscape that exists before it is acted upon by human culture. It is shaped by natural processes such as weathering, erosion, and tectonic activity. Examples of natural landscapes include mountains, forests, and rivers.
A **cultural landscape**, on the other hand, is a landscape that has been modified by human activity. This can include anything from agricultural fields and urban areas to historical sites and sacred places. Cultural landscapes reflect the values, beliefs, and practices of the people who have shaped them.
In reality, most landscapes today are a mix of natural and cultural elements. It is difficult to find a landscape that has not been influenced by human activity in some way. However, the distinction between natural and cultural landscapes is still useful for understanding how humans have interacted with their environment over time.
For more information, you can consult the following resources:
* Wikipedia article on natural landscape: [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_landscape](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_landscape)
* Cultural Landscapes — Nature and Society: [https://www.landscapepartnership.org/maps-data/nature-and-society/cultural-historic/cultural-landscapes-1](https://www.landscapepartnership.org/maps-data/nature-and-society/cultural-historic/cultural-landscapes-1)
I hope this helps! Let me know if you have any other questions."
[{2024-05-11 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/9f5888403903020a]

name::
* McsEngl.cultural-landscape,
* McsEngl.natural-landscape,
* McsEngl.landscape,
* McsEngl.society'att075-landscape,
* McsEngl.society'landscape,

protected-area of society

description::
"The definition that has been widely accepted across regional and global frameworks has been provided by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in its categorisation guidelines for protected areas.[13][14] The definition is as follows:[15]
A clearly defined geographical space, recognized, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values."
[{2024-05-10 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protected_area#Definition]

name::
* McsEngl.conservation-area,
* McsEngl.protected-area,
* McsEngl.society'att074-protected-area,
* McsEngl.society'protected-area,

protected-area.specific

description::
"Through its World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA), the IUCN has developed six Protected Area Management Categories that define protected areas according to their management objectives, which are internationally recognised by various national governments and the United Nations.[28] The categories provide international standards for defining protected areas and encourage conservation planning according to their management aims.[29]
IUCN Protected Area Management Categories:
* Category Ia – Strict nature reserve
* Category Ib – Wilderness Area
* Category II – National park
* Category III – Natural monument or Feature
* Category IV – Habitat/Species Management Area
* Category V – Protected Landscape/Seascape
* Category VI – Protected Area with sustainable use of natural resources"
[{2024-05-10 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protected_area#IUCN_Protected_Area_Management_Categories]

">types of protected areas:
Here's a breakdown of the primary types of protected areas, along with their key features and purposes:
**IUCN Protected Area Categories**
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) defines a standard system of protected area classifications, used globally to bring consistency and better understanding.
* **Category Ia - Strict Nature Reserve**
* Purpose: Set aside primarily for biodiversity conservation, strictly limiting human access.
* Key Features: Minimal human intervention, areas of high ecological value.
* **Category Ib - Wilderness Area**
* Purpose: Protecting vast, unmodified natural areas with minimal human impact.
* Key Features: Large-scale, pristine landscapes or seascapes.
* **Category II - National Park**
* Purpose: Preserving large natural ecosystems while also allowing for sustainable recreation and tourism.
* Key Features: Scenic landscapes, opportunities for nature-based experiences.
* **Category III - Natural Monument or Feature**
* Purpose: Protecting unique and specific natural or cultural-natural features.
* Key Features: Sites of geological, geomorphological, or cultural significance (e.g., caves, ancient trees, waterfalls).
* **Category IV - Habitat/Species Management Area**
* Purpose: Maintaining specific habitats or species through active and targeted management interventions.
* Key Features: Designed to support populations of important or threatened species.
* **Category V - Protected Landscape/Seascape**
* Purpose: Conserving landscapes and seascapes shaped by the harmonious interaction of people and nature.
* Key Features: Highlight a balance between natural processes and traditional land use practices.
* **Category VI - Protected Area with sustainable use of natural resources**
* Purpose: Safeguard ecosystems while sustainably utilizing their natural resources.
* Key Features: Allow for managed resource extraction in a way that supports biodiversity conservation.
**Additional Notes**
* Individual countries often have their own systems of protected areas, but many align with the IUCN categories.
* The level of protection and allowed activities within a protected area depends on its category and specific regulations."
[{2024-05-10 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/6673c5c2fe00ca74]

"The term "protected area" also includes marine protected areas and transboundary protected areas across multiple borders. As of 2016, there are over 161,000 protected areas representing about 17 percent of the world's land surface area (excluding Antarctica).[2][3][4][5][6]
For waters under national jurisdiction beyond inland waters, there are 14,688 Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), covering approximately 10.2% of coastal and marine areas and 4.12% of global ocean areas.[2] In contrast, only 0.25% of the world's oceans beyond national jurisdiction are covered by MPAs.[2][7]"
[{2024-05-10 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protected_area]

name::
* McsEngl.protected-area.specific,

protected-area.category-Ia

description::
* **Category Ia - Strict Nature Reserve**
* Purpose: Set aside primarily for biodiversity conservation, strictly limiting human access.
* Key Features: Minimal human intervention, areas of high ecological value.
[{2024-05-10 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/6673c5c2fe00ca74]

name::
* McsEngl.protected-area.category-Ia,
* McsEngl.protected-area.strict-nature-reserve,
* McsEngl.strict-nature-reserve,

protected-area.category-Ib

description::
* **Category Ib - Wilderness Area**
* Purpose: Protecting vast, unmodified natural areas with minimal human impact.
* Key Features: Large-scale, pristine landscapes or seascapes.
[{2024-05-10 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/6673c5c2fe00ca74]

name::
* McsEngl.protected-area.category-Ib,
* McsEngl.protected-area.wilderness-area,
* McsEngl.wilderness-area,

protected-area.category-II

description::
* **Category II - National Park**
* Purpose: Preserving large natural ecosystems while also allowing for sustainable recreation and tourism.
* Key Features: Scenic landscapes, opportunities for nature-based experiences.
[{2024-05-10 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/6673c5c2fe00ca74]

name::
* McsEngl.protected-area.category-II,
* McsEngl.protected-area.national-park,
* McsEngl.national-park,

protected-area.category-III

description::
* **Category III - Natural Monument or Feature**
* Purpose: Protecting unique and specific natural or cultural-natural features.
* Key Features: Sites of geological, geomorphological, or cultural significance (e.g., caves, ancient trees, waterfalls).
[{2024-05-10 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/6673c5c2fe00ca74]

name::
* McsEngl.protected-area.category-III,
* McsEngl.protected-area.natural-monument-or-feature,
* McsEngl.natural-monument-or-feature,

protected-area.category-IV

description::
* **Category IV - Habitat/Species Management Area**
* Purpose: Maintaining specific habitats or species through active and targeted management interventions.
* Key Features: Designed to support populations of important or threatened species.
[{2024-05-10 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/6673c5c2fe00ca74]

name::
* McsEngl.protected-area.category-IV,
* McsEngl.protected-area.habitat/species-management-area,
* McsEngl.habitat/species-management-area,

protected-area.category-V

description::
* **Category V - Protected Landscape/Seascape**
* Purpose: Conserving landscapes and seascapes shaped by the harmonious interaction of people and nature.
* Key Features: Highlight a balance between natural processes and traditional land use practices.
[{2024-05-10 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/6673c5c2fe00ca74]

name::
* McsEngl.protected-area.category-V,
* McsEngl.protected-area.protected-landscape/seascape,
* McsEngl.protected-landscape/seascape,

protected-area.category-VI

description::
* **Category VI - Protected Area with sustainable use of natural resources**
* Purpose: Safeguard ecosystems while sustainably utilizing their natural resources.
* Key Features: Allow for managed resource extraction in a way that supports biodiversity conservation.
[{2024-05-10 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/6673c5c2fe00ca74]

name::
* McsEngl.protected-area.category-VI,

nature of society

description::
"Physical Environment: This consists of the geographical landscape, climate, and natural resources available in a region. These elements can greatly impact how societies develop, what kinds of industries thrive, and how local cultures evolve."
[{2024-04-26 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/3554684c-2dbe-4de0-b8be-01a083113ae7]

name::
* McsEngl.society'att023-nature,
* McsEngl.society'environment,
* McsEngl.society'nature,

world-heritage-site of Socnode

description::
"A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the UNESCO. World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for having cultural, historical, scientific or other forms of significance. The sites are judged to contain "cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity".[1]
To be selected, a World Heritage Site is nominated by their host country and determined by the international committee to be a unique landmark which is geographically and historically identifiable and having a special cultural or physical significance. For example, World Heritage Sites might be ancient ruins or historical structures, buildings, cities,[a] deserts, forests, islands, lakes, monuments, mountains or wilderness areas.[4][5]
A World Heritage Site may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, and serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet or it might be a place of great natural beauty.[6] As of April 2024, a total of 1,199 World Heritage Sites (933 cultural, 227 natural and 39 mixed cultural and natural properties) exist across 168 countries. With 59 selected areas, Italy is the country with the most sites; followed by China with 57, then France and Germany with 52 each.[7]
The sites are intended for practical conservation for posterity, which otherwise would be subject to risk from human or animal trespassing, unmonitored, uncontrolled or unrestricted access, or threat from local administrative negligence. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones.[1] The World Heritage Sites list is maintained by the international World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 "states parties" that are elected by the United Nations General Assembly, and advised by reviews of international panels of experts in natural or cultural history, and education.[8]
The programme catalogues, names, and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture and heritage of humanity. The programme began with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage,[9] which was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972. Since then, 195 states have ratified the convention,[10] making it one of the most widely recognised international agreements and the world's most popular cultural programme.[11] To be considered, the properties must be under some form of state protection or conservation and be nominated by the host member country."
[{2024-04-26 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Heritage_Site]

name::
* McsEngl.Socwheritage!=world-heritage-site,
* McsEngl.society'att070-world-heritage-site!⇒Socwheritage,
* McsEngl.society'world-heritage-site!⇒Socwheritage,
* McsEngl.world-heritage-site!⇒Socwheritage,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.μνημείο-παγκόσμιας-κληρονομιάς!το!=Socwheritage,

fairness of Sochumnview

description::
"impartial and just treatment or behavior without favoritism or discrimination."
[{2021-07-05 retrieved} Google-dic]

name::
* McsEngl.society'att059-fairness,
* McsEngl.society'fairness,

inclusiveness of Sochumnview

description::
· not excluding any of its members.
· everyone has the opportunity to reach their full potential.

name::
* McsEngl.society'att060-inclusiveness,
* McsEngl.society'inclusiveness,

flag of Sochumnview

description::
"A national flag is a flag that represents and symbolizes a given nation. It is flown by the government of that nation, but usually can also be flown by its citizens. A national flag is typically designed with specific meanings for its colours and symbols, which may also be used separately from the flag as a symbol of the nation. The design of a national flag is sometimes altered after the occurrence of important historical events. The burning or destruction of a national flag is a greatly symbolic act."
[{2020-11-13} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_flag]

· stxZhon: _stxVrb:{看} _stxObj:[[中国][国旗]]! Kàn zhςng guó guóqν! != {look at} [Chinese flag]

name::
* McsEngl.flag-of-society!⇒flagSociety,
* McsEngl.flagSociety,
* McsEngl.society'att024-flag!⇒flagSociety,
* McsEngl.society'flag!⇒flagSociety,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.guóqν-国旗!=flagSociety,
* McsZhon.国旗-guóqν!=flagSociety,

addressWpg::
* https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lists_of_flags,
* https://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/,
* https://alanedwardes.com/blog/posts/country-code-to-flag-emoji-csharp/,

specific-tree-of-flagSociety::
* McsEngl.flagAfghanistan--🇦🇫--🇦🇫,
* McsEngl.flagAlbania--🇦🇱--🇦🇱,
* McsEngl.flagAlgeria--🇩🇿--🇩🇿,
* McsEngl.flagAmerican-Samoa--🇦🇸--🇦🇸,
* McsEngl.flagAndorra--🇦🇩--🇦🇩,
* McsEngl.flagAngola--🇦🇴--🇦🇴,
* McsEngl.flagAnguilla--🇦🇮--🇦🇮,
* McsEngl.flagAntarctica--🇦🇶--🇦🇶,
* McsEngl.flagAntigua-and-Barbuda--🇦🇬--🇦🇬,
* McsEngl.flagArgentina--🇦🇷--🇦🇷,
* McsEngl.flagArmenia--🇦🇲--🇦🇲,
* McsEngl.flagAruba--🇦🇼--🇦🇼,
* McsEngl.flagAscension-Island--🇦🇨--🇦🇨,
* McsEngl.flagAustralia--🇦🇺--🇦🇺,
* McsEngl.flagAustria--🇦🇹--🇦🇹,
* McsEngl.flagAzerbaijan--🇦🇿--🇦🇿,

specific-tree-of-flagSociety::
* McsEngl.flagBahamas--🇧🇸--🇧🇸,
* McsEngl.flagBahrain--🇧🇭--🇧🇭,
* McsEngl.flagBangladesh--🇧🇩--🇧🇩,
* McsEngl.flagBarbados--🇧🇧--🇧🇧,
* McsEngl.flagBelarus--🇧🇾--🇧🇾,
* McsEngl.flagBelgium--🇧🇪--🇧🇪,
* McsEngl.flagBelize--🇧🇿--🇧🇿,
* McsEngl.flagBenin--🇧🇯--🇧🇯,
* McsEngl.flagBermuda--🇧🇲--🇧🇲,
* McsEngl.flagBhutan--🇧🇹--🇧🇹,
* McsEngl.flagBolivia--🇧🇴--🇧🇴,
* McsEngl.flagBosnia-and-Herzegovina--🇧🇦--🇧🇦,
* McsEngl.flagBotswana--🇧🇼--🇧🇼,
* McsEngl.flagBouvet-Island--🇧🇻--🇧🇻,
* McsEngl.flagBrazil--🇧🇷--🇧🇷,
* McsEngl.flagBritish-Indian-Ocean-Territory--🇮🇴--🇮🇴,
* McsEngl.flagBritish-Virgin-Islands--🇻🇬--🇻🇬,
* McsEngl.flagBrunei--🇧🇳--🇧🇳,
* McsEngl.flagBulgaria--🇧🇬--🇧🇬,
* McsEngl.flagBurkina-Faso--🇧🇫--🇧🇫,
* McsEngl.flagBurundi--🇧🇮--🇧🇮,

specific-tree-of-flagSociety::
* McsEngl.flagCambodia--🇰🇭--🇰🇭,
* McsEngl.flagCameroon--🇨🇲--🇨🇲,
* McsEngl.flagCanada--🇨🇦--🇨🇦,
* McsEngl.flagCanary-Islands--🇮🇨--🇮🇨,
* McsEngl.flagCape-Verde--🇨🇻--🇨🇻,
* McsEngl.flagCaribbean-Netherlands--🇧🇶--🇧🇶,
* McsEngl.flagCayman-Islands--🇰🇾--🇰🇾,
* McsEngl.flagCentral-African-Republic--🇨🇫--🇨🇫,
* McsEngl.flagCeuta-and-Melilla--🇪🇦--🇪🇦,
* McsEngl.flagChad--🇹🇩--🇹🇩,
* McsEngl.flagChile--🇨🇱--🇨🇱,
* McsEngl.flagChina--🇨🇳--🇨🇳,
* McsEngl.flagChristmas-Island--🇨🇽--🇨🇽,
* McsEngl.flagClipperton-Island--🇨🇵--🇨🇵,
* McsEngl.flagCocos-(Keeling)-Islands--🇨🇨--🇨🇨,
* McsEngl.flagColombia--🇨🇴--🇨🇴,
* McsEngl.flagComoros--🇰🇲--🇰🇲,
* McsEngl.flagCongo---Brazzaville--🇨🇬--🇨🇬,
* McsEngl.flagCongo---Kinshasa--🇨🇩--🇨🇩,
* McsEngl.flagCook-Islands--🇨🇰--🇨🇰,
* McsEngl.flagCosta-Rica--🇨🇷--🇨🇷,
* McsEngl.flagCroatia--🇭🇷--🇭🇷,
* McsEngl.flagCuba--🇨🇺--🇨🇺,
* McsEngl.flagCuraηao--🇨🇼--🇨🇼,
* McsEngl.flagCyprus--🇨🇾--🇨🇾,
* McsEngl.flagCzechia--🇨🇿--🇨🇿,
* McsEngl.flagCτte-d’Ivoire--🇨🇮--🇨🇮,

specific-tree-of-flagSociety::
* McsEngl.flagDenmark--🇩🇰--🇩🇰,
* McsEngl.flagDiego-Garcia--🇩🇬--🇩🇬,
* McsEngl.flagDjibouti--🇩🇯--🇩🇯,
* McsEngl.flagDominica--🇩🇲--🇩🇲,
* McsEngl.flagDominican-Republic--🇩🇴--🇩🇴,
* McsEngl.flagEcuador--🇪🇨--🇪🇨,
* McsEngl.flagEgypt--🇪🇬--🇪🇬,
* McsEngl.flagEl-Salvador--🇸🇻--🇸🇻,
* McsEngl.flagEquatorial-Guinea--🇬🇶--🇬🇶,
* McsEngl.flagEritrea--🇪🇷--🇪🇷,
* McsEngl.flagEstonia--🇪🇪--🇪🇪,
* McsEngl.flagEswatini--🇸🇿--🇸🇿,
* McsEngl.flagEthiopia--🇪🇹--🇪🇹,
* McsEngl.flagEuropean-Union--🇪🇺--🇪🇺,

specific-tree-of-flagSociety::
* McsEngl.flagFalkland-Islands--🇫🇰--🇫🇰,
* McsEngl.flagFaroe-Islands--🇫🇴--🇫🇴,
* McsEngl.flagFiji--🇫🇯--🇫🇯,
* McsEngl.flagFinland--🇫🇮--🇫🇮,
* McsEngl.flagFrance--🇫🇷--🇫🇷,
* McsEngl.flagFrench-Guiana--🇬🇫--🇬🇫,
* McsEngl.flagFrench-Polynesia--🇵🇫--🇵🇫,
* McsEngl.flagFrench-Southern-Territories--🇹🇫--🇹🇫,
* McsEngl.flagGabon--🇬🇦--🇬🇦,
* McsEngl.flagGambia--🇬🇲--🇬🇲,
* McsEngl.flagGeorgia--🇬🇪--🇬🇪,
* McsEngl.flagGermany--🇩🇪--🇩🇪,
* McsEngl.flagGhana--🇬🇭--🇬🇭,
* McsEngl.flagGibraltar--🇬🇮--🇬🇮,
* McsEngl.flagGreece--🇬🇷--🇬🇷,
* McsEngl.flagGreenland--🇬🇱--🇬🇱,
* McsEngl.flagGrenada--🇬🇩--🇬🇩,
* McsEngl.flagGuadeloupe--🇬🇵--🇬🇵,
* McsEngl.flagGuam--🇬🇺--🇬🇺,
* McsEngl.flagGuatemala--🇬🇹--🇬🇹,
* McsEngl.flagGuernsey--🇬🇬--🇬🇬,
* McsEngl.flagGuinea--🇬🇳--🇬🇳,
* McsEngl.flagGuinea-Bissau--🇬🇼--🇬🇼,
* McsEngl.flagGuyana--🇬🇾--🇬🇾,

specific-tree-of-flagSociety::
* McsEngl.flagHaiti--🇭🇹--🇭🇹,
* McsEngl.flagHeard-and-McDonald-Islands--🇭🇲--🇭🇲,
* McsEngl.flagHonduras--🇭🇳--🇭🇳,
* McsEngl.flagHong-Kong-SAR-China--🇭🇰--🇭🇰,
* McsEngl.flagHungary--🇭🇺--🇭🇺,
* McsEngl.flagIceland--🇮🇸--🇮🇸,
* McsEngl.flagIndia--🇮🇳--🇮🇳,
* McsEngl.flagIndonesia--🇮🇩--🇮🇩,
* McsEngl.flagIran--🇮🇷--🇮🇷,
* McsEngl.flagIraq--🇮🇶--🇮🇶,
* McsEngl.flagIreland--🇮🇪--🇮🇪,
* McsEngl.flagIsle-of-Man--🇮🇲--🇮🇲,
* McsEngl.flagIsrael--🇮🇱--🇮🇱,
* McsEngl.flagItaly--🇮🇹--🇮🇹,
* McsEngl.flagJamaica--🇯🇲--🇯🇲,
* McsEngl.flagJapan--🇯🇵--🇯🇵,
* McsEngl.flagJersey--🇯🇪--🇯🇪,
* McsEngl.flagJordan--🇯🇴--🇯🇴,

specific-tree-of-flagSociety::
* McsEngl.flagKazakhstan--🇰🇿--🇰🇿,
* McsEngl.flagKenya--🇰🇪--🇰🇪,
* McsEngl.flagKiribati--🇰🇮--🇰🇮,
* McsEngl.flagKosovo--🇽🇰--🇽🇰,
* McsEngl.flagKuwait--🇰🇼--🇰🇼,
* McsEngl.flagKyrgyzstan--🇰🇬--🇰🇬,
* McsEngl.flagLaos--🇱🇦--🇱🇦,
* McsEngl.flagLatvia--🇱🇻--🇱🇻,
* McsEngl.flagLebanon--🇱🇧--🇱🇧,
* McsEngl.flagLesotho--🇱🇸--🇱🇸,
* McsEngl.flagLiberia--🇱🇷--🇱🇷,
* McsEngl.flagLibya--🇱🇾--🇱🇾,
* McsEngl.flagLiechtenstein--🇱🇮--🇱🇮,
* McsEngl.flagLithuania--🇱🇹--🇱🇹,
* McsEngl.flagLuxembourg--🇱🇺--🇱🇺,

specific-tree-of-flagSociety::
* McsEngl.flagMacao-SAR-China--🇲🇴--🇲🇴,
* McsEngl.flagMadagascar--🇲🇬--🇲🇬,
* McsEngl.flagMalawi--🇲🇼--🇲🇼,
* McsEngl.flagMalaysia--🇲🇾--🇲🇾,
* McsEngl.flagMaldives--🇲🇻--🇲🇻,
* McsEngl.flagMali--🇲🇱--🇲🇱,
* McsEngl.flagMalta--🇲🇹--🇲🇹,
* McsEngl.flagMarshall-Islands--🇲🇭--🇲🇭,
* McsEngl.flagMartinique--🇲🇶--🇲🇶,
* McsEngl.flagMauritania--🇲🇷--🇲🇷,
* McsEngl.flagMauritius--🇲🇺--🇲🇺,
* McsEngl.flagMayotte--🇾🇹--🇾🇹,
* McsEngl.flagMexico--🇲🇽--🇲🇽,
* McsEngl.flagMicronesia--🇫🇲--🇫🇲,
* McsEngl.flagMoldova--🇲🇩--🇲🇩,
* McsEngl.flagMonaco--🇲🇨--🇲🇨,
* McsEngl.flagMongolia--🇲🇳--🇲🇳,
* McsEngl.flagMontenegro--🇲🇪--🇲🇪,
* McsEngl.flagMontserrat--🇲🇸--🇲🇸,
* McsEngl.flagMorocco--🇲🇦--🇲🇦,
* McsEngl.flagMozambique--🇲🇿--🇲🇿,
* McsEngl.flagMyanmar-(Burma)--🇲🇲)--🇲🇲,
* McsEngl.flagNamibia--🇳🇦--🇳🇦,
* McsEngl.flagNauru--🇳🇷--🇳🇷,
* McsEngl.flagNepal--🇳🇵--🇳🇵,
* McsEngl.flagNetherlands--🇳🇱--🇳🇱,
* McsEngl.flagNew-Caledonia--🇳🇨--🇳🇨,
* McsEngl.flagNew-Zealand--🇳🇿--🇳🇿,
* McsEngl.flagNicaragua--🇳🇮--🇳🇮,
* McsEngl.flagNiger--🇳🇪--🇳🇪,
* McsEngl.flagNigeria--🇳🇬--🇳🇬,
* McsEngl.flagNiue--🇳🇺--🇳🇺,
* McsEngl.flagNorfolk-Island--🇳🇫--🇳🇫,
* McsEngl.flagNorth-Korea--🇰🇵--🇰🇵,
* McsEngl.flagNorth-Macedonia--🇲🇰--🇲🇰,
* McsEngl.flagNorthern-Mariana-Islands--🇲🇵--🇲🇵,
* McsEngl.flagNorway--🇳🇴--🇳🇴,

specific-tree-of-flagSociety::
* McsEngl.flagOman--🇴🇲--🇴🇲,
* McsEngl.flagPakistan--🇵🇰--🇵🇰,
* McsEngl.flagPalau--🇵🇼--🇵🇼,
* McsEngl.flagPalestinian-Territories--🇵🇸--🇵🇸,
* McsEngl.flagPanama--🇵🇦--🇵🇦,
* McsEngl.flagPapua-New-Guinea--🇵🇬--🇵🇬,
* McsEngl.flagParaguay--🇵🇾--🇵🇾,
* McsEngl.flagPeru--🇵🇪--🇵🇪,
* McsEngl.flagPhilippines--🇵🇭--🇵🇭,
* McsEngl.flagPitcairn-Islands--🇵🇳--🇵🇳,
* McsEngl.flagPoland--🇵🇱--🇵🇱,
* McsEngl.flagPortugal--🇵🇹--🇵🇹,
* McsEngl.flagPuerto-Rico--🇵🇷--🇵🇷,
* McsEngl.flagQatar--🇶🇦--🇶🇦,
* McsEngl.flagRomania--🇷🇴--🇷🇴,
* McsEngl.flagRussia--🇷🇺--🇷🇺,
* McsEngl.flagRwanda--🇷🇼--🇷🇼,
* McsEngl.flagRιunion--🇷🇪--🇷🇪,

specific-tree-of-flagSociety::
* McsEngl.flagSamoa--🇼🇸--🇼🇸,
* McsEngl.flagSan-Marino--🇸🇲--🇸🇲,
* McsEngl.flagSaudi-Arabia--🇸🇦--🇸🇦,
* McsEngl.flagSenegal--🇸🇳--🇸🇳,
* McsEngl.flagSerbia--🇷🇸--🇷🇸,
* McsEngl.flagSeychelles--🇸🇨--🇸🇨,
* McsEngl.flagSierra-Leone--🇸🇱--🇸🇱,
* McsEngl.flagSingapore--🇸🇬--🇸🇬,
* McsEngl.flagSint-Maarten--🇸🇽--🇸🇽,
* McsEngl.flagSlovakia--🇸🇰--🇸🇰,
* McsEngl.flagSlovenia--🇸🇮--🇸🇮,
* McsEngl.flagSolomon-Islands--🇸🇧--🇸🇧,
* McsEngl.flagSomalia--🇸🇴--🇸🇴,
* McsEngl.flagSouth-Africa--🇿🇦--🇿🇦,
* McsEngl.flagSouth-Georgia-and-South-Sandwich-Islands--🇬🇸--🇬🇸,
* McsEngl.flagSouth-Korea--🇰🇷--🇰🇷,
* McsEngl.flagSouth-Sudan--🇸🇸--🇸🇸,
* McsEngl.flagSpain--🇪🇸--🇪🇸,
* McsEngl.flagSri-Lanka--🇱🇰--🇱🇰,
* McsEngl.flagSt.Barthιlemy--🇧🇱--🇧🇱,
* McsEngl.flagSt.Helena--🇸🇭--🇸🇭,
* McsEngl.flagSt.Kitts-and-Nevis--🇰🇳--🇰🇳,
* McsEngl.flagSt.Lucia--🇱🇨--🇱🇨,
* McsEngl.flagSt.Martin--🇲🇫--🇲🇫,
* McsEngl.flagSt.Pierre-and-Miquelon--🇵🇲--🇵🇲,
* McsEngl.flagSt.Vincent-and-Grenadines--🇻🇨--🇻🇨,
* McsEngl.flagSudan--🇸🇩--🇸🇩,
* McsEngl.flagSuriname--🇸🇷--🇸🇷,
* McsEngl.flagSvalbard-and-Jan-Mayen--🇸🇯--🇸🇯,
* McsEngl.flagSweden--🇸🇪--🇸🇪,
* McsEngl.flagSwitzerland--🇨🇭--🇨🇭,
* McsEngl.flagSyria--🇸🇾--🇸🇾,
* McsEngl.flagSγo-Tomι-and-Prνncipe--🇸🇹--🇸🇹,
* McsEngl.flagTaiwan--🇹🇼--🇹🇼,
* McsEngl.flagTajikistan--🇹🇯--🇹🇯,
* McsEngl.flagTanzania--🇹🇿--🇹🇿,
* McsEngl.flagThailand--🇹🇭--🇹🇭,
* McsEngl.flagTimor-Leste--🇹🇱--🇹🇱,
* McsEngl.flagTogo--🇹🇬--🇹🇬,
* McsEngl.flagTokelau--🇹🇰--🇹🇰,
* McsEngl.flagTonga--🇹🇴--🇹🇴,
* McsEngl.flagTrinidad-and-Tobago--🇹🇹--🇹🇹,
* McsEngl.flagTristan-da-Cunha--🇹🇦--🇹🇦,
* McsEngl.flagTunisia--🇹🇳--🇹🇳,
* McsEngl.flagTurkey--🇹🇷--🇹🇷,
* McsEngl.flagTurkmenistan--🇹🇲--🇹🇲,
* McsEngl.flagTurks-and-Caicos-Islands--🇹🇨--🇹🇨,
* McsEngl.flagTuvalu--🇹🇻--🇹🇻,

specific-tree-of-flagSociety::
* McsEngl.flagU.S.Outlying-Islands--🇺🇲--🇺🇲,
* McsEngl.flagU.S.Virgin-Islands--🇻🇮--🇻🇮,
* McsEngl.flagUganda--🇺🇬--🇺🇬,
* McsEngl.flagUkraine--🇺🇦--🇺🇦,
* McsEngl.flagUnited-Arab-Emirates--🇦🇪--🇦🇪,
* McsEngl.flagUnited-Kingdom--🇬🇧--🇬🇧,
* McsEngl.flagUnited-Nations--🇺🇳--🇺🇳,
* McsEngl.flagUnited-States--🇺🇸--🇺🇸,
* McsEngl.flagUruguay--🇺🇾--🇺🇾,
* McsEngl.flagUzbekistan--🇺🇿--🇺🇿,
* McsEngl.flagVanuatu--🇻🇺--🇻🇺,
* McsEngl.flagVatican-City--🇻🇦--🇻🇦,
* McsEngl.flagVenezuela--🇻🇪--🇻🇪,
* McsEngl.flagVietnam--🇻🇳--🇻🇳,
* McsEngl.flagWallis-and-Futuna--🇼🇫--🇼🇫,
* McsEngl.flagWestern-Sahara--🇪🇭--🇪🇭,
* McsEngl.flagYemen--🇾🇪--🇾🇪,
* McsEngl.flagZambia--🇿🇲--🇿🇲,
* McsEngl.flagZimbabwe--🇿🇼--🇿🇼,
* McsEngl.flagΕland-Islands--🇦🇽--🇦🇽,

national-anthem of Sochumnview

description::
"A national anthem is a patriotic musical composition symbolizing and evoking eulogies of the history and traditions of a country or nation.[2] The majority of national anthems are marches or hymns in style. American, Central Asian, and European nations tend towards more ornate and operatic pieces, while those in the Middle East, Oceania, Africa, and the Caribbean use a more simplistic fanfare.[3] Some countries that are devolved into multiple constituent states have their own official musical compositions for them (such as with the United Kingdom, Russia, and the former Soviet Union); their constituencies' songs are sometimes referred to as national anthems even though they are not sovereign states."
[{2023-09-07 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_anthem]

· stxZhon: 美国国歌很美。 :: Měiguó guógē hěn měi. != The American national anthem is beautiful.

name::
* McsEngl.national-anthem,
* McsEngl.society'att062-anthem,
* McsEngl.society'anthem,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.guógē-国歌!=national-anthem,
* McsZhon.国歌-guógē!=national-anthem,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.εθνικός-ύμνος!ο!=national-anthem,

internet-TLD of Sochumnview

description::
"A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code. All ASCII ccTLD identifiers are two letters long, and all two-letter top-level domains are ccTLDs.
In 2018, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) began implementing internationalized country code top-level domains, consisting of language-native characters when displayed in an end-user application. Creation and delegation of ccTLDs is described in RFC 1591, corresponding to ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes. While gTLDs have to obey international regulations, ccTLDs are subjected to requirements that are determined by each country’s domain name regulation corporation. With over 150 million domain name registrations today, ccTLDs make up 40% of the total domain name industry.[1] Country code extension applications began in 1985. The registered first extensions that year were .us (United States), .uk (United Kingdom), and .il (Israel).[2] There are 312 ccTLDs in active use totally. The .cn, .tk, .de and .uk ccTLDs contain the highest number of domains.[3]"
[{2021-02-25} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Country_code_top-level_domain]

name::
* McsEngl.ccTLD,
* McsEngl.society'att052-internet-TLD,
* McsEngl.society'ccTLD,
* McsEngl.society'country-code-2-letter,
* McsEngl.society'internet-TLD,

addressWpg::
* https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_3166-1_alpha-2,

driving-site of Sochumnview

description::
"Left-hand traffic (LHT) and right-hand traffic (RHT) are the practices, in bidirectional traffic, of keeping to the left side or to the right side of the road, respectively. They are fundamental to traffic flow, and are sometimes referred to as the rule of the road.[1]
RHT is used in 165 countries and territories, with the remaining 75 countries and territories using LHT.[2] Countries that use LHT account for about a sixth of the world's land area, with about a third of its population and a quarter of its roads.[3] In 1919, 104 of the world's territories were LHT and an equal number were RHT. Between 1919 and 1986, 34 of the LHT territories switched to RHT.[4]
Many of the countries that adopted LHT were formerly part of the British Empire, although some, such as Indonesia, Japan, Macau, Nepal, Suriname, Sweden (now RHT), and Thailand, to name a few, were not. Similarly, many of the countries that were a part of the French colonial empire adopted RHT.
In LHT traffic keeps left, and cars usually have the steering wheel on the right (RHD – right hand drive), putting the driver on the side closer to the centre of the road. Roundabouts circulate clockwise. RHT is the opposite of this: traffic keeps right, the driver usually sits on the left side of the car (LHD), and roundabouts circulate anticlockwise.
In most countries rail traffic follows the handedness of the roads, although many of the countries that switched road traffic from LHT to RHT did not switch their trains. Boat traffic on rivers is effectively RHT. Boats are traditionally piloted from the starboard side to facilitate priority to the right."
[{2021-02-26} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Left-_and_right-hand_traffic]

name::
* McsEngl.society'att055-driving-site,
* McsEngl.society'driving-site,

03-economic-view (link) of society

satisfier (link) of society

technology (link) of society

04-admin-system of society

description::
× whole: production-system,

· a-human-society has a-governance-system as all societies-of-organisms.
· governance exists for at least 2 important satisfiers of a-society: administration and security.

">economic role of governance:
Governance plays a crucial role in shaping and influencing economic outcomes within a country or organization. The economic role of governance encompasses a wide range of activities and functions that impact the overall economic health and development. Here are some key aspects of the economic role of governance:

1. **Policy Formulation and Implementation:**
- Governance structures, including government institutions, formulate and implement economic policies that influence factors such as fiscal, monetary, and trade policies.
- Sound economic policies contribute to stability, growth, and development.

2. **Regulation and Rule of Law:**
- Governance ensures the establishment and enforcement of rules and regulations that create a conducive environment for economic activities.
- Rule of law promotes fairness, transparency, and protection of property rights, which are essential for economic growth.

3. **Infrastructure Development:**
- Governance is responsible for planning and executing infrastructure projects such as transportation, energy, and communication networks.
- Adequate infrastructure is crucial for economic activities and can enhance productivity and competitiveness.

4. **Institutional Framework:**
- Governance establishes and maintains institutions that are essential for economic development, such as central banks, regulatory bodies, and legal systems.
- Strong institutions foster confidence among investors and contribute to economic stability.

5. **Public Sector Management:**
- Governance influences the efficiency and effectiveness of public sector management, including public administration, public finance, and public service delivery.
- Effective public sector management is critical for the provision of public goods and services.

6. **Corruption Control:**
- Good governance plays a role in controlling corruption, which can have significant economic consequences.
- Corruption undermines economic efficiency, distorts resource allocation, and deters investment.

7. **Investor Confidence:**
- Governance practices influence investor confidence and perceptions of a country's economic environment.
- Transparent and accountable governance can attract foreign direct investment and promote domestic investment.

8. **Social Equity and Inclusion:**
- Economic governance also addresses issues of social equity and inclusion to ensure that economic benefits are distributed fairly across society.
- Inclusive economic policies can contribute to social stability and sustainable development.

9. **Risk Management:**
- Governance structures are responsible for managing economic risks and crises, such as financial market instability or natural disasters.
- Effective governance can contribute to resilience and the ability to navigate economic challenges.

In summary, the economic role of governance involves creating a framework that supports economic activities, encourages investment, ensures fairness and transparency, and promotes sustainable development. A well-functioning governance system is essential for fostering a healthy and thriving economy."
[{2023-12-09 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/dbee6626-d529-4ea3-b25d-219782b8da1c]

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn!=governance-sys--of-society,{2024-01-07},
* McsEngl.Socgvc!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.Socecon'09-admin-sys!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.Socecon'att020-admin-sys!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.Socecon'admin-sys!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.Socecon'governance-sys!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.admin-system-of-society!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.administration-of-society!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.administrative-system!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.admn.society!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.admnSoc!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.governance-sys--of-Socecon!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.governance-system-of-society!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.government!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.gvcSoc!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.political-system!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.public-administration!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.society'04_governance-system!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.society'att006-governance-system!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.society'admin-system!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.society'governance-system!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.society'political-system!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.sysAdmin!⇒Socadmn,
* McsEngl.sysGov!⇒Socadmn,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.δημόσια-διοίκηση!η!⇒Socadmn,
* McsElln.δημόσιο-σύστημα!το!⇒Socadmn,
* McsElln.διακυβέρνηση-κοινωνίας!⇒Socadmn,
* McsElln.διοίκησης-σύστημα-κοινωνίας!⇒Socadmn,
* McsElln.σύστημα-διοίκησης-κοινωνίας!⇒Socadmn,
"Ο όρος governance αποδίδεται στα ελληνικά συνήθως ως «διακυβέρνηση». Καθώς όμως ο όρος electronic government είχε ήδη αποδοθεί ως «Ηλεκτρονική Διακυβέρνηση», δεν υπάρχει πλέον ελληνικός όρος, ώστε να αποδοθεί ο όρος electronic governance."
[{2024-04-09 retrieved} http://dx.doi.org/10.57713/kallipos-420]

descriptionLong::
"Governance could be viewed as nothing more than an operating system for society."
[{2021-01-17} https://moreequalanimals.com/assets/MoreEqualAnimals-1.15.2021.pdf]

generic-tree-of-Socadmn::
* SocadmnOgm,

admin-sector (link) of Socadmn

brance.executive of Socadmn

description::
"The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state. The executive executes and enforces law."
[{2020-12-20} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executive_(government)]

name::
* McsEngl.Socexe!=executive-brance-of-society,
* McsEngl.executive-brance!⇒Socexe,
* McsEngl.government!⇒Socexe,
* McsEngl.society'att026-executive-brance!⇒Socexe,
* McsEngl.society'executive-brance!⇒Socexe,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.εκτελεστική-εξουσία!η!=Socexe,

policy of Socexe

description::
">government policy:
Government policy is a broad term that encompasses a wide range of decisions, actions, and programs that are implemented by governments to address various issues. These policies can cover a wide spectrum of topics, including economic, social, environmental, and political matters.

**Purposes of Government Policy**
Government policies are designed to achieve specific goals and objectives. These goals can vary depending on the specific policy area and the priorities of the government in power. Some of the common purposes of government policy include:
* **Solving problems:** Governments often intervene to address societal problems such as poverty, unemployment, inequality, and environmental degradation. Policies are implemented to provide solutions or mitigate the effects of these problems.
* **Public goods provision:** Governments provide essential public goods and services, such as infrastructure, education, healthcare, and social security. These goods are not effectively provided by the market alone, and governments play a crucial role in their delivery.
* **Regulation and competition:** Governments regulate various sectors of the economy to promote competition, protect consumers, and ensure fair market practices. These regulations aim to maintain a level playing field and prevent monopolies or anti-competitive behavior.
* **Resource allocation:** Governments allocate public resources to various programs and initiatives that they deem important. This involves determining how funds are distributed and invested to address specific needs and priorities.

**Types of Government Policy**
Government policies can be categorized into different types based on their scope, level of government, and implementation mechanisms. Some common categories include:
* **Macroeconomic policy:** This type of policy focuses on managing the overall economy, aiming to achieve objectives such as economic growth, employment, and inflation control. Monetary policy and fiscal policy are key elements of macroeconomic policy.
* **Microeconomic policy:** This type of policy focuses on specific sectors or industries, aiming to promote competition, regulate market behavior, and protect consumer interests. Antitrust laws, environmental regulations, and subsidies are examples of microeconomic policies.
* **Social policy:** This type of policy aims to address social issues such as poverty, education, healthcare, and social welfare. Welfare programs, social security, and healthcare reforms are examples of social policies.
* **Regulatory policy:** This type of policy sets rules and standards for various sectors, such as environmental protection, consumer protection, and workplace safety. Zoning laws, environmental regulations, and labor laws are examples of regulatory policies.
* **International policy:** This type of policy deals with relations between countries, including diplomacy, trade agreements, and development assistance. Foreign policy, trade policy, and development aid are examples of international policies.

**Development of Government Policy**
The development of government policy involves a complex process that typically includes the following steps:
1. **Identifying problems and setting goals:** Policymakers identify issues or challenges that need to be addressed, and they establish clear and measurable objectives for the policy.
2. **Research and analysis:** Policymakers conduct research, gather data, and analyze relevant information to understand the problem in depth and develop potential solutions.
3. **Policy formulation:** Policymakers develop specific policy proposals, considering various options, costs, and benefits. This process involves consultation with experts, stakeholders, and the public.
4. **Decision-making and implementation:** After evaluating policy proposals, policymakers decide which policies to adopt and implement. This involves allocating resources, establishing agencies responsible for implementation, and monitoring progress.
5. **Evaluation and review:** Government policies are continually evaluated to assess their effectiveness in achieving the desired outcomes. Based on the evaluation, policies may be modified, updated, or even discontinued as needed.

**Impact of Government Policy**
Government policies have a significant impact on various aspects of society, including the economy, the environment, social welfare, and individual lives. These policies can lead to changes in behavior, resource allocation, and overall well-being.

**Conclusion**
Government policy is a powerful tool that governments use to address various issues and shape the trajectory of society. By understanding the purposes, types, development process, and impact of government policy, citizens can engage more effectively in the policy-making process and hold their governments accountable for their actions."
[{2023-12-08 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/82d93c4900523173]

name::
* McsEngl.Socexe'policy,
* McsEngl.government-policy,

brance.legislature of Socadmn

description::
"A legislature is an assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country, nation, or city. Legislatures are often contrasted with the executive and judicial powers of government.

Legislators are typically elected by the people, but they can also be appointed by the executive branch or another body. Legislatures may be unicameral (with a single house) or bicameral (with two houses).

Legislatures have a variety of powers, including the power to:
* Pass laws
* Establish the government's budget
* Confirm executive appointments
* Ratify treaties
* Investigate the executive branch
* Impeach and remove from office members of the executive and judiciary
* Redress constituents' grievances

Legislatures play an important role in any democracy. They represent the will of the people and help to ensure that the government is accountable to its citizens.

Here are some examples of legislatures around the world:
* United States Congress
* United Kingdom Parliament
* Canadian Parliament
* Australian Parliament
* Indian Parliament
* Japanese Diet

Legislatures are essential to the functioning of any modern democracy. They provide a forum for public debate and deliberation, and they have the power to make laws that affect the lives of all citizens."
[{2023-10-09 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/466e661b2b8cb5b0]

name::
* McsEngl.Soclegi,
* McsEngl.Soclegi!=legislature-branch-of-society,
* McsEngl.legislature!⇒Soclegi,
* McsEngl.parliament!⇒Soclegi,
* McsEngl.society'att027-legislature!⇒Soclegi,
* McsEngl.society'legislature!⇒Soclegi,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.βουλή!η!=Soclegi,
* McsElln.νομοθετική-εξουσία!η!=Soclegi,

legislator of Soclegi

description::
"Seats held by women in national parliaments:
* Rwanda 🇷🇼: 61%
* Cuba 🇨🇺: 53%
* UAE 🇦🇪: 50%
* Mexico 🇲🇽: 50%
* New Zealand 🇳🇿: 49%
* Iceland 🇮🇸: 48%
* Sweden 🇸🇪: 47%
* South Africa 🇿🇦: 47%
* Finland 🇫🇮: 46%
* Norway 🇳🇴: 45%
* Argentina 🇦🇷: 45%
* Spain 🇪🇸: 43%
* Austria 🇦🇹: 40%
* Denmark 🇩🇰: 40%
* France 🇫🇷: 40%
* Italy 🇮🇹: 36%
* Germany 🇩🇪: 35%
* UK 🇬🇧: 34%
* Australia 🇦🇺: 31%
* Canada 🇨🇦: 30%
* USA 🇺🇸: 28%
* China 🇨🇳: 25%
* Indonesia 🇮🇩: 21%
* Ukraine 🇺🇦: 21%
* Pakistan 🇵🇰: 20%
* Turkey 🇹🇷: 17%
* Russia 🇷🇺: 16%
* Brazil 🇧🇷: 15%
* India 🇮🇳: 14%
* Japan 🇯🇵: 10%
* Iran 🇮🇷: 6%
* Nigeria 🇳🇬: 4%
* Yemen 🇾🇪: 0%
According to Inter-Parliamentary Union ( IPU )
[{2024-04-25 retrieved} https://twitter.com/stats_feed/status/1783094585331212723]

name::
* McsEngl.legislator!=wrkrLegi,
* McsEngl.society'att069-legislator!=wrkrLegi,
* McsEngl.society'legislator!=wrkrLegi,
* McsEngl.wrkrPblc.legislator!=wrkrLegi,

right-of-initiative of Soclegi

description::
"The right of (legislative) initiative is the constitutionally defined power to propose a new law (bill).
The right of initiative is usually attributed to parliaments, which in most countries have the right to make law proposals, alone or sharing this right with the government.
In parliamentary systems it is common that both the government (executive) and the parliament have legislative initiative, but it also can be restricted to the government and the lower house of parliament, or even to the government alone.
In presidential systems legislative initiative usually only rests with the legislature, such as in the United States. This, however, does not preclude the executive from suggesting the introduction of certain laws to their backers in the legislature."
[{2020-11-26} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Right_of_initiative_(legislative)]

name::
* McsEngl.society'att029-right-of-legislative-initiative,
* McsEngl.society'right-of-legislative-initiative,
* McsEngl.Soclegi'right-of-initiative,

brance.judiciary (link) of Socadmn

core-system of Socadmn

description::
· the-system of core-admin-sector.

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'att010-core-system!⇒Socadmncore,
* McsEngl.Socadmn'core-system!⇒Socadmncore,
* McsEngl.Socadmncore!=core-admin-system,
* McsEngl.core-admin-system!⇒Socadmncore,

narrow-system of Socadmn

description::
· the-system of narrow-admin-sector.

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'att011-narrow-system!⇒Socadmnnarrow,
* McsEngl.Socadmn'narrow-system!⇒Socadmnnarrow,
* McsEngl.Socadmnnarrow!=narrow-admin-system,
* McsEngl.narrow-admin-system!⇒Socadmnnarrow,

broad-system of Socadmn

description::
· the-system of broad-admin-sector.

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'att012-broad-system!⇒Socadmnbroad,
* McsEngl.Socadmn'broad-system!⇒Socadmnbroad,
* McsEngl.Socadmnbroad!=broad-admin-system,
* McsEngl.broad-admin-system!⇒Socadmnbroad,

legal-system (link) of Socadmn

law (link) of Socadmn

judicial-system of Socadmn

description::
· the-entire system of courts, judges, structure, processes, government-branch.

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'att001-judicial-system!⇒Socjdls,
* McsEngl.Socadmn'judicial-system!⇒Socjdls,
* McsEngl.Socjdls!=judicial-system-of-society,
* McsEngl.law'judicial-system!⇒Socjdls,
* McsEngl.judicial-system-of-society!⇒Socjdls,

descriptionLong::
">judicial system vs judiciary vs judicial-branch:
These terms are all closely related to the concept of how laws are interpreted and enforced, but with slightly different nuances:
* **Judiciary:** This refers to the entire system of courts and judges responsible for interpreting laws, resolving legal disputes, and ensuring justice is served. It's the broadest term, encompassing all the people and institutions involved.
* **Judicial system:** This term is similar to judiciary, but it emphasizes the structure and processes involved in handling legal cases. It includes things like court hierarchies, rules of evidence, and procedures for trials and appeals.
* **Judicial branch:** This term is the most specific. It refers to one of the three main divisions of government (alongside the legislative and executive branches) that houses the judiciary. The judicial branch is responsible for interpreting laws and the Constitution, but it doesn't create or enforce them directly.
Here's an analogy:
* Think of the **judiciary** as a hospital.
* The **judicial system** would be the different departments within the hospital, like cardiology or emergency care, each with its own procedures.
* The **judicial branch** would be the administration that oversees the entire hospital and ensures it runs smoothly.
I hope this clarifies the distinction between these terms!"
[{2024-03-21 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/db9c5865e261106c]

">judicial system vs judiciary:
The terms "judicial system" and "judiciary" are closely related and both pertain to the branch of government responsible for the administration of justice. However, they have distinct meanings and refer to different aspects of the legal framework. Understanding these differences is key to grasping the structure and function of a country's legal and governance system.
### Judiciary
The "judiciary" refers specifically to the judges and magistrates who preside over courts, and, by extension, can also include the court system itself. It is the collective term for the individuals who have the authority to interpret and apply the law, make legal judgments, and preside over legal disputes. The judiciary is one of the three branches of government, alongside the legislative (which makes the laws) and the executive (which enforces the laws). The primary roles of the judiciary include:
- **Interpreting and applying laws** to specific cases.
- **Adjudicating disputes**, both civil and criminal, to enforce legal rights and obligations.
- **Upholding the constitution** and ensuring laws and government actions comply with constitutional provisions.
- **Protecting rights and liberties** as defined by the constitution and law.
Judges and magistrates within the judiciary are expected to be impartial and independent, making decisions based on law, without influence from external pressures or biases.
### Judicial System
The "judicial system," on the other hand, refers to the entire structure and organization of courts and tribunals within a country or jurisdiction that administers justice. It encompasses not only the judiciary (i.e., judges and magistrates) but also the procedural aspects, administrative staff, legal frameworks, and processes that enable the judiciary to operate effectively. The judicial system includes various levels of courts (such as appellate courts, trial courts, and sometimes specialized courts) and is designed to handle different types of cases, including civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional matters.
The judicial system is responsible for:
- **Providing a mechanism for dispute resolution** through a structured, formal process.
- **Enforcing legal norms and decisions**, ensuring that judicial rulings are carried out.
- **Administering trials and hearings**, where evidence is presented, and legal arguments are made.
### Key Differences
- **Scope:** The judiciary refers specifically to the personnel (judges and magistrates) within the court system, emphasizing the role of individuals in interpreting and applying the law. The judicial system refers to the entire network of courts and related processes and structures for administering justice.
- **Function:** While the judiciary focuses on the decision-making and legal interpretation by judges, the judicial system includes both these functions and the broader mechanisms and institutions that support the administration of justice.
In summary, while the judiciary is about the who (the judges and magistrates) in the administration of justice, the judicial system is about the how (the organizational structure, courts, and processes) through which justice is administered."
[{2024-03-18 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/17d04697-f020-46b5-b705-28b043c5899c]

judicial-branch of Socadmn

description::
* **Judicial branch:** This term is the most specific. It refers to one of the three main divisions of government (alongside the legislative and executive branches) that houses the judiciary. The judicial branch is responsible for interpreting laws and the Constitution, but it doesn't create or enforce them directly.
Here's an analogy:
* Think of the **judiciary** as a hospital.
* The **judicial system** would be the different departments within the hospital, like cardiology or emergency care, each with its own procedures.
* The **judicial branch** would be the administration that oversees the entire hospital and ensures it runs smoothly.
[{2024-03-21 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/db9c5865e261106c]

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'att002-judicial-branch,
* McsEngl.Socadmn'judicial-branch,
* McsEngl.judicial-branch,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.δικαστική-εξουσία!η!=judicial-branch,

judiciary of Socadmn

description::
· I consider 'judiciary' and 'judicial-system' one concept. {2024-03-21}

* **Judiciary:** This refers to the entire system of courts and judges responsible for interpreting laws, resolving legal disputes, and ensuring justice is served. It's the broadest term, encompassing all the people and institutions involved.
Here's an analogy:
* Think of the **judiciary** as a hospital.
* The **judicial system** would be the different departments within the hospital, like cardiology or emergency care, each with its own procedures.
* The **judicial branch** would be the administration that oversees the entire hospital and ensures it runs smoothly.
[{2024-03-21 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/db9c5865e261106c]

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'att003-judiciary,
* McsEngl.Socadmn'judiciary,
* McsEngl.judiciary,
* McsEngl.judicature,
* McsEngl.judiciary//justice-system,
* McsEngl.judiciary-system,
* McsEngl.law'judiciary,
* McsEngl.society'att028-judiciary,
* McsEngl.society'judiciary,

descriptionLong::
"judiciary definition:
The judiciary is the branch of government that is responsible for interpreting and applying the law. It is also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system.

The judiciary is responsible for adjudicating legal disputes, which means resolving them through a fair and impartial process. The judiciary also has the power to interpret the law, which means explaining what the law means and how it applies to specific cases. In some countries, the judiciary also has the power to strike down laws that it deems to be unconstitutional.

The judiciary is an essential part of any democracy. It helps to ensure that the law is applied fairly and equally to everyone, and that the rights of all citizens are protected.

Here are some of the key functions of the judiciary:
* To resolve legal disputes between individuals, groups, and organizations
* To interpret the law and apply it to specific cases
* To protect the rights of individuals and groups
* To ensure that the government and its officials act within the law
* To uphold the rule of law

The judiciary is typically made up of a system of courts, each with a different level of jurisdiction. The highest court in a country is usually known as the supreme court. The supreme court has the final say on the interpretation of the law, and its decisions are binding on all lower courts.

In many countries, the judiciary is independent of the other two branches of government: the legislative branch (which makes the laws) and the executive branch (which enforces the laws). This independence is essential to ensure that the judiciary can act impartially and without fear of pressure from the other branches of government.

The judiciary is an essential part of any democracy. It helps to ensure that the law is applied fairly and equally to everyone, and that the rights of all citizens are protected."
[{2023-10-09 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/3fcd69a32e833ef8]

· judiciary is a specific part of the justice system, dealing primarily with the adjudication of legal disputes and the interpretation of laws.

"justice-system vs judiciary:
The terms "justice system" and "judiciary" are related but refer to different aspects within the legal framework of a country:

1. Judiciary:
- The judiciary is a specific component of the legal system that consists of courts, judges, and the legal professionals responsible for interpreting and applying the law. It is one of the three branches of government in many countries, alongside the legislative and executive branches.
- The judiciary's primary function is to adjudicate disputes, interpret laws, and ensure that justice is administered in accordance with the law. Judges within the judiciary are responsible for making legal decisions, rendering judgments, and upholding the rule of law.
- The judiciary plays a crucial role in safeguarding individual rights, resolving legal conflicts, and ensuring that the actions of the government and individuals are in compliance with the constitution and established laws.

2. Justice System:
- The justice system is a broader term that encompasses not only the judiciary but also other components of the legal system, such as law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, defense attorneys, correctional facilities, and other entities involved in the administration of justice.
- While the judiciary focuses primarily on the resolution of disputes through the legal process, the justice system includes the entire process of maintaining law and order, enforcing laws, investigating and prosecuting crimes, and providing correctional and rehabilitation services for individuals who have been convicted of crimes.
- The justice system is concerned with ensuring that the principles of fairness, due process, and equality are upheld at all stages of the legal process, from law enforcement and investigation to trial and punishment.

In summary, the judiciary is a specific part of the justice system, dealing primarily with the adjudication of legal disputes and the interpretation of laws. The justice system, on the other hand, is a more comprehensive term that encompasses the entire legal framework and its various components, including law enforcement, prosecution, defense, and corrections, all working together to maintain justice and order in society."
[{2023-10-09 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/df549424-347f-4e28-a2c3-1d4e35221719]

judicial-review of Socadmn

description::
"Judicial review is a process under which a government's executive, legislative, or administrative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.[1]: 79  In a judicial review, a court may invalidate laws, acts, or governmental actions that are incompatible with a higher authority. For example, an executive decision may be invalidated for being unlawful, or a statute may be invalidated for violating the terms of a constitution. Judicial review is one of the checks and balances in the separation of powers—the power of the judiciary to supervise the legislative and executive branches when the latter exceed their authority. The doctrine varies between jurisdictions, so the procedure and scope of judicial review may differ between and within countries."
[{2024-03-22 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judicial_review]

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'att004-judicial-review,
* McsEngl.Socadmn'judicial-review,
* McsEngl.judicial-review,

evaluation of Socadmn

description::
· The World Bank's six worldwide governance indicators:
1) government effectiveness index,
2) voice and accountability,
3) political stability,
4) regulatory quality,
5) the rule of law,
6) control of corruption.
[{2023-12-23 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government_effectiveness_index]

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'evaluation,

satisfier of Socadmn

description::
· sfrProperty owned by a-governance-system.
· a-PUBLIC-domain-software is-not-owned by governance.

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'satisfier,
* McsEngl.admin-property!⇒sfrPblc,
* McsEngl.admin-satisfier!⇒sfrPblc,
* McsEngl.public-satisfier!⇒sfrPblc,
* McsEngl.satisfier.007-governance-sys!⇒sfrPblc,
* McsEngl.satisfierGvc!⇒sfrPblc,
* McsEngl.sfrPblc!=admin-satisfier,
* McsEngl.sfrGvc!⇒sfrPblc,
* McsEngl.sfrProperty.property!⇒sfrPblc,
* McsEngl.sfrProperty.sectorGvc!⇒sfrPblc,
* McsEngl.sfrSocadmn!⇒sfrPblc,
* McsEngl.property.admin!⇒sfrPblc,
* McsEngl.society'att034-satisfier-of-Socadmn!⇒sfrPblc,
* McsEngl.society'satisfier-of-Socadmn!⇒sfrPblc,
* McsEngl.state-property!⇒sfrPblc,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ικανοποιητής-διοίκησης!ο!=sfrPblc,

sfrPblc.SPECIFIC

description::
* governance-service,
* governance-serviceNo,
===
* Courts,
* Electricity,
* Education,
* Emergency-services,
* Environmental-protection,
* Healthcare,
* Military,
* Public-transportation,
* Public-buildings,
* Social-services,
* Telecommunications,
* Urban-planning,
* Transportation-infrastructure,
* Waste-management,
* Water-supply-network,

name::
* McsEngl.sfrPblc.specific,

organization of Socadmn

description::
· ANY organization of the-sysAdmin.
· oznGovernance is a-special oznSatisfier needed to govern a-society.
· oznGovernance is an-oznProduction OWNED by state|regional|local governance-system.

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'ozn!⇒ogznPblc,
* McsEngl.administrative-organization!⇒ogznPblc,
* McsEngl.governance-organization!⇒ogznPblc,
* McsEngl.ogzn.003-admin!⇒ogznPblc,
* McsEngl.ogznPblc!=administrative-organization,
* McsEngl.ogznGvc!=ogznPblc,
* McsEngl.ogznGvnc!=ogznPblc,
* McsEngl.ogznProduction.005-administrative!⇒ogznPblc,
* McsEngl.ogznProduction.administrative!⇒ogznPblc,
* McsEngl.ogznSocadmn!⇒ogznPblc,
* McsEngl.public-administration!⇒ogznPblc,
* McsEngl.public-organization!⇒ogznPblc,
* McsEngl.society'att017-ogznPblc!⇒ogznPblc,
* McsEngl.society'ogznPblc!⇒ogznPblc,
* McsEngl.Socadmn'ogznPblc!⇒ogznPblc,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.δημόσιος-οργανισμός!ο!=ogznPblc,
* McsElln.δημόσιος-φορέας!ο!=ogznPblc,
* McsElln.διοίκησης-οργανισμός!ο!=ogznPblc,
* McsElln.οργανισμός-διοίκησης!ο!=ogznPblc,

ogznPblc.sector (link)

ogznPblc.core (link)

ogznPblc.narrow (link)

ogznPblc.broad (link)

budget (link) of Socadmn

public-opinion-on-government of Socadmn

description::
">public opinion on government:
Public opinion on government can vary widely depending on numerous factors such as the political climate, current events, economic conditions, and cultural context. Here are some key areas where public opinion often focuses:
1. **Trust in Government**:
- Levels of trust in government institutions can fluctuate based on their perceived effectiveness, transparency, and corruption.
- Higher trust is often seen in governments that are perceived as responsive, accountable, and effective in providing public services.
2. **Performance and Effectiveness**:
- Public opinion often evaluates the government on its performance in areas like the economy, healthcare, education, and national security.
- Effectiveness in handling crises, such as natural disasters or pandemics, significantly impacts public opinion.
3. **Transparency and Corruption**:
- Perceived levels of corruption can greatly influence public opinion, with higher corruption generally leading to lower trust and approval.
- Transparency in government actions and decisions is highly valued and can boost public confidence.
4. **Political Leadership**:
- Opinions on specific leaders or political parties often shape overall views on government.
- Leadership qualities such as integrity, competence, and communication skills are critical in shaping public opinion.
5. **Civil Liberties and Rights**:
- How well the government protects and upholds civil liberties and human rights is a major factor in public opinion.
- Actions perceived as infringing on freedoms can lead to significant public backlash.
6. **Public Services**:
- The quality and accessibility of public services, such as healthcare, education, and social welfare programs, heavily influence public perception.
- Effective delivery of these services generally leads to more favorable opinions.
7. **Economic Policies**:
- Economic performance, including job creation, inflation control, and overall economic growth, is a significant determinant of public opinion.
- Policies that are perceived to favor certain groups over others can lead to public dissatisfaction.
8. **National Security**:
- Public opinion is also shaped by the government’s ability to protect its citizens from internal and external threats.
- Successful handling of security issues often boosts public support.
9. **Social Issues**:
- Government stance and policies on social issues, such as immigration, gender equality, and racial justice, are key areas of public concern.
- Progressive policies can attract support from certain groups while alienating others.
10. **International Relations**:
- Foreign policy decisions and international relations also impact public opinion.
- A government’s ability to maintain favorable international relationships and uphold national interests abroad is crucial.
### Example Poll Results
To provide a concrete example, consider a hypothetical poll conducted in a democratic country:
- **Trust in Government**:
- 45% of respondents trust the government to do what is right most of the time.
- 30% have some trust, and 25% have little to no trust.
- **Performance Ratings**:
- Economy: 60% positive, 40% negative.
- Healthcare: 50% positive, 50% negative.
- Education: 55% positive, 45% negative.
- **Transparency and Corruption**:
- 40% believe the government is transparent.
- 60% believe there is significant corruption.
- **Leadership Approval**:
- President/Prime Minister: 55% approval, 45% disapproval.
- Main opposition leader: 48% approval, 52% disapproval.
### Conclusion
Public opinion on government is complex and multifaceted, influenced by a variety of factors. Regular polling and surveys can provide insights into the public’s views and help governments to understand and address the concerns of their citizens."
[{2024-06-13 retrieved} https://chatgpt.com/c/f416d1c9-a73d-46c3-85a3-a2e4023cc993]

">public opinion of government:
Public views of government are complex and multifaceted, varying considerably across countries, cultures, and time periods. However, some general trends and observations can be made:
* **Declining Trust:** In many democracies, there has been a significant decline in public trust in government over recent decades. This is often attributed to factors such as political scandals, economic crises, and a perceived disconnect between politicians and ordinary citizens.
* **Partisan Divide:** Public opinion on government is often deeply divided along partisan lines, with supporters of the ruling party generally expressing more positive views than those in opposition. This polarization can make it difficult to achieve consensus on important issues.
* **Specific Issues:** Public opinion on government can also vary depending on the specific issue at hand. For example, people may be more likely to support government intervention in areas like healthcare or education, while opposing it in areas like economic regulation or environmental protection.
* **Role of Media:** The media plays a crucial role in shaping public opinion on government, often highlighting negative stories and scandals while downplaying positive achievements. This can contribute to a sense of cynicism and disillusionment among the public.
* **Social Media:** The rise of social media has also had a significant impact on public opinion, allowing citizens to express their views more easily and connect with others who share their perspectives. This can amplify both positive and negative sentiments towards government.
Overall, public views of government are constantly evolving and are influenced by a wide range of factors. Understanding these views is crucial for politicians and policymakers seeking to build public trust and support.
For further information on public views of government, you can consult the following resources:
* **Pew Research Center:** [https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2022/06/06/americans-views-of-government-decades-of-distrust-enduring-support-for-its-role/](https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2022/06/06/americans-views-of-government-decades-of-distrust-enduring-support-for-its-role/)
* **Gallup News:** [https://news.gallup.com/opinion/polling-matters/404750/public-opinion-role-government.aspx](https://news.gallup.com/opinion/polling-matters/404750/public-opinion-role-government.aspx)
* **Britannica:** [https://www.britannica.com/topic/public-opinion](https://www.britannica.com/topic/public-opinion)
I hope this information is helpful!
Sources
smartjustice.ca/2022/06/09/police-and-human-rights-2/"
[{2024-06-13 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/fcf4ace38f8c64a6]

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'att014-public-opinion-on-government,
* McsEngl.Socadmn'public-opinion-on-government,
* McsEngl.public-opinion-on-government,

citizen-info of Socadmn

description::
· any info about a-citizen the-Socadmn has.

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'citizen-info,
* McsEngl.citizen-info-of-Socadmn,
* McsEngl.society'att039-citizen-info,
* McsEngl.society'citizen-info,

addressWpg::
* https://joinup.ec.europa.eu/solution/citizens-folder/about: a one-stop service where citizens can access and browse all their information the administration possesses,

control-of-thought of Socadmn

description::
"Control of thought is more important for governments that are free and popular than for despotic and militarty states.
The logic is straightforward: a despotic state can control its domestc enemies by force, but as the state loses this weapon, other devices are required to prevent the ignorant masses from interfering with public affairs, which are none of their business...
the public are to be observers, not participants, consumers of ideology as well as products."
[Noam Chomsky https://twitter.com/noamchomskyT/status/1273901033849270272]

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'control-of-thought,
* McsEngl.control-of-thought-of-society,
* McsEngl.society'att013-control-of-thought,
* McsEngl.society'control-of-thought,

descriptionLong::
"The key element of social control is the strategy of distraction that is to divert public attention from important issues and changes decided by political and economic elites through the technique of flood or flooding continuous distractions and insignificant information. Chomsky"
[{2020-07-30} https://twitter.com/noamchomskyT/status/1288854739954868230]

worker (link) of Socadmn

digital-governance of Socadmn

description::
· the-digital portion of Socadmn.

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'att008-digital-part!⇒egvc,
* McsEngl.Socadmn'digital-part!⇒egvc,
* McsEngl.Socadmndgtl!⇒egvc,
* McsEngl.Socadmndgtltal!⇒egvc,
* McsEngl.esoc'governance!⇒egvc,
* McsEngl.Socegvc!⇒egvc,
* McsEngl.digital-part-of-administration!⇒egvc,
* McsEngl.digital-part-of-governance!⇒egvc,
* McsEngl.e-governance!⇒egvc,
* McsEngl.egovc!⇒egvc,
* McsEngl.egvc!=digital-part-of-governance,

public-service (link) of egvc

MISC-ATTRIBUTE of Socadmn

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'misc-attribute,

transparency of Socadmn

description::
"Transparency in administration refers to the openness, communication, and accountability of government and administrative entities towards the public. It's an essential aspect of good governance, ensuring that citizens have access to information about decisions, policies, processes, and activities within the government. Transparency is crucial for fostering trust, enabling informed public participation in the democratic process, and combating corruption. Here are some key points about transparency in administration:
1. **Access to Information**: One of the cornerstones of transparency is the ability of citizens to access government documents and proceedings. This includes everything from legislative materials, government contracts, and budget information to the outcomes of meetings and decisions made by public officials.
2. **Open Government Initiatives**: Many governments have launched initiatives aimed at increasing transparency. These may involve the publication of data online in easily accessible formats, the use of social media to communicate with citizens, and platforms for public engagement in decision-making processes.
3. **Right to Information Laws**: Many countries have enacted laws that formalize the public's right to access government information, with exceptions typically related to national security, privacy, and commercial confidentiality. These laws empower citizens, promote transparency, and hold the government accountable.
4. **Whistleblower Protection**: Transparency in administration also involves protecting individuals who expose wrongdoing, corruption, or illegal activities within the government. Whistleblower protection laws are crucial for ensuring that individuals can report malfeasance without fear of retaliation.
5. **Ethical Standards and Accountability**: Transparency is closely linked to the ethical standards held by public officials and the mechanisms in place to hold them accountable. This includes conflict of interest regulations, ethics commissions, and public disclosure of officials' financial interests.
6. **Public Participation**: A transparent administration encourages and facilitates public participation in governance processes. This can be through public consultations, town hall meetings, and allowing public commentary on proposed legislation or regulations.
7. **Audit and Oversight**: Effective oversight by independent bodies, such as audit offices or ombudsman institutions, is vital for ensuring that government operations are transparent and that public resources are used appropriately.
Transparency is not just about making information available but also about ensuring that the information is understandable, accessible, and usable by the public. It requires ongoing commitment from government entities to engage with citizens openly and honestly, and to foster a culture of accountability and openness."
[{2024-04-09 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/2bbe7c5c-38d6-4cac-a082-ae9dee38a69d]

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'att005-transparency,
* McsEngl.Socadmn'transparency,
* McsEngl.transparency-of-Socadmn,

participation of Socadmn

description::
"Public participation in public administration is a cornerstone of democratic governance and effective policy-making. It refers to the processes and mechanisms that allow individuals, communities, and groups to have a direct or indirect influence on public decisions and policy formulations. Here are some key aspects and benefits of public participation in public administration:
### Forms of Public Participation
1. **Public Consultations and Hearings**: Governments invite public feedback on proposed policies, laws, or regulations through forums, hearings, or online platforms.
2. **Advisory Committees**: Composed of citizens and stakeholders, these committees provide expert advice on specific policy areas.
3. **Participatory Budgeting**: Citizens have a say in how a portion of the public budget is spent, helping prioritize community needs.
4. **Referendums and Public Votes**: Direct voting on specific issues gives the public a direct voice in decision-making.
5. **E-Government and Digital Platforms**: Online platforms facilitate easier, broader, and more efficient participation in governance through surveys, feedback mechanisms, and social media.
### Benefits of Public Participation
- **Enhanced Transparency and Accountability**: Involving the public in the decision-making process increases government transparency and accountability.
- **Improved Policy Outcomes**: Public input can lead to more informed, effective, and sustainable policy decisions that better reflect the community's needs and preferences.
- **Increased Public Trust**: When citizens feel their voices are heard and valued, it can lead to higher levels of trust in government institutions.
- **Community Empowerment**: Participation empowers citizens to contribute to their community's development, fostering a sense of ownership and responsibility.
### Challenges and Considerations
- **Ensuring Inclusivity**: Efforts must be made to include diverse segments of the population, especially marginalized and underrepresented groups.
- **Balancing Interests**: Public administrators must balance competing interests and perspectives to achieve fair and effective outcomes.
- **Managing Expectations**: It's crucial to manage public expectations regarding the impact and influence of their participation on final decisions.
### Implementing Effective Participation
Governments and public administrators can enhance public participation by:
- **Creating Clear, Accessible Channels for Participation**: Making it easier for citizens to engage through multiple channels.
- **Building Public Awareness and Capacity**: Educating the public on issues and the importance of their participation.
- **Evaluating and Adapting Processes**: Continuously assessing the effectiveness of participation mechanisms and making necessary adjustments.
Public participation is an evolving practice, influenced by societal changes, technological advancements, and shifting public expectations. Effective participation requires commitment from both the government and the public to create meaningful opportunities for engagement in the administration and policy-making process."
[{2024-04-09 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/0f887dfc-1713-46b5-97fc-f53eefb79c60]

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'att006-participation,
* McsEngl.Socadmn'participation,
* McsEngl.participation-of-Socadmn,

accountability of Socadmn

description::
">accountability in public-administration:
The concept of accountability in public administration refers to the obligation of public officials and institutions to report on their decisions and actions and to be answerable for them. It's a fundamental principle that supports good governance and integrity, ensuring that public resources are used effectively and in alignment with the interests and needs of the public. Accountability mechanisms are essential for preventing abuse, corruption, and inefficiency within public services. Here are some key aspects of accountability in public administration:
1. **Transparency**: Making information accessible to the public about government policies, decisions, and actions. This enables citizens to understand what is happening in their government and to exercise their rights and responsibilities effectively.
2. **Responsiveness**: Public officials must not only inform the public but also listen to citizens' needs and concerns and respond appropriately. This includes adapting policies and services based on public feedback.
3. **Ethical Standards**: Public officials are expected to adhere to high ethical standards, including honesty, integrity, and fairness. These standards help to ensure that decisions are made in the best interests of the public.
4. **Rule of Law**: Accountability is closely linked to the principle that everyone, including public officials, is subject to the law. It emphasizes the importance of following legal frameworks, policies, and procedures.
5. **Performance Measurement**: Establishing clear objectives and measuring performance against these objectives help in assessing the effectiveness and efficiency of public services and in holding public agencies and officials accountable.
6. **Audit and Review**: Regular audits and reviews of public services and projects ensure that resources are used appropriately and that policies are implemented effectively. These audits can be conducted internally or by independent bodies.
7. **Public Participation**: Engaging citizens in decision-making processes helps to ensure that public administration is aligned with the needs and preferences of the community. It also promotes a sense of ownership and responsibility among citizens.
8. **Sanctions and Remedies**: There should be mechanisms in place to hold public officials accountable for misconduct, including sanctions and remedies for affected parties. This discourages improper conduct and provides recourse for individuals who have been harmed by government actions.
Accountability in public administration is complex and multifaceted, involving a wide range of actors, including government officials, civil society organizations, the media, and the public at large. It requires continuous effort and commitment to uphold the principles of good governance and to foster a culture of accountability and integrity within public institutions."
[{2024-04-09 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/f8ed9e69-610e-4b85-96d2-05617c56af83]

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'att007-accountability,
* McsEngl.Socadmn'accountability,
* McsEngl.accountability-of-Socadmn,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.λογοδοσία!η!=accountability-of-Socadmn,

interoperability of Socadmn

description::
"Η διαλειτουργικότητα είναι βασικός παράγοντας ώστε να υλοποιηθεί αποτελεσματικά η Ηλεκτρονική Διακυβέρνηση και ο ψηφιακός μετασχηματισμός γενικότερα."
[{2024-04-12 retrieved} http://dx.doi.org/10.57713/kallipos-420]

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'att013-interoperability,
* McsEngl.Socadmn'interoperability,
* McsEngl.interoperability-of-Socadmn,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.διαλειτουργικότητα-δημόσιας-διοίκησης!η!=interoperability-of-Socadmn,

central-vs-general-government of Socadmn

description::
">central vs general government:
The terms "central government" and "general government" refer to different aspects of how a country is governed, and they can sometimes be confused due to their overlapping functions. Here's a brief explanation of each:
### Central Government
The central government is the national or federal government, which holds the highest level of authority in a country. Its responsibilities typically include:
- Foreign policy and diplomacy
- National defense and military affairs
- Currency regulation and national economic policies
- Federal laws and regulations
- Interstate commerce and transportation
The central government has the power to make laws that apply to the entire country and often has its own tax system, separate from local or state governments. In federal systems, like the United States, the central government shares powers with state governments, but it has the ultimate authority in many areas.
### General Government
The term "general government" is broader and includes all levels of government—central, regional (or state), and local (such as cities and municipalities)—without distinction. It encompasses the totality of governmental entities that have the authority to impose taxes, spend money, and enact laws within their jurisdiction. The concept of general government is often used in economic and fiscal analyses to consider the overall impact of government activities on the economy, including:
- Total government expenditure and revenue
- Public sector debt and deficits
- Allocation of resources among different levels of government
When comparing the two, the central government is a specific entity at the top of the governmental hierarchy, while general government refers to all layers of government combined. Understanding the distinction is crucial for analyzing government policies, fiscal strategies, and their impacts on a country's economy and society."
[{2024-03-09 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/56c97293-6242-4b20-86aa-d47fe1b0f97b]

">central vs general government:
Here's a breakdown of theの違い (chigai - difference) between central and general government:
**Central Government**
* Represents the national authority in a unitary state. It has control over the entire country.
* Holds the most power:
* Makes laws for the whole nation.
* Oversees national security and foreign affairs (like signing treaties).
* Collects taxes.
* Examples: France, Greece (where you are!), or the United Kingdom.
**General Government**
* A broader term encompassing all levels of government:
* Central government itself.
* State or provincial governments (if the country is federal).
* Local governments (cities, towns).
* Sometimes includes social security funds managed by these governments.
* Used for economic data collection that considers the activity of all these government levels combined.
**Analogy:**
Think of a company. The central government is the CEO, making big decisions for the whole company. Local governments would be like regional managers, handling issues specific to their branch. The general government would be like looking at the entire company structure, including all levels.
I hope this clarifies the distinction!"
[{2024-03-09 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/9d0ea1ca2482e50e]

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'central-vs-general-government,
* McsEngl.Socadmn'general-vs-central-government,

relation-to-technology of Socadmn

description::
"Any democratic process should be simple enough that any community can implement it without relying upon high-tech solutions.
The more technology a process depends upon the more dependent it is on a small number of technology providers and the more inaccessible it is to the masses.
Low tech solutions should scale from small groups of 50 people to entire countries comprising billions of people."
[{2021-01-17} https://moreequalanimals.com/assets/MoreEqualAnimals-1.15.2021.pdf-p79]

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'relation-to-technology,

info-resource of Socadmn

description::
* https://moreequalanimals.com/assets/MoreEqualAnimals-1.15.2021.pdf,

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'Infrsc,

DOING of Socadmn

description::
· any doing of Socadmn.
===
"The challenge of government is that it is supposed to be operated by individuals for the benefit of society, but individuals are easily corrupted by the ability to use the power society grants them for personal gain.
... It is not enough for the government to serve some; it must serve all.
... a government that allows secession without war is a government that has the people's willing consent and serves all the people. Anyone who wasn’t served could secede."
[{2021-01-16} https://moreequalanimals.com/assets/MoreEqualAnimals-1.15.2021.pdf]

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmndng,
* McsEngl.governing-of-society!⇒Socadmndng,
* McsEngl.Socadmn'doing!⇒Socadmndng,
* McsEngl.society'governing!⇒Socadmndng,

Socadmndng.SPECIFIC

description::
* public-service,
* G2C,
* G2B,
* G2G,
* G2E,

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmndng.specific,

Socadmndng.elections

description::
">elections overview of a country:
Elections are a fundamental part of a democratic system. They allow citizens to choose their representatives and hold them accountable for their actions. There are different types of elections, and the specific process can vary from country to country, but here's a general overview:
* **Types of elections:**
* Presidential elections: In a presidential system, voters directly elect the head of state, who is also usually the head of government. [Image of Presidential election]
* Parliamentary elections: In a parliamentary system, voters elect representatives to a legislature, which then selects the head of government (usually the Prime Minister).
* Local elections: Local elections are held to elect representatives to local government bodies, such as city councils or regional assemblies. [Image of Local election]
* **Election process:**
* Voter registration: Citizens who are eligible to vote must register with the election commission.
* Candidate nomination: Candidates for office are nominated by political parties or can run as independents.
* Campaigning: Candidates campaign for votes by outlining their platforms and policies.
* Voting: Voters cast their ballots on election day.
* Vote counting and results announcement: Votes are counted and the results are announced.
* **Roles involved:**
* Voters: Citizens who are eligible to vote.
* Candidates: People who are running for office.
* Political parties: Organizations that put forward candidates for office.
* Election commission: The government agency responsible for overseeing the election process.
* Media: Plays an important role in informing voters about the candidates and the issues.
This is a simplified overview, and the specific details of elections will vary by country. If you're interested in learning more about elections in a specific country, let me know which country you'd like to find out about."
[{2024-03-28 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/d24810ec20970a41]

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmndng.elections,
* McsEngl.elections,

elections.method

description::
">types of electoral systems:
Electoral systems are methods used to calculate the number of public offices an individual or party wins during an election. There are several types, each with its own principles and effects on the political landscape. Here's an overview of the main types:
1. **First-Past-the-Post (FPTP)**: Also known as plurality voting, in this system, the candidate who receives the most votes in a constituency wins, regardless of whether they have achieved a majority of the votes. It's simple and straightforward but can result in "wasted" votes and does not necessarily reflect proportional representation.
2. **Proportional Representation (PR)**: This system seeks to allocate seats in proportion to the number of votes each party receives. It's designed to more accurately reflect the preferences of the electorate. Variants include the party-list system and the Single Transferable Vote (STV).
- **Party-List Proportional Representation**: Voters vote for a party rather than candidates. Parties are allocated seats based on their share of the vote, and candidates are taken from lists provided by the parties.
- **Single Transferable Vote (STV)**: Used for multi-member constituencies, voters rank candidates in order of preference. Votes are initially allocated to first-choice candidates, and then surplus or unused votes are redistributed according to voters' preferences until all seats are filled.
3. **Mixed-Member Proportional (MMP)**: A hybrid system that combines elements of FPTP and proportional representation. Voters typically have two votes: one for a candidate to represent their constituency and another for a political party. Constituency representatives are elected using FPTP, while additional seats are allocated to parties based on their proportion of the party vote, adjusted to achieve proportional representation.
4. **Majoritarian Systems**: These include the **Absolute Majority System** and **Two-Round System (TRS)**. In an absolute majority system, a candidate must receive more than half of the votes to win. If no candidate achieves this, a second round of voting may occur with a reduced list of candidates (as in the TRS). This system aims to ensure that elected candidates enjoy a broad base of support.
5. **Ranked or Preferential Voting**: Voters rank candidates in order of preference. If no candidate secures a majority of first-preference votes, the candidate with the fewest votes is eliminated, and their votes are redistributed to the next preference indicated on those ballots. This process continues until a candidate has a majority.
6. **Single Non-Transferable Vote (SNTV)**: In multi-member districts, voters cast a single vote in a field of candidates from which multiple winners are chosen. The candidates with the highest number of votes win, but unlike STV, voters cannot rank candidates, and there is no transfer of votes.
Each electoral system has its advantages and drawbacks, affecting the political landscape in various ways, including party representation, voter engagement, and the potential for majority rule versus minority rights."
[{2024-03-28 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/26ed2ffc-a063-47f2-8fb8-e6c82f92886e]

name::
* McsEngl.electoral-system,
* McsEngl.elections.method,

elections.postal

description::
">how many countries permit mail-in voting?
Mail-in voting, also known as postal voting, is a method by which voters receive their ballots by mail and can return them by mail or sometimes drop them off at designated locations. The number of countries that permit mail-in voting can vary depending on their election laws, and these policies can change over time to accommodate different circumstances, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, which saw an increase in mail-in voting to maintain social distancing.
As of my last update, many countries around the world allow mail-in voting in some form, but the specifics can differ greatly. Some countries offer it as an option for all voters, while others restrict it to certain groups such as military personnel, citizens living abroad, the elderly, or those with disabilities. Countries like the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom (for citizens living abroad and in certain other circumstances), Germany, and Australia are examples where mail-in voting is permitted under various conditions.
Given that election laws and practices are subject to change, I'll look up the most current information to provide you with a more accurate and up-to-date answer. Let's check for any recent updates on the number of countries that permit mail-in voting.
The practice of mail-in voting, where voters receive and return ballots via postal service, varies widely across the globe, with different countries adopting different rules to accommodate it. Here are a few examples that illustrate the diverse approaches to mail-in voting worldwide:
- In **Mexico**, since the 2006 federal elections, citizens living abroad can participate in postal voting by requesting ballots from the National Electoral Institute【6†source】.
- **Norway** allows postal voting for voters who are abroad and not near a foreign station or other voting place, with provisions for voters to request ballots or even write their own【6†source】.
- The **Philippines** offers mail-in ballots as an option for Overseas Filipinos in select countries, differing from its general practice of requiring ballots to be cast in person at designated polling places【6†source】.
- **Singaporean** citizens living abroad are eligible to vote by post in presidential and parliamentary elections【6†source】.
- In **Spain**, voters who will be absent from their town on election day or those who are ill or disabled, can request a postal vote at a post office, with applications to be submitted personally or through a representative in case of illness or disability【6†source】.
- **Switzerland** permits postal voting in all federal elections and referendums, with all cantons allowing it for cantonal ballot issues as well. Swiss voters receive their personal ballot by mail and may cast it at a polling station or mail it back【6†source】.
- The **United Kingdom** allows absentee voting by proxy or post (postal voting on demand) for any elector, without the need for a reason, except in Northern Ireland where restrictions apply based on employment, disability, or education【6†source】.
- In the **United States**, five states—Colorado, Hawaii, Oregon, Utah, and Washington—hold elections almost entirely by mail. Other states offer no-excuse absentee voting or require an excuse for absentee voting. Postal voting has been a subject of debate, especially regarding concerns of fraud and the integrity of the voting process【6†source】.
Election laws are continually evolving, and these examples represent just a snapshot of the global landscape of mail-in voting practices. Each country and sometimes regions within countries have their own specific rules and procedures, reflecting the complexity and diversity of electoral systems worldwide. For more detailed information on specific legislation and updates, platforms like Ballotpedia provide comprehensive coverage and tracking of election-related legislation across the United States【7†source】."
[{2024-03-28 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/a315fa72-b7ea-4929-916e-88d54c0174c9]

name::
* McsEngl.elections.postal,
* McsEngl.mail-in-voting,
* McsEngl.postal-voting,

Socadmndng.state-capacity

description::
"State capacity refers to a government's ability to achieve its goals and implement its policies effectively. There are different levels of ambition that governments can have, but generally, strong state capacity allows a government to:
* **Protect its citizens** from internal and external threats. This can involve maintaining a military, police force, and justice system.
* **Promote economic activity**. This might involve building infrastructure, enforcing contracts, and providing education.
There are different aspects to state capacity, often broken down into three main categories:
* **Coercive capacity:** The ability to enforce laws and maintain order.
* **Extractive capacity:** The ability to collect taxes and other revenue.
* **Administrative capacity:** The ability to develop and implement policies effectively.
Countries with weak state capacity are sometimes referred to as fragile states or, in extreme cases, failed states.
Here are some resources for learning more about state capacity:
* Our World in Data [https://ourworldindata.org/state-capacity](https://ourworldindata.org/state-capacity) provides a good overview of the concept.
* Wikipedia [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_capacity](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_capacity) has a more detailed explanation of state capacity and its different dimensions."
[{2024-03-24 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/b6e183de5ba0dcda]

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmndng.state-capacity,
* McsEngl.state-capacity,

Socadmndng.public-service

description::
· any doing of Socadmn on oznConsumption or oznProduction.
· governance-service is a-governance-satisfier.

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn'att009-service!⇒servicePblc,
* McsEngl.Socadmn'service!⇒servicePblc,
* McsEngl.Socadmnservice!⇒servicePblc,
* McsEngl.Socadmnsvc!⇒servicePblc,
* McsEngl.Socadmndng.public-service!⇒servicePblc,
* McsEngl.governance-service-of-society!⇒servicePblc,
* McsEngl.government-service-of-society!⇒servicePblc,
* McsEngl.public-service!⇒servicePblc,
* McsEngl.servicePblc!=public-service,
* McsEngl.sfrPblcService!⇒servicePblc,

servicePblc.SPECIFIC

description::
* paper-based-servicePblc,
* digital-based-servicePblc,
===
* core-servicePblc,
* narrow-servicePblc,
* broad-servicePblc,
===
* car-registration,
* claiming-pension-benefits,
* education-servicePblc,
* healthcare-servicePblc,
* national-defence,
* national-security,
* paying-taxes,
* public-safety,

">types of public services:
Public services refer to a wide array of services provided by government or public entities, aimed at serving the interests and needs of the public. These services are often funded through taxation and are intended to offer essential services that are not easily provided by the private sector. Here's a broad overview of various types of public services:
1. **Healthcare Services**: Includes hospitals, clinics, public health initiatives, mental health care, and vaccination programs. These services aim to improve the health and well-being of the population.
2. **Education Services**: Comprises public schools, colleges, universities, and vocational training centers. These services focus on providing education and skill development to all segments of the population.
3. **Emergency Services**: Encompasses fire departments, police departments, and emergency medical services. They are crucial for maintaining public safety and responding to emergencies.
4. **Social Services**: Includes welfare programs, unemployment benefits, child protection services, and assistance for the elderly and disabled. These services support individuals and families in need.
5. **Public Transportation**: Consists of buses, trains, subways, and other modes of public transit. These services facilitate mobility and access to employment, education, and other essential services.
6. **Infrastructure and Utilities**: Encompasses the provision of water supply, electricity, natural gas, sewage treatment, and waste management. These services are fundamental to modern life and economic activity.
7. **Recreational and Cultural Services**: Includes public parks, libraries, museums, cultural events, and community centers. These services enrich the quality of life and promote community well-being.
8. **Environmental Protection**: Involves services related to conservation, pollution control, and maintenance of natural resources. These efforts aim to safeguard the environment for future generations.
9. **Housing and Urban Development**: Entails affordable housing programs, urban planning, and development projects to ensure sustainable and livable communities.
10. **Public Administration and Regulatory Services**: Comprises government administrative services, regulatory agencies, and public sector governance. These services ensure the effective implementation of laws, regulations, and public policies.
Public services are dynamic and can evolve based on societal needs, technological advancements, and policy changes. They play a critical role in enhancing the quality of life, promoting equality, and ensuring the smooth functioning of society."
[{2024-03-19 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/4900853b-8c48-452c-8fb6-cb3b5325532c]

">types of public services:
Public services are those provided by the government for the benefit of the citizens. They are essential for maintaining a healthy and safe society. Here are some of the most common types of public services:
* **Social services:** These programs provide financial assistance, food, housing, and other forms of support to low-income individuals and families. Examples include welfare, unemployment benefits, and food stamps.
* **Education:** Public schools provide free or low-cost education to all children. Higher education may also be subsidized by the government.
* **Infrastructure:** This includes roads, bridges, tunnels, airports, seaports, and other transportation systems. It also includes water treatment plants, sewage systems, and the electrical grid.
* **Public safety:** Police departments, fire departments, and emergency medical services protect citizens from crime, fire, and other emergencies.
* **Health care:** Some countries provide universal health care, while others offer government-funded health insurance programs for low-income citizens.
* **National defense:** The military protects a country from foreign invasion.
* **Regulation:** The government regulates businesses to protect consumers and ensure fair competition. This includes things like food safety regulations, environmental regulations, and financial regulations.
* **Environmental protection:** The government regulates pollution and protects natural resources.
The specific types of public services offered by a government will vary depending on the country's economic and social development. However, all public services play an important role in promoting the well-being of citizens."
[{2024-03-20 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/2605b33bba8d61db]

name::
* McsEngl.servicePblc.specific,

servicePblc.core

description::
core-public-service is a-public-service of the-core-admin-system.

name::
* McsEngl.servicePblc.007-core,
* McsEngl.servicePblc.core,
* McsEngl.core-public-service,
* McsEngl.core-servicePblc,

servicePblc.narrow

description::
narrow-public-service is a-public-service of the-narrow-admin-system.

name::
* McsEngl.servicePblc.008-narrow,
* McsEngl.servicePblc.narrow,
* McsEngl.narrow-public-service,
* McsEngl.narrow-servicePblc,

servicePblc.broad

description::
broad-public-service is a-public-service of the-broad-admin-system.

name::
* McsEngl.servicePblc.009-broad,
* McsEngl.servicePblc.broad,
* McsEngl.broad-public-service,
* McsEngl.broad-servicePblc,

servicePblc.one-stop

description::
"Στην Ηλεκτρονική Διακυβέρνηση μιας Στάσης – ΗΔ1Σ (one-stop government), ο πολίτης πραγματοποιεί τον ελάχιστο δυνατό αριθμό επισκέψεων στους δημόσιους φορείς. Στην καλύτερη περίπτωση έχουμε μόνο μία επίσκεψη, στην οποία ο πολίτης διεκπεραιώνει το σύνολο των εργασιών που απαιτούνται."
[{2024-04-11 retrieved} http://dx.doi.org/10.57713/kallipos-420]

name::
* McsEngl.servicePblc.001-one-stop!⇒servicePblcStop1,
* McsEngl.servicePblc.one-stop!⇒servicePblcStop1,
* McsEngl.servicePblcStop1!=one-stop-public-service,
* McsEngl.one-stop-government!⇒servicePblcStop1,
* McsEngl.one-stop-servicePblc!⇒servicePblcStop1,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ΗΔ1Σ!=Ηλεκτρονική-Διακυβέρνηση-μιας-Στάσης!η!=servicePblcStop1,
* McsElln.Ηλεκτρονική-Διακυβέρνηση-μιας-Στάσης!η!=servicePblcStop1,

servicePblc.no-stop

description::
"Στο μοντέλο παροχής υπηρεσιών χωρίς στάση ή αλλιώς Ηλεκτρονική Διακυβέρνηση χωρίς Στάση – ΗΔ0Σ (nostop government), οι υπηρεσίες παρέχονται προληπτικά (proactively) από τη δημόσια διοίκηση χωρίς καμία ενέργεια του πολίτη, εάν κάτι τέτοιο δεν είναι αναγκαίο (π.χ. Scholta, 2019)."
[{2024-04-11 retrieved} http://dx.doi.org/10.57713/kallipos-420]

name::
* McsEngl.servicePblc.002-no-stop!⇒servicePblcStop0,
* McsEngl.servicePblc.no-stop!⇒servicePblcStop0,
* McsEngl.no-stop-servicePblc!⇒servicePblcStop0,
* McsEngl.servicePblcStop0!=one-stop-public-service,
* McsEngl.no-stop-government!⇒servicePblcStop0,
* McsEngl.no-stop-servicePblc!⇒servicePblcStop0,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ΗΔ0Σ!=Ηλεκτρονική-Διακυβέρνηση-χωρίς-Στάσης!η!=servicePblcStop0,
* McsElln.Ηλεκτρονική-Διακυβέρνηση-χωρίς-Στάσης!η!=servicePblcStop0,

servicePblc.many-stop

description::
"το παραδοσιακό μοντέλο παροχής υπηρεσιών, όπου ο πολίτης ήταν αναγκασμένος να μεταφέρει έγγραφα από τον έναν δημόσιο οργανισμό στον επόμενο,"
[{2024-04-11 retrieved} http://dx.doi.org/10.57713/kallipos-420]

name::
* McsEngl.servicePblc.003-many-stop,
* McsEngl.servicePblc.many-stop,
* McsEngl.many-stop-servicePblc,

servicePblc.national-security

description::
"National security, or national defence (national defense in American English), is the security and defence of a sovereign state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, which is regarded as a duty of government. Originally conceived as protection against military attack, national security is widely understood to include also non-military dimensions, such as the security from terrorism, minimization of crime, economic security, energy security, environmental security, food security, and cyber-security. Similarly, national security risks include, in addition to the actions of other nation states, action by violent non-state actors, by narcotic cartels, organized crime, by multinational corporations, and also the effects of natural disasters.
Governments rely on a range of measures, including political, economic, and military power, as well as diplomacy, to safeguard the security of a nation state. They may also act to build the conditions of security regionally and internationally by reducing transnational causes of insecurity, such as climate change, economic inequality, political exclusion, and nuclear proliferation."
[{2024-03-22 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_security]

name::
* McsEngl.national-security,
* McsEngl.servicePblc.004-national-security,
* McsEngl.servicePblc.national-security,

servicePblc.public-security

description::
"Public security or public safety is the prevention of and protection from events that could endanger the safety and security of the public from significant danger, injury, or property damage. It is often conducted by a state government to ensure the protection of citizens, persons in their territory, organizations, and institutions against threats to their well-being, survival, and prosperity.[1]
The public safety issues that a municipality, county, regional, or federal jurisdiction may handle include crimes (ranging from misdemeanors to felonies), structure fires, conflagrations, medical emergencies, mass-casualty incidents, disasters, terrorism, and other concerns.
Public safety organizations are organizations that conduct public safety. They generally consist of emergency services and first responders such as law enforcement, fire services, emergency medical services, security forces, and military forces. They are often operated by a government, though some private public safety organizations exist where possible."
[{2024-03-22 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_security]

name::
* McsEngl.servicePblc.005-public-security,
* McsEngl.servicePblc.public-security,
* McsEngl.public-security,

servicePblc.social-order

description::
"Social order refers to the way in which societies organize and structure themselves, establishing patterns and systems that dictate how individuals and groups interact. This concept encompasses the laws, norms, values, and institutions that govern behavior, ensuring stability and predictability within a society. Social order is crucial for facilitating cooperation, reducing conflicts, and enabling societies to function effectively.
There are several key aspects and mechanisms through which social order is maintained:
1. **Laws and Legal Systems:** Formal rules and regulations enforced by the state or governing bodies. These laws are designed to deter individuals from engaging in behavior that is deemed harmful to others or to the society at large.
2. **Social Norms and Values:** Informal rules that govern individual behavior. These include cultural norms, values, and expectations that are learned through socialization. Unlike laws, social norms are not enforced by the state but by social approval and disapproval.
3. **Institutions:** Structures and organizations such as families, educational systems, religious groups, and economic systems that play a pivotal role in shaping and enforcing social norms and laws. Institutions help to socialize individuals into the norms and values of the society and often have mechanisms for dealing with rule violations.
4. **Socialization:** The process by which individuals learn and internalize the norms, values, behaviors, and social skills appropriate to their social position. Through socialization, members of a society learn to conform to its expectations, thus promoting cohesion and order.
5. **Power and Authority:** The distribution and exercise of power also play a critical role in maintaining social order. Authority can be defined as the legitimate power that is recognized and accepted by society. It is exercised through various forms, including traditional, charismatic, and legal-rational authority.
6. **Social Control:** Mechanisms, both formal and informal, that are employed to persuade or force individuals to conform to the norms and laws of a society. Social control can range from sanctions like fines and imprisonment to informal pressures like ridicule and ostracism.
Social order is dynamic and can vary greatly from one society to another. It evolves over time as societal values, norms, and institutions change. Challenges to social order can arise due to social inequalities, cultural conflicts, economic disparities, and other social tensions. In response, societies may undergo reforms, revolutions, or other social changes to reestablish stability and order."
[{2024-03-22 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/4164116e-d69e-421c-a5bc-4add34cdd15e]

">social order meaning:
Absolutely! Here's a breakdown of what social order means, along with the key elements that contribute to it:
**What is Social Order?**
* **In General:** Social order describes the stable, patterned way in which society functions. It's about how various parts of society interact to maintain a sense of regularity and predictability.
* **Sociological Perspective:** Sociologists view social order as a complex, dynamic system of elements that enable society to operate. These elements work together to keep society functioning, even amidst change.
**Key Elements of Social Order**
1. **Social Structures and Institutions:**
- Organized, enduring patterns of relationships like families, governments, economies, religions, and educational systems.
- Provide frameworks for how we interact and guide our behavior.
2. **Social Relations:**
- The connections and interactions between individuals with defined roles (e.g., teacher-student, customer-seller, parent-child).
3. **Social Interactions and Behavior:**
- Everyday communication and actions in various settings. These are influenced by social norms and expectations.
4. **Culture:**
- Shared norms, beliefs, values, and knowledge that shape individual perceptions, preferences, and actions within a society.
**How Social Order is Maintained**
* **Socialization:** Learning and internalizing social norms, values, and behaviors. This process helps us understand how to act appropriately in different social settings.
* **Social Control:** Positive or negative reactions and sanctions to behaviors. Encourages conformity and discourages deviance from social norms.
* **Shared Social Contract:** General agreement on the rules and laws needed to maintain a functioning society.
**Why Social Order Matters**
* **Stability:** It reduces chaos and unpredictability, making social life possible.
* **Cooperation:** Promotes working together to achieve common goals.
* **Security:** Helps ensure a sense of safety and predictability, both physically and in terms of how we understand the world.
**Let me know if you would like examples of how social order shows up in our daily lives, or want to explore how it can change!**"
[{2024-05-02 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/373e6a6453dddfaf]

name::
* McsEngl.servicePblc.006-social-order,
* McsEngl.servicePblc.social-order,
* McsEngl.social-order,

social-control

description::
"Social control is the regulations, sanctions, mechanisms, and systems that restrict the behaviour of individuals in accordance with social norms and orders. Through both informal and formal means, individuals and groups exercise social control both internally and externally. As an area of social science, social control is studied by researchers of various fields, including anthropology, criminology, law, political science, and sociology.[1][2][3]
Social control is considered one of the foundations of social order.[4] Sociologists identify two basic forms of social control. Informal means of control refer to the internalization of norms and values through socialization.[5] Formal means comprise external sanctions enforced by government to prevent the establishment of chaos or anomie in society. Some theorists, such as Émile Durkheim, refer to formal control as regulation."
[{2024-05-02 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_control]

name::
* McsEngl.social-control,

Socadmndng.policy

description::
· Socadmn'doing to achieve a-goal.

name::
* McsEngl.Socpolicy!=policy-of-society,
* McsEngl.Socadmndng.policy!⇒Socpolicy,
* McsEngl.policy!⇒Socpolicy,

relation-to-law of Socpolicy

description::
">policy vs law:
Law and policy are often used interchangeably, but they are actually two distinct concepts.

**Law** is a formally enacted rule of conduct or action that is enforceable by a state or other authority. Laws are typically written down in statutes and regulations, and they are enforced through the legal system.

**Policy**, on the other hand, is a general principle or guideline that is used to make decisions about how to achieve a particular goal. Policies are typically not written down in a formal way, and they are not enforced by the legal system.

**Here is a table that summarizes the key differences between law and policy:**
| Feature | Law | Policy |
| Enforceability | Legally enforceable | Not legally enforceable |
| Formality | Written in statutes and regulations | Not typically written down |
| Enforcement | Through the legal system | Through administrative action |
| Scope | Specific and detailed | Broad and general |
| Objective | To regulate behavior | To achieve a goal |

**Here is an example of how law and policy can be used together:**

The **law** in many countries prohibits driving under the influence of alcohol. This law is **enforced** by the police, who can arrest and charge people who are caught driving while intoxicated. The **policy** behind this law is to reduce the number of traffic accidents caused by drunk drivers. The government may also implement additional **policies** to achieve this goal, such as public education campaigns and stricter penalties for drunk driving offenses.

**Law and policy are often interrelated, but they serve different purposes. Law provides a framework for behavior, while policy guides decision-making. Both law and policy play important roles in shaping society.**

I hope this helps!"
[{2023-12-13 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/c033a0cd81f984ba]

name::
* McsEngl.Socpolicy'relation-to-law,
* McsEngl.law'relation-to-policy,

Socadmn.SPECIFIC

description::
* digital-Socadmn,
* open-Socadmn,
* rule-by-algo,
* rule-by-jungle,
* rule-by-law,

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn.specific,

Socadmn.rule-by-algo (link)

Socadmn.rule-by-law

description::
">rule by law vs rule of law:
The distinction between "rule by law" and "rule of law" is subtle but significantly important, reflecting different approaches to governance and the use of law in society.
### Rule by Law
"Rule by law" refers to a governance framework where laws are used as instruments of the government to enforce order and regulate the behavior of its citizens. In systems governed by the rule by law, law can be a tool for the government to strengthen its control over the society. Laws may be applied selectively or used to suppress dissent and opposition. The key characteristic of rule by law is that the law serves the interests of those in power, rather than serving as an impartial standard of justice. Authorities may change laws as needed for their interests, and there is often a lack of checks and balances to prevent the misuse of legal authority.
### Rule of Law
"Rule of law," on the other hand, is a principle under which all members of a society, including those in government, are equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes. The law is seen as supreme and must be followed by everyone, ensuring fairness, justice, and predictability in legal processes. It requires that laws are clear, publicized, stable, and applied evenly, and that they protect fundamental rights, including the security of persons and property. A key aspect of the rule of law is that it places constraints on the power of government officials, ensuring that they cannot wield power arbitrarily.
### Key Differences
1. **Equality Before the Law**: Rule of law emphasizes equality before the law, whereas rule by law can be used to enforce laws selectively to benefit those in power.
2. **Protection of Rights**: Rule of law is characterized by its protection of individual rights, whereas rule by law may not prioritize or protect individual rights to the same extent.
3. **Checks and Balances**: The rule of law often involves a system of checks and balances to prevent the abuse of power, something that might be absent or less developed in a rule by law system.
4. **Government Limitation**: Under the rule of law, the powers of government officials are limited by the law to prevent arbitrary use of power. In contrast, under rule by law, the law may serve as a tool for the government to exercise and expand its power.
In essence, while both concepts involve the use of law in governance, they differ fundamentally in their approach to justice, governance, and the role of law in society. Rule of law is about the law constraining the government to protect the rights and liberties of individuals, whereas rule by law can be about using the law as a tool for government control."
[{2024-04-04 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/21cbbc7d-4d9c-402e-b05f-894d5882b76f]

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn.rule-by-law,
* McsEngl.society'att011-rule-by-law,
* McsEngl.society'rule-by-law,
* McsEngl.rule-by-law-society,

rule-of-law

description::
"Rule of law," on the other hand, is a principle under which all members of a society, including those in government, are equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes. The law is seen as supreme and must be followed by everyone, ensuring fairness, justice, and predictability in legal processes. It requires that laws are clear, publicized, stable, and applied evenly, and that they protect fundamental rights, including the security of persons and property. A key aspect of the rule of law is that it places constraints on the power of government officials, ensuring that they cannot wield power arbitrarily.
In essence, while both concepts involve the use of law in governance, they differ fundamentally in their approach to justice, governance, and the role of law in society. Rule of law is about the law constraining the government to protect the rights and liberties of individuals, whereas rule by law can be about using the law as a tool for government control."
[{2024-04-04 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/21cbbc7d-4d9c-402e-b05f-894d5882b76f]

"What is the Rule of Law?
The Four Universal Principles
The rule of law is a durable system of laws, institutions, norms, and community commitment that delivers:
Accountability
The government as well as private actors are accountable under the law.
Just Laws
The laws are clear, publicized, and stable; are applied evenly; and protect fundamental rights, including the security of persons and contract, property, and human rights.
Open Government
The processes by which the laws are enacted, administered, and enforced are accessible, fair, and efficient.
Accessible Justice
Justice is delivered timely by competent, ethical, and independent representatives and neutrals who are accessible, have adequate resources, and reflect the makeup of the communities they serve.
These four universal principles constitute a working definition of the rule of law. They were developed in accordance with internationally accepted standards and norms, and were tested and refined in consultation with a wide variety of experts worldwide."
[{2020-05-25} https://worldjusticeproject.org/about-us/overview/what-rule-law]
===
"The rule of law is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as: "The authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes."[2] The term "rule of law" is closely related to "constitutionalism" as well as "Rechtsstaat", and refers to a political situation, not to any specific legal rule.[3][4][5]
Use of the phrase can be traced to 16th-century Britain, and in the following century the Scottish theologian Samuel Rutherford employed it in arguing against the divine right of kings.[6] John Locke wrote that freedom in society means being subject only to laws made by a legislature that apply to everyone, with a person being otherwise free from both governmental and private restrictions upon liberty. "The rule of law" was further popularized in the 19th century by British jurist A. V. Dicey. However, the principle, if not the phrase itself, was recognized by ancient thinkers; for example, Aristotle wrote: "It is more proper that law should govern than any one of the citizens".[7]
The rule of law implies that every person is subject to the law, including people who are lawmakers, law enforcement officials, and judges.[8] In this sense, it stands in contrast to tyranny or oligarchy where the rulers are held above the law.[citation needed] Lack of the rule of law can be found in both democracies and monarchies, for example when there is neglect or ignorance of the law. The rule of law is more apt to decay if a government has insufficient corrective mechanisms for restoring it."
[{2020-05-25} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rule_of_law]

name::
* McsEngl.rule-of-law,
* McsEngl.society'att067-rule-of-law,
* McsEngl.society'rule-of-law,

Socadmn.rule-by-jungle

description::
"Only under the law of the jungle does it make sense for the 51% to rule over the 49%. In fact, under the law of the jungle it is legitimate for 51% to kill the 49%. It is also legitimate, under the law of the jungle, for 1% to kill the 99% if they had the power to do so. What is the difference between 51% threatening to kill the 49% if they don’t comply and 51% actually killing them? If the 51% don’t actually believe in genocide (or the threat thereof) then it follows that they should allow the 49% to secede."

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn.rule-by-jungle,
* McsEngl.law-of-jungle,
* McsEngl.rule-by-jungle-society,
* McsEngl.society'att035-rule-of-jungle,
* McsEngl.society'rule-by-jungle,

Socadmn.open-001

description::
"Open government strategies and initiatives are based on the principles of transparency, integrity, accountability and stakeholder participation."
[{2020-11-01} https://www.oecd.org/gov/open-government/]
"Διακυβέρνηση (Open Governance) ορίζεται (OECD, 2016):
Η κουλτούρα διακυβέρνησης η οποία βασίζεται σε καινοτόμες και βιώσιμες δημόσιες πολιτικές και σε πρακτικές εμπνευσμένες από τις αρχές της διαφάνειας, της λογοδοσίας και της συμμετοχής με στόχο την προώθηση της δημοκρατίας και της ανάπτυξης χωρίς αποκλεισμούς."
[{2024-04-09 retrieved} http://dx.doi.org/10.57713/kallipos-420]

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn.001-open,
* McsEngl.Socadmn.open,
* McsEngl.open-governance,
* McsEngl.open-government,

Socadmn.digital-002

description::
"E-government (short for electronic government) is the use of technological communications devices, such as computers and the Internet to provide public services to citizens and other persons in a country or region. E-government offers new opportunities for more direct and convenient citizen access to government, and for government provision of services directly to citizens.[1]
The term consists of the digital interactions between a citizen and their government (C2G), between governments and other government agencies (G2G), between government and citizens (G2C), between government and employees (G2E), and between government and businesses/commerces (G2B). E-government delivery models can be broken down into the following categories:[2] This interaction consists of citizens communicating with all levels of government (city, state/province, national, and international), facilitating citizen involvement in governance using information and communication technology (ICT) (such as computers and websites) and business process re-engineering (BPR). Brabham and Guth (2017) interviewed the third party designers of e-government tools in North America about the ideals of user interaction that they build into their technologies, which include progressive values, ubiquitous participation, geolocation, and education of the public.[3]"
[{2020-12-10} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-government]

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn.002-digital!⇒SocadmnDigi,
* McsEngl.Socadmn.digital!⇒SocadmnDigi,
* McsEngl.SocadmnDigi!=administration.society.digital,
* McsEngl.administration.society.digital!⇒SocadmnDigi,
* McsEngl.admnSocDigi!⇒SocadmnDigi,
* McsEngl.connected-governance!⇒SocadmnDigi,
* McsEngl.digital-governance!⇒SocadmnDigi,
* McsEngl.e-gvc!⇒SocadmnDigi,
* McsEngl.e-governance!⇒SocadmnDigi,
* McsEngl.electronic-governance!⇒SocadmnDigi,
* McsEngl.internet-governance!⇒SocadmnDigi,
* McsEngl.online-governance!⇒SocadmnDigi,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ΗΔ!=ηλεκτρονική-διακυβέρνηση-κοινωνίας!=SocadmnDigi,
* McsElln.ηλεκτρονική-διακυβέρνηση-κοινωνίας!=SocadmnDigi,
* McsElln.ψηφιακή-διακυβέρνηση-κοινωνίας!=SocadmnDigi,

DOING of SocadmnDigi

description::
"Examples of online transactional services, employed in e-governments include:[10]
* Applying for a birth certificate,
* Applying for a building permit,
* Applying for a business license,
* Applying for a death certificate,
* Applying for a driver's license,
* Applying for environmental permits,
* Applying for government vacancies online,
* Applying for land title registration,
* Applying for a marriage certificate,
* Applying for a personal identity card,
* Applying for social protection programs,
* Applying for a visa,
* Declaring to police,
* Paying fines,
* Paying for utilities (water, gas electricity),
* Registering a business,
* Registering a motor vehicle,
* Submitting a change of address,
* Submitting income taxes,
* Submitting Value Added Tax",
[{2020-12-10} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-government#Examples_of_online_transactional_services]

name::
* McsEngl.SocadmnDigi'doing,

today-digital-part (link) of SocadmnDigi

info-resource of SocadmnDigi

description::
* https://joinup.ec.europa.eu/sites/default/files/inline-files/AI_roadmap.pdf,
* https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_intelligence_in_government,
* Tambouris, E., & Tarabanis, K. (2024). Electronic Government [Undergraduate textbook]. Kallipos, Open Academic Editions. https://dx.doi.org/10.57713/kallipos-420,

name::
* McsEngl.SocadmnDigi'Infrsc,

SocadmnDigi.SPECIFIC

description::
* autonomous-SocadmnDigi,

name::
* McsEngl.SocadmnDigi.specific,

Socadmn.democracy-republic

description::
">democracy vs republic:
**Democracy vs. Republic: Understanding the Differences**
1. **Definition and Core Principles**:
- **Democracy**: A system of government where the power lies directly in the hands of the people. It is characterized by majority rule, where the majority's opinion prevails in decision-making processes. The core principle is direct participation.
- **Republic**: A system of government where the country is considered a "public matter" (res publica), and the power rests with elected individuals representing the citizen body. The primary principle is the rule of law and the protection of minority rights.
2. **Forms of Democracy**:
- **Direct Democracy**: Citizens directly participate in decision-making without intermediary representatives. Examples include ancient Athens and modern-day Switzerland in some cantons.
- **Representative Democracy**: Citizens elect representatives to make decisions on their behalf. This form of democracy is common in larger societies where direct participation is impractical.
3. **Key Features of a Republic**:
- **Elected Representatives**: Citizens elect leaders to make policy decisions and laws on their behalf.
- **Rule of Law**: Laws govern the republic, and leaders are subject to these laws.
- **Protection of Rights**: A republic aims to protect the rights of individuals and minority groups against potential tyranny of the majority.
4. **Overlap and Distinction**:
- Many modern nations are both democracies and republics. For instance, the United States is a democratic republic where the government is based on elected representatives, and the Constitution protects individual rights.
- The key distinction is often in the emphasis: a democracy focuses on majority rule, while a republic emphasizes the rule of law and minority protection.
5. **Examples**:
- **Democracies**: Switzerland (with elements of direct democracy), many states in the United States at the local level.
- **Republics**: The United States, France, India.
6. **Philosophical and Practical Differences**:
- **Democracy** can sometimes lead to decisions that favor the majority, potentially at the expense of minority rights.
- **Republic** is designed to prevent this by ensuring that elected representatives create laws that protect individual freedoms and rights.
7. **Historical Context**:
- The concept of democracy originated in ancient Greece, particularly Athens.
- The Roman Republic provided a model for modern republics, emphasizing a mixed government with checks and balances.
8. **Modern Application**:
- **Constitutional Democracies**: Many countries operate under constitutions that define the structure, powers, and limits of government, ensuring democratic principles within a republican framework.
- **Hybrid Systems**: Various nations blend elements of both systems to create a balanced government structure.
In summary, while democracy and republic are often used interchangeably, they have distinct features and principles. Democracy emphasizes direct participation or majority rule, while a republic focuses on representative governance and the protection of individual rights within the framework of the rule of law."
[{2024-05-15 retrieved} https://chatgpt.com/c/97986a56-fdf7-4c4a-a462-d16f80f9dcad]

">democracy vs republic:
Both democracies and republics are systems of government where citizens are represented by elected officials. However, there are key differences between the two:
**Democracy:**
* **Rule by the majority:** In a pure democracy, laws are made directly by the voting majority. This can lead to the rights of the minority being overlooked or overridden.
* **Direct participation:** Citizens may participate directly in the decision-making process through referendums or popular votes.
* **Potential for instability:** Pure democracies can be vulnerable to the whims of the majority and may lack safeguards against hasty or ill-conceived decisions.
**Republic:**
* **Rule of law:** Republics are based on a constitution or a set of fundamental laws that protect the rights of all citizens, including the minority.
* **Representative government:** Citizens elect representatives who make laws on their behalf. These representatives are expected to act in the best interests of their constituents.
* **Checks and balances:** Republics often have a system of checks and balances to prevent any one branch of government from becoming too powerful. This helps to protect against tyranny and ensure stability.
**The United States: A Representative Democracy**
The United States is often described as a representative democracy. While it has elements of both democracy and republic, it is more accurately defined as a republic with democratic features.
* **Representative government:** Citizens elect representatives at the federal, state, and local levels to make laws and govern.
* **Constitution:** The U.S. Constitution is the supreme law of the land, protecting the rights of all citizens and establishing a system of checks and balances.
* **Democratic processes:** Citizens participate in the democratic process through elections, voting on ballot initiatives, and engaging in public discourse.
**In Summary:**
While both democracies and republics aim to provide government by the people, republics offer greater protection for individual rights and minority interests through a constitution and a system of checks and balances.
I hope this explanation is helpful! Let me know if you have any further questions."
[{2024-05-15 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/fbfae085942d6b35]

name::
* McsEngl.Socadmn.democracy-republic,
* McsEngl.democracy-republic,
* McsEngl.republic-democracy,

05-health of society

name::
* McsEngl.Sochealth!=health-of-society,
* McsEngl.health-of-society!⇒Sochealth,
* McsEngl.society'05_health!⇒Sochealth,
* McsEngl.society'att003-health!⇒Sochealth,
* McsEngl.society'evaluation!⇒Sochealth,
* McsEngl.society'health-att003!⇒Sochealth,

description::
· any well|bad-being state of a-society.

well-being of Sochealth

description::
· not dysfunction or dystructure.
===
">well-beings of human societies:
The well-being of human societies encompasses a broad and multifaceted concept that involves various dimensions including economic, social, physical, and mental health aspects. It reflects the quality of life and general satisfaction individuals have within their communities and societies at large. Here are some of the key components:
1. **Economic Stability**: Economic well-being involves employment opportunities, fair wages, economic growth, and stability. It also encompasses the ability of individuals to meet their basic needs, such as food, shelter, and healthcare, without undue financial stress.
2. **Social Cohesion and Equity**: Social well-being focuses on the relationships people have with each other and the cohesiveness of communities. It includes aspects such as social support, community engagement, inclusivity, and equality. Societies that promote equity and justice tend to have higher levels of social well-being.
3. **Healthcare and Physical Well-being**: Access to quality healthcare services and opportunities for maintaining physical health, such as exercise and nutrition, are crucial. Physical well-being also includes a clean and safe environment, access to clean water, and air quality.
4. **Education and Lifelong Learning**: Access to quality education and opportunities for lifelong learning contribute to the intellectual development and economic opportunities for individuals, fostering a sense of purpose and self-fulfillment.
5. **Emotional and Mental Health**: Mental health services, stress management, and recreational opportunities contribute to the emotional well-being of individuals. Societies that prioritize mental health and provide support systems for mental illnesses tend to have happier and more productive citizens.
6. **Safety and Security**: Feeling safe in one's community and country, free from violence, crime, and threats, is fundamental to well-being. This also includes personal security and the rule of law.
7. **Environmental Sustainability**: A sustainable environment that promotes the conservation of natural resources and biodiversity contributes to the long-term well-being of a society by ensuring that future generations have the resources they need.
8. **Political Stability and Participation**: A stable political environment where citizens can participate in the democratic process and have their rights protected contributes to a sense of belonging and influence in society.
Improving societal well-being requires coordinated efforts across these dimensions, involving governments, non-profit organizations, businesses, and individuals. It's a dynamic process that adapts as society evolves, reflecting the changing needs and values of its members."
[{2024-04-03 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/bf139458-ea82-4b8f-9255-8120ae15446a]

name::
* McsEngl.Sochealth.wellbeing!⇒Socwellbeing,
* McsEngl.society'att045-disorderNo!⇒Socwellbeing,
* McsEngl.society'disorderNo!⇒Socwellbeing,
* McsEngl.Socwellbeing!=well-being-of-society,
* McsEngl.Socwellfare!⇒Socwellbeing,
* McsEngl.society'well-being!⇒Socwellbeing,

specific-tree-of-Socwellbeing::
* adequate-growth-vs-inadequate-growth,
* employment-vs-unemployment,
* environmental-cleaness--vs--environmental-pollution,
* equality-vs-discimination,
* peace-vs-conflict,
* unity-vs-division,

bad-being of Sochealth

description::
· dysfunction or dystructure.
===
">dysfunctions or dystructures of human societies:
The terms "dysfunctions" and "dystructures" (though the latter is less commonly used and may be a typographical error for "dysfunctions" or a novel term) in relation to human societies refer to elements or aspects of social systems that impede their smooth operation, leading to negative consequences for the collective well-being and functioning of these societies. Understanding these concepts involves exploring various theoretical frameworks within sociology and related disciplines. Here’s a brief overview of some of the key dysfunctions or problematic structures within human societies:
### Dysfunctions in Human Societies
1. **Inequality**: This is a fundamental dysfunction where resources, opportunities, and rights are distributed unevenly among the population, leading to social stratification and conflict. It manifests in various forms such as economic inequality, racial inequality, and gender inequality.
2. **Corruption**: Corruption refers to the abuse of power for personal gain, undermining the trust in public institutions and the rule of law. It can severely impede economic development, reduce efficiency, and increase inequality.
3. **Discrimination**: Discrimination involves unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people, especially on the grounds of race, age, or gender. It leads to social divisions and prevents individuals from fully participating in society.
4. **Environmental Degradation**: The unsustainable exploitation of natural resources and pollution can lead to long-term environmental damage, affecting the health and well-being of current and future generations.
5. **Social Fragmentation**: The breakdown of social cohesion and the increase in individualism over community values can lead to isolation, mental health issues, and a weakening of the social fabric.
6. **Political Instability**: Frequent changes in government, civil unrest, and lack of consensus on governance can lead to a lack of direction in policy making, hindering economic and social development.
7. **Economic Instability**: Fluctuations in the economy, such as recessions, inflation, and unemployment, can create widespread insecurity and hardship, affecting the quality of life.
8. **Crime and Violence**: High levels of crime and violence can lead to a general sense of insecurity, disrupt social order, and impede economic and social development.
9. **Education and Healthcare Disparities**: Inadequate access to quality education and healthcare services contributes to a cycle of poverty and limits social mobility, perpetuating inequalities.
10. **Cultural Conflicts**: Clashes between different cultural, religious, or ethnic groups can lead to social tensions and conflicts, impeding social cohesion and cooperation.
These dysfunctions are interrelated and often compound each other, making them challenging to address. However, understanding them is the first step towards creating more equitable, stable, and sustainable societies. Social scientists and policymakers work towards identifying these issues, understanding their roots, and implementing strategies to mitigate their effects."
[{2024-04-03 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/4b57f264-3e8c-4575-882d-6ebd22357159]

name::
* McsEngl.Socbadbeing!=bad-being-of-society,
* McsEngl.Socdisorder!⇒Socbadbeing,
* McsEngl.Sochealth.badbeing!⇒Socbadbeing,
* McsEngl.Socproblem!⇒Socbadbeing,
* McsEngl.disorder-of-society!⇒Socbadbeing,
* McsEngl.problem-of-society!⇒Socbadbeing,
* McsEngl.social-problem!⇒Socbadbeing,
* McsEngl.society'att012-disorder!⇒Socbadbeing,
* McsEngl.society'bad-being!⇒Socbadbeing,
* McsEngl.society'disorder!⇒Socbadbeing,
* McsEngl.society'healthBad!⇒Socbadbeing,
* McsEngl.society'problem!⇒Socbadbeing,

Socbadbeing.SPECIFIC

description::
* climate-change,
* conflict-vs-peace,
* corruption,
* crime,
* discrimination-vs-equality,
* disease,
* division-vs-unity,
* economic-shock,
* environmental-pollution--vs--environmental-cleaness,
* homelessness,
* inadequate-growth-vs-adequate-growth,
* inequality,
* natural-disaster,
* political-disaster,
* poverty,
* social-issue,
* social-unrest,
* stress,
* theft,
* unemployment-vs-employment,
===
"The Seven Social Sins are:
* Wealth without work.
* Pleasure without conscience.
* Knowledge without character.
* Commerce without morality.
* Science without humanity.
* Worship without sacrifice.
* Politics without principle.
-- Frederick Lewis Donaldson"
[{2020-05-29} https://twitter.com/ProfFeynman/status/1266440214978928646]

name::
* McsEngl.Socbadbeing.specific,

Socbadbeing.corruption

description::
· December-9 is anti-corruption-day.
[https://twitter.com/wef/status/1336687381362192384]

"Corruption is a complex and multifaceted issue that affects countries and organizations around the world. It refers to the abuse of entrusted power for private gain and can manifest in various forms, including bribery, embezzlement, nepotism, fraud, and extortion. The impact of corruption is far-reaching, undermining democratic institutions, slowing economic development, and contributing to governmental instability. Here’s an overview of its main aspects:
### Types of Corruption
- **Petty Corruption**: Involves small amounts of money or favors, often at the interface between public officials and citizens.
- **Grand Corruption**: Occurs at the highest levels of government, involving significant amounts of money and major impacts on policy and governance.
- **Political Corruption**: Involves political decision-makers using illegal actions to benefit their parties, families, or friends.
- **Corporate Corruption**: Involves companies engaging in illegal activities to increase their profits, such as bribery to win contracts.
### Causes
- **Weak Institutions**: Inadequate legal frameworks and weak judiciary systems can facilitate corruption.
- **Lack of Transparency**: Absence of clear information on government activities and spending can allow corruption to flourish.
- **Economic Inequality**: High levels of poverty and economic disparity can increase corruption, as individuals seek to improve their circumstances through any available means.
- **Cultural Factors**: In some cultures, gift-giving and patronage networks are deeply ingrained and can border on or cross into corrupt practices.
### Effects
- **Economic Damage**: Corruption distorts markets and discourages foreign investment, leading to inefficient economic outcomes.
- **Social Inequality**: It exacerbates inequality and injustice by allowing those with money or connections to evade laws and policies meant to ensure fair treatment.
- **Political Instability**: Corruption erodes trust in government and can lead to political unrest and instability.
- **Environmental Harm**: Corrupt practices can also lead to environmental degradation, as regulations are bypassed for personal or corporate gain.
### Measures to Combat Corruption
- **Transparency and Accountability**: Implementing clear rules, regulations, and mechanisms to ensure transparency in government transactions and public spending.
- **Strengthening Institutions**: Building strong legal and judicial frameworks capable of dealing with corruption effectively.
- **Public Education and Awareness**: Educating the public about the rights and mechanisms available to combat corruption.
- **International Cooperation**: Corruption often crosses borders, making international cooperation essential in tackling it.
### Challenges
Combating corruption presents significant challenges, including entrenched interests, the risk of retaliation against whistleblowers, and the global nature of many corrupt practices. Efforts to fight corruption require a comprehensive approach that involves the government, private sector, civil society, and international community working together.
Despite these challenges, progress is possible through sustained efforts to promote integrity, transparency, and accountability at all levels of society."
[{2024-04-03 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/1f18b2d8-5deb-4b9a-b690-e058d3e3dea6]

· World's least corrupt country ranking:
1. Denmark,
2. Finland,
2. New Zealand,
4. Norway,
5. Singapore,
5. Sweden,
7. Switzerland,
8. Netherlands,
9. Germany,
10. Luxembourg,
10. Ireland,
12. Hong Kong,
13. Australia,
14. Canada,
14. Estonia,
18. United Kingdom,
18. Japan,
21. France,
22. Austria,
24. United States,
27. UAE,
27. Chile,
31. South Korea,
31. Israel,
35. Spain,
41. Italy,
41. Czechia,
45. Poland,
51. Greece,
54. Rwanda,
54. Saudi Arabia,
61. Jordan,
61. Malaysia,
65. China,
72. South Africa,
77. Hungary,
85. India,
94. Argentina,
94. Brazil,
94. Morocco,
101. Thailand,
101. Kazakhstan,
101. Panama,
101. Turkey,
110. Indonesia,
116. Algeria,
116. Ukraine,
116. Philippines,
123. Kenya,
126. Mexico,
130. Egypt,
137. Russia,
140. Pakistan,
142. Uganda,
147. Bangladesh,
147. Iran,
150. Nigeria,
150. Afghanistan,
150. Lebanon,
166. DRC,
177. Venezuela,
178. South Sudan,
180. Somalia,
[{2023-07-22 retrieved} World of Statistics https://twitter.com/stats_feed/status/1682759310986604546]

name::
* McsEngl.corruption,
* McsEngl.society'corruption,
* McsEngl.Socbadbeing.001-corruption,
* McsEngl.Socbadbeing.corruption,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.διαφθορά!η!=corruption,

corruption.specific

description::
* administrator-corruption,
* company-corruption,

name::
* McsEngl.corruption.specific,

corruption.company

description::
">corporate corruption overview:
Corporate corruption is the abuse of corporate power for illegal or unethical gain. It can take many forms, but ultimately undermines fair competition, harms consumers, and erodes public trust in businesses.
Here's a quick breakdown of corporate corruption:
* **Types:** Bribery, kickbacks, favouritism, nepotism, and even manipulating financial statements are all means of corporate corruption.
* **Impact:** It hurts consumers through unfair practices, stifles economic growth, and weakens democratic institutions.
* **Causes:** Factors like weak regulations, a culture of greed, and lack of transparency can all contribute to corporate corruption.
* **Examples:** Enron's accounting scandal and Volkswagen's emissions cheating are infamous cases of corporate corruption.
This is a serious issue, but there are efforts to fight it. Whistleblower protections, stricter enforcement, and promoting ethical business practices are all part of the fight against corporate corruption.
Do you have any specific aspects of corporate corruption you'd like to delve deeper into?"
[{2024-05-07 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/79964b659860aff4]

name::
* McsEngl.company-corruption,
* McsEngl.corporate-corruption,
* McsEngl.corruption.company,

Socbadbeing.homelessness

description::
"Homelessness or houselessness – also known as a state of being unhoused or unsheltered – is the condition of lacking stable, safe, and functional housing. The general category includes disparate situations, such as living on the streets, moving between temporary accommodation such as family or friends, living in boarding houses with no security of tenure,[1] and people who leave their domiciles because of civil conflict and are refugees within their country.
The legal status of homeless people varies from place to place.[2] United States government homeless enumeration studies[3][4] also include people who sleep in a public or private place, which is not designed for use as a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings.[5][6] Homelessness and poverty are interrelated.[1] There is no methodological consensus on counting homeless people and identifying their needs; therefore, in most cities, only estimated homeless populations are known.[7]
In 2005, an estimated 100 million people worldwide were homeless, and as many as one billion people (one in 6.5 at the time) live as squatters, refugees, or in temporary shelters.[8][9][10]"
[{2024-04-04 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homelessness#]

name::
* McsEngl.Socbadbeing.003-homelessness,
* McsEngl.Socbadbeing.homelessness,
* McsEngl.homelessness,
* McsEngl.houselessness,
* McsEngl.unhoused,
* McsEngl.unsheltered,

Socbadbeing.inequality

description::
">inequality in society:
The inequality of society is a broad topic that encompasses various dimensions, including economic disparity, social stratification, access to education, healthcare, and opportunities, as well as differences in treatment based on race, gender, sexuality, and other characteristics. It's a multifaceted issue with deep historical roots and significant impacts on individuals and communities. Let's break down some key aspects:
### Economic Inequality
Economic inequality refers to the unequal distribution of income and wealth among individuals in a society. This can result from factors like unequal access to education, differences in occupational wages, and inherited wealth. The consequences include differences in living standards, health outcomes, and access to resources.
### Social Stratification
Social stratification is the division of society into hierarchical classes or castes, often based on factors like occupation, income, wealth, education, and social network. This can lead to systemic barriers that prevent people from different strata from advancing socially or economically.
### Access to Education and Healthcare
Inequality in education and healthcare can have long-term effects on individuals' life chances. Disparities in education can lead to differences in literacy, employment opportunities, and income. Similarly, unequal access to healthcare can result in disparities in health outcomes and life expectancy.
### Gender, Race, and Sexuality
Discrimination based on gender, race, and sexuality can lead to significant societal inequality. This includes disparities in employment, wage gaps, access to healthcare and education, and representation in political and social institutions.
### Addressing Inequality
Efforts to address societal inequality include policy measures like progressive taxation, social welfare programs, affirmative action, and initiatives aimed at ensuring equal access to education and healthcare. Additionally, social movements and advocacy play a critical role in raising awareness and pushing for changes to address systemic inequalities.
Understanding and addressing the complexities of societal inequality require multidisciplinary approaches, including economics, sociology, political science, and human rights. It's an ongoing challenge that societies around the world are grappling with, as they seek to create more equitable and just communities."
[{2024-04-03 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/e83a97f4-e110-4dc4-8b52-01f65c69fb35]

name::
* McsEngl.Socinequality!=inequality-of-society,
* McsEngl.Socbadbeing.002-inequality!⇒Socinequality,
* McsEngl.Socbadbeing.inequality!⇒Socinequality,
* McsEngl.inequality-of-society!⇒Socinequality,

International-inequalities-institute-Lse of Socinequality

description::
"The International Inequalities Institute at LSE brings together experts from many LSE departments and centres to lead critical and cutting edge research to understand why inequalities are escalating in numerous arenas across the world, and to develop critical tools to address these challenges."
[{2020-12-17} https://www.lse.ac.uk/International-Inequalities]

name::
* McsEngl.International-inequalities-institute-Lse,
* McsEngl.Socinequality'International-inequalities-institute-Lse,

Socinequality.SPECIFIC

description::
* discrimination,
* economic-inequality:
** gap-between-poor-and-rich,
* gender-inequality,
* racial-inequality,
* social-class-inequality,

">types of social enequality:
Social inequality refers to the unequal distribution of resources, opportunities, and privileges within a society. It can manifest in various forms, impacting different aspects of people's lives. Here are some key types of social inequality:
1. **Economic Inequality:** This refers to the unequal distribution of wealth, income, and access to economic resources. It can be measured by indicators like the Gini coefficient, which quantifies the disparity in income distribution within a society.
2. **Gender Inequality:** This type of inequality is based on gender, with women and girls often facing discrimination and disadvantage in areas such as education, employment, healthcare, and political representation.
3. **Racial Inequality:** This form of inequality stems from racial or ethnic discrimination, leading to disparities in access to education, employment, housing, healthcare, and justice systems.
4. **Social Class Inequality:** This type of inequality is based on social class, which is determined by factors like income, occupation, education, and social status. It can affect access to resources, opportunities, and social mobility.
. **Health Inequality:** This refers to differences in health outcomes and access to healthcare services between different groups in society. It can be influenced by factors like socioeconomic status, race, gender, and geographic location.
6. **Educational Inequality:** This type of inequality refers to unequal access to quality education and educational opportunities. It can be caused by factors like socioeconomic status, geographic location, and discrimination.
7. **Political Inequality:** This form of inequality refers to unequal access to political power and decision-making processes. It can manifest in disparities in voting rights, political representation, and access to political institutions.
8. **Age Inequality:** This type of inequality is based on age, with certain age groups facing discrimination or disadvantage in areas like employment, healthcare, and social participation.
9. **Disability Inequality:** This form of inequality refers to the unequal treatment and discrimination faced by people with disabilities. It can affect their access to education, employment, healthcare, and social inclusion.
These are just some of the many types of social inequality that exist in societies around the world. Addressing these inequalities requires a multifaceted approach, including policy interventions, education, advocacy, and social movements."
Sources
www.studocu.com/en-us/document/university-of-arkansas/general-sociology/social-inequality/42377479
[{2024-06-12 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/84651126d42211af]

name::
* McsEngl.Socinequality.specific,

Socinequality.discrimination

description::
"Here's a comprehensive discrimination overview, covering its nature, forms, effects, and how to combat it:
**What is Discrimination?**
Discrimination is the unjust or prejudicial treatment of people based on specific characteristics. It denies individuals or groups equality of opportunity and treatment.
**Protected Characteristics**
Discrimination often revolves around the following characteristics:
* **Race:** Discrimination based on a person's skin color, ethnicity, or ancestry.
* **Gender:** Unequal treatment based on a person's gender or gender identity.
* **Age:** Unfavorable treatment because of a person's age.
* **Sexual Orientation:** Bias against those who identify as LGBTQ+.
* **Disability:** Treating someone unfairly due to physical or mental disabilities.
* **Religion:** Unjust treatment based on someone's religious beliefs or lack thereof.
* **Nationality:** Discrimination based on national origin or citizenship status.
* **Pregnancy:** Bias against pregnant women or new mothers.
**Types of Discrimination**
* **Direct Discrimination:** Openly treating someone differently and less favorably due to a protected characteristic.
* **Indirect Discrimination:** Policies, practices, or rules that appear neutral but have a disproportionately negative effect on people with certain protected characteristics.
* **Harassment:** Includes hostile or offensive behavior that creates an intimidating or degrading environment for someone based on their protected characteristics.
* **Victimization:** Retaliating against someone because they've made or supported a discrimination complaint.
**Examples of Discrimination**
* **Employment:** Hiring, firing, pay, promotions, or job assignments based on protected characteristics rather than merit.
* **Housing:** Refusing to rent/sell a property, providing different terms, or making housing unavailable to someone because of their race, religion, etc.
* **Education:** Denying admission or providing unequal access to educational resources on the basis of protected characteristics.
* **Public Services:** Discriminatory treatment at stores, restaurants, on transportation, or by government agencies.
**The Harmful Effects of Discrimination**
Discrimination has severe consequences for individuals, groups, and society as a whole:
* **Economic Loss:** Discrimination limits opportunities and prevents people from fulfilling their economic potential.
* **Psychological Harm:** Victims experience humiliation, stress, decreased self-esteem, depression, and anxiety.
* **Social Inequality:** Discrimination reinforces existing power structures and inequalities, fueling social division.
* **Lost Potential:** Society loses out on the talents and contributions of people who face systemic discrimination.
**How to Fight Discrimination**
1. **Awareness:** Educate yourself on different types of discrimination and how they manifest.
2. **Challenge Your Own Biases:** Everyone has unconscious biases. Recognizing these is the first step to counteracting them.
3. **Speak Out:** Challenge discriminatory behavior, language, and policies when you see them.
4. **Support Organizations:** Support anti-discrimination organizations through donations or volunteering.
5. **Know the Laws:** Understand laws protecting people from discrimination in your country or region, and report violations.
**Let's work together to create a world where everyone is treated equally, regardless of their differences.**"
[{2024-05-03 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/32f8971436a7f4ee]

name::
* McsEngl.Socbadbeing.005-discrimination,
* McsEngl.Socbadbeing.discrimination,
* McsEngl.discrimination,

Socbadbeing.natural-disaster

description::
">types of natural-disasters:
Natural disasters are catastrophic events caused by natural processes of the Earth. They can cause significant damage, loss of life, and economic disruption.
Here are some types of natural disasters:
* **Geophysical:** These originate from the Earth's solid body.
* **Hydrological:** These are caused by the occurrence, movement, and distribution of water on Earth.
* **Meteorological:** These are caused by extreme weather conditions.
* **Climatological:** These occur over a long period due to changes in the climate patterns.
* **Biological:** These are caused by the exposure to living organisms and their toxic substances or vector-borne diseases.
* **Extraterrestrial:** These are caused by asteroids, meteoroids, and comets as they pass near-Earth or enter the Earth's atmosphere.
[{2024-05-11 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/38fa9e3e0a0e5023]

name::
* McsEngl.Socbadbeing.006-natural-disaster,
* McsEngl.Socbadbeing.natural-disaster,
* McsEngl.natural-disaster,
====== langoChinese:
* McsZhon.tianzai-天災!=natural-disaster,
* McsZhon.天災-tianzai!=natural-disaster,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.φυσική-καταστροφή!η!=natural-disaster,

Socbadbeing.social-issue

description::
">types of social issues:
Social issues are challenges that affect a community, either large or small. They can arise from economic inequalities, political discord, or cultural clashes. Social issues can affect everything from people's health and well-being to the stability of the social order. Here are some of the most common types of social issues:
* **Economic issues:** These issues can include poverty, homelessness, unemployment, and income inequality.
* **Social disorganization:** This refers to the breakdown of social institutions and norms. Examples of social disorganization include crime, family violence, and drug abuse.
* **Public health issues:** These issues can include access to healthcare, obesity, and mental illness.
* **Education issues:** These issues can include access to quality education, student loan debt, and the achievement gap.
* **Civil rights issues:** These issues can include discrimination based on race, ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, or disability.
Social issues are complex and often interconnected. For example, poverty can lead to crime, and crime can lead to social disorganization. It is important to understand the root causes of social issues in order to develop effective solutions."
[{2024-04-04 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/e2143c1c2c12d764]

">types of social issues:
Social issues are problems that influence a significant number of individuals within a society. They are often the result of factors extending beyond an individual's control and local geographical environment. These issues can be varied and complex, often intersecting with one another. Here's an overview of various types of social issues:
1. **Poverty and Economic Inequality**: Differences in wealth and resources that affect access to basic needs like food, shelter, and education. Economic inequality also refers to the increasing gap between the wealthy and the poor.
2. **Racial Discrimination and Ethnic Conflicts**: Prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one's own race is superior, as well as conflicts between ethnic groups within a society.
3. **Gender Inequality and Sexual Harassment**: The social structures that result in women and non-binary individuals receiving unequal pay, opportunities, and treatment, as well as the prevalence of unwanted and inappropriate sexual advances.
4. **Healthcare Access**: Challenges related to the accessibility, affordability, and quality of health care for all individuals, impacting their overall well-being.
5. **Education Equity**: Disparities in the quality of education provided to individuals based on their race, economic status, or geographic location.
6. **Environmental Issues**: Problems related to pollution, climate change, deforestation, and loss of biodiversity, impacting human health and livelihoods.
7. **Immigration and Refugees**: The challenges and discrimination faced by individuals moving countries voluntarily or involuntarily due to conflict or persecution.
8. **Crime and Criminal Justice**: Issues related to the fairness, efficiency, and effectiveness of the legal system in dealing with crime, including concerns about mass incarceration and police brutality.
9. **Mental Health**: Stigmatization of and inadequate support for mental health issues, impacting individuals' ability to function and thrive.
10. **Substance Abuse**: The societal and personal impacts of addiction to drugs, alcohol, and other substances.
11. **Homelessness**: The issue of people lacking stable and adequate housing due to economic hardship, mental health issues, or social isolation.
12. **LGBTQ+ Rights**: Challenges faced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer individuals in achieving legal rights, social acceptance, and protection against discrimination.
These issues are deeply interwoven with the cultural, economic, and political fabric of societies, and addressing them often requires coordinated efforts across multiple sectors of society."
[{2024-04-04 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/084128d3-da98-44a8-940c-8aab14542073]

name::
* McsEngl.Socbadbeing.004-social-issue,
* McsEngl.Socbadbeing.social-issue,
* McsEngl.social-challenge,
* McsEngl.social-issue,
* McsEngl.social-problem,

right-and-responsibility-of-human (link) of Sochealth

reputation of Sochealth

description::
"The reputation of a social entity (a person, a social group, an organization, or a place) is an opinion about that entity, typically as a result of social evaluation on a set of criteria, such as behaviour or performance.[1]"
[{2021-03-06} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reputation]

name::
* McsEngl.society'att058-reputation,
* McsEngl.society'reputation,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.φήμη!=society'reputation,

addressWpg::
* https://aeon.co/ideas/say-goodbye-to-the-information-age-its-all-about-reputation-now,

independence of society

description::
"There is a story about a man who wanted to eat wild turkey every Thanksgiving. He would go hunting and have to be very quiet so he didn’t alert the turkeys. Some years he would catch a turkey; other years he would fail.
Then one year he had an idea. An awful idea. He had a wonderful awful idea! Every day he would go out and feed the wild turkeys. Over time the turkeys grew fat and let down their guard. They would come running every time he came out with the feed bucket. From that year on the man could walk up and catch a turkey by hand and never had to worry about missing a Thanksgiving dinner again.
If you don’t want to end up someone’s Thanksgiving dinner, then you must be on guard against anything that undermines your independence and makes you “fat and happy”. You can watch this process in action in many modern business models.
... Independence is a necessary precondition for secession, and the ability to secede is necessary to secure independence. When negotiating a peace treaty you must establish a process for secession"
[{2021-01-17} https://moreequalanimals.com/assets/MoreEqualAnimals-1.15.2021.pdf]

name::
* McsEngl.society'att036-independence,
* McsEngl.society'independence,

ecosystem (link) of society

digital-part of society

description::
· the-digital portion of the-society.
===
"One country that had no problem at all doing almost everything online was Estonia, a tiny nation of 1.3 million people, which is without question, the most advanced digital society in the world.
Long before Covid-19, Estonia had already gone fully digital, providing government services, schooling, voting and healthcare online."
[{2020-07-30} https://www.nst.com.my/lifestyle/sunday-vibes/2020/07/611652/future-proof-worlds-most-advanced-digital-society]

name::
* McsEngl.Socdigi!⇒esoc,
* McsEngl.Socdigital!⇒esoc,
* McsEngl.digital-society!⇒esoc,
* McsEngl.digitally-advanced-society!⇒esoc,
* McsEngl.e-society!⇒esoc,
* McsEngl.eSociety!⇒esoc,
* McsEngl.esoc!=digital-part-of-society,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ψηφιακή-κοινωνία!η!=esoc,

digital-economy (link) of esoc

digital-governance (link) of esoc

digital-revolution of esoc

description::
">timeline of digital-revolution:
Sure, here is a timeline of the digital revolution:
**1947:** The transistor is invented, paving the way for smaller, faster, and more powerful computers. [Image of Transistor]
**1962:** The first commercial computer, the UNIVAC 1, is introduced.
**1969:** The ARPANET, the first packet-switched network, is created.
**1971:** The first personal computer, the Altair 8800, is released.
**1973:** The Apple I computer, designed by Steve Wozniak, is introduced.
**1974:** The Commodore PET, the first mass-produced personal computer, is released.
**1975:** The Apple II, the first successful mass-produced personal computer, is introduced. [Image of Apple II]
**1981:** The IBM Personal Computer (PC) is introduced, marking the beginning of the personal computer revolution. [Image of IBM Personal Computer]
**1984:** The Macintosh computer is introduced, featuring a graphical user interface (GUI) that makes it easier to use. [Image of Macintosh computer]
**1989:** The World Wide Web is invented by Tim Berners-Lee, making information more accessible and sharable than ever before.
**1993:** The launch of Netscape Navigator, the first widely used web browser, further popularizes the internet. [Image of Netscape Navigator]
**1995:** The introduction of the Windows 95 operating system by Microsoft further accelerates the adoption of personal computers.
**1998:** The launch of the search engine Google by Larry Page and Sergey Brin revolutionizes how people access information.
**2001:** The introduction of the smartphone, the BlackBerry, by Research in Motion (RIM) changes the way people communicate and access information.
**2007:** The launch of the iPhone by Apple, with its touchscreen interface and App Store, marks the beginning of the mobile revolution.
**2011:** The introduction of social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter further connects people and communities.
**2016:** The election of Donald Trump as president of the United States highlights the potential for social media to be used for misinformation and manipulation.
**2020:** The COVID-19 pandemic accelerates the adoption of digital technologies, as people work and socialize from home.
The digital revolution has transformed the way we live, work, and communicate. It has created new opportunities for innovation and collaboration, but it has also raised concerns about privacy, security, and the impact on society. As we move forward, it is important to carefully consider the implications of these new technologies and to ensure that they are used in a responsible and ethical manner."
[{2023-12-31 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/688f5adde3d811eb]

name::
* McsEngl.esoc'digital-revolution,
* McsEngl.digital-revolution,

MISC-ATTRIBUTE of society

name::
* McsEngl.society'misc-attribute,

info-resource of society

name::
* McsEngl.society'Infrsc,

addressWpg::
{2022-07-13 retrieved} https://vitalik.ca/general/2022/07/13/networkstates.html,
* https://opengov.ellak.gr/2020/11/01/o-kataskopeftikos-kapitalismos-elegchi-tin-anthropini-simperifora/,

science of society

description::
"Sociology is the study of human behavior. Sociology refers to social behavior, society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life.[1][2][3] It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis[4]:3–5 to develop a body of knowledge about social order and social change.[4]:32–40 Sociology can also be defined as the general science of society. While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter can range from micro-level analyses of society (i.e., of individual interaction and agency) to macro-level analyses (i.e., of systems and the social structure).[5]
Traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, religion, secularization, law, sexuality, gender, and deviance. As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has gradually expanded its focus to other subjects and institutions, such as health and the institution of medicine; economy; military; punishment and systems of control; the Internet; education; social capital; and the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
The range of social scientific methods has also expanded, as social researchers draw upon a variety of qualitative and quantitative techniques. The linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-20th century, especially, have led to increasingly interpretative, hermeneutic, and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society. Conversely, the turn of the 21st century has seen the rise of new analytically, mathematically, and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis.[6][7]
Social research has influence throughout various industries and sectors of life, such as among politicians, policy makers, and legislators; educators; planners; administrators; developers; business magnates and managers; social workers; non-governmental organizations; and non-profit organizations, as well as individuals interested in resolving social issues in general. As such, there is often a great deal of crossover between social research, market research, and other statistical fields.[8]"
[{2020-11-01} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sociology]

name::
* McsEngl.sciSoc!=sociology,
* McsEngl.science.society!⇒sciSoc,
* McsEngl.society'att019-science!⇒sciSoc,
* McsEngl.society'science!⇒sciSoc,
* McsEngl.sociology!⇒sciSoc,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.κοινωνιολογία!η!=sciSoc,

evoluting of sciSoc

description::
">evolution of sociology:
The evolution of sociology as a discipline is a complex and multifaceted process that spans several centuries. Here is a brief overview of key developments in the evolution of sociology:

1. **Precursors to Sociology (17th-18th centuries):** Before the formalization of sociology as a distinct field, various thinkers laid the groundwork for sociological thought. Philosophers such as Montesquieu and Rousseau examined social institutions and human behavior, contributing to the intellectual foundations of sociology.

2. **The Enlightenment (18th century):** The Enlightenment era played a crucial role in shaping sociological thinking. Thinkers like Auguste Comte, often regarded as the founder of sociology, emphasized the need for a scientific approach to understanding society. Comte's positivism advocated for the application of scientific methods to study social phenomena.

3. **Classical Sociological Theorists (19th century):** The 19th century saw the emergence of classical sociological theorists who significantly shaped the discipline. Karl Marx, Max Weber, and Emile Durkheim are among the key figures. Marx focused on the role of economic structures and class struggle, Weber examined the impact of religion and bureaucracy, and Durkheim explored social order and the division of labor.

4. **Early 20th Century and Development of Schools of Thought:** The early 20th century witnessed the development of various schools of thought within sociology. Symbolic Interactionism, Functionalism, and Conflict Theory were among the prominent perspectives. The Chicago School, known for its emphasis on urban sociology and qualitative research methods, also emerged during this period.

5. **Mid-20th Century and Structural-Functionalism:** Structural-functionalism became a dominant paradigm in mid-20th-century sociology. Talcott Parsons and Robert K. Merton were influential figures associated with this perspective, which focused on understanding how institutions and structures contribute to social stability.

6. **1960s and 1970s - Rise of Critical Perspectives:** The 1960s and 1970s marked a shift in sociological thinking with the rise of critical perspectives. The Frankfurt School, symbolic interactionism, and feminist sociology challenged established norms and structures, fostering a more critical and reflexive approach to social analysis.

7. **Late 20th Century - Postmodernism and Globalization:** In the late 20th century, postmodernism gained prominence, challenging the grand narratives of traditional sociology. The discipline also increasingly engaged with issues of globalization, migration, and cultural diversity.

8. **Contemporary Sociology:** Sociology continues to evolve, adapting to new challenges and incorporating insights from various disciplines. Contemporary topics include the sociology of technology, environmental sociology, and the study of intersectionality, among others.

Throughout its evolution, sociology has expanded its scope to encompass a wide range of topics, methodologies, and theoretical perspectives, making it a dynamic and diverse field of study."
[{2023-11-22 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/310fd412-408a-4a4e-be33-51e9a0671622]

">evolution of sociology:
The evolution of sociology can be traced back to the 18th century, when Enlightenment thinkers began to question traditional explanations of social order and to seek new ways of understanding the human world. Some of the key figures in the early development of sociology include:
* **Auguste Comte (1798-1857)**, who coined the term "sociology" and argued that society should be studied using scientific methods.
* **Harriet Martineau (1802-1876)**, who introduced sociology to English-speaking audiences through her translations of Comte's work.
* **Karl Marx (1818-1883)**, who developed a theory of social class and conflict that remains influential today.
* **Ιmile Durkheim (1858-1917)**, who studied the social functions of religion and other institutions.
* **Max Weber (1864-1920)**, who analyzed the relationship between power, authority, and bureaucracy.

In the 20th century, sociology continued to grow and diversify, with new theoretical perspectives emerging and new research methods being developed. Some of the major trends in sociology during this period include:
* **The rise of functionalism**, which emphasizes the way in which different parts of society work together to maintain social order.
* **The development of symbolic interactionism**, which focuses on the way in which people create and interpret meaning through their interactions with others.
* **The emergence of conflict theory**, which argues that society is divided into competing groups with different interests.
* **The growth of feminist sociology**, which challenges traditional assumptions about gender and power.
* **The increasing importance of globalization**, which has led to a focus on transnational social phenomena.

Today, sociology is a vibrant and diverse discipline that is used to study a wide range of social phenomena, from the micro-level interactions of individuals to the macro-level structures of societies. Sociologists use a variety of methods to conduct research, including quantitative and qualitative data, surveys, experiments, and ethnography."
[{2023-11-22 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/46f2dfe5ab3ea020?hl=en&pli=1]

name::
* McsEngl.evoluting-of-sciSoc,
* McsEngl.sciSoc'evoluting,

sciSoc.histrorical-materialism

description::
"Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895): Developed the influential theory of historical materialism, which analyzes social structures and conflicts in relation to economic production"
[{2023-11-23 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/d6492aa090087c09?hl=en&pli=1]
">historical materialism:
Historical materialism is a concept and method developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels as a key component of Marxist theory. It serves as the foundation for understanding historical development and societal change within the framework of material conditions and economic structures.

Key principles of historical materialism include:

1. **Materialism:** Historical materialism is rooted in a materialist view of history. This means that the driving force behind historical change is the development of the material conditions of society, particularly the means of production and the economic base. In other words, the way in which a society produces and reproduces the material necessities of life shapes its social, political, and cultural structures.

2. **Mode of Production:** The concept of the mode of production refers to the specific economic system and the way in which goods and services are produced and distributed within a society. Historical materialism identifies different historical epochs based on distinct modes of production, such as feudalism, capitalism, and socialism.

3. **Dialectical Development:** Historical materialism is dialectical in nature, drawing on Hegelian dialectics. It sees history as a process of contradictions, conflicts, and transformations. The dialectical method involves the interplay of opposing forces (thesis and antithesis) leading to a synthesis, which then becomes a new thesis in an ongoing process.

4. **Class Struggle:** The dynamics of historical change are closely tied to class struggle. In each historical epoch, there are social classes with conflicting interests, and much of history is seen as the result of these class struggles. Marx and Engels famously stated in the Communist Manifesto, "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles."

5. **Base and Superstructure:** Historical materialism introduces the concept of the economic base and the superstructure. The economic base consists of the means of production (technology, factories, etc.) and the relations of production (social relations surrounding production). The superstructure includes the political, legal, cultural, and ideological institutions that arise on the basis of the economic base.

By applying historical materialism, Marx and Engels aimed to analyze and understand the development of societies and to identify the underlying economic forces that shape human history. It has been a foundational element of Marxist analysis and has influenced various fields of social science and historical studies."
[{2023-11-23 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/3a87bfbe-15fd-4767-8f9c-00cab731c023]

name::
* McsEngl.histrorical-materialism,
* McsEngl.sciSoc.histrorical-materialism,

sciSoc.structural-functionalism

description::
">structural-functionalism:
Structural-functionalism is a sociological theory that views society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. It is one of the oldest and most influential sociological theories, and it has been used to explain a wide range of social phenomena, including social stratification, crime, and education.

**Key concepts of structural-functionalism**
* **Society is a complex system made up of interconnected parts.** Just as the human body is made up of different organs that work together to keep the body functioning, society is made up of different social institutions, such as the family, the economy, and the government. Each of these institutions has its own specific function, and they all work together to maintain the stability of society as a whole.
* **Each part of society contributes to the overall functioning of the whole.** Every social institution, norm, and value has a function to perform in society. For example, the family provides socialization and emotional support for its members, the economy produces goods and services, and the government provides law and order.
* **Social structures and institutions are relatively stable and enduring.** Social structures and institutions are not constantly changing, and they are resistant to change. This is because they are deeply embedded in society's culture and values.
* **Social change is a gradual process that occurs as society adapts to new conditions.** When new conditions arise, such as new technologies or new social movements, society must adapt in order to maintain stability. This process of adaptation can be slow and gradual, and it can sometimes lead to conflict.
* **Social norms and values provide a framework for social behavior.** Social norms are the rules of behavior that are expected of members of a society. Social values are the beliefs that are shared by members of a society about what is good and bad, right and wrong. Social norms and values provide a framework for social behavior, and they help to maintain social order.
* **Social conflict is a natural part of society and can lead to positive change.** Social conflict is inevitable in any society, as different groups with different interests compete for resources and power. However, social conflict can also be a source of positive change, as it can lead to the development of new ideas and the reform of unjust social institutions.

**Criticisms of structural-functionalism**
Structural-functionalism has been criticized for a number of reasons. Some critics argue that it is too conservative and that it does not take into account the role of conflict and change in society. Others argue that it is too deterministic and that it does not allow for individual agency. Still others argue that it is too focused on the macro level of society and that it does not pay enough attention to the micro level of individual interaction.

Despite these criticisms, structural-functionalism remains an influential sociological theory. It provides a useful framework for understanding how societies function, and it has been used to make important contributions to our understanding of a wide range of social phenomena."
[{2023-11-23 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/40dcd4d4eeae1f2d?hl=en&pli=1]

name::
* McsEngl.sciSoc.structural-functionalism,
* McsEngl.structural-functionalism,

sciSoc.symbolic-interactionism

description::
"Symbolic Interactionism: Developed by George Herbert Mead and Herbert Blumer, focuses on micro-level social interactions and how individuals interpret and create meaning through symbols and communication."
[{2023-11-23 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/d6492aa090087c09?hl=en&pli=1]
">symbolic interactionism:
Symbolic interactionism is a sociological perspective that emphasizes the role of symbols in human interaction and society. It argues that individuals create meaning through the interpretation of symbols, and that these meanings shape their behavior and interactions with others.

**Key Principles of Symbolic Interactionism**
* **Humans are symbol-using animals.** We use symbols, such as words, gestures, and objects, to communicate with each other and to make sense of the world around us.
* **Symbols have subjective meanings.** The meaning of a symbol is not inherent in the symbol itself, but rather in the way that individuals interpret it.
* **Meaning is created and negotiated through social interaction.** As we interact with others, we learn the meanings that they attach to symbols, and we also influence the meanings that they attach to symbols.
* **Meaning is dynamic and ever-changing.** The meanings of symbols can change over time, as well as with different social contexts.

**How Symbolic Interactionism Explains Social Behavior**
Symbolic interactionism suggests that our behavior is not simply determined by our biology or our environment, but also by the meanings that we attach to things. For example, the meaning of a wedding ring is different for each individual who wears one. For some, it represents commitment and love, while for others, it may represent a social obligation or a way to fit in with their friends and family.
**Symbolic interactionism can also be used to explain social change.** For example, the rise of feminism has been accompanied by a change in the meaning of gender roles. Women are now more likely to work outside the home and to hold positions of power. This change has been influenced by the interactions between women and men, as well as by the changing meanings of symbols such as the word "feminism".

**Examples of Symbolic Interactionism**
* **The meaning of a handshake.** In many cultures, a handshake is a gesture of greeting or farewell. It can also be a way to show respect or to seal a deal.
* **The meaning of a police officer's uniform.** When we see a police officer's uniform, we are likely to feel a sense of authority and power. This is because we have learned to interpret the uniform as a symbol of the police force.
* **The meaning of a brand logo.** Brands use logos to create a sense of identity and to build relationships with consumers. For example, the Nike swoosh is a symbol of quality and athleticism.

**Criticisms of Symbolic Interactionism**
Symbolic interactionism has been criticized for being too individualistic and for not taking into account the power structures that exist in society. Some critics argue that the theory does not explain how large-scale social change occurs.

**Despite these criticisms, symbolic interactionism is a valuable tool for understanding human behavior and society. It helps us to see how individuals and groups create meaning through their interactions, and how these meanings shape their actions and the social world around them.**

**Additional Resources**
* **Symbolic Interactionism: An Introduction to Social Psychology by Peter J. Burke**
* **The Self and Society by Charles Horton Cooley**
* **Interactionism: Dramaturgy, Symbolic Interactionism, and Ethnomethodology by Randall Collins**"
[{2023-11-23 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/7c088cd5ecf7e426?hl=en&pli=1]

name::
* McsEngl.sciSoc.symbolic-interactionism,
* McsEngl.symbolic-interactionism,

sciSoc.conflict-theory

description::
">conflict theory:
Conflict theory is a sociological perspective that views society as a system characterized by power dynamics, inequality, and the inevitable presence of conflict. It emphasizes the role of social inequality, competition for resources, and class struggle in shaping the social order.

**Key Assumptions of Conflict Theory:**
1. **Limited Resources:** Society has a limited supply of resources, such as wealth, power, and social status.
2. **Differential Access to Resources:** Individuals and groups have unequal access to these resources, leading to social inequality.
3. **Conflict as a Driving Force:** Conflict arises from competition for resources and the desire to maintain or improve one's social position.
4. **Power Dynamics:** Power is concentrated in the hands of certain groups, enabling them to control resources and influence social structures.
5. **Social Change:** Conflict can lead to social change as groups strive to challenge the status quo and redistribute resources more equitably.

**Key Concepts of Conflict Theory:**
1. **Class Conflict:** The struggle between social classes, particularly between the ruling class (bourgeoisie) and the working class (proletariat).
2. **Ideology:** Sets of beliefs and ideas that justify the existing social order and reinforce the power of dominant groups.
3. **Hegemony:** The dominance of a particular social group's ideology, which shapes the norms, values, and beliefs of society.
4. **Social Movements:** Organized efforts by groups to challenge the status quo and bring about social change.

**Contributions of Conflict Theory:**
1. **Understanding Social Inequality:** Conflict theory provides a framework for analyzing the causes and consequences of social inequality.
2. **Exposing Power Dynamics:** It highlights the role of power in shaping social structures and maintaining inequality.
3. **Explaining Social Change:** It suggests that conflict can drive social change and lead to a more just society.
4. **Criticizing Existing Institutions:** It challenges the legitimacy of existing institutions and power structures.

**Criticisms of Conflict Theory:**
1. **Overemphasis on Conflict:** Critics argue that conflict theory oversimplifies social interactions and ignores cooperation and social harmony.
2. **Economic Determinism:** Some argue that conflict theory places too much emphasis on economic factors and overlooks other causes of social inequality.
3. **Neglect of Agency:** Critics suggest that conflict theory underestimates the agency of individuals and groups to challenge the status quo.
4. **Lack of Specific Predictions:** Conflict theory may offer broad explanations but may lack clear predictions about specific social outcomes.

Despite its criticisms, conflict theory remains a valuable perspective in sociology, providing insights into the causes of social inequality, the role of power, and the dynamics of social change. By understanding the conflicts that shape society, we can better address issues of inequality and strive for a more just and equitable world."
[{2023-11-23 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/8f02deb2b5a07112?hl=en&pli=1]

name::
* McsEngl.conflict-theory,
* McsEngl.sciSoc.conflict-theory,

sciSoc.postmodernism

description::
">postmodernism:
Postmodernism is a complex and often contested intellectual and cultural movement that emerged in the mid-20th century, particularly in the fields of philosophy, art, literature, and sociology. It represents a departure from the modernist approaches that characterized much of the 19th and early 20th centuries. While postmodernism encompasses a diverse range of ideas, there are some common themes and characteristics associated with this movement:

1. **Rejection of Grand Narratives:** Postmodernism challenges the notion of overarching, "grand narratives" that claim to explain the entirety of human history or society. Instead, it emphasizes the existence of multiple, fragmented, and often conflicting narratives.

2. **Deconstruction:** Postmodernism is often associated with the deconstruction of texts and ideas. This involves examining the assumptions and contradictions within a text or concept, questioning fixed meanings, and highlighting the fluidity of language and interpretation.

3. **Relativism:** Postmodernism is characterized by a skepticism toward universal truths or objective reality. Instead, it tends to emphasize the subjective nature of experience and the idea that truth is contingent on individual perspectives.

4. **Cultural Hybridity and Pluralism:** Postmodernism celebrates cultural diversity and challenges the notion of a singular, dominant culture. It acknowledges the hybridity of cultures, often resulting from globalization and the mixing of different cultural elements.

5. **Hyperreality:** Postmodern thinkers, influenced by Jean Baudrillard, have explored the concept of hyperreality, where the boundary between reality and simulation becomes blurred. This is often associated with the influence of media and technology on our perceptions of the world.

6. **Distrust of Metanarratives:** Postmodernism is skeptical of metanarratives—comprehensive and totalizing explanations of historical or social phenomena. This skepticism extends to ideologies and systems of power, challenging their legitimacy.

7. **Fragmentation and Discontinuity:** Postmodernism often portrays the world as fragmented and discontinuous. This can be seen in art, literature, and philosophy where traditional narrative structures are disrupted, and elements are presented in a fragmented or non-linear fashion.

8. **Consumer Culture Critique:** Some postmodernists critique consumer culture, arguing that it commodifies experiences and blurs the line between reality and commercial simulation.

It's important to note that postmodernism is a term that encompasses a wide range of perspectives and can be interpreted in various ways. It has been influential not only in academia but also in art, architecture, literature, and popular culture. However, it has also faced criticism for its perceived relativism and rejection of objective truth. The debate around the merits and drawbacks of postmodernism continues to shape discussions in multiple disciplines."
[{2023-11-23 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/310fd412-408a-4a4e-be33-51e9a0671622]

name::
* McsEngl.postmodernism,
* McsEngl.sciSoc.postmodernism,

sciSoc.Frankfurt-school

description::
">critical-theory and Frankfurt-school:
Critical theory and the Frankfurt School are closely intertwined concepts, with the Frankfurt School being a primary driver in the development and evolution of critical theory. Here's an overview of how they relate to each other:
### Frankfurt School
1. **Origins**: The Frankfurt School, officially known as the Institute for Social Research, was founded in 1923 at the University of Frankfurt, Germany. It became a hub for scholars who were critical of traditional forms of social and political thought, particularly those based on positivist, materialist, or deterministic models.
2. **Key Figures**: Prominent members included Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse, Walter Benjamin, and later, Jürgen Habermas. These thinkers brought diverse perspectives, blending elements of Marxism, psychoanalysis, sociology, and philosophy.
3. **Exile and Influence**: The rise of the Nazi regime forced many of its members into exile, primarily to the United States, where they continued their scholarship. This experience deeply influenced their thought, particularly their understanding of authority, culture, and mass media.
### Critical Theory
1. **Definition**: Critical theory refers to a range of theoretical perspectives which critique society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities. It seeks to understand the mechanisms of power and oppression and aims to bring about societal change.
2. **Roots in Marxism**: Initially, critical theory was deeply rooted in Marxist thought, aiming to understand and critique the capitalist system and its socio-economic structures. However, it evolved to incorporate a broader range of issues including culture, ideology, and identity.
3. **Key Concepts**: Critical theory covers topics like the critique of modernity and rationality, the role of mass culture and the media in shaping society, the dynamics of power and oppression, and the possibilities for emancipation and freedom.
### Interrelation Between Critical Theory and the Frankfurt School
- **Frankfurt School as a Progenitor**: The Frankfurt School is often seen as the birthplace of critical theory. The theorists associated with the Frankfurt School developed an approach that went beyond traditional Marxist analysis, incorporating insights from other disciplines and focusing on cultural and ideological critique.
- **Evolution of Critical Theory**: While the Frankfurt School laid the groundwork, critical theory has since expanded and diversified. Contemporary critical theorists may not directly align with the Frankfurt School's original ideas but are influenced by their approach to social critique and their interdisciplinary methodology.
- **Legacy and Relevance**: The legacy of the Frankfurt School is evident in the ongoing relevance of critical theory in various fields like sociology, cultural studies, political theory, and philosophy. It continues to inspire analyses of contemporary issues such as consumerism, digital media, and identity politics.
In summary, while the Frankfurt School represents a specific group and historical context, critical theory is a broader intellectual tradition that grew out of the Frankfurt School's work and continues to evolve."
[{2024-01-12 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/f9f44eaa-862a-4924-8f52-7f60c80c9115]

name::
* McsEngl.Frankfurt-school,
* McsEngl.sciSoc.Frankfurt-school,

evoluting of Frankfurt-school

description::
">timeline of Frankfurt-school:
The Frankfurt School refers to a group of theorists and philosophers associated with the Institute for Social Research at the University of Frankfurt, Germany, which was founded in 1923. Here's a brief timeline highlighting key moments in the history of the Frankfurt School:
1. **1923**: The Institute for Social Research is established in Frankfurt, Germany. It's initially linked to the University of Frankfurt.
2. **1930s**: With the rise of the Nazi regime in Germany, many members of the Frankfurt School, most of whom were Jewish and Marxist, fled Germany. The school's focus shifted more towards a critique of Western society, influenced by their experiences of fascism and later, the rise of consumer culture in the United States.
3. **1933**: After Hitler's rise to power, the Institute was closed in Germany. However, its members continued their work in exile, primarily in the United States, where they affiliated with Columbia University in New York.
4. **1940s-1950s**: The School's members, including Max Horkheimer, Theodor W. Adorno, and Herbert Marcuse, wrote extensively during this period. Key works include Horkheimer and Adorno's "Dialectic of Enlightenment" (1947), which is critical of the Enlightenment's role in establishing conditions for totalitarianism.
5. **1960s**: This period saw the rise of Herbert Marcuse as a significant figure. His works, such as "One-Dimensional Man" (1964), critiqued the consumer culture and technological rationality of advanced industrial societies, influencing the 1960s counterculture movements.
6. **1970s and Beyond**: The Frankfurt School's influence continued in various forms, with later theorists like Jürgen Habermas contributing significantly to critical theory. Habermas's work, notably "The Theory of Communicative Action" (1981), shifted the focus towards communicative rationality and the public sphere.
7. **21st Century**: The Frankfurt School's legacy persists in contemporary critical theory, influencing various fields including sociology, philosophy, cultural studies, and political theory. Its critique of culture, capitalism, and authoritarianism remains relevant to various social and political analyses.
The Frankfurt School is notable for its interdisciplinary approach, combining philosophy, social theory, and cultural analysis to critique contemporary society, focusing on issues like authority, identity, culture, and media."
[{2024-01-12 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/f9f44eaa-862a-4924-8f52-7f60c80c9115]

name::
* McsEngl.Frankfurt-school'evoluting,
* McsEngl.evoluting-of-Frankfurt-school,

structure of society

description::
* satisfier-subsystem,
* household-subsystem,

name::
* McsEngl.society'structure,

DOING of society

name::
* McsEngl.society'doing,

description::
* governing,
* satisfiring,

evoluting of society

description::
">evolution of human-society:
The evolution of human society is a complex and multifaceted process that spans thousands of years. It involves changes in social structures, cultural practices, technology, and economic systems. Here is a simplified overview of the key stages in the evolution of human society:

1. **Hunter-Gatherer Societies (Prehistoric Era):**
- **Timeline:** Approximately 2.5 million years ago to around 10,000 BCE.
- **Characteristics:** Small, nomadic groups that relied on hunting, fishing, and gathering for sustenance. Social structures were often egalitarian.

2. **Agricultural Revolution:**
- **Timeline:** Around 10,000 BCE.
- **Characteristics:** Transition from nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyles to settled agricultural communities. The development of agriculture led to the rise of permanent settlements, surplus food production, and the establishment of social hierarchies.

3. **Ancient Civilizations:**
- **Timeline:** Various periods in different regions, but generally from around 3000 BCE to 500 CE.
- **Characteristics:** The emergence of complex societies with centralized political structures, written languages, and advanced technologies. Examples include Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley, China, Greece, and Rome.

4. **Medieval Feudalism:**
- **Timeline:** Approximately 500 CE to 1500 CE.
- **Characteristics:** Feudal societies characterized by a hierarchical structure with kings, lords, and serfs. Economic and social life centered around manors, and power was often decentralized.

5. **Renaissance and Enlightenment:**
- **Timeline:** 14th to 18th centuries.
- **Characteristics:** A period of renewed interest in science, art, philosophy, and humanism. The Enlightenment emphasized reason, individual rights, and the pursuit of knowledge.

6. **Industrial Revolution:**
- **Timeline:** 18th to 19th centuries.
- **Characteristics:** Shift from agrarian and handcraft-based economies to industrialized, machine-driven production. This led to urbanization, changes in labor systems, and significant social and economic transformations.

7. **Modern Era and Globalization:**
- **Timeline:** 20th century to the present.
- **Characteristics:** Rapid technological advancements, the spread of democracy, increased globalization, and the rise of information technology. Significant social and cultural changes, including civil rights movements, women's rights, and the digital revolution.

8. **Information Age:**
- **Timeline:** Late 20th century to the present.
- **Characteristics:** The proliferation of information technology, the internet, and digital communication. This era is marked by increased connectivity, access to information, and changes in how societies function and communicate.

9. **Contemporary Challenges:**
- **Characteristics:** Ongoing issues include globalization's impact on inequality, environmental challenges, geopolitical tensions, and the ethical implications of rapidly advancing technologies like artificial intelligence and biotechnology.

It's important to note that these stages are broad generalizations, and different regions of the world experienced these changes at different times and in varying ways. Additionally, societies often exhibit characteristics of multiple stages simultaneously, as the evolution of human society is a dynamic and ongoing process."
[{2023-11-24 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/797a4d40-86ea-4b09-94dc-12dccf18214d]

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg!=evoluting-of-human-society,
* McsEngl.society'evoluting!⇒Socevg,

{2019-12-26}::
=== McsHitp-creation:
· creation of current concept.

creation of society

description::
· the-process of creation of a-new society.
* international-recognition,
* decolonization,
* dissolution,
* independence movement,

name::
* McsEngl.society'att056-creation,
* McsEngl.society'creation,

dissolution of society

description::
· the-end of existance of a-society.

name::
* McsEngl.society'att057-dissolution,
* McsEngl.society'demise,
* McsEngl.society'dissolution,

millennium-3000-{2001..3000} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i1000-3000,

century-2100-{2001..2100} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-2100,

decade-2030-{2021..2030} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i10-2030,

{2030i10}-society.new::
*
* McsEngl.{2030i10}-society'new,

decade-2020-{2011..2020} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i10-2020,

{i10-2020}-society.new::
* {2011-07-09}⇨South-Sudan⇨Separation of Southern Sudan from Sudan
* {2014-09-21}⇨Yemen⇨Houthis seized control of the bulk of the former North Yemen territory and its capital Sana'a
* {2020-04-26}⇨Yemen⇨Southern Transitional Council declares self-governance of Socotra and some areas controlled by the former PDR Yemen
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]

* McsEngl.{2020i10}-society'new,

decade-2010-{2001..2010} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i10-2010,

{i10-2010}-society.new::
* {2002-05-20}⇨Timor-Leste⇨Independence was recognized by the international community following the UN-sponsored act of self-determination of 1999
* {2006-06-03}⇨Montenegro⇨Declaration of independence from Serbia and Montenegro
* {2006}⇨Serbia⇨Independence restored
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* {2008-02-17}⇨Kosovo⇨unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia.[12] It has since gained diplomatic recognition as a sovereign state by 98 UN member states.
[{2020-12-09} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosovo]
* McsEngl.{2010i10}-society'new,

millennium-2000-{1001..2000} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i1000-2000,

century-2000-{1901..2000} of society

{i100-2000}-society::
* about 150 new societies created, and about ? dissolved,
* {1991} the-WORLD-WIDE-WEB available to general public,
* {1971-08-15} president Nixon stopped conversion of dollar to gold,
* {1969-07-20} the-United-States'-Apollo-11 was the first crewed-mission that landed on the-MOON,.
* {1945} ENIAC the first digital electronic programmable turing-complete COMPUTER,
* {1939..1945} second world-war,
* {1922..1991} existed the-Union-of-Soviet-Socialist-Republics,
* {1914..1918} first world-war,
* {1903-12-17} the first flight of AIRPLANE, the Wright Flyer,
* McsEngl.{2000i100}-society,

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-2000,

decade-2000-{1991..2000} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i10-2000,

{i10-2000}-society.new::
* {1991-04-09}⇨Georgia⇨Independence from the Soviet Union declared
* {1991-04-29}⇨Albania⇨Socialist People's Republic of Albania was replaced by the Republic of Albania
* {1991-05-15}⇨Germany⇨Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany ends the Four Power occupation
* {1991-05-18}⇨Somalia⇨Somaliland declares independence, but is not recognized by any UN state
* {1991-06-25}⇨Slovenia⇨Declaration of independence from Yugoslavia
* {1991-08-20}⇨Estonia⇨Independence (from Soviet-Union) reasserted, end of occupation
* {1991-08-24}⇨Ukraine⇨from Soviet-Union
* {1991-08-25}⇨Belarus⇨Independence recognized by Soviet-Union
* {1991-08-27}⇨Moldova⇨Independence from Soviet-Union
* {1991-08-31}⇨Kyrgyzstan⇨from Soviet-Union
* {1991-08-31}⇨Uzbekistan⇨from Soviet-Union declared
* {1991-09-08}⇨North-Macedonia⇨After a referendum, the Socialist Republic of Macedonia declared independence from Yugoslavia
* {1991-09-09}⇨Tajikistan⇨from Soviet-Union
* {1991-09-21}⇨Armenia⇨Independence recognized by Soviet-Union
* {1991-10-08}⇨Croatia⇨Independence from SFR-Yugoslavia
* {1991-10-18}⇨Azerbaijan⇨Declaration of independence from Soviet-Union
* {1991-10-27}⇨Turkmenistan⇨from Soviet-Union
* {1991-11-28}⇨Georgia⇨South Ossetia unilaterally declared independence
* {1991-12-16}⇨Kazakhstan⇨Independence declared from Soviet-Union
* {1992-03-03}⇨Bosnia-and-Herzegovina⇨Independence declared from the SFR Yugoslavia
* {1992-07-23}⇨Georgia⇨Abkhazia unilaterally declared independence
* {1992}⇨Serbia⇨Serbia and Montenegro
* {1993-01-01}⇨Czech-Republic⇨Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, creating Czech Republic and Slovakia
* {1993-01-01}⇨Slovakia⇨Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, creating Slovakia and Czech Republic
* {1993-05-24}⇨Eritrea⇨from Ethiopia declared
* {1994-10-01}⇨Palau⇨Emerged from United Nations trusteeship (administered by the United States)
* {1996-11-28}⇨Belarus⇨Constitutional amendment abolishes the Supreme Soviet and establishes the National Assembly
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{2000i10}-society'new,

decade-1990-{1981..1990} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i10-1990,

{i10-1990}-society.new::
* {1981-09-21}⇨Belize⇨from UK
* {1983-09-19}⇨Saint-Kitts-and-Nevis⇨from UK
* {1983-11-15}⇨Cyprus⇨Northern Cyprus declares independence. The government has de facto control of the northern part of the island, but is only recognised by Turkey
* {1984-01-01}⇨Brunei⇨Brunei regains its independence after an agreement with the British on 4 January 1979
* {1986-10-21}⇨Marshall-Islands⇨Compact of Free Association with the United States
* {1986-11-03}⇨Federated-States-of-Micronesia⇨Compact of Free Association with the United States
* {1988-11-15}⇨Palestine⇨Palestinian Declaration of Independence
* {1989-09-26}⇨Cambodia⇨Becomes free from Vietnamese occupation; it gets back its name instead of the People's Republic of Kampuchea
* {1989-10-23}⇨Hungary⇨People's Republic of Hungary was replaced by the Republic of Hungary
* {1989-11-10}⇨Bulgaria⇨People's Republic of Bulgaria was replaced by the Republic of Bulgaria
* {1990-03-11}⇨Lithuania⇨Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania independence (from Soviet-Union) reasserted, end of occupation
* {1990-03-21}⇨Namibia⇨from South African rule
* {1990-05-04}⇨Latvia⇨Independence (from Soviet-Union) reasserted
* {1990-05-22}⇨Yemen⇨Unification of North Yemen and South Yemen
* {1990-06-12}⇨Russia⇨Russian SFSR declares sovereignty over its own territory
* {1990-07-27}⇨Belarus⇨Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic
* {1990-10-03}⇨Germany⇨Reunification of West Germany and East Germany
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{1990i10}-society'new,

decade-1980-{1971..1980} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i10-1980,

{i10-1980}-society.new::
* {1971-03-26}⇨Bangladesh⇨from Pakistan declared
* {1971-08-15}⇨Bahrain⇨End of treaties with the UK
* {1971-12-02}⇨United-Arab-Emirates⇨End of treaty relationship with the UK
* {1973-09-24}⇨Guinea-Bissau⇨from Portugal declared
* {1973-12-01}⇨Papua-New-Guinea⇨Self-governing territory
* {1974-02-07}⇨Grenada⇨Full independence from UK
* {1974-07-23}⇨Cyprus⇨Establishment of the United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus
* {1974-09-10}⇨Guinea-Bissau⇨from Portugal recognized
* {1975-06-25}⇨Mozambique⇨from Portugal
* {1975-07-05}⇨Cabo-Verde⇨from Portugal
* {1975-07-06}⇨Comoros⇨from France declared
* {1975-07-12}⇨Sγo-Tomι-and-Prνncipe⇨from Portugal
* {1975-09-16}⇨Papua-New-Guinea⇨Independence from Australia
* {1975-11-11}⇨Angola⇨from Portugal
* {1975-11-25}⇨Suriname⇨from Netherlands
* {1975-11-28}⇨Timor-Leste⇨East Timor declares its independence but was suppressed by the Indonesian invasion
* {1975-12-02}⇨Laos⇨Lao-PDR formed
* {1976-01-02}⇨Solomon-Islands⇨Self-government granted by UK
* {1976-06-29}⇨Seychelles⇨from UK
* {1976-07-02}⇨Vietnam⇨Reunification of North Vietnam and South Vietnam as Socialist Republic of Vietnam
* {1977-06-27}⇨Djibouti⇨from France
* {1978-07-07}⇨Solomon-Islands⇨from UK
* {1978-10-01}⇨Tuvalu⇨from UK
* {1978-11-03}⇨Dominica⇨from UK
* {1979-02-11}⇨Iran⇨Iranian Revolution ends monarchism and establishes an Islamic Republic
* {1979-02-22}⇨Saint-Lucia⇨from UK
* {1979-07-12}⇨Kiribati⇨from UK
* {1979-10-27}⇨Saint-Vincent-and-the-Grenadines⇨from UK
* {1980-04-18}⇨Zimbabwe⇨Recognized independence from UK as Zimbabwe
* {1980-07-30}⇨Vanuatu⇨Independence from joint British-French condominium
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{1980i10}-society'new,

decade-1970-{1961..1970} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i10-1970,

{i10-1970}-society.new::
* {1961-04-27}⇨Sierra-Leone⇨from UK
* {1961-09-28}⇨Egypt⇨De facto disestablishment of the United Arab Republic following a military coup in Damascus
* {1961-09-28}⇨Syria⇨End of the United Arab Republic
* {1961-12-09}⇨Tanzania⇨Independence of Tanganyika from UK
* {1962-06-01}⇨Samoa⇨Independence from New Zealand
* {1962-07-01}⇨Burundi⇨from Belgium
* {1962-07-01}⇨Nigeria⇨from Belgium
* {1962-07-05}⇨Algeria⇨from France
* {1962-08-06}⇨Jamaica⇨from UK
* {1962-08-31}⇨Trinidad-and-Tobago⇨from UK
* {1962-10-09}⇨Uganda⇨from UK
* {1963-09-16}⇨Malaysia⇨Malaysia was formed by the federation of North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore with the existing States of the Federation of Malaya
* {1963-12-12}⇨Kenya⇨from UK
* {1964-01-01}⇨Belize⇨Self-governing colony
* {1964-01-07}⇨Bahamas⇨Internal self-governance granted
* {1964-07-06}⇨Malawi⇨from UK
* {1964-09-21}⇨Malta⇨from UK
* {1964-10-24}⇨Zambia⇨from UK
* {1965-02-18}⇨Gambia⇨from UK
* {1965-07-26}⇨Maldives⇨from UK
* {1965-08-09}⇨Singapore⇨Establishment of Singapore as an independent sovereign state separate from and independent of Malaysia
* {1965-11-11}⇨Zimbabwe⇨Unilateral declaration of independence by Southern Rhodesia
* {1966-05-26}⇨Guyana⇨from UK
* {1966-09-30}⇨Botswana⇨from UK
* {1966-10-04}⇨Lesotho⇨from UK
* {1966-11-30}⇨Barbados⇨from UK
* {1967-11-30}⇨Yemen⇨South Yemen independence from UK
* {1967-12-01}⇨New-Zealand⇨Governor-General becomes a New Zealand appointment
* {1968-01-31}⇨Nauru⇨Independence from UN Trusteeship (Australian, British and New Zealand administration ends)
* {1968-03-12}⇨Mauritius⇨from UK
* {1968-09-06}⇨Eswatini-(Swaziland)⇨from UK
* {1968-10-12}⇨Equatorial-Guinea⇨from Spain
* {1970-07-04}⇨Tonga⇨from UK
* {1970-10-10}⇨Fiji⇨from UK
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{1970i10}-society'new,

decade-1960-{1951..1960} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i10-1960,

{i10-1960}-society.new::
* {1951-12-24}⇨Libya⇨from UN Trusteeship (British and French administration after Italian governance ends in 1947)
* {1953-09-09}⇨Cambodia⇨France grants Cambodia independence
* {1953-10-22}⇨Laos⇨from France
* {1954-01-01}⇨Germany⇨German Democratic Republic (commonly referred to at the time as East Germany) declared fully sovereign
* {1954-12-15}⇨Suriname⇨Self-government granted
* {1955-05-05}⇨Germany⇨Federal Republic of Germany (commonly referred to at the time as West Germany) declared fully sovereign
* {1955-05-15}⇨Austria⇨Austrian Independence Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state
* {1955-11-18}⇨Morocco⇨Protectorate abolished
* {1956-01-01}⇨Sudan⇨from Egyptian and British joint rule
* {1956-03-20}⇨Tunisia⇨from France
* {1956-04-07}⇨Morocco⇨Recognition of independence by the French protectorate
* {1956-12-13}⇨Ghana⇨Union of British Togoland with Gold Coast
* {1957-03-06}⇨Ghana⇨from UK
* {1957-08-31}⇨Malaysia⇨Malayan Independence from UK was declared in Dataran Merdeka (Independence Square)
* {1958-10-02}⇨Guinea⇨from France
* {1958-10-14}⇨Madagascar⇨The Malagasy Republic was created as autonomous state within French Community
* {1958-12-04}⇨Cote-d'Ivoire⇨Autonomous republic within French Community
* {1958-12-04}⇨Niger⇨Autonomy within French Community
* {1959-01-01}⇨Cuba⇨Cuban Revolution
* {1959-12-31}⇨Vietnam⇨North Vietnam declared a socialist republic
* {1960-01-01}⇨Cameroon⇨from France
* {1960-04-27}⇨Togo⇨from France
* {1960-06-26}⇨Madagascar⇨France recognizes Madagascar's independence
* {1960-06-30}⇨Democratic-Republic-of-Congo⇨from Belgium
* {1960-08-01}⇨Benin⇨from France
* {1960-08-03}⇨Niger⇨from France
* {1960-08-05}⇨Burkina-Faso⇨from France
* {1960-08-07}⇨Cote-d'Ivoire⇨from France
* {1960-08-11}⇨Chad⇨from France
* {1960-08-13}⇨Central-African-Republic⇨from France
* {1960-08-15}⇨Republic-of-Congo⇨from France
* {1960-08-16}⇨Cyprus⇨from UK
* {1960-08-17}⇨Gabon⇨from France
* {1960-08-20}⇨Senegal⇨from France
* {1960-09-22}⇨Mali⇨from France
* {1960-10-01}⇨Nigeria⇨from UK
* {1960-11-28}⇨Mauritania⇨from France
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{1960i10}-society'new,

decade-1950-{1941..1950} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i10-1950,

{i10-1950}-society.new::
* {1941-11-26}⇨Lebanon⇨from France declared
* {1943-11-22}⇨Lebanon⇨from France recognized
* {1943-11-25}⇨Bosnia-and-Herzegovina⇨Establishment of SR Bosnia in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
* {1943-11-25}⇨Montenegro⇨Establishment of SR Montenegro
* {1944-01-01}⇨Latvia⇨Abrene district ceded to Russian SFSR (modern Russia)
* {1944-08-02}⇨North-Macedonia⇨Establishment of SR-Macedonia
* {1945-01-01}⇨Estonia⇨De facto: Eastern coast of Narva river and most of Petseri County were transferred to Russian SFSR
* {1945-01-01}⇨Luxembourg⇨End of German occupation during World War II
* {1945-02-19}⇨Slovenia⇨Formation of SR-Slovenia
* {1945-08-17}⇨Indonesia⇨Indonesian Declaration of Independence from Netherlands
* {1946-04-17}⇨Syria⇨De facto Independence
* {1946-05-25}⇨Jordan⇨End of the British Mandate for Palestine
* {1946-07-04}⇨Philippines⇨The United States recognises independence under the provisions of the Treaty of Manila (1946). The 1935 Constitution remained in effect until 1973, when the Marcos regime promulgated a newer one, in turn replaced by the present 1987 Constitution
* {1946}⇨South-Korea⇨Japanese rule of Korea ends
* {1947-08-14}⇨Pakistan⇨from UK
* {1947-08-15}⇨India⇨from the British Empire
* {1947-11-25}⇨New-Zealand⇨Statute of Westminster adopted — Britain loses the power to legislate for New Zealand except by request
* {1947-12-10}⇨New-Zealand⇨Full power to amend own constitution
* {1948-01-04}⇨Myanmar⇨Myanmar (Burma) declares independence from the British Empire
* {1948-02-04}⇨Sri-Lanka⇨from UK
* {1948-05-14}⇨Israel⇨Democratic state of Israel
* {1948-08-15}⇨South-Korea⇨First Republic of Korea established, Independence declared from the United States
* {1948-09-09}⇨North-Korea⇨Declaration of the creation of North Korea. Kim Il-sung declared Premier of North Korea, establishing the still-ruling Kim dynasty. Independence declared from Soviet-Union
* {1949-04-18}⇨Ireland⇨Republic of Ireland Act 1948 terminates the functions of the British King in Ireland's diplomatic relations; domestic UK law purports that Ireland was one of the King's dominions until this date; Irish law does not accept this interpretation
* {1949-12-27}⇨Indonesia⇨Independence from the Netherlands recognized
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{1950i10}-society'new,

decade-1940-{1931..1940} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i10-1940,

{i10-1940}-society.new::
* {1931-12-11}⇨Ireland⇨Statute of Westminster confers legislative independence from UK
* {1931-12-11}⇨South-Africa⇨Statute of Westminster, which establishes a status of legislative equality between the self-governing dominion of the Union of South Africa and the UK
* {1932-09-23}⇨Saudi-Arabia⇨Regions of al-Hasa, Qatif, Nejd and Hejaz unified to become Saudi-Arabia
* {1932-10-03}⇨Iraq⇨Kingdom of Iraq
* {1935-11-30}⇨Philippines⇨The Commonwealth of the Philippines was established through provisions of the Tydings–McDuffie Act
* {1936-12-05}⇨Armenia⇨Establishment of the Armenian-SSR
* {1936-12-05}⇨Kazakhstan⇨Establishment of the Kazakh-SSR
* {1936-12-05}⇨Kyrgyzstan⇨Establishment of the Kirghiz-SSR
* {1938-07-27}⇨New-Zealand⇨Governor-General ceases to represent the British Government and becomes the personal representative of the King
* {1940-08-02}⇨Moldova⇨De jure: Moldavian-SSR formed
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{1940i10}-society'new,

decade-1930-{1921..1930} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i10-1930,

{i10-1930}-society.new::
* {1921-08-07}⇨Turkmenistan⇨Establishment of the Turkmen-SSR
* {1922-02-28}⇨Egypt⇨Unilateral recognition of independence by the UK but continued British military occupation
* {1922-02-28}⇨Egypt⇨from UK
* {1922-12-06}⇨Ireland⇨Irish Free State secedes from UK by agreement in accordance with the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty but remains a dominion of the British Empire
* {1922-12-06}⇨United-Kingdom⇨Irish Free State secedes from UK of Great Britain and Ireland by agreement in accordance with the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922, and Northern Ireland opts to exclude itself from the Free State two days later
* {1922-12-08}⇨Ireland⇨De facto: Northern Ireland secedes from the Irish Free State and rejoins the UK in accordance with the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922
* {1923-10-29}⇨Turkey⇨Turkey transitions into a republic from empire
* {1924-10-24}⇨Uzbekistan⇨Establishment of the Uzbek-SSR
* {1926-05-23}⇨Lebanon⇨Lebanese Republic formed
* {1926-10-25}⇨New-Zealand⇨Balfour Declaration of 1926 — Great Britain and the Dominions are “autonomous Communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs”
* {1929-06-07}⇨Vatican-City⇨Ratification of the Lateran Treaty, making the Vatican City a sovereign State
* {1929-12-05}⇨Tajikistan⇨Establishment of the Tajik-SSR
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{1930i10}-society'new,

decade-1920-{1911..1920} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i10-1920,

{i10-1920}-society.new::
* {1911-12-29}⇨Mongolia⇨Proclamation of Mongolian independence from Manchu's Qing Dynasty
* {1912-11-28}⇨Albania⇨Declaration of independence from Ottoman-Empire
* {1917-12-06}⇨Finland⇨Independence from Russian Empire declared
* {1918-01-03}⇨Finland⇨Independence from Russia recognized by the highest Soviet executive body, VTsIK
* {1918-01-22}⇨Ukraine⇨Independence of Ukrainian People's Republic from Russian Republic declared
* {1918-02-16}⇨Lithuania⇨Independence declared from Germany and Russia
* {1918-02-24}⇨Estonia⇨Independence declared from Russian-Empire
* {1918-05-26}⇨Georgia⇨Establishment of Democratic Republic of Georgia
* {1918-05-28}⇨Azerbaijan⇨Establishment of the Azerbaijan-Democratic-Republic
* {1918-11-01}⇨Yemen⇨North Yemen independence from the Ottoman-Empire
* {1918-11-12}⇨Austria⇨Declaration of the Republic of German-Austria
* {1918-11-18}⇨Latvia⇨Independence declared from Russia
* {1918-12-01}⇨Iceland⇨Iceland becomes sovereign and independent from Denmark as the Kingdom of Iceland but retains a personal union with the King of Denmark
* {1918}⇨Serbia⇨Yugoslavia
* {1919-01-21}⇨Ireland⇨Elected Irish Parliament Dαil Ιireann unilaterally declares Ireland's independence from UK
* {1919}⇨Afghanistan⇨Treaty of Rawalpindi ends British control of foreign policy
* {1920-04-28}⇨Azerbaijan⇨Establishment of the Azerbaijan-SSR
* {1920-06-15}⇨Denmark⇨Denmark proper: Sψnderjylland was recovered from Germany
* {1920-09-01}⇨Lebanon⇨France establishes State of Greater Lebanon with current boundaries
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{1920i10}-society'new,

decade-1910-{1901..1910} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i10-1910,

{i10-1910}-society.new::
* {1901-01-01}⇨Australia⇨from UK
* {1903-11-03}⇨Colombia⇨Separation of Panama from Colombia
* {1903-11-03}⇨Panama⇨Separation of Panama from Colombia, independence from Spain
* {1903-11-03}⇨Panama⇨from Colombia
* {1905-06-07}⇨Norway⇨Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden
* {1907-09-26}⇨New-Zealand⇨Granted nominal independence (Dominion status)
* {1908-09-22}⇨Bulgaria⇨Declaration of Independence
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{1910i10}-society'new,

century-1900-{1801..1900} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-1900,

{i100-1900}-society.new::
* {1801-01-01}⇨United-Kingdom⇨The Acts of Union united the two kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland to create the UK of Great Britain and Ireland
* {1804-01-01}⇨Haiti⇨The French colony Saint-Domingue gains independence as Haiti
* {1804-08-11}⇨Austria⇨Proclamation of the Austrian Empire
* {1804}⇨Serbia⇨Revolutionary Serbia
* {1809-08-10}⇨Ecuador⇨First declaration of Independence from Spain
* {1810-04-19}⇨Venezuela⇨from Spain declared
* {1810-07-20}⇨Colombia⇨Colombia declares independence from Spain
* {1810-07-20}⇨Colombia⇨Independence declared from Spain
* {1810-09-16}⇨Mexico⇨from Spain declared
* {1811-05-14}⇨Paraguay⇨from Spain declared
* {1814-01-01}⇨Norway⇨Dissolution of the union between Norway and Denmark
* {1814}⇨Andorra⇨from French-Empire
* {1815-08-24}⇨Netherlands⇨Adoption of the constitution of the UK of the Netherlands
* {1815}⇨Germany⇨German Confederation founded
* {1815}⇨Serbia⇨Principality of Serbia
* {1816-07-09}⇨Argentina⇨Argentine Declaration of Independence from Spain
* {1818-01-01}⇨Chile⇨Chilean Declaration of Independence from Spain
* {1819-08-07}⇨Colombia⇨Independence recognized by Spain
* {1821-03-25}⇨Greece⇨Greek Revolution starts
* {1821-07-28}⇨Peru⇨from Spain declared
* {1821-09-15}⇨Costa-Rica⇨Costa Rica declared independence from Spain
* {1821-09-27}⇨Mexico⇨Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire
* {1822-01-01}⇨Greece⇨First Hellenic Republic proclaimed
* {1825-08-06}⇨Bolivia⇨Bolivian War of Independence from Spain
* {1825-08-25}⇨Uruguay⇨from Empire of Brazil declared, joined in union with United Provinces of the River Plate (current Argentina)
* {1825-08-29}⇨Brazil⇨Independence recognized by Portugal
* {1828-08-27}⇨Uruguay⇨Treaty of Montevideo signed, recognizing Uruguay's independence by Brazil
* {1830-01-01}⇨Colombia⇨Dissolution of Gran Colombia
* {1830-01-13}⇨Venezuela⇨Dissolution of Gran Colombia
* {1830-02-03}⇨Greece⇨recognised by the London Protocol as Kingdom-of-Greece
* {1830-10-04}⇨Belgium⇨Independence was proclaimed by the provisonial government
* {1831-01-01}⇨Spain⇨Dissolution of crowns and kingdoms and creation de jure, of the unified Kingdom of Spain
* {1836-12-28}⇨Mexico⇨Declaration of Independence recognized by Spain
* {1838-10-26}⇨Honduras⇨from Federal Republic of Central America
* {1838-11-05}⇨Nicaragua⇨from Federal Republic of Central America
* {1839-04-17}⇨Guatemala⇨from Federal Republic of Central America declared
* {1839-04-19}⇨Luxembourg⇨Partition of Luxembourg under the Treaty of London
* {1841-02-18}⇨El-Salvador⇨El Salvador was internationally recognized
* {1844-02-27}⇨Dominican-Republic⇨The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti
* {1844-04-25}⇨Chile⇨Independence recognized by Spain
* {1844-07-21}⇨Bolivia⇨Independence recognized by Spain
* {1845-03-30}⇨Venezuela⇨Independence recognized by Spain
* {1847-07-26}⇨Liberia⇨from American Colonization Society
* {1859-01-24}⇨Romania⇨Autonomous Principality of Romania founded; becomes kingdom in 1866 and achieved independence 1878 Ottoman-Empire
* {1861-01-01}⇨Monaco⇨Franco-Monegasque Treaty confirms Monaco's sovereignty (formerly a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia)
* {1861-03-17}⇨Italy⇨Italian unification
* {1866-08-23}⇨Liechtenstein⇨eparation from German-Confederation
* {1867-07-01}⇨Canada⇨Granted nominal independence (Dominion status), establishing as a federation
* {1870-07-19}⇨Uruguay⇨Independence recognized by Spain
* {1871-01-18}⇨Germany⇨German Empire founded
* {1878-07-13}⇨Bulgaria⇨Autonomy within Ottoman-Empire recognized internationally by the Treaty of Berlin
* {1878-07-13}⇨Montenegro⇨Independence officially confirmed by Ottoman-Empire internationally by the Treaty of Berlin other countries recognized earlier
* {1878-07-13}⇨Romania⇨International recognition by the Treaty of Berlin
* {1878-12-18}⇨Qatar⇨from the Ottoman-Empire
* {1878}⇨Serbia⇨Independence recognized
* {1879-08-14}⇨Peru⇨from Spain recognized
* {1880-09-10}⇨Paraguay⇨from Spain recognized
* {1882}⇨Serbia⇨Kingdom of Serbia
* {1885}⇨Bhutan⇨Ugyen Wangchuck ends period of civil war and unites Bhutan
* {1886-08-04}⇨Colombia⇨Creation of the Republic of Colombia
* {1886-08-08}⇨Colombia⇨Establishment of the current sovereignty of Colombia as a republic
* {1890-11-23}⇨Luxembourg⇨Separates from union with the Kingdom of the Netherlands, becomes Grand Duchy in its own right
* {1898-06-12}⇨Philippines⇨The evolving revolutionary movement in the Philippines declares itself independent from the Spanish-Empire
* {1898-12-10}⇨Cuba⇨Spain loses the war against United States and the military occupation of Cuba by USA begins
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{1900i100}-society'new,

century-1800-{1701..1800} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-1800,

{i100-1800}-society.new::
* {1707-05-01}⇨United-Kingdom⇨Kingdom of Great Britain
* {1744-01-01}⇨Saudi-Arabia⇨Establishment of the First Saudi State
* {1752-01-01}⇨Kuwait⇨Establishment of the Sheikhdom-of-Kuwait
* {1767-11-06}⇨Thailand⇨Salvage independence by Great king Taksin consist of Expulsion of Burmese and Establish a new kingdom together with reunification of Thailand
* {1768-09-25}⇨Nepal⇨Nepali unification
* {1776-07-04}⇨United-States⇨from Great Britain declared
* {1782-04-06}⇨Thailand⇨Rattanakosin Kingdom
* {1783-09-03}⇨United-States⇨from Great Britain recognized
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{1800i100}-society'new,

century-1700-{1601..1700} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-1700,

{i100-1700}-society.new::
* {1650-01-26}⇨Oman⇨Expulsion of the Portuguese
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{1700i100}-society'new,

century-1600-{1501..1600} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-1600,

{i100-1600}-society.new::
* {1523-06-06}⇨Sweden⇨Gustav Vasa elected King of Sweden and marking a definite secession from the Kalmar Union
* {1542}⇨Ireland⇨Foundation of the Kingdom of Ireland
* {1581-07-26}⇨Netherlands⇨Plakkaat van Verlatinghe signed, independence from Spain
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{1600i100}-society'new,

century-1500-{1401..1500} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-1500,

{i100-1500}-society.new::
* {1479}⇨Spain⇨Dinastical unification of the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon by the Catholic Monarchs. The governments, institutions, and legal traditions of each kingdom remained independent of each other; alien laws (Leyes de extranjeria) determined that the national of one kingdom was a foreigner in the other Crowns/States
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{1500i100}-society'new,

century-1400-{1301..1400} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-1400,

{i100-1400}-society.new::
* {1346}⇨Serbia⇨Medieval empire
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{1400i100}-society'new,

century-1300-{1201..1300} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-1300,

{i100-1300}-society.new::
* {1206-01-01}⇨Mongolia⇨Mongol Empire formed
* {1217}⇨Serbia⇨Medieval kingdom
* {1243}⇨San-Marino⇨The people of San Marino established the positions of Captains Regent ('Capitani Reggenti') as a joint heads of state
* {1253-01-01}⇨Lithuania⇨Coronation of King Mindaugas (state established some time earlier, perhaps in the 1230s)
* {1274-01-01}⇨Vatican-City⇨Birth of current form of government the Papal conclave in 1274
* {1278-09-08}⇨Andorra⇨from Aragon
* {1291-01-01}⇨Switzerland⇨Traditional founding
* {1299-01-01}⇨Turkey⇨The foundation of the Turkish State of the Ottoman-Empire
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{1300i100}-society'new,

century-1200-{1101..1200} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-1200,

{i100-1200}-society.new::
* {1139-07-26}⇨Portugal⇨County of Portugal becomes independent from the Kingdom of Leσn after the Battle of Ourique as part of the Reconquista. Recognized by Leσn in 1143 and by the Pope in 1179
* {1154-01-01}⇨Bosnia-and-Herzegovina⇨Formation of the Banate of Bosnia
* {1185-01-01}⇨Bulgaria⇨Second Bulgarian Empire formed
* {1190}⇨Albania⇨Principality of Arbλr was established by archon Progon
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{1200i100}-society'new,

century-1100-{1001..1100} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-1100,

{i100-1100}-society.new::
* {1008-01-01}⇨Georgia⇨Establishment of the Kingdom of Georgia
* {1025-01-01}⇨Poland⇨formation of the Kingdom of Poland by Mieszko's son Bolesław I Chrobry
* {1077-01-01}⇨Montenegro⇨Formation of Kingdom of Duklja/Zeta by King Mihajlo I
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{1100i100}-society'new,

millennium-1000-{0001..1000} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i1000-1000,

century-1000-{0901..1000} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-1000,

{i100-1000}-society.new::
* {0900}⇨Ethiopia⇨Zagwe dynasty
* {0925}⇨Croatia⇨Formation of Kingdom of Croatia by King Tomislav
* {0930}⇨Iceland⇨The Icelandic Commonwealth established and first meeting held of the Althingi (Parliament)
* {0962}⇨Germany⇨East Francia becomes the Holy Roman Empire (with the Kingdom of Germany as a main part of the empire)
* {0970}⇨Sweden⇨Eric the Victorious, the first king of Sweden about whom anything definite is known, becomes king
* {1000}⇨Hungary⇨Formation of the Kingdom of Hungary by Stephen I of Hungary
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{1000i100}-society'new,

century-0900-{0801..0900} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-0900,

{i100-0900}-society.new::
* {0843}⇨Germany⇨Creation of East Francia
* {0872}⇨Norway⇨King Harald I of Norway unifies the Petty kingdoms of Norway
* {0880}⇨Armenia⇨Evolving as a feudal kingdom in the ninth century, Armenia experienced a brief cultural, political and economic renewal under the Bagratuni dynasty
* {0882}⇨Ukraine⇨Formation of the Kievan Rus'
* {0882}⇨Russia⇨Formation of the Kievan Rus'
* {0888-01-02}⇨Italy⇨Sovereignty of the Kingdom of Italy, an independent successor state of the dissolved Carolingian Empire
* {0895}⇨Czech-Republic⇨Independence from Great-Moravia
* {0895}⇨Hungary⇨Principality of Hungary formed
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{0900i100}-society'new,

century-0800-{0701..0800} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-0800,

{i100-0800}-society.new::
* {0762}⇨Iraq⇨The Abbasid Caliphate built the city of Baghdad along the Tigris in the 8th century as its capital, and the city became the leading metropolis of the Arab and Muslim world for five centuries
* {0777}⇨Denmark⇨Various Danish kings are mentioned throughout the 8th century
* {0780}⇨Serbia⇨Medieval principality
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{0800i100}-society'new,

century-0700-{0601..0700} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-0700,

{i100-0700}-society.new::
* {0626}⇨Croatia⇨Formation of Duchy-of-Croatia
* {0632}⇨Bulgaria⇨Formation of Old Great-Bulgaria
* {0681}⇨Bulgaria⇨First Bulgarian-Empire formed
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{0700i100}-society'new,

century-0600-{0501..0600} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-0600,

{i100-0600}-society.new::
* {0519}⇨United-Kingdom⇨Kingdom of Wessex Kingdom of England
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{0600i100}-society'new,

century-0500-{0401..0500} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-0500,

{i100-0500}-society.new::
* {0476-08-23}⇨Italy⇨Establishment of the Kingdom of Italy, an independent successor state created after the Fall of the Western Roman Empire
* {0481}⇨France⇨First creation with (Clovis), king of the Franks
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{0500i100}-society'new,

century-0400-{0301..0400} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-0400,

{i100-0400}-society.new::
* {0400}⇨Japan⇨During the subsequent Kofun period, most of Japan gradually unified under a single kingdom
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{0400i100}-society'new,

century-0300-{0201..0300} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-0300,

century-0200-{0101..0200} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-0200,

century-0100-{0001..0100} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-0100,

millennium-Bce1000-{Bce1000..Bce0001} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i1000-Bce1000,

century-Bce0100-{Bce0001..Bce0100} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-Bce0100,

century-Bce0200-{Bce0101..Bce0200} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-Bce0200,

century-Bce0300-{Bce0201..Bce0300} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-Bce0300,

{i100-Bce0300}-society.new::
* {Bce0221}⇨China⇨In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang conquered the various warring states and created for himself the title of Huangdi or "emperor" of the Qin, marking the beginning of imperial China
[{2020-12-07} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states_by_date_of_formation]
* McsEngl.{i100.Bce0300}-society'new,

century-Bce0400-{Bce0301..Bce0400} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-Bce0400,

century-Bce0500-{Bce0401..Bce0500} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-Bce0500,

century-Bce0600-{Bce0501..Bce0600} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-Bce0600,

century-Bce0700-{Bce0601..Bce0700} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-Bce0700,

century-Bce0800-{Bce0701..Bce0800} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-Bce0800,

century-Bce0900-{Bce0801..Bce0900} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-Bce0900,

century-Bce1000-{Bce0901..Bce1000} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i100-Bce1000,

millennium-Bce2000-{Bce2000..Bce1001} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i1000-Bce2000,

millennium-Bce3000-{Bce3000..Bce2001} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i1000-Bce3000,

millennium-Bce4000-{Bce4000..Bce3001} of society

name::
* McsEngl.Socevg'i1000-Bce4000,

PARENT-CHILD-TREE of society

description::
· a-society is-bored from another one and creates new ones.

name::
* McsEngl.society'parent-child-tree,

WHOLE-PART-TREE of society

name::
* McsEngl.society'whole-part-tree,

whole-chain::
* Earth,
* Solar-system,
* Milky-way-galaxy,
* Sympan,

part::
* human,
* organization,
* governance-system,
* satisfier-system,
* language,
* technology,

GENERIC-SPECIFIC-TREE of society

name::
* McsEngl.society'generic-specific-tree,

generic-tree-of-society::
* human-society, ogmHmnNo-society,
* society-of-organisms,
* system-of-organisms,
* biosystem,
* dynamic-system,
* system,
* whole-entity,
* entity,

* McsEngl.society:stnHmn,
* McsEngl.society:societyOgm,

inherited-from-att::
* human,
* organization,
* governace-system,
* satisfier-system,
* language,
* technology,

inheritedNo-att::
* ,

society.SPECIFIC

name::
* McsEngl.society.specific,

addressWpg::
* https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sovereign_state,
* https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lists_of_sovereign_states_by_year,
* https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_former_sovereign_states,

specific::
* international-society,

society.spec-div.admin-system

description::
· on governance-system:
===
* centralized-governance--society,
* centralizedNo-governance--society,
===
* state-society,
* stateless-society,

name::
* McsEngl.society.spec-div.admin-system,
* McsEngl.society.spec-div.governance-system,

society.admn.autonomous (link)

society.admn.centralized

description::
· centralized-society is a-human-society with a-centralized-governance-sys.

name::
* McsEngl.centralized-society!⇒socGvcCentr,
* McsEngl.socCentralized!⇒socGvcCentr,
* McsEngl.socGvcCentr!=centralized-governance-society,
* McsEngl.society.004-centralized!⇒socGvcCentr,
* McsEngl.society.gvc.centralized!⇒socGvcCentr,
* McsEngl.society.centralized!⇒socGvcCentr,

socGvcCentr.chifdom

description::
"One of the earliest forms of state-societies was the chiefdom, which is characterized by a hierarchical social structure with a chief or ruler at the top. Chiefdoms emerged around 4,000 to 5,000 BCE in various parts of the world, including Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica, and the Indus Valley Civilization.
The rise of chiefdoms was linked to the development of agriculture, which allowed for the production of surplus food and the support of a larger population. This, in turn, led to the emergence of specialized roles, such as warriors, priests, and artisans.
As chiefdoms grew in size and complexity, they began to transform into states. States are characterized by a centralized government that has the authority to collect taxes, maintain order, and make laws. They also have a monopoly on the use of force.
The development of states was driven by a number of factors, including the need to manage complex irrigation systems, collect taxes from a large population, and defend against external threats. The first states emerged around 3,000 BCE in Mesopotamia and Egypt.

name::
* McsEngl.chifdom-society!⇒socChifdom,
* McsEngl.socChifdom!=chifdom-society,
* McsEngl.socGvcCentr.chifdom!⇒socChifdom,
* McsEngl.society.027-chifdom!⇒socChifdom,
* McsEngl.society.chifdom!⇒socChifdom,

socGvcCentr.non-self-governing-territory

description::
"Under Chapter XI of the Charter of the United Nations, the Non-Self-Governing Territories are defined as "territories whose people have not yet attained a full measure of self-government”. The General Assembly, by its resolution 66 (I) of 14 December 1946, noted a list of 72 Territories to which Chapter XI of the Charter applied. In 1963, the Special Committee on the Situation with regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples (also known as the "Special Committee on Decolonization" or the "C-24") approved a preliminary list of Territories to which the Declaration applied (A/5446/Rev.1, annex I). Today, 17 Non-Self-Governing Territories, as listed below, remain on the agenda of the C-24. Member States which have or assume responsibilities for the administration of such Territories are called administering Powers."
[{2021-05-29 retrieved} https://www.un.org/dppa/decolonization/nsgt]

name::
* McsEngl.NSGT!=non-self-governing-territory,
* McsEngl.non-self-governing-territory,
* McsEngl.socGvcCentr.non-self-governing,
* McsEngl.society.043-non-self-governing,
* McsEngl.society.non-self-governing,
* McsEngl.society.self-governingNo,

society.admn.centralizedNo

description::
· decentralized-society is a-human-society with a-decentralized-governance-sys.

name::
* McsEngl.centralizedNo-society!⇒socGvcDcntr,
* McsEngl.decentralized-society!⇒socGvcDcntr,
* McsEngl.self-governing--society!⇒socGvcDcntr,
* McsEngl.socCentralizedNo!⇒socGvcDcntr,
* McsEngl.socDecentralized!⇒socGvcDcntr,
* McsEngl.socGvcDcntr!=decentralized-governance-society,
* McsEngl.society.005-centralizedNo!⇒socGvcDcntr,
* McsEngl.society.centralizedNo!⇒socGvcDcntr,
* McsEngl.society.gvc.centralizedNo!⇒socGvcDcntr,
* McsEngl.society.self-governing!⇒socGvcDcntr,

descriptionLong::
">decentralized society:
A decentralized society refers to a social and organizational structure in which power, authority, and decision-making are distributed among multiple individuals or entities rather than concentrated in a central authority. This concept can apply to various aspects of society, including governance, economics, and technology. Here are some key aspects of a decentralized society:

1. **Decentralized Governance:**
- Political power is distributed among various levels of government or even among communities.
- Decision-making processes involve broad participation and may use technologies like blockchain for transparency and accountability.
- Local autonomy and self-governance are emphasized.

2. **Economic Decentralization:**
- Economic activities are not controlled by a few centralized entities, but rather involve a distributed network of businesses, cooperatives, and individuals.
- Local economies and small businesses play a significant role.
- Cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology can be used to create decentralized financial systems.

3. **Information and Communication:**
- Information is not controlled by a central authority, allowing for diverse sources of news and knowledge.
- Social media and decentralized communication platforms can empower individuals to share information without reliance on centralized platforms.

4. **Technology:**
- Decentralized technologies, such as blockchain, aim to eliminate the need for a central authority in various applications, like finance (cryptocurrencies), supply chain management, and more.
- The internet can be decentralized, allowing for peer-to-peer communication without intermediaries.

5. **Education and Knowledge:**
- Knowledge and education are widely accessible, and the control of educational resources is distributed.
- Open educational resources and decentralized learning platforms contribute to accessible education for all.

6. **Environmental Sustainability:**
- Decentralized systems can contribute to environmental sustainability by promoting local and renewable energy sources and reducing reliance on centralized, resource-intensive systems.

7. **Social Collaboration:**
- Collaboration and decision-making involve a wide range of stakeholders rather than being dictated from the top down.
- Social networks and collaborative platforms support decentralized social interactions.

The concept of a decentralized society is often associated with ideals of increased individual empowerment, resilience, and the reduction of concentrations of power. However, it's essential to note that achieving a fully decentralized society can be complex and may involve addressing various social, political, and economic challenges. Additionally, there can be trade-offs between decentralization and efficiency, and finding the right balance is a continual challenge."
[{2023-11-23 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/7947b809-9877-42bf-b7ee-8a88d92810cb]
===
">self-governing society:
A self-governing society typically refers to a community or political entity in which the individuals within that society actively participate in making decisions that affect the collective. In such a system, people have a significant degree of autonomy and control over the rules, regulations, and policies that govern their lives. Here are some key features and considerations associated with a self-governing society:

1. **Decentralized Decision-Making:** Decision-making authority is distributed among the members of the society rather than being concentrated in a central authority. This decentralization can take various forms, such as direct democracy, consensus decision-making, or other participatory mechanisms.

2. **Citizen Participation:** Citizens actively engage in the political process, contributing to the formulation and implementation of laws and policies. This often involves regular participation in town hall meetings, community forums, and other democratic processes.

3. **Rule of Law:** While a self-governing society empowers individuals to participate in decision-making, there is still a need for a legal framework to ensure order, protect individual rights, and resolve disputes. The rule of law provides a foundation for governance, even in a system where citizens have a high degree of self-determination.

4. **Community Cooperation:** A self-governing society often emphasizes collaboration and cooperation among its members. Community-based initiatives and collective action play a crucial role in addressing common challenges and achieving shared goals.

5. **Transparency and Accountability:** Openness and transparency in decision-making processes are essential in a self-governing society. Additionally, mechanisms for holding individuals accountable for their actions are crucial to maintaining trust within the community.

6. **Education and Informed Citizenship:** An educated and informed citizenry is fundamental to the success of a self-governing society. Access to information, critical thinking skills, and civic education contribute to the ability of individuals to make informed decisions.

7. **Social Contract:** The concept of a social contract is often integral to self-governance. This contract outlines the rights and responsibilities of individuals within the community and establishes the basis for collective decision-making.

8. **Flexibility and Adaptability:** A self-governing society needs to be adaptable to changing circumstances. This flexibility allows the community to address emerging issues and challenges effectively.

It's important to note that the degree of self-governance can vary widely, and different societies may implement these principles in different ways. Systems of self-governance can range from small, local communities to larger political entities."
[{2023-11-23 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/da332882-0d3c-4cb1-9470-fce457d0c197]

socGvcDcntr.SPECIFIC

description::
* decentralized-autonomous-society,

name::
* McsEngl.socGvcDcntr.specific,

society.admn.state

description::
"The development of states was driven by a number of factors, including the need to manage complex irrigation systems, collect taxes from a large population, and defend against external threats. The first states emerged around 3,000 BCE in Mesopotamia and Egypt."
[{2023-12-17 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/57defdd59c662de4]

name::
* McsEngl.socGvcCentr.state!⇒socState,
* McsEngl.socState!=state--society,
* McsEngl.society.026-state!⇒socState,
* McsEngl.society.state!⇒socState,
* McsEngl.state-society!⇒socState,

humans-sys of socState

description::
· the-systems of humans of a-socState.

name::
* McsEngl.socState'humans,

place of socState

description::
· the-defined territory of a-socState.

name::
* McsEngl.socState'place,

satisfier-sys of socState

description::
· the-systems of satisfiers (production, distribution).

name::
* McsEngl.socState'economy,

state--governance-sys of socState

description::
· the-governance-system.

name::
* McsEngl.gvcState!=state--governance-sys,
* McsEngl.socState'state!⇒gvcState,

doing of gvcState

description::
* provision of public-goods,
* security from external threats (defence, aggression),
* maintenance of internal order (dispute resolution),

name::
* McsEngl.gvcState'doing,

socState.SPECIFIC

description::
* city-socState,
* empire-socState,
* nation-socState,

name::
* McsEngl.socState'specific,

socState.sovereign

description::
">quantity of sovereign states:
According to the United Nations, there are 195 sovereign states in the world, as of June 23, 2023. These states are recognized by the international community as having their own territory, government, and people. They are free to conduct their own foreign policy and are not subject to the authority of any other state.
The number of sovereign states has changed over time, with new states being created and existing states merging or dissolving. The most recent additions to the list of sovereign states are South Sudan (2011), Kosovo (2008), Montenegro (2006), East Timor (2002), and Czech Republic and Slovakia (1993).
The number of sovereign states is likely to continue to change in the future, as the world becomes more interconnected and new political entities emerge."
[{2023-12-23 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/b5e59ca2caf0c100]

name::
* McsEngl.society.035-sovereign!⇒socStateSov,
* McsEngl.society.sovereign!⇒socStateSov,
* McsEngl.socState.sovereign!⇒socStateSov,
* McsEngl.socStateSov!=sovereign-state,
* McsEngl.sovereign-state!⇒socStateSov,

socState.sovereignNo

description::
">quantity of non-sovereign states:
There are two main categories of non-sovereign states:

**Autonomous regions** are administrative divisions of sovereign states that have a degree of self-governance. They may have their own laws, currency, and government, but they are ultimately subject to the authority of the sovereign state. Examples of autonomous regions include Greenland (Denmark), Puerto Rico (United States), and Aland Islands (Finland).

**Dependent territories** are non-self-governing territories that are controlled by sovereign states. They may have limited self-governance, but they do not have full sovereignty. Examples of dependent territories include Guam (United States), Bermuda (United Kingdom), and French Polynesia (France).

There are 65 dependent territories in the world, according to the United Nations. This number can change over time, as new territories are created or existing territories gain or lose independence.
Here is a table of the number of sovereign states and dependent territories in the world:
| Category | Number |
| Sovereign states | 195 |
| Autonomous regions | 25 |
| Dependent territories | 65 |
Total | 285 |"
[{2023-12-23 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/b5e59ca2caf0c100]

name::
* McsEngl.non-sovereign-state!⇒socStateSovNo,
* McsEngl.socState.sovereignNo!⇒socStateSovNo,
* McsEngl.society.036-sovereignNo-state!⇒socStateSovNo,
* McsEngl.society.sovereignNo-state!⇒socStateSovNo,
* McsEngl.socStateSovNo!=non-sovereign-state,
* McsEngl.socState.sovereignNo!⇒socStateSovNo,

socState.unitary

description::
"A unitary state is a sovereign state governed as a single entity in which the central government is the supreme authority. The central government may create or abolish administrative divisions (sub-national units).[1] Such units exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate. Although political power may be delegated through devolution to regional or local governments by statute, the central government may override the decisions of devolved governments, curtail their powers, or expand their powers. Unitary states in its modern concept originated in France, in the aftermath of the Hundred Years' War, national feeling that emerged from the war unified France. The Hundred Years' War accelerated the process of transforming France from a feudal monarchy to a unitary state. The French then later spread unitary states by conquests, throughout Europe during and after the Napoleonic Wars, and to the world through the vast French colonial empire.[2]"
[{2023-12-23 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unitary_state]

name::
* McsEngl.socState.unitary!⇒socStateOne,
* McsEngl.society.037-unitary-state!⇒socStateOne,
* McsEngl.society.unitary-state!⇒socStateOne,
* McsEngl.socState.unitary!⇒socStateOne,
* McsEngl.socStateOne!⇒unitary-state,
* McsEngl.unitary-state!⇒socStateOne,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ενιαίο-κράτος!=socStateOne,

socState.city

description::
">overview of city-state:
A city-state is a sovereign state that comprises an urban center and its immediate hinterland (usually suburbs and settlements). It has the characteristics of a polity or a government that exercises authority over an extended area of land, while being geographically concentrated to a single location where it maintains its primary focus.
The concept of a city-state dates back to antiquity, when many civilizations, including the Ancient Greek city-states, the Phoenician city-states, and the Mesopotamian city-states, were organized in this manner.
Here are some of the key characteristics of city-states:
1. **Political:** City-states are typically independent political entities, with their own governments, laws, and armies.
2. **Economic:** City-states often have a strong commercial focus, as they are located at strategic points of trade and are able to control important resources.
3. **Cultural:** City-states can be centers of culture and innovation, as they bring together people from diverse backgrounds and provide a fertile ground for new ideas to flourish.
4. **Military:** City-states often have well-developed militaries, as they need to defend themselves from external threats.
5. **Social:** City-states can be very socially stratified, with a small elite class and a large working class.
6. **Religious:** City-states often have a strong religious identity, as they are often associated with a particular deity or pantheon.
7. **Architectural:** City-states often have impressive architectural feats, as they are able to invest in large public works projects."
[{2023-12-23 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/b5e59ca2caf0c100]

name::
* McsEngl.city-state!=socStateCity,
* McsEngl.socGvcCentr.city-state!=socStateCity,
* McsEngl.socState.city!=socStateCity,
* McsEngl.socStateCity!=city-state,

socState.empire

description::
"Warfare played a significant role in the evolution of state-societies. States often used military force to expand their territories, acquire resources, and subjugate neighboring populations. This process of expansion led to the formation of empires, which were large, multi-ethnic states ruled by a central authority.
The Mauryan Empire in India, the Roman Empire in Europe, and the Tang Dynasty in China are all examples of powerful empires that emerged from the 3rd century BCE to the 8th century CE."
[{2023-12-17 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/57defdd59c662de4]

name::
* McsEngl.empire!=empire-society,
* McsEngl.socEmpire!=empire-society,
* McsEngl.socGvcCentr.empire!=socEmpire,
* McsEngl.socState.empire!=socEmpire,
* McsEngl.society.029-empire!=socEmpire,
* McsEngl.society.empire!=socEmpire,

socEmpire.SPECIFIC

description::
* {Bce2050c..Bce0650c} ASIA: Assyrian empire,
* {Bce1600c..Bce1180} ASIA-MINOR: Hittite Empire,
* {Bce1550..Bce1070] EGYPT: New Kingdom,
* {Bce0626..Bce0539} ASIA: Neo-Babylonian empire,
* {Bce0550..Bce0330} IRAN: persian empire,
* {Bce0321..Bce0185} INDIA: Maurya Empire,
* {Bce0027..0476|1453} EUROPE-ASIA: Roman Empire,
* {0224..0651} IRAN: sasanian empire,
* {0320..0550} INDIA: The Gupta Empire,
* {0330..1453} Byzantine-empire.
* {0681..1018} EUROPE: Bulgarian Empire,
* {0802..1500c} ASIA: Khmer empire,
* {1037..1194} Seljuk Empire. [wikipedia]
* {1206..1385c} EUROPE-ASIA: Mongol empire,
* {1214c..1572} AMERICA: Inca empire,
* {1299..1922} EUROPE-ASIA: Ottoman Empire,
* {1370..1507} ASIA: Timurid Empire,
* {1402..1975} Spanish Empire. [wikipedia]
* {1415..2002} Portuguese Empire. [wikipedia]
* {1428..1521} AMERICA: Aztec empire,
* {1526..1857} INDIA: Mughal Empire,
* {1543..1975} Dutch Empire.
* {1583..1997} British-empire. [wikipedia]
* {1605..1960} French-colonial-empire. [wikipedia]
* {1721..1917} Russian-empire,
* {1871..1918} The German Empire, or the Second Reich,

name::
* McsEngl.socEmpire.specific,

socState.nation

description::
· nation-state is a-socState with its members one nation.

name::
* McsEngl.nation-state,
* McsEngl.socGvcCentr.nation-state,
* McsEngl.socState.nation,
* McsEngl.socStateNation,
* McsEngl.society.030-nation-state,
* McsEngl.society.nation-state,

nation of socStateNation

description::
"[nation] in its pristine sense of a human grouping who share a conviction of being ancestrally related."
[{2024-01-18 retrieved} https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781405165518.wbeosn002]

">nation vs ethnicity:
The terms "nation" and "ethnicity" are often used interchangeably, but there is a subtle distinction between the two concepts.
**Ethnicity** is a grouping of people who share a common culture, including shared traditions, language, religion, and ancestry. Ethnic groups are often defined by their sense of shared identity, which can be based on a belief in a common ancestor or a shared history.
**Nation** is a larger social organization that is characterized by a shared sense of identity, culture, and history. Nations may or may not be based on ethnicity, and they can often encompass multiple ethnic groups. Nations are often bound by a political identity, and they may have their own government and territory.
In other words, ethnicity is a more general term that refers to a shared cultural identity, while nation is a more specific term that refers to a political identity that is based on a shared cultural identity.
Here is a table that summarizes the key differences between ethnicity and nation:
| Feature | Ethnicity | Nation |
| Focus | Culture | Culture and politics |
| Basis | Shared cultural traits | Shared cultural traits and a common political identity |
| Organization | Often informal | Often formal (i.e., a nation-state) |
It is important to note that the concepts of ethnicity and nation are fluid and can change over time. Ethnic groups can merge or split, and nations can expand or contract. The boundaries between ethnicity and nation are often blurred, and there are many cases where it is difficult to clearly distinguish between the two concepts.
I hope this helps!"
[{2024-01-18 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/99189e4d489a2c15]

name::
* McsEngl.ethnicity,
* McsEngl.nation,

socState.unitaryNo

description::
· a-centralized union of many socStates.

name::
* McsEngl.non-unitary-state!⇒socStateMany,
* McsEngl.socState.unitaryNo!⇒socStateMany,
* McsEngl.society.038-unitaryNo-state!⇒socStateMany,
* McsEngl.socStateMany!=non-unitary-state,
* McsEngl.socState.unitaryNo!⇒socStateMany,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.συνομοσπονδία!=socStateMany,
* McsElln.ομοσπονδία!=socStateMany,

federation-vs-confederation

description::
"confederation vs federation:
**Confederation** and **federation** are both political systems that involve a union of states or territories. However, there are important differences between the two.

**Confederation**
A confederation is a loose association of independent states that have agreed to cooperate on certain matters. The states in a confederation retain their sovereignty, which means that they have the right to make their own laws and conduct their own affairs. The central government in a confederation is usually weak and has limited powers.
**Examples of confederations:**
* The United States under the Articles of Confederation (1781-1789)
* The Confederacy of Independent States (1861-1865)
* The Commonwealth of Nations

**Federation**
A federation is a political system in which several states or territories have agreed to form a single country. The states in a federation give up some of their sovereignty to a central government, which has the power to make laws and enforce them throughout the country. However, the states also retain a degree of autonomy, and they often have their own governments and laws.
**Examples of federations:**
* The United States
* Canada
* Australia
* Switzerland

**Here is a table summarizing the key differences between confederations and federations:**
| Feature | Confederation | Federation |
| Sovereignty | States retain sovereignty | States give up some sovereignty to the central government |
| Powers of central government | Weak central government with limited powers | Strong central government with broad powers |
| Relationship between states and central government | Loose relationship | Closer relationship with shared authority |
| Examples | United States under the Articles of Confederation, Confederacy of Independent States, Commonwealth of Nations | United States, Canada, Australia, Switzerland |

**In general, federations are more stable and durable than confederations because the central government has more power to resolve disputes and enforce laws. However, confederations may be more suitable for states that are unwilling to give up a significant amount of their sovereignty.**
I hope this helps!"
[{2023-12-27 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/3955566a69759fb1]

name::
* McsEngl.confederation-vs-federation,
* McsEngl.federation-vs-confederation,

society.admn.stateNo

description::
* decentralized-society,
* centralized-stateNo-society,

">stateless societies:
A stateless society is a society that does not have a formal central government. In these societies, power and authority are dispersed among different individuals or groups, and there is no one overarching institution that is responsible for making and enforcing laws.
There are many different types of stateless societies, each with its own unique social structure and political organization. Some of the most common examples include:
* **Band societies:** Band societies are the simplest type of stateless society, and they are characterized by small, nomadic groups of people who live in close proximity with each other. They typically have no formal leaders, and their decisions are made by consensus.
* **Tribes:** Tribes are larger than bands, and they may have a more complex social structure, with leaders who are responsible for coordinating group activities and resolving disputes. Tribes may also have a system of chieftainship, in which one person holds a position of authority but does not have absolute power.
* **Chiefdoms:** Chiefdoms are even larger than tribes, and they may have a more centralized political system with a chief or paramount chief who holds a significant amount of power. Chiefdoms may also have a hierarchical social structure, with nobles, commoners, and slaves.
* **Acephalous societies:** Acephalous societies are stateless societies that do not have any formal leaders. Instead, they rely on social norms and consensus to maintain order and resolve disputes.

Stateless societies have existed for thousands of years, and they can be found in all parts of the world. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in stateless societies, as some people believe that they offer a more egalitarian and sustainable way of life than states.
There are a number of reasons why stateless societies have been able to exist for so long. One reason is that they are typically small and dispersed, which makes them difficult for states to control. Another reason is that they have strong social norms and values that promote cooperation and conflict resolution. Finally, stateless societies are often able to adapt to their environment in ways that states are not, such as by relying on subsistence agriculture or rotating resource use.
Despite their many advantages, stateless societies also face a number of challenges. One challenge is that they are often vulnerable to external threats, such as from states or other groups. Another challenge is that they can be difficult to maintain in the face of internal conflict or resource scarcity.
Despite these challenges, stateless societies continue to play an important role in the world today. They provide an alternative way of organizing human society, and they offer insights into the relationship between power, authority, and social structure."
[{2023-12-17 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/57defdd59c662de4]

name::
* McsEngl.non-state--society!=socStateNo,
* McsEngl.socStateNo!=non-state--society,
* McsEngl.society.026-stateNo!⇒socStateNo,
* McsEngl.society.stateNo!⇒socStateNo,
* McsEngl.stateless-society!⇒socStateNo,

evoluting of socStateNo

description::
">evolution of stateless societies:
The evolution of stateless societies is a complex and ongoing process, with different regions of the world experiencing different trajectories. However, there are some general trends that can be identified.

**Early Forms of Stateless Societies**
The earliest forms of stateless societies are believed to have emerged around 10,000 BCE in the context of the Neolithic Revolution, which marked a shift from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies. These societies were typically small and nomadic, with a strong reliance on kinship and communal living.
Decision-making in these societies was often based on consensus, with leaders emerging through charismatic authority or expertise in specific areas. Conflict resolution was typically handled through mediation and negotiation, with the goal of restoring harmony within the community.

**The Rise of Chiefdoms**
As agricultural productivity increased and populations grew, some stateless societies began to develop into chiefdoms. Chiefdoms are characterized by a hierarchical social structure with a chief or leader at the top. The chief often held religious authority and was responsible for mediating disputes and organizing collective activities.
Chiefdoms emerged around 4,000 to 5,000 BCE in various parts of the world, including Mesoamerica, the Andes, and the Pacific Islands. They were particularly prevalent in areas with fertile land and favorable climate conditions, which supported larger populations and the development of more complex social structures.

**The Emergence of States**
In some regions, chiefdoms gradually evolved into states, which are characterized by a centralized government with a monopoly on the use of force. States emerged around 3,000 BCE in Mesopotamia and Egypt, and they were often associated with the development of large-scale irrigation systems, urban settlements, and complex trade networks.
The emergence of states was accompanied by a shift from kinship-based social structures to more bureaucratic and hierarchical systems. This shift was driven by the need to manage complex societies, enforce laws, and defend against external threats.

**The Transformation of Stateless Societies**
The evolution of stateless societies into chiefdoms and states was not a universal process. Some societies retained their stateless structure for centuries, and others have re-emerged in recent decades, particularly in response to social upheavals and the challenges of modernity.
Today, there are still numerous stateless societies around the world, particularly in remote or resource-rich areas. These societies face a variety of challenges, including encroachment from states, resource exploitation, and cultural homogenization.

**The Enduring Legacy of Stateless Societies**
Stateless societies have made significant contributions to human history and culture. They have developed sophisticated social systems, complex forms of governance, and unique cultural practices. Their resilience and adaptability offer valuable insights into the diversity and adaptability of human societies.

The evolution of stateless societies highlights the dynamic nature of human social organization. As societies adapt to changing environments, technological advancements, and political systems, new forms of social structures emerge. Understanding the historical context and diverse expressions of stateless societies can provide valuable perspectives on the evolution of human societies and the possibilities for alternative forms of governance and social organization in the future."
[{2023-12-17 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/57defdd59c662de4]

">evolution of stateless societies:
The evolution of stateless societies, also known as non-state societies, provides an interesting perspective on human social organization. Stateless societies range from simple bands and tribes to complex chiefdoms, and they have existed throughout human history, often predating more centralized state structures. The evolution of these societies can be understood through various stages:

1. **Hunter-Gatherer Bands**: The earliest form of human social organization, dating back to prehistoric times, was the band society. These were small, usually nomadic groups with a fluid and egalitarian structure, primarily focused on hunting and gathering for survival. Leadership was informal, based on personal qualities rather than a formal position of authority.

2. **Tribal Societies**: As human groups grew in number, tribal societies emerged. These were larger than bands and typically organized around kinship lines. Tribes had more formalized social structures and cultural practices but remained relatively egalitarian. Leadership roles, often based on kinship or achievement, were more pronounced but not centralized.

3. **Chiefdoms**: Chiefdoms represent a more complex form of stateless society. They were larger than tribes and had a hierarchical structure with a clear leader or chief, who wielded significant authority and control over resources. Unlike states, however, chiefdoms did not have a formalized government or bureaucracy.

4. **Complex Chiefdoms and Early States**: Some chiefdoms evolved into more complex entities, blurring the line between stateless societies and early states. These complex chiefdoms had more layers of hierarchy, specialized roles, and sometimes rudimentary forms of bureaucracy and law. The transition to a state often involved the emergence of formal institutions, written laws, and more defined territorial boundaries.

5. **Agricultural Revolution and Sedentism**: The shift from nomadic to settled agricultural lifestyles played a crucial role in this evolution. The Agricultural Revolution allowed for the support of larger populations and the accumulation of surplus resources, which in turn supported more complex societal structures.

6. **Trade and Interaction**: Increased trade and interaction between different groups facilitated the exchange of ideas, technologies, and cultural practices, influencing the development of stateless societies.

7. **Conflict and Warfare**: Conflict and warfare also played a role, as societies organized for defense or conquest. In some cases, this led to the centralization of power and the emergence of more state-like structures.

8. **Influence of External States**: The influence of neighboring states often prompted changes in stateless societies, either through direct conquest, the spread of religious or cultural practices, or the adoption of state-like features to better interact or compete with state societies.

9. **Modern Impacts**: In the modern era, most stateless societies have come under the influence or control of nation-states. However, some aspects of stateless organization persist in various forms, such as in indigenous communities or in certain communal or cooperative arrangements.

The evolution of stateless societies reflects a wide array of human adaptations to diverse environmental and social conditions. It's important to note that this evolution is not linear or universal; different societies have followed different paths, and many have coexisted with state societies in various forms throughout history."
[{2023-12-16 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/406be8e1-9e4c-40b1-9c60-efe9d0846f9a]

name::
* McsEngl.evoluting-of-socStateNo,
* McsEngl.socStateNo'evoluting,

society.admn.unitary

description::
">unitary society:
A "unitary society" typically refers to a societal structure or government system where a single central authority holds most of the power, with little or no power given to regional or local entities. In contrast to federal systems, where powers are shared or distributed between a central government and regional governments, unitary societies centralize legislative, executive, and judicial powers.
Characteristics of a unitary society include:
1. **Centralized Governance:** The central government is the primary authority, and its decisions are binding for the entire country.
2. **Administrative Uniformity:** Laws, policies, and administrative procedures are uniform across the nation, without variations for different regions.
3. **Limited Regional Autonomy:** Sub-national regions or local governments, if they exist, have limited or no legislative powers of their own. They mainly implement the decisions of the central government.
4. **Flexibility in Governance:** The central government can readily make and implement decisions, sometimes leading to greater efficiency in administration and policy-making.
5. **Potential for Centralized Control:** A unitary system can concentrate power, sometimes leading to concerns about excessive control or lack of representation for diverse regional interests.
Examples of countries with unitary systems include France, Japan, and the United Kingdom (although the UK has devolved some powers to Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland). These systems are chosen for their ability to maintain consistency and uniformity across the nation, and they are often found in smaller or more homogenous countries where regional governance is less necessary."
[{2023-12-29 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/0863006e-e867-4241-bc66-6caa0806d97f]

name::
* McsEngl.society.048-gvc.unitary,
* McsEngl.society.gvc.unitary,
* McsEngl.unitary-gvc-society,

society.admn.unitaryNo

description::
">supranational-societies overview:
Supranational societies refer to communities or organizational frameworks that extend beyond the boundaries of individual nations, typically involving multiple countries that agree to collaborate and follow common policies or laws. These societies are formed through treaties and agreements that transcend national sovereignty in certain areas to achieve common goals. Here are key aspects of supranational societies:
1. **Formation and Purpose**: Supranational societies are formed through treaties and agreements between nations. Their primary purpose is often to promote economic cooperation, political stability, and collective security. Examples include the European Union (EU), the African Union (AU), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
2. **Shared Governance Structures**: These societies typically have their own governance structures, such as a commission, parliament, or court, which have authority over member states in specific areas. For instance, the European Commission proposes and enforces legislation within the EU.
3. **Economic Integration**: Economic integration is a common goal, which may include the formation of a single market, customs union, or monetary union. The EU’s single market and the Eurozone are prime examples.
4. **Legal Frameworks**: Supranational societies often establish their own legal frameworks, which can supersede national laws in certain areas. The European Court of Justice, for example, can make decisions binding on EU member states.
5. **Cultural and Social Integration**: Beyond economics and politics, these societies may promote cultural and social integration, fostering a sense of shared identity among the populations of member states.
6. **Multilateral Decision-Making**: Decision-making in supranational societies is typically multilateral and may require consensus or majority voting. This process aims to balance the interests of member states while pursuing common objectives.
7. **Diplomatic Influence**: Supranational entities often have significant diplomatic influence, representing the collective interests of their member states in global affairs.
8. **Challenges and Criticisms**: Managing the interests of diverse member states can be challenging. Issues like loss of national sovereignty, economic disparities between members, and bureaucratic complexities are common points of criticism.
9. **Regional Stability and Peacekeeping**: Many supranational societies play a role in regional stability and peacekeeping. The EU, for instance, has been credited with fostering peace in Europe post-World War II.
10. **Impact on Globalization**: Supranational societies are key players in globalization, facilitating cross-border trade, mobility, and cultural exchange.
In summary, supranational societies represent a form of governance and cooperation that transcends national borders, aiming to address regional and global challenges collectively. While they offer significant benefits in terms of economic cooperation, peace, and stability, they also face challenges related to sovereignty, decision-making, and managing diverse interests."
[{2023-12-29 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/462d4004-5caa-4b18-bf7a-3097eeba8413]

"A supranational union is a type of international organization that is empowered to directly exercise some of the powers and functions otherwise reserved to states.[1] A supranational organization involves a greater transfer of or limitation of state sovereignty than other kinds of international organizations."
[{2023-12-29 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supranational_union]

name::
* McsEngl.socSupra!=supranational-society,
* McsEngl.society.049-gvc.unitaryNo!⇒socSupra,
* McsEngl.society.gvc.unitaryNo!⇒socSupra,
* McsEngl.supranational-society!⇒socSupra,
* McsEngl.unitaryNo-gvc-society!⇒socSupra,

socSupra.SPECIFIC

description::
* EU!=European-Union,

name::
* McsEngl.socSupra.specific,

society.admn.caliphate

description::
">overview of Muslim caliphates:
The concept of a caliphate, the political-religious leadership of the Muslim community, emerged after the death of the Prophet Muhammad in 632 CE. The caliphate was seen as the successor to Muhammad's authority and was responsible for upholding Islamic law, expanding the Muslim empire, and defending the ummah, the Muslim community.
**Rashidun Caliphate (632-661 CE)**
The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the Rightly Guided Caliphate, was the first caliphate and was led by Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali, all close companions of the Prophet Muhammad. The caliphate was established to maintain unity among the Muslim community and to continue the expansion of Islam. The Rashidun Caliphate was characterized by its emphasis on religious piety, military prowess, and administrative efficiency.
**Umayyad Caliphate (661-750 CE)**
The Umayyad Caliphate was the second major caliphate and was established by Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, the governor of Syria. The Umayyad Caliphate moved its capital from Medina to Damascus and shifted the focus of the caliphate from religious matters to political and military affairs. The Umayyad Caliphate also expanded the Muslim empire to include Spain and southern France.
**Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258 CE)**
The Abbasid Caliphate was the third and most powerful caliphate. It was established by Abu al-Abbas as-Saffah, who overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate. The Abbasid Caliphate moved its capital to Baghdad, which became a major center of learning and culture. The Abbasid Caliphate also oversaw a period of great scientific and philosophical advancements.
**Fatimid Caliphate (909-1171 CE)**
The Fatimid Caliphate was a Shia caliphate that ruled over North Africa and parts of the Middle East from its capital in Cairo. The Fatimids established a powerful navy and challenged the Abbasid Caliphate for control of the Muslim world. The Fatimid Caliphate was also known for its patronage of art, architecture, and science.
**Ottoman Caliphate (1517-1924 CE)**
The Ottoman Caliphate was the last major caliphate and was founded by Osman I in the 13th century. The Ottoman Caliphate reached its peak in the 16th and 17th centuries, when it controlled a vast empire that stretched from the Balkans to North Africa and the Middle East. The Ottoman Caliphate was also a major center of Islamic culture and learning.
The caliphate declined in the 19th and 20th centuries, as it faced challenges from European colonialism and internal reforms. The Ottoman Caliphate was finally abolished in 1924 by the Turkish government.
The caliphates played a significant role in shaping the history of Islam and the Muslim world. They were responsible for the expansion of the Muslim empire, the development of Islamic law and culture, and the transmission of knowledge from the Islamic world to the rest of the world."
[{2024-01-07 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/d33eef738a3245ab]

name::
* McsEngl.caliphate!⇒socCaliphate,
* McsEngl.socCaliphate,
* McsEngl.society.050-gvc.caliphate!⇒socCaliphate,
* McsEngl.society.gvc.caliphate!⇒socCaliphate,

admin-sys of socCaliphate

description::
">administration of caliphates:
The administration of caliphates varied over time and between different caliphates, but some general patterns can be identified.
**Central Government**
The caliph was the supreme ruler of the caliphate. He was considered to be the successor to the Prophet Muhammad and was responsible for upholding Islamic law, expanding the caliphate, and defending the ummah, the Muslim community. The caliph was assisted by a bureaucracy of government officials, who were responsible for administering the caliphate's affairs.
**Provincial Administration**
The caliphate was divided into provinces, which were governed by appointed governors. The governors were responsible for maintaining order in their provinces, collecting taxes, and enforcing Islamic law. They were also responsible for appointing judges and other local officials.
**Taxation**
The caliphate's main source of revenue was taxation. The caliphs levied various taxes on their subjects, including a zakat, or alms tax, a jizya, or non-Muslim poll tax, and a kharaj, or land tax.
**Military**
The caliphate had a large and well-equipped military, which was responsible for defending the caliphate's borders and expanding its territory. The military was divided into infantry, cavalry, and artillery units.
**Judicial System**
The caliphate had a centralized judicial system, which was based on Islamic law, or Shari'a. Judges, known as qadis, were appointed to administer justice in the caliphate's courts.
**Social Welfare**
The caliphate was responsible for the welfare of its citizens. The caliphs built hospitals, schools, and orphanages, and they provided food and shelter to the poor and the needy.
**Cultural and Scientific Development**
The caliphate was a major center of cultural and scientific development. The caliphs patronized scholars and scientists, and they established libraries and universities. The caliphate contributed to the development of mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and philosophy.
**Overall, the administration of caliphates was characterized by a strong central government, a well-organized bureaucracy, a complex tax system, a powerful military, a centralized judicial system, a commitment to social welfare, and a significant contribution to cultural and scientific development.**
**Here is a table summarizing the main features of caliphate administration:**
| Feature | Description |
| Central Government | The caliph was the supreme ruler of the caliphate. |
| Provincial Administration | The caliphate was divided into provinces, which were governed by appointed governors. |
| Taxation | The caliphate's main source of revenue was taxation. |
| Military | The caliphate had a large and well-equipped military. |
| Judicial System | The caliphate had a centralized judicial system based on Islamic law. |
| Social Welfare | The caliphate was responsible for the welfare of its citizens. |
| Cultural and Scientific Development | The caliphate was a major center of cultural and scientific development. |"
[{2024-01-07 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/d33eef738a3245ab]

name::
* McsEngl.socCaliphate'administration,

society.spec-div.blood-relations

description::
* kinship-society,
* kinshipNo-society,

name::
* McsEngl.society.spec-div.blood-relations,

society.kinship

description::
"kinship societies:
Kinship societies are societies in which kinship, or the relationships between individuals based on common ancestry or marriage, is the primary organizing principle of social life. In these societies, kinship ties determine an individual's social status, rights, and obligations. They also provide a framework for cooperation, mutual support, and conflict resolution.

**Key Features of Kinship Societies**
* **Social Groups Based on Kinship:** Kinship societies are typically divided into social groups based on family ties. These groups may include extended families, clans, and lineages.
* **Inheritance and Descent:** Kinship systems often determine inheritance patterns and descent rules. This means that property and other assets are passed down through family lines, and individuals are assigned social roles based on their descent group.
* **Marriage and Alliance:** Marriage is a crucial social institution in kinship societies, as it creates new ties between families and clans. Marriage alliances can strengthen cooperation and political alliances between groups.
* **Naming Systems:** Kinship systems often involve specific naming systems that reflect the individual's place in the kinship network. These systems may indicate an individual's descent group, age, or gender.

**Types of Kinship Systems**
There are two main types of kinship systems:
* **Lineal descent:** In lineal descent systems, individuals are affiliated with their kin based on either their father's (patrilineal) or mother's (matrilineal) line. This means that they inherit property and pass on their social identity through the same line.
* **Bilateral descent:** In bilateral descent systems, individuals are considered members of both their father's and mother's extended families. This means that they have kinship ties and obligations to both sides of their family.

**Examples of Kinship Societies**
Many small-scale societies around the world are organized according to kinship principles. These include:
* **Indigenous Australian societies:** Traditional Australian Aboriginal communities are organized into kinship groups known as moieties and subsections. These groups regulate marriage and establish social networks.
* **Native American societies:** Many Native American tribes have matrilineal kinship systems, with clans and descent groups tracing their lineage through the female line.
* **African societies:** Some African societies, such as the Nuer of Sudan, have complex kinship systems that combine both patrilineal and matrilineal descent principles.

**Significance of Kinship Societies**
Kinship systems play a vital role in maintaining social order and cooperation in kinship societies. They provide a framework for resolving disputes, organizing labor, and transmitting knowledge and cultural traditions. Kinship ties also provide individuals with a sense of belonging and support within their communities."
[{2023-12-26 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/20a82b0c173eaf1c]

name::
* McsEngl.society.blood,
* McsEngl.society.040-kinship,
* McsEngl.society.kinship,

society.spec-div.economy

description::
· on satisfier-system:
* precapitalism-society,
* capitalism-society,
* metacapitalism-society,
===
* commodity-society,
* commodityNo-society,
===
* aggrarian-society,
* hunter-gatherer--society,
* pastorial--society,

name::
* McsEngl.society.spec-div.satisfier-system,

society.hunter-gatherer

description::
">hunter-gatherer societies:
Hunter-gatherer societies are human communities that rely primarily on wild foods for subsistence, typically through a combination of hunting animals, fishing, and gathering plants. They represent the oldest form of human social organization, predating agriculture and the development of permanent settlements. Here's an overview of various aspects of hunter-gatherer societies:

### Lifestyle and Social Structure
- **Nomadic or Semi-nomadic**: Most hunter-gatherers are nomadic or semi-nomadic, moving within a certain area to exploit seasonal food resources.
- **Small Groups**: They typically live in small, mobile groups (bands) consisting of a few families. The size of the group is often limited by the carrying capacity of the environment.
- **Egalitarianism**: Hunter-gatherer societies are generally egalitarian, with minimal hierarchical structure. Status is often based on age, gender, hunting skill, or knowledge of the environment.
- **Division of Labor**: There is usually a division of labor based on gender and age, with men primarily involved in hunting and women in gathering. However, this division is not strict, and roles can overlap.

### Economic and Environmental Practices
- **Subsistence Living**: Their economy is based on subsistence; they consume what they gather and hunt without much surplus for trade.
- **Sustainable Practices**: They typically have an intimate knowledge of their environment and practice sustainable methods of harvesting resources.
- **Seasonal Movement**: Their movement patterns and lifestyle are often closely tied to the seasons and the migratory patterns of animals.

### Cultural and Spiritual Aspects
- **Rich Oral Traditions**: They often have rich oral traditions, with knowledge, cultural values, and history passed down through storytelling.
- **Spiritual Beliefs**: Spiritual beliefs are often deeply connected to the natural world, with animistic or totemic elements.
- **Art and Music**: Artistic expression, often inspired by nature and spiritual beliefs, is common, including rock art, body painting, and music.

### Health and Diet
**Varied Diet**: Their diet is typically diverse, relying on a wide range of plants and animals, which contributes to good nutrition.
- **Physical Fitness**: The hunter-gatherer lifestyle usually involves a high level of physical activity, contributing to overall health.
- **Low Prevalence of Modern Diseases**: Many lifestyle-related diseases common in industrialized societies are rare among hunter-gatherers.

### Modern Context and Challenges
- **Diminishing Lands**: Many contemporary hunter-gatherer societies face challenges due to loss of traditional lands, often due to encroachment, deforestation, and state policies.
- **Cultural Erosion**: Globalization, modernization, and interaction with more dominant cultures and economies threaten their traditional ways of life.
- **Legal and Rights Issues**: Hunter-gatherers often struggle with legal rights, especially in terms of land ownership and the right to pursue their traditional way of life.

### Notable Examples
- **!Kung San** of the Kalahari Desert
- **Hadza** of Tanzania
- **Inuit** of the Arctic regions
- **Yanomami** of the Amazon rainforest

Hunter-gatherer societies offer valuable insights into the diversity of human adaptation and the ways in which societies can live in close harmony with their environment. However, they also highlight the challenges faced by indigenous and traditional ways of life in the modern world."
[{2023-12-16 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/406be8e1-9e4c-40b1-9c60-efe9d0846f9a]

name::
* McsEngl.hunter-gatherer--society!⇒socHrgr,
* McsEngl.socHrgr!=hunter-gatherer--society,
* McsEngl.society.015-hunter-gatherer!⇒socHrgr,
* McsEngl.society.hunter-gatherer!⇒socHrgr,

evoluting of socHrgr

description::
">evolution of hunter-gatherer-societies:
The evolution of hunter-gatherer societies encompasses a vast period of human history and involves complex changes in social organization, technology, and interaction with the environment. This evolution can be roughly outlined in several stages:

### Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers
1. **Early Human Ancestors (Approx. 2 million years ago)**: The earliest hominins, such as Homo habilis, started to use basic stone tools. This marks the beginning of the Lower Paleolithic era, where hunting and gathering were rudimentary.
2. **Homo Erectus and Expansion (Approx. 1.8 million to 300,000 years ago)**: With Homo erectus, there was a significant improvement in tool technology, including handaxes and cleavers. These hominins began to exploit a wider range of food sources and expanded out of Africa.
3. **Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Humans (Approx. 300,000 to 40,000 years ago)**: Both groups developed more sophisticated tools and hunting techniques. They also showed early evidence of symbolic thought and cultural practices, such as burial rituals and possibly art.

### Upper Paleolithic Revolution
4. **Behavioral Modernity (Approx. 50,000 to 10,000 years ago)**: Anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) began to exhibit behaviors and cultural practices that are recognizably human. This period saw significant advancements in tool technology, the creation of art, and the development of complex social structures and trade networks.

### Mesolithic Era
5. **End of the Ice Age (Approx. 10,000 years ago)**: As the last Ice Age ended, the environment changed significantly, leading to changes in animal migration patterns and plant growth. This period, known as the Mesolithic, saw adaptations to these new conditions, including more specialized tools and the beginnings of sedentism in some regions.

### Neolithic Revolution
6. **Agricultural Revolution (Approx. 10,000 years ago)**: The Neolithic Revolution marked a major turning point, with the domestication of plants and animals. While not all hunter-gatherer societies adopted agriculture (and many continue their traditional ways to this day), this period saw the gradual transition of many groups to a sedentary, farming-based lifestyle.

### Interaction with Agricultural and Industrial Societies
7. **Continued Evolution and Adaptation**: In various parts of the world, hunter-gatherer societies continued to evolve, often in interaction with, and sometimes in opposition to, expanding agricultural and later industrial societies. These interactions often involved trade, conflict, cultural exchange, and adaptation to changing environmental conditions.
8. **Modern Era**: In the modern era, the number of purely hunter-gatherer societies has diminished significantly due to land encroachment, state policies, and the global integration of economies and cultures. However, some groups have managed to maintain their traditional ways of life, often combining hunting and gathering with other forms of subsistence.

### Cultural and Technological Adaptations
- Throughout their history, hunter-gatherer societies have exhibited remarkable adaptability, adjusting their hunting and gathering strategies, social structures, and cultural practices to suit their changing environments.
- Technological innovations, from the earliest stone tools to more recent developments like boats, bows and arrows, and preservation techniques, have played a crucial role in these adaptations.

The evolution of hunter-gatherer societies is a testament to human resilience and ingenuity. It provides key insights into our shared past and offers valuable perspectives on sustainability, social organization, and our relationship with the natural world."
[{2023-12-16 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/406be8e1-9e4c-40b1-9c60-efe9d0846f9a]

name::
* McsEngl.evoluting-of-socHrgr,
* McsEngl.socHrgr'evoluting,

society.agricultural

description::
"An agrarian society, or agricultural society, is any community whose economy is based on producing and maintaining crops and farmland. Another way to define an agrarian society is by seeing how much of a nation's total production is in agriculture. In agrarian society, cultivating the land is the primary source of wealth. Such a society may acknowledge other means of livelihood and work habits but stresses the importance of agriculture and farming. Agrarian societies have existed in various parts of the world as far back as 10,000 years ago and continue to exist today. They have been the most common form of socio-economic organization for most of recorded human history."
[{2024-01-22 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agrarian_society]

name::
* McsEngl.agrarian-society!⇒socAgri,
* McsEngl.agricultural-society!⇒socAgri,
* McsEngl.socAgri!=agricultural-society,
* McsEngl.society.016-agriculture!⇒socAgri,
* McsEngl.society.agriculture,

society.pastoral

description::
">pastoral societies:
Pastoral societies are societies that rely on the raising of livestock for their livelihood. These societies are typically found in arid or semi-arid regions where agriculture is not possible. Pastoralists move their herds of animals from place to place in search of pasture and water.

**Characteristics of Pastoral Societies**
Pastoral societies are characterized by the following features:
* **Transhumance:** Pastoralists typically practice transhumance, which is the seasonal movement of herds to different grazing lands. This allows them to take advantage of different types of vegetation and to avoid overgrazing.
* **Livestock as a source of food, clothing, and shelter:** Pastoralists rely on their livestock for food, clothing, and shelter. They also use their animals for transportation and for producing goods such as milk, cheese, and wool.
* **Strong social organization:** Pastoral societies typically have strong social organization, which is necessary for managing the herds, ensuring fair distribution of resources, and resolving conflicts.
* **Cultural adaptations to nomadic lifestyle:** Pastoralists have developed a number of cultural adaptations to their nomadic lifestyle, such as the use of lightweight and portable shelters, the development of specialized breeds of livestock, and the ability to live with limited supplies of water and food.

**Examples of Pastoral Societies**
There are many examples of pastoral societies around the world, including:
* **The Maasai of Kenya and Tanzania:** The Maasai are a semi-nomadic pastoralist group who raise cattle, goats, and sheep. They are known for their distinctive warrior culture and their complex social organization.
* **The Bedouins of the Middle East:** The Bedouins are a nomadic pastoralist group who raise camels, sheep, and goats. They are known for their hospitality and their resilience in the harsh desert environment.
* **The Mongols of Central Asia:** The Mongols were a nomadic pastoralist empire that conquered a vast territory in the 13th and 14th centuries. They were known for their horsemanship, their military prowess, and their nomadic lifestyle.

**Challenges and Opportunities for Pastoral Societies**
Pastoral societies face a number of challenges in the modern world, including:
* **Habitat loss and fragmentation:** Pastoral lands are increasingly being converted into agricultural lands, mining sites, or urban areas. This is leading to habitat loss and fragmentation, which is making it difficult for pastoralists to maintain their livelihoods.
* **Competition for resources:** Pastoralists are often competing with other groups, such as farmers, industrial users, and conservationists, for access to resources such as land, water, and pasture.
* **Globalization:** The globalization of markets is putting pressure on pastoralists to adopt more market-based economies, which can be difficult for traditional pastoralist societies.

Despite these challenges, pastoral societies also have a number of opportunities in the modern world. They can play a vital role in sustainable development, as they are well-suited to managing arid and semi-arid ecosystems. They can also contribute to cultural diversity and to the development of new products and technologies."
[{2023-12-16 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/57defdd59c662de4]

name::
* McsEngl.pastoral-society!⇒socPastoral,
* McsEngl.socPastoral!=pastoral-society,
* McsEngl.society.022-pastoral!⇒socPastoral,
* McsEngl.society.pastoral!⇒socPastoral,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.ποιμενική-κοινωνία!η!=socPastoral,

society.commodity

description::
">commodity society:
A commodity society is a society in which goods and services are predominantly produced and exchanged for money. This is in contrast to a gift economy, where goods and services are instead exchanged without the use of money. Commodity societies are characterized by a high degree of specialization and division of labor, as well as a market economy.
**Key Features of Commodity Societies**
* **Production for exchange:** Goods and services are primarily produced for the purpose of being sold in a market.
* **Money as a medium of exchange:** Money serves as a common denominator for valuing and exchanging goods and services.
* **Specialization and division of labor:** Individuals specialize in particular tasks, and these tasks are combined to produce complex goods and services.
* **Market economy:** Prices are determined by the interaction of supply and demand in the market.
**Impact of Commodity Societies**
Commodity societies have a profound impact on society in many ways. Some of the positive impacts include:
* **Increased productivity:** The specialization and division of labor can lead to increased productivity, as individuals can focus on tasks they are skilled at.
* **Expanded choices:** A market economy provides consumers with a wide variety of choices for goods and services.
* **Economic growth:** Commodity societies are often associated with economic growth.
However, commodity societies also have some negative impacts, including:
* **Social inequality:** The gap between the rich and the poor can widen in a commodity society.
* **Environmental degradation:** The production of goods and services can have a negative impact on the environment.
* **Loss of community:** The emphasis on individualism and competition in a market economy can lead to a loss of community ties.
**Marxism and Commodity Fetishism**
Karl Marx, the founder of Marxism, argued that commodity societies are characterized by commodity fetishism. This is the idea that the value of a commodity is seen as being inherent in the object itself, rather than being the result of the labor that went into producing it. Marx argued that commodity fetishism leads to a distorted view of society, in which people become alienated from their labor and from each other.
**Alternatives to Commodity Societies**
Some people argue that commodity societies are unsustainable and that we need to move towards alternative economic systems, such as a gift economy or a post-scarcity economy. These alternative systems would be based on different principles than commodity societies, such as cooperation, mutual aid, and sharing.
**Conclusion**
Commodity societies are a complex and multifaceted phenomenon with both positive and negative impacts. It is important to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of this type of society in order to make informed decisions about our economic future."
[{2023-12-29 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/38f0900df25a9974]

name::
* McsEngl.commodity-society!⇒socCmdt,
* McsEngl.socCmdt!=commodity-society,
* McsEngl.society.023-commodity!⇒socCmdt,
* McsEngl.society.commodity!⇒socCmdt,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.εμπορευματική-κοινωνία!η!=socCmdt,

society.commodityNo

description::
">non commodity societies:
Non-commodity societies, in contrast to commodity-based economies where goods and services are produced primarily for exchange or sale in a market, operate on different principles. These societies are characterized by alternative economic structures and value systems. Understanding them involves exploring several key types and characteristics:

1. **Subsistence Economies**: These societies are centered around producing goods primarily for personal or community use rather than for exchange. Agriculture, hunting, gathering, and fishing are common means of subsistence. The focus is on meeting direct needs rather than generating surplus for trade.

2. **Gift Economies**: In a gift economy, goods and services are given without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards. This doesn't mean there's no expectation of a return, but the return is often indirect and based on social norms and relationships. Reciprocity, communal responsibility, and social cohesion are key elements.

3. **Barter Economies**: While still involving exchange, barter economies operate without a standard medium of exchange like money. Goods and services are directly exchanged for other goods and services. Barter is common in situations where money is scarce or in informal economies.

4. **Shared Resource Economies**: These are centered on communal ownership and management of resources. Examples include commons-based economies where communities manage natural resources collectively, adhering to rules and norms that ensure sustainability and equitable access.

5. **Participatory Economics**: Also known as "parecon," this model proposes an alternative economic system based on equitable participation. It emphasizes solidarity, diversity, self-management, and ecological balance, with decision-making power distributed among all members of society.

6. **Ecological Economies**: These focus on sustainability and balance with the natural environment. Economic activity is structured around ecological principles, aiming to maintain the health of ecosystems and the planet.

7. **Time-based Economies**: In these systems, time is used as a measure of value. People exchange services based on the time taken to perform them, rather than on a monetary valuation. Time banks are a common example, where individuals trade hours of work.

8. **Local Exchange Trading Systems (LETS)**: These are locally initiated, democratically organized, community-based networks for non-monetary exchange of goods and services. They often use their own currency systems designed to encourage local trade and community building.

9. **Communal Living**: In some communal living arrangements, resources are shared, and work is done collectively. The focus is on community well-being rather than individual profit.

These non-commodity societies often emphasize social relationships, community, sustainability, and the direct fulfillment of needs. They can be found historically and in contemporary settings, from traditional indigenous communities to modern intentional communities. The diversity of these societies highlights alternative approaches to organizing economic and social life, contrasting with the market-driven, commodity-focused systems dominant in much of the world today."
[{2023-12-16 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/406be8e1-9e4c-40b1-9c60-efe9d0846f9a]

name::
* McsEngl.commodityNo-society!⇒socCmdtNo,
* McsEngl.non-commodity-society!⇒socCmdtNo,
* McsEngl.socCmdtNo!=commodityNo-society,
* McsEngl.society.024-commodityNo!⇒socCmdtNo,
* McsEngl.society.commodityNo!⇒socCmdtNo,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.μη-εμπορευματική-κοινωνία!η!=socCmdtNo,

descriptionLong::
">non commodities societies:
The concept of non-commodity societies refers to social systems in which goods and services are not primarily produced or exchanged for monetary gain. These societies are often characterized by a strong focus on communal living, reciprocity, and the production of goods for personal use or as gifts.

**Examples of Non-Commodity Societies**
There are numerous examples of non-commodity societies throughout history and across the globe. Some of the most well-known include:
* **Mbuti Pygmies:** The Mbuti Pygmies of the Congo Basin are a nomadic hunter-gatherer society that has traditionally lived in small, egalitarian groups. They do not engage in trade, and their economy is based on the sharing of resources within the community.
* **Araucanians:** The Mapuche, or Araucanians, are an indigenous people of Chile and Argentina who have traditionally practiced a form of communal agriculture known as ayni. In ayni, individuals work together to cultivate land, and the resulting harvest is shared among the members of the community.
* **Zomia region:** The Zomia region is a mountainous area in Southeast Asia that encompasses parts of Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam, China, and India. It is home to a diverse range of ethnic groups that have traditionally resisted state control and maintained their own distinct cultures and ways of life.

**Characteristics of Non-Commodity Societies**
Non-commodity societies are typically characterized by the following features:
* **Emphasis on communal living:** Individuals in non-commodity societies often live in small, close-knit communities, and they share a strong sense of social cohesion and mutual support.
* **Reciprocity and gift economy:** Goods and services are typically exchanged within these societies through a system of reciprocity and gift-giving. This means that individuals give to others without expecting anything in return, and the gifts are often returned in kind at a later date.
* **Production for personal use or gifting:** In non-commodity societies, individuals typically produce goods for their own personal use or to give as gifts to others. They do not produce goods primarily for the purpose of selling them for money.
* **Limited or no concept of private property:** In some non-commodity societies, there is no concept of private property, and all goods and resources are considered to be communally owned.
* **Emphasis on social harmony and cooperation:** Non-commodity societies often place a strong emphasis on social harmony and cooperation. This is reflected in their values, their social structures, and their conflict resolution mechanisms.

**Benefits of Non-Commodity Societies**
Non-commodity societies offer several potential benefits, including:
* **Reduced social inequality:** The focus on communal living and reciprocity in non-commodity societies can help to reduce social inequality and promote greater social cohesion.
* **More sustainable resource management:** By producing goods for personal use or for gifting, non-commodity societies often have a more sustainable relationship with their natural resources.
* **Greater cultural diversity:** The diversity of non-commodity societies around the world provides valuable insights into the potential for alternative ways of organizing human society.

**Challenges of Non-Commodity Societies**
Non-commodity societies also face a number of challenges, including:
* **Vulnerability to external pressures:** Non-commodity societies can be vulnerable to external pressures, such as from states or market-based economies.
* **Difficulty in maintaining large populations:** The reliance on communal living and the emphasis on non-market exchange can make it difficult for non-commodity societies to support large populations.
* **Potential for conflict:** The lack of a clear system of property rights can sometimes lead to conflict within non-commodity societies.
* **Challenges in the face of globalization:** The globalization of markets and the spread of consumerism can put pressure on non-commodity societies to adopt more market-based economic systems.

Despite these challenges, non-commodity societies continue to exist and thrive in various parts of the world. They offer valuable insights into alternative ways of organizing human society and the potential for greater social harmony, sustainability, and cultural diversity."
[{2023-12-16 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/57defdd59c662de4]

society.industrial

description::
"In sociology, an industrial society is a society driven by the use of technology and machinery to enable mass production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labour. Such a structure developed in the Western world in the period of time following the Industrial Revolution, and replaced the agrarian societies of the pre-modern, pre-industrial age. Industrial societies are generally mass societies, and may be succeeded by an information society. They are often contrasted with traditional societies.[1]
Industrial societies use external energy sources, such as fossil fuels, to increase the rate and scale of production.[2] The production of food is shifted to large commercial farms where the products of industry, such as combine harvesters and fossil fuel-based fertilizers, are used to decrease required human labor while increasing production. No longer needed for the production of food, excess labor is moved into these factories where mechanization is utilized to further increase efficiency. As populations grow, and mechanization is further refined, often to the level of automation, many workers shift to expanding service industries.
Industrial society makes urbanization desirable, in part so that workers can be closer to centers of production, and the service industry can provide labor to workers and those that benefit financially from them, in exchange for a piece of production profits with which they can buy goods. This leads to the rise of very large cities and surrounding suburb areas with a high rate of economic activity.
These urban centers require the input of external energy sources in order to overcome the diminishing returns[3] of agricultural consolidation, due partially to the lack of nearby arable land, associated transportation and storage costs, and are otherwise unsustainable.[4] This makes the reliable availability of the needed energy resources high priority in industrial government policies."
[{2024-01-22 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_society]

name::
* McsEngl.industrial-society!⇒socIndu,
* McsEngl.socIndu!=industrial-society,
* McsEngl.society.051-industrial!⇒socIndu,
* McsEngl.society.industrial!⇒socIndu,

industrial-revolution (link) of socIndu

society.industrial.before

description::
"Pre-industrial society refers to social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution, which occurred from 1750 to 1850. Pre-industrial refers to a time before there were machines and tools to help perform tasks en masse. Pre-industrial civilization dates back to centuries ago, but the main era known as the pre-industrial society occurred right before the industrial society. Pre-Industrial societies vary from region to region depending on the culture of a given area or history of social and political life. Europe was known for its feudal system and the Italian Renaissance.
The term "pre-industrial" is also used as a benchmark for environmental conditions before the development of industrial society: for example, the Paris Agreement, adopted in Paris on 12 December, 2015 and in force from 4 November, 2016, "aims to limit global warming to well below 2, preferably to 1.5 degrees celsius, compared to pre-industrial levels."[1] The date for the end of the "pre-industrial era" is not defined.[2]"
[{2024-01-28 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pre-industrial_society]

name::
* McsEngl.pre-industrial-society!⇒socInduBefr,
* McsEngl.society.054-industrial.before!⇒socInduBefr,
* McsEngl.society.industrial.before!⇒socInduBefr,

society.industrial.after

description::
"In sociology, the post-industrial society is the stage of society's development when the service sector generates more wealth than the manufacturing sector of the economy.
The term was originated by Alain Touraine and is closely related to similar sociological theoretical concepts such as post-Fordism, information society, knowledge economy, post-industrial economy, liquid modernity, and network society. They all can be used in economics or social science disciplines as a general theoretical backdrop in research design.
As the term has been used, a few common themes, including the ones below have begun to emerge.
* The economy undergoes a transition from the production of goods to the provision of services.
* Knowledge becomes a valued form of capital; see Human capital.
* Producing ideas is the main way to grow the economy.
* Through processes of globalization and automation, the value and importance to the economy of blue-collar, unionized work, including manual labor (e.g., assembly-line work) decline, and those of professional workers (e.g., scientists, creative-industry professionals, and IT professionals) grow in value and prevalence.
* Behavioral and information sciences and technologies are developed and implemented (e.g., behavioral economics, information architecture, cybernetics, game theory and information theory)."
[{2024-01-22 retrieved} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-industrial_society]

name::
* McsEngl.post-industrial--society!=socInduAftr,
* McsEngl.socInduAftr!=post-industrial--society,
* McsEngl.society.052-post-industrial!=socInduAftr,
* McsEngl.society.post-industrial!=socInduAftr,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.μεταβιομηχανική-κοινωνία!η!=socInduAftr,

society.capitalism

description::
· capitalism is a-society with capitalist-economy.

name::
* McsEngl.capitalism!⇒socCptl,
* McsEngl.capitalist-society!⇒socCptl,
* McsEngl.socCapitalism!⇒socCptl,
* McsEngl.socCptl!=capitalist-society,
* McsEngl.society.019-capitalism!⇒socCptl,
* McsEngl.society.capitalism!⇒socCptl,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.καπιταλισμός!ο!=socCptl,
* McsElln.καπιταλιστική-κοινωνία!η!=socCptl,
* McsElln.κοινωνία-καπιταλιστική!η!=socCptl,

descriptionLong::
">capitalist society overview:
A capitalist society is an economic system where private individuals or businesses own capital goods and control the means of production. This contrasts with other economic systems like socialism or communism, where the state or collective entities control production. The central characteristics of a capitalist society include:

1. **Private Property Rights:** Individuals and businesses have the right to own and use property as they see fit. This includes resources, buildings, and intellectual property.

2. **Market Economy:** Economic activities, such as production and pricing of goods and services, are governed by the market. Supply and demand dictate prices, production levels, and distribution of goods.

3. **Profit Motive:** In capitalism, businesses operate primarily to make a profit. This profit motive drives innovation, efficiency, and economic growth.

4. **Competition:** A capitalist society thrives on competition among businesses. This competition leads to better products and services, lower prices, and more choices for consumers.

5. **Limited Government Intervention:** While the degree varies, capitalist societies generally have less government intervention in the economy compared to socialist or communist systems. Governments may regulate for safety, fairness, and environmental protection but typically do not control production or distribution of goods and services.

6. **Consumer Sovereignty:** In a capitalist society, consumers drive the market through their purchasing choices. Businesses must respond to consumer demands to remain competitive.

7. **Economic Freedom:** Individuals have the freedom to choose their employment, start a business, and make purchases. This freedom supports personal initiative and entrepreneurship.

8. **Unequal Distribution of Wealth:** Capitalism often leads to disparities in wealth and income. Successful entrepreneurs and investors can accumulate significant wealth, while others may not have the same opportunities or outcomes.

9. **Global Trade:** Capitalist economies often engage in international trade, allowing them to expand markets, acquire resources, and benefit from economies of scale.

10. **Cyclical Economic Trends:** Capitalist economies experience cycles of expansion and contraction (booms and busts) due to various factors like consumer confidence, market speculation, and changes in government policy.

Overall, a capitalist society is characterized by its emphasis on private ownership, market mechanisms, and the pursuit of profit. While it has been credited with driving significant economic growth and innovation, it also faces criticism for issues like income inequality and environmental degradation."
[{2023-12-16 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/d05ee713-afe2-446f-a1f9-ca4a05200640]


**Capitalist Society Overview**
Capitalism is an economic system characterized by private ownership of the means of production (e.g., factories, machines, land), competition in a free market, and the motivation to make a profit. It is the most common economic system in the world, and it has been responsible for significant economic growth and technological innovation.

**Basic Features of Capitalism**
* **Private ownership of the means of production:** This means that businesses are owned and controlled by private individuals or groups, rather than the government. This gives businesses a lot of freedom to make their own decisions about how to produce and sell goods and services.
* **Competition in a free market:** This means that businesses compete with each other to sell goods and services to consumers. This competition drives businesses to lower prices, improve quality, and innovate.
* **Motivation to make a profit:** Businesses in a capitalist system are motivated to make a profit. This profit is the difference between the revenue they receive from selling goods and services and the costs they incur to produce them.

**Positive Aspects of Capitalism**
* **Economic growth:** Capitalism has been shown to be a very effective way to generate economic growth. This is because it encourages businesses to invest in new technologies and to expand their operations.
* **Technological innovation:** Capitalism has also been a driving force behind technological innovation. This is because businesses are constantly looking for new ways to improve their products and services.
* **Individual freedom:** Capitalism gives individuals a lot of freedom to pursue their own economic interests. This can lead to a more diverse and dynamic economy.

**Negative Aspects of Capitalism**
* **Income inequality:** In a capitalist system, there is often a large gap between the rich and the poor. This is because the most successful businesses and individuals tend to amass a lot of wealth.
* **Exploitation:** Some critics argue that capitalism can lead to the exploitation of workers. This is because businesses may be tempted to pay workers low wages or to provide them with poor working conditions.
* **Market failures:** Capitalism is not immune to market failures. These are situations in which the market does not function effectively, leading to inefficient outcomes. For example, monopolies can arise in markets that are not competitive, and external costs, such as pollution, can be created by businesses.

**Capitalism and Government**
In most capitalist systems, there is some role for government. Government can play a role in regulating markets, providing public goods and services, and redistributing wealth. The amount of government intervention in a capitalist economy can vary greatly from country to country.

**Conclusion**
Capitalism is a complex and controversial economic system. It has both positive and negative aspects, and it is important to weigh these carefully when evaluating its overall impact. While capitalism has been very successful in generating economic growth and technological innovation, it has also been criticized for its tendency to create income inequality and to exploit workers. The role of government in a capitalist system is also a subject of debate. Some argue that government should play a limited role, while others believe that it should have a more active role in regulating markets, providing public goods and services, and redistributing wealth. Ultimately, the best way to manage a capitalist economy is a matter of ongoing debate and experimentation.
[{2023-12-16 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/3c2d46360e8bec7e]

economy (link) of socCptl

evaluation of socCptl

description::
">evaluation of capitalist-society:
Evaluating capitalism as a socioeconomic system is a complex and multifaceted task, as it encompasses various aspects of economic, social, and political life. While capitalism has undoubtedly driven economic growth and innovation worldwide, it has also been criticized for its inherent inequalities, environmental consequences, and potential for instability.
**Positive Aspects of Capitalism**
1. **Economic Growth and Efficiency:** Capitalism's reliance on market forces and competition has fueled economic growth and innovation. Businesses strive to produce goods and services more efficiently and at lower costs to gain a competitive edge, leading to increased productivity and overall economic prosperity.
2. **Individualism and Economic Freedom:** Capitalism promotes individual economic freedom, allowing individuals to pursue their entrepreneurial ambitions and economic interests. This fosters a dynamic and entrepreneurial spirit, encouraging innovation and risk-taking.
3. **Resource Allocation and Price Mechanism:** The free market system of capitalism effectively allocates resources based on supply and demand, ensuring that goods and services are produced and distributed according to consumer preferences. This price mechanism helps establish equilibrium prices, guiding production and consumption decisions.
**Challenges and Criticisms of Capitalism**
1. **Inequality and Social Mobility:** Capitalism has been criticized for its tendency to exacerbate economic inequality, with a concentration of wealth and power among a small elite. This can hinder social mobility and limit opportunities for the less fortunate.
2. **Environmental Sustainability:** Capitalism's focus on economic growth can often come at the expense of environmental sustainability. Businesses may prioritize short-term profits over long-term environmental protection, leading to pollution, resource depletion, and climate change.
3. **Market Failures and Externalities:** Market forces in a capitalist system may not always lead to optimal outcomes. Market failures, such as monopolies and externalities, can distort prices and create market inefficiencies. Externalities, such as pollution or environmental damage, may not be fully accounted for in market transactions, leading to social costs.
4. **Financial Crises and Instability:** Capitalism's inherent instability can lead to financial crises, such as the 2008 global financial meltdown. These crises can result from excessive risk-taking by financial institutions, excessive debt accumulation, and inadequate regulatory oversight.
5. **Exploitation and Labor Conditions:** Critics argue that capitalism can lead to exploitation of workers, as they may have limited bargaining power and face low wages or poor working conditions. This can contribute to social unrest and inequality.
**Conclusion**
Capitalism has proven to be a remarkably dynamic and adaptable economic system, driving economic growth and innovation worldwide. However, its inherent characteristics also raise concerns about inequality, environmental sustainability, and market failures. Addressing these challenges requires a balance between market forces and government regulation, as well as a focus on social welfare and environmental protection. The future of capitalism will depend on its ability to evolve and address these challenges while maintaining its strengths."
[{2023-12-29 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/589f57744ecf1e99]

name::
* McsEngl.socCptl'evaluation,

info-resource of socCptl

description::
* {2018-11-22} umair haque, Six Myths About Capitalism Everyone Should Know, https://eand.co/six-myths-about-capitalism-everyone-should-know-f5d582b225ae,

name::
* McsEngl.socCptl'Infrsc,

socCptl.shareholder

description::
“shareholder capitalism,” embraced by most Western corporations, which holds that a corporation’s primary goal should be to maximize its profits.
[https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/12/why-we-need-davos-manifesto-for-better-kind-of-capitalism/]
===
"shareholder-capitalism:
Shareholder capitalism is an economic model that emphasizes the primacy of shareholder interests in the governance and operations of corporations. Under shareholder capitalism, the primary responsibility of businesses is to maximize profits for shareholders, typically by focusing on short-term gains and pursuing strategies that boost share prices.

**Key Principles of Shareholder Capitalism**
Shareholder capitalism is based on the following core principles:
* **Maximization of shareholder value:** The primary goal of businesses is to maximize the return on investment for shareholders. This means making decisions that prioritize short-term profits and stock price increases.
* **Market efficiency:** Markets are considered to be efficient and self-regulating, with prices reflecting the true value of companies. This means that shareholders are free to make informed investment decisions based on market signals.
* **Limited government intervention:** Government intervention in the economy is minimized, allowing for free markets to operate without undue interference. This includes restrictions on labor unions, environmental regulation, and social welfare programs.

**Benefits of Shareholder Capitalism**
Shareholder capitalism proponents argue that it promotes economic growth and efficiency by aligning the interests of businesses with those of investors. They believe that a focus on short-term profits incentivizes innovation, risk-taking, and efficient resource allocation.

**Criticisms of Shareholder Capitalism**
Critics of shareholder capitalism argue that it prioritizes short-term gains over long-term sustainability and ethical practices. They contend that the focus on maximizing shareholder value can lead to:
* **Destructive business practices:** Companies may sacrifice environmental protection, employee well-being, and community interests in pursuit of immediate profits.
* **Inequalities:** The concentration of wealth among shareholders can exacerbate economic inequality and undermine social stability.
* **Short-termism:** A focus on quarterly earnings and stock price movements can lead to unsustainable business strategies and neglect of long-term investments.

**The Debate Between Shareholder and Stakeholder Capitalism**
The debate between shareholder and stakeholder capitalism has been ongoing for decades, with proponents of each approach advocating for their preferred framework for corporate governance and business conduct. While shareholder capitalism has been the dominant model for much of the 20th and early 21st centuries, there is growing recognition of the need for a more balanced approach that considers the interests of all stakeholders, including employees, customers, suppliers, communities, and the environment.
The COVID-19 pandemic and the growing awareness of climate change have highlighted the limitations of shareholder capitalism and the need for a more sustainable and equitable economic model. Stakeholder capitalism advocates argue that prioritizing the long-term interests of all stakeholders can lead to a more stable, prosperous, and just society.

The transition from shareholder capitalism to stakeholder capitalism is likely to be gradual and complex, as it involves changing the mindsets of business leaders, investors, policymakers, and consumers. However, the growing recognition of the need for a more inclusive and sustainable approach to business is likely to accelerate this shift in the years to come."
[{2023-12-16 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/99773c83578d8e18]

name::
* McsEngl.shareholder-capitalism,
* McsEngl.socCptl.001-shareholder,
* McsEngl.socCptl.shareholder,

socCptl.stakeholder

description::
"millennials and Generation Z no longer want to work for, invest in, or buy from companies that lack values beyond maximizing shareholder value. And, finally, executives and investors have started to recognize that their own long-term success is closely linked to that of their customers, employees, and suppliers."
[https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/12/why-we-need-davos-manifesto-for-better-kind-of-capitalism/]

name::
* McsEngl.socCptl.002-stakeholder,
* McsEngl.socCptl.stakeholder,
* McsEngl.stakeholder-capitalism,

descriptionLong::
">stakeholder-capitalism:
Stakeholder capitalism is a system in which corporations are oriented to serve the interests of all their stakeholders. Under this model, not only the shareholders (owners of shares in a company) are considered, but also employees, customers, suppliers, local communities, and the environment. The concept argues for a more inclusive and socially responsible approach to running a business, contrasting with shareholder capitalism, where the primary focus is on maximizing shareholder value.

In stakeholder capitalism, the belief is that by considering the needs and values of all stakeholders, companies can achieve long-term sustainability and success. This approach often involves:
1. **Corporate Responsibility and Ethics**: Companies are expected to act ethically and to consider the societal impacts of their decisions.
2. **Environmental Sustainability**: A strong focus on reducing environmental footprints and contributing to sustainable development.
3. **Employee Well-being**: Prioritizing fair wages, good working conditions, and opportunities for employee growth and development.
4. **Customer Satisfaction and Safety**: Ensuring that products and services are safe, reliable, and beneficial to customers.
5. **Community Engagement**: Actively contributing to the well-being of the communities where the companies operate.
6. **Long-Term Value Creation**: Aiming for long-term profitability and growth, while balancing short-term pressures.

This model has gained traction in recent years, especially as societal challenges like climate change, economic inequality, and social injustice have become more pronounced. However, it also faces criticism and challenges, especially regarding the measurement of success beyond financial performance and balancing the often conflicting interests of different stakeholders."
[{2023-12-16 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/406be8e1-9e4c-40b1-9c60-efe9d0846f9a]
===
">stakeholder-capitalism:
Stakeholder capitalism is an economic philosophy that emphasizes the responsibilities of businesses to all stakeholders, including shareholders, employees, customers, suppliers, communities, and the environment. This model of capitalism differs from traditional shareholder capitalism, which focuses primarily on maximizing profits for shareholders.

**Key Principles of Stakeholder Capitalism**
Stakeholder capitalism is based on the following core principles:
* **Long-term value creation:** Businesses should focus on creating long-term value for all stakeholders, not just shareholders. This means considering the needs and interests of all stakeholders when making business decisions.
* **Shared prosperity:** Businesses should contribute to the shared prosperity of society. This means ensuring that all stakeholders, including employees, customers, and communities, benefit from the company's success.
* **Sustainability:** Businesses should operate in a sustainable manner that protects the environment and ensures the long-term health of the planet.

**Benefits of Stakeholder Capitalism**
Adopting a stakeholder capitalism approach can bring a range of benefits to businesses, including:
* **Improved financial performance:** Studies have shown that companies that adopt stakeholder capitalism principles tend to have stronger financial performance over time. This is because they are better able to attract and retain talent, build strong relationships with customers and suppliers, and operate in a socially responsible manner.
* **Greater employee engagement:** When employees feel that their work is making a positive impact on society, they are more engaged and productive. This can lead to improved customer service, innovation, and productivity.
* **Enhanced reputation and brand loyalty:** Companies that are seen as being socially responsible and contributing to the common good are more likely to be trusted and supported by customers, investors, and employees. This can lead to increased brand loyalty and market share.

**Challenges of Stakeholder Capitalism**
Adopting stakeholder capitalism can also be challenging, as it requires businesses to balance the needs of multiple stakeholders and make trade-offs between different priorities. Some of the challenges of stakeholder capitalism include:
* **Measuring and managing stakeholder impact:** It can be difficult to measure and manage the impact of a company's decisions on its stakeholders. This can make it challenging to ensure that all stakeholders' interests are being considered.
* **Aligning incentives:** The incentives of shareholders and other stakeholders may not always be aligned. This can make it difficult to ensure that all stakeholders are being treated fairly.
* **Addressing public skepticism:** Some people are skeptical of stakeholder capitalism, believing that it will lead to lower profits or a compromise of shareholder value.

**Conclusion**
Stakeholder capitalism is a complex and evolving concept, but it is gaining increasing attention as businesses and policymakers seek to address the challenges of the 21st century. While there are challenges to implementing stakeholder capitalism, the potential benefits for businesses, society, and the environment are significant."
[{2023-12-16 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/99773c83578d8e18]

socCptl.state

description::
The second model is “state capitalism,” which entrusts the government with setting the direction of the economy, and has risen to prominence in many emerging markets, not least China.
[https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/12/why-we-need-davos-manifesto-for-better-kind-of-capitalism/]

name::
* McsEngl.socCptl.state,

society.capitalism.before

description::
">pre-capitalist society:
Pre-capitalist societies are societies that existed before the development of capitalism. They can be broadly divided into two main types:
* **Pre-industrial societies** are societies that do not have the technology or infrastructure to produce goods on a large scale. They are typically based on agriculture and hunting and gathering.
* **Industrial societies** are societies that have developed the technology and infrastructure to produce goods on a large scale. They are typically based on manufacturing and commerce.
Pre-capitalist societies were characterized by a number of features, including:
* **Limited economic specialization**. Most people in pre-capitalist societies were self-sufficient, producing their own food, clothing, and shelter. There was little division of labor, and most people worked in agriculture.
* **Absence of markets**. Markets are institutions where buyers and sellers come together to exchange goods and services. Pre-capitalist societies did not have well-developed markets, and most economic activity was based on barter or gift exchange.
* **Limited social stratification**. Pre-capitalist societies were typically less stratified than capitalist societies. There was less inequality in wealth and power, and social classes were not as rigidly defined.
The transition from pre-capitalist to capitalist societies began in Europe in the 16th century. This transition was driven by a number of factors, including:
* **The development of new technologies**, such as the printing press and the steam engine, which made it possible to produce goods more efficiently.
* **The rise of colonialism**, which expanded markets and provided new sources of raw materials.
* **The development of new forms of finance**, such as joint-stock companies, which allowed for the pooling of capital and the financing of large-scale projects.
The transition to capitalism had a profound impact on society. It led to the rise of a new class of wealthy capitalists, who owned the means of production. It also led to the growth of cities and the development of a new class of wage laborers.
While capitalism has brought about many benefits, such as increased productivity and economic growth, it has also created a number of problems, such as inequality, environmental degradation, and social conflict."
[{2023-12-29 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/02a04fbc4727b0ba]

name::
* McsEngl.pre-capitalism-society!⇒socCptlBefr,
* McsEngl.socCptlBefr!=pre-capitalist-society,
* McsEngl.society.020-capitalism.before!⇒socCptlBefr,
* McsEngl.society.capitalism.before!⇒socCptlBefr,

society.capitalism.after

description::
">post-capitalist society:
A post-capitalist society refers to a theoretical state in which the economic and social systems have evolved or transformed from the current capitalist framework. In capitalism, private ownership, market competition, and the pursuit of profit are central. In a post-capitalist society, these elements would be significantly altered or replaced. There are various theories and visions about what post-capitalism might look like, often rooted in different ideological perspectives:

1. **Socialist or Communist Post-Capitalism**: These systems propose the elimination of private ownership of the means of production, replaced by collective or state ownership. The distribution of goods and resources would be based not on market mechanisms but on principles of equality, need, or contribution to society.

2. **Anarchist or Libertarian Socialist Post-Capitalism**: These ideologies advocate for a society without a centralized state. Economic and social activities would be organized through voluntary, cooperative associations, emphasizing direct democracy and decentralization.

3. **Technological Post-Capitalism**: Some theorists suggest that advancements in technology, especially automation and artificial intelligence, could lead to a society where the need for human labor is significantly reduced. In such a scenario, traditional capitalist concepts like labor for wages might become obsolete, and new forms of economic and social organization could emerge.

4. **Ecological Post-Capitalism**: This concept emphasizes sustainability and ecological balance. It argues for an economic system that respects environmental limits and focuses on renewable resources, moving away from the growth-centric model of capitalism.

5. **Participatory Economics (Parecon)**: This model proposes an alternative economic system where decision-making is based on the principle of participation by all citizens. It emphasizes equitable distribution, self-management, diversity of choices, and efficient allocation of resources.

6. **Universal Basic Income (UBI)**: While not a complete system in itself, UBI could be a feature of a post-capitalist society. It involves providing all citizens with a regular, unconditional sum of money, irrespective of employment status.

7. **Resource-Based Economy**: This model, popularized by The Venus Project, proposes a system in which resources are distributed based on scientific assessment of needs and sustainability, rather than through market mechanisms.

These visions share a common goal of addressing perceived flaws in capitalism, such as inequality, environmental degradation, and concentration of wealth and power. However, transitioning to a post-capitalist society raises significant challenges, both in terms of practical implementation and in overcoming resistance from those who benefit from the current system. Moreover, the viability and desirability of these systems are subjects of considerable debate and speculation."
[{2023-12-16 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/406be8e1-9e4c-40b1-9c60-efe9d0846f9a]

name::
* McsEngl.after-capitalist-society!⇒socCptlAftr,
* McsEngl.meta-capitalist-society!⇒socCptlAftr,
* McsEngl.post-capitalist-society!⇒socCptlAftr,
* McsEngl.socCptlAftr!=post-capitalist-society,
* McsEngl.society.021-capitalism.after!⇒socCptlAftr,
* McsEngl.society.capitalism.after!⇒socCptlAftr,
* McsEngl.society.post-capitalism!⇒socCptlAftr,

info-resource of socCptlAftr

description::
* https://www.yanisvaroufakis.eu/2020/06/01/one-small-step-toward-postcapitalism-a-universal-basic-dividend-to-change-the-games-rules-video-by-sustainable-human/,

name::
* McsEngl.socCptlAftr'Infrsc,

socCptlAftr.SPECIFIC

description::
* autonomous-society,

name::
* McsEngl.socCptlAftr.specific,

society.post-work

description::
">post-work society:
A post-work society is a concept where work, especially in the traditional sense of full-time employment, is no longer the central part of individuals' lives. This idea is often discussed in the context of various social, technological, and economic changes. Key aspects and considerations in discussions about a post-work society include:
1. **Technological Advancements**: Automation and artificial intelligence are rapidly advancing, potentially replacing many jobs currently performed by humans. This shift could lead to a decrease in the demand for traditional labor.
2. **Economic Implications**: A significant challenge in a post-work society is how to distribute wealth and resources when a large portion of the population does not engage in traditional paid employment. Concepts like Universal Basic Income (UBI) are often discussed as solutions to ensure financial stability.
3. **Social and Cultural Changes**: Work is not just about earning a living; it also provides a sense of purpose, structure, and social interaction. A move towards a post-work society would necessitate a cultural shift in how individuals find purpose and community.
4. **Policy and Governance**: Governments would need to adapt policies to address issues like income distribution, education, and social welfare in a society where work is less central.
5. **Environmental Impact**: Reduced emphasis on industrial work could potentially lead to more sustainable living and reduced environmental footprints, as the focus shifts away from production and consumption driven by work-related incomes.
6. **Personal Well-being and Leisure**: With more free time, individuals in a post-work society could focus on personal development, community engagement, and leisure activities, potentially leading to an overall increase in well-being.
7. **Educational System Transformation**: Education might shift focus from preparing individuals for specific careers to broader skillsets like critical thinking, creativity, and emotional intelligence.
The transition to a post-work society raises complex questions about economic structures, social identity, and personal fulfillment. It's a multidimensional issue that touches on economics, technology, sociology, and philosophy."
[{2024-01-27 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/591c5693-fa3f-4f94-892c-3ced57e00038]

name::
* McsEngl.post-work--society,
* McsEngl.society.053-post-work,
* McsEngl.society.post-work,

society.spec-div.technology

description::
· specifics-division on technology.
===
* stone-age--society,
* copper-age--society,
* bronze-age--society,
* iron-age--society,
===
* pre-industrial-society,
* industrial-society,
* post-industrial-society,
===
* information-society,
* knowledge-society,
* digital-society,
* info-network-society,

name::
* McsEngl.society.spec-div.technology,

society.autonomous (link)

society.knowledge

description::
">knowledge society:
A **knowledge society** is one that generates, shares, and makes available to all members of society knowledge that may be used to improve the human condition. In this type of society, knowledge is seen as a valuable resource that should be shared and used to solve problems and make informed decisions.
**Key characteristics of a knowledge society:**
* **Ubiquitous access to information and communication technologies (ICTs)**: Information and communication technologies (ICTs) play a crucial role in knowledge creation, sharing, and utilization. The widespread availability of computers, smartphones, and the internet has democratized access to information and knowledge, enabling individuals to connect with each other and with a vast repository of knowledge.
* **Strong emphasis on education and lifelong learning:** Knowledge societies place a high value on education and lifelong learning. Individuals are encouraged to develop their intellectual skills and knowledge bases throughout their lives. This emphasis on education empowers individuals to participate effectively in the knowledge economy and contribute to societal progress.
* **Creativity and innovation:** Knowledge societies foster a culture of creativity and innovation. Individuals are encouraged to think critically, analyze problems, and generate new ideas. This emphasis on innovation drives economic growth, social progress, and cultural development.
* **Collaboration and teamwork:** Knowledge societies recognize the value of collaboration and teamwork. Individuals are encouraged to work together to solve problems, share knowledge, and create new products and services. This emphasis on collaboration fosters innovation and leads to more effective outcomes.
**Benefits of a knowledge society:**
* **Economic growth:** Knowledge-based industries are driving economic growth in many developed and developing countries. The creation and application of new knowledge lead to the development of new products, services, and technologies that create jobs and boost economic productivity.
* **Social progress:** Knowledge societies are more likely to address social challenges such as poverty, inequality, and environmental degradation. The sharing of knowledge and expertise can help to improve healthcare, education, and access to essential services for all members of society.
* **Cultural development:** Knowledge societies foster a vibrant cultural environment. Individuals are encouraged to express themselves creatively and engage with diverse cultural traditions. This emphasis on culture promotes tolerance, understanding, and respect for different perspectives.
**Challenges of a knowledge society:**
* **Digital divide:** Not everyone has equal access to ICTs, which can create a digital divide between those who can access and utilize knowledge and those who cannot. This can exacerbate existing social inequalities and hinder economic opportunities.
* **Misinformation and disinformation:** The rapid spread of information through the internet can lead to the spread of misinformation and disinformation. This can make it difficult for individuals to discern reliable information from false or misleading content, which can have negative consequences for decision-making and social cohesion.
* **Intellectual property rights:** Protecting intellectual property rights is crucial to encourage innovation and creativity. However, overprotection of intellectual property can stifle the free flow of knowledge and hinder collaboration.
**Conclusion:**
A knowledge society has the potential to create a more equitable, prosperous, and sustainable world. However, it is important to address the challenges associated with the digital age and ensure that the benefits of knowledge are shared widely. By fostering a culture of creativity, collaboration, and lifelong learning, we can create a knowledge society that benefits all members of society.
Sources
guides.co/g/welcome-to-guides/168536"
[{2023-12-29 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/fd45d813db61db54]

">knowledge society:
A knowledge society refers to a social structure in which knowledge and intellectual skills are paramount in influencing economic and social policies. In a knowledge society, education and information are key assets, more significant than traditional forms of capital like land or labor. Here are a few characteristics:
1. **Education and Learning**: Education is a lifelong process in a knowledge society, and continuous learning is encouraged to keep up with rapid technological and scientific advancements.
2. **Innovation and Research**: Innovation, research, and development are vital, driving economic growth and addressing societal challenges.
3. **Information Technology**: The widespread use of information technology for knowledge dissemination, communication, and problem-solving.
4. **Intellectual Capital**: The value of intellectual capital (knowledge, expertise, and skills) surpasses that of physical or financial assets.
5. **Participatory Governance**: Informed and educated citizens participate actively in decision-making processes, often facilitated by digital platforms.
6. **Global Connectivity**: A knowledge society is typically globally connected, fostering international collaborations and cultural exchanges.
7. **Sustainability and Ethics**: There's a focus on sustainable development and ethical considerations in exploiting and sharing knowledge.
This concept is closely related to the idea of an information society but places more emphasis on the creation, distribution, and use of knowledge rather than just information."
[{2023-12-29 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/d3c2eb16-ebe2-4849-a073-a09541399a2b]

name::
* McsEngl.knowledge-society!⇒socKnlg,
* McsEngl.socKnlg!=knowledge-society,
* McsEngl.society.044-knowledge!⇒socKnlg,
* McsEngl.society.knowledge!⇒socKnlg,

evoluting of socKnlg

description::
">evolution of knowledge-society:
Here's a timeline of key events in the evolution of the knowledge society:
* **1940s:** The term "knowledge society" is first coined by Peter Drucker, an Austrian-American management consultant, educator, and author.
* **1950s:** The advent of the computer and the internet begins to revolutionize the way we access, share, and create knowledge.
* **1960s:** The rise of globalization and the knowledge economy accelerates the pace of knowledge creation and diffusion.
* **1970s:** The development of personal computers and the expansion of the internet further democratize access to knowledge.
* **1980s:** The term "information society" comes into vogue, reflecting the growing importance of information and communication technologies in society.
* **1990s:** The internet undergoes explosive growth, transforming the way we communicate, learn, and conduct business.
* **2000s:** The rise of social media and mobile technology further accelerates the pace of knowledge sharing and collaboration.
* **2010s:** The concept of "open data" and the movement towards data sharing gain momentum, making it easier to access and utilize public and private data.
* **2020s:** The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the importance of digital literacy and the need for equitable access to technology in a knowledge-based society.
**Key trends in the knowledge society:**
* **Ubiquitous access to information:** The internet and other ICTs have made information more accessible than ever before, breaking down geographical and social barriers to knowledge.
* **Rapid knowledge creation:** The pace of knowledge creation is accelerating, driven by technological advancements, globalization, and collaboration among researchers and practitioners.
* **Shifting demographics:** The global population is aging, and there is a growing demand for lifelong learning and upskilling to adapt to the changing nature of work and society.
* **Emergence of new knowledge hubs:** New knowledge hubs are emerging in developing countries, challenging the traditional dominance of developed countries in knowledge creation and innovation.
* **Growing emphasis on ethics and responsible use of knowledge:** The power of knowledge can be misused, leading to misinformation, discrimination, and other social harms. There is a growing need to develop ethical frameworks and guidelines for the responsible use of knowledge technologies.
As we move forward, the knowledge society will continue to evolve, driven by technological advancements, social changes, and global challenges. It is important to stay informed about these trends and to engage in critical thinking and informed decision-making. By embracing the opportunities and addressing the challenges of the knowledge society, we can create a more equitable, prosperous, and sustainable future for all."
[{2023-12-29 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/fd45d813db61db54]

name::
* McsEngl.evoluting-of-socKnlg,
* McsEngl.socKnlg'evoluting,

society.digital

description::
">digital society:
A digital society is a society where information and communication technologies (ICTs) have become deeply integrated at all levels of social organization. This includes the way people work, learn, communicate, and socialize.
The rise of the digital society has been driven by the development of the internet, mobile technologies, and social media. These technologies have transformed the way we interact with the world around us, and have created new opportunities for connection, collaboration, and innovation.
Here are some of the key characteristics of a digital society:
* Increased reliance on ICTs: ICTs are used in all aspects of life, from work and education to communication and entertainment.
* Growth of the digital economy: The digital economy is the part of the economy that is based on digital technologies. It includes activities such as e-commerce, online banking, and social media marketing.
* Rise of social media: Social media platforms have become a major way for people to connect with each other and share information.
* Importance of digital literacy: Digital literacy is the ability to use ICTs effectively and safely. It is an essential skill for participation in the digital society.
The digital society has many benefits, but it also presents some challenges. Some of the benefits of the digital society include:
* Increased access to information and education
* Improved communication and collaboration
* New opportunities for economic growth and development
* Greater participation in civic life
Some of the challenges of the digital society include:
* The digital divide: The digital divide is the gap between those who have access to ICTs and those who do not. This can lead to social inequality.
* Privacy concerns: The use of ICTs raises concerns about privacy, as personal data can be easily collected and shared.
* Cybersecurity threats: Digital societies are vulnerable to cyberattacks, which can disrupt critical infrastructure and steal sensitive data.
* Addiction to technology: Excessive use of ICTs can lead to addiction and social isolation.
As we move forward, it is important to address the challenges of the digital society while reaping its benefits. We need to ensure that everyone has access to ICTs, that our privacy is protected, and that we use technology responsibly."
[{2024-03-06 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/ebd1ab2be7aa1886]

name::
* McsEngl.digital-society,
* McsEngl.society.digital,

society.information

description::
">information society:
An information society is a society where the creation, distribution, use, and manipulation of information play a significant role. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are the main drivers of information societies.
These technologies have transformed many aspects of our lives, including education, work, government, and leisure.
Here are some of the key characteristics of an information society:
* The information sector is a major employer.
* Information is a key resource for economic and social development.
* People have widespread access to information and communication technologies.
* Information is used to create new knowledge and products.
* There is a growing emphasis on lifelong learning.
The development of information societies has had a profound impact on the world. It has led to increased globalization, new forms of communication, and new ways of working and learning. However, it has also created new challenges, such as digital divides, information overload, and privacy concerns."
[{2024-03-06 retrieved} https://gemini.google.com/app/985dc374a603bb74]

name::
* McsEngl.information-society,
* McsEngl.society.information,

society.network

description::
">network society:
The term "network society" is used to describe a social formation in which social networks play a central role in organizing individual, group, organizational, and societal activity. This means that communication, information sharing, and collaboration are increasingly mediated through digital networks, such as the internet and social media.
**Key characteristics of the network society:**
* **Decentralization:** Power and influence are dispersed across multiple nodes in the network, as opposed to being concentrated in traditional hierarchies.
* **Individualization:** Individuals have greater autonomy and control over their lives, as they can access information, resources, and opportunities from anywhere in the world.
* **Modularity:** Social structures are organized around flexible and adaptable modules, which can be easily connected and disconnected.
* **Hyperconnectivity:** Individuals and organizations are constantly connected to each other and to information, leading to a constant stream of data and interactions.
**Impacts of the network society:**
* **Globalization:** The internet has broken down barriers to communication and trade, leading to a more interconnected and globalized world.
* **Cultural shifts:** Digital technologies have reshaped cultural norms, values, and practices, with a focus on individualism, autonomy, and self-expression.
* **Economic transformation:** The rise of the internet has led to the emergence of new industries and business models, while traditional industries have been disrupted.
* **Political change:** Social media has empowered individuals to organize and participate in political movements, while also raising concerns about misinformation and manipulation.
**Challenges of the network society:**
* **Privacy and security:** Digital technologies collect vast amounts of data about individuals, raising concerns about privacy and surveillance.
* **Digital divide:** Access to digital technologies and the internet is not equally distributed, leading to a widening gap between the digitally connected and the disconnected.
* **Fake news and misinformation:** The ease of spreading information online has made it difficult to distinguish between reliable sources and false or misleading information.
* **Social polarization:** Digital echo chambers and algorithms can reinforce existing beliefs and biases, leading to social polarization and conflict.
In conclusion, the network society is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon with both positive and negative consequences. It is important to be aware of the challenges and opportunities presented by the network society so that we can harness its potential while mitigating its risks."
[{2023-12-29 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/f670d9549eae1961]

name::
* McsEngl.info-network-society,
* McsEngl.network-society,
* McsEngl.socNtwk,
* McsEngl.society.046-network,
* McsEngl.society.network,

info-resource of socNtwk

description::
* https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_society,
* http://www.congo-education.net/wealth-of-networks/, {2006},

name::
* McsEngl.socNtwk'Infrsc,

society.technofeudalism

description::
">technofeudalism:
The term **technofeudalism**, coined by economist Yanis Varoufakis in his 2023 book of the same name, refers to a proposed new economic and political system that has emerged in the wake of the rise of the internet and the dominance of large technology companies. In this system, the owners of these companies, often referred to as "technolords," hold immense power and influence, while ordinary people are relegated to the role of passive users.

Varoufakis argues that technofeudalism is characterized by the following key features:
1. **The concentration of power in the hands of a few large technology companies:** These companies, such as Google, Amazon, Facebook, and Apple, have amassed vast amounts of data and control critical infrastructure, giving them enormous power over individuals and governments.
2. **The extraction of rents from users:** These companies extract value from their users by collecting their data, selling targeted advertising, and charging for access to their platforms.
3. **The erosion of democracy and individual autonomy:** Technofeudalism undermines democracy by giving these companies undue influence over politics and the media. It also erodes individual autonomy by tracking our every move and manipulating our behavior.
4. **The rise of a new digital serfdom:** In technofeudalism, ordinary people are increasingly dependent on these companies for their livelihoods and access to information. This dependence creates a new form of digital serfdom, where individuals are bound to the whims of the technolords.

Varoufakis argues that technofeudalism is a fundamentally unsustainable system that threatens to undermine democracy, equality, and individual freedom. He calls for a radical transformation of the digital economy to create a more equitable and democratic future.

The concept of technofeudalism has been met with both support and criticism. Supporters argue that it provides a compelling framework for understanding the current power dynamics of the digital economy. Critics argue that the term is overly alarmist and that it does not accurately describe the current situation.

Regardless of the precise label, it is clear that the rise of large technology companies has raised significant concerns about the concentration of power and the potential for these companies to undermine democracy and individual freedom. It is important to continue to debate and discuss these issues to ensure that we create a digital future that is beneficial to all."
[{2023-12-29 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/fd45d813db61db54]

name::
* McsEngl.society.045-technofeudalism,
* McsEngl.society.technofeudalism,
* McsEngl.technofeudalism,

society.stone

description::
">stone age definition:
The Stone Age refers to the earliest period of human culture, characterized by the use of stone tools. This era is divided into three distinct periods:
1. **Paleolithic or Old Stone Age (from the first production of stone artifacts, about 2.6 million years ago, to the end of the last Ice Age, about 9,600 BCE)**: During this period, humans were primarily hunter-gatherers, moving constantly in search of food. They used basic stone and bone tools, as well as crude stone implements for hunting.
2. **Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age (from about 9,600 to 6,000 BCE)**: This era bridged the gap between the hunting and gathering lifestyle and the development of agriculture. People began to form small, permanent settlements and used more sophisticated stone tools.
3. **Neolithic or New Stone Age (from about 6,000 to 2,000 BCE)**: The advent of farming marked this phase. People started to domesticate animals and cultivate crops, leading to the establishment of larger communities and the development of more advanced tools and pottery.
The Stone Age is a significant period in human history as it marks the dawn of human tool use and lays the foundation for the development of more complex societies and technologies."
[{2023-12-18 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/deffe533-84bf-47dd-9a6b-410c517f4c3f]

name::
* McsEngl.stone-society!⇒socStone,
* McsEngl.socStone!=stone-society,
* McsEngl.society.031-stone!⇒socStone,
* McsEngl.society.stone!⇒socStone,

evoluting of socStone

description::
">evolution of stone age:
The Stone Age, the longest of the three major eras of human history, encompasses roughly 2.6 million to 3,300 BCE. It's divided into three distinct periods: the Paleolithic (Old Stone Age), the Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age), and the Neolithic (New Stone Age).

**Paleolithic Era (2.6 million to 10,000 BCE)**
The Paleolithic Era, the longest period of the Stone Age, began with the earliest evidence of humans using stone tools. This era is further subdivided into three periods: the Early Paleolithic (2.6 million to 300,000 BCE), the Middle Paleolithic (300,000 to 30,000 BCE), and the Late Paleolithic (30,000 to 10,000 BCE).
* **Early Paleolithic:** During this period, early humans were nomadic hunter-gatherers who used simple stone tools, such as flakes and choppers, for hunting and gathering.
* **Middle Paleolithic:** This period saw the development of more sophisticated stone tools, such as hand axes and cleavers. Humans also began to use fire more regularly during this time.
* **Late Paleolithic:** Humans of the Late Paleolithic period made increasingly complex stone tools, such as spear points and blades, and began to develop art, such as cave paintings and sculptures.

**Mesolithic Era (10,000 to 8,000 BCE)**
The Mesolithic Era, a transitional period between the Paleolithic and Neolithic Eras, was characterized by the continued use of stone tools but also saw the introduction of new technologies, such as fishing and the use of bows and arrows. Humans of the Mesolithic Era also became more settled, living in permanent settlements near rivers and coastlines.

**Neolithic Era (8,000 to 3,300 BCE)**
The Neolithic Era, or New Stone Age, was a significant turning point in human history as it marked the transition from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to one based on agriculture and animal domestication. Humans of the Neolithic Era developed new technologies, such as polished stone tools and pottery, and began to live in permanent villages."
[{2023-12-18 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/cd10620537298b46]

name::
* McsEngl.evoluting-of-socStone,
* McsEngl.socStone'evoluting,

society.copper

description::
">copper age definition:
The Copper Age, also known as the Chalcolithic or Eneolithic period, was a transitional stage in the development of human societies, bridging the gap between the Stone Age and the Bronze Age. It is characterized by the increasing use of copper tools and weapons, marking a shift from solely relying on stone tools.

The Copper Age emerged around 5000 to 3500 BCE, varying in different regions due to local conditions and technological advancements. It was a period of significant social and cultural transformations, as communities transitioned from nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyles to more settled agricultural practices.

**Key Features of the Copper Age:**
1. **Copper Metallurgy:** The ability to smelt and work copper was a crucial breakthrough, enabling the production of more durable and efficient tools and weapons. Copper axes, knives, spearheads, and ornaments became widespread.
2. **Settled Communities:** As copper tools facilitated agricultural production and trade, communities became more settled, leading to the establishment of villages and towns.
3. **Social Stratification:** The rise of copper production and trade contributed to the emergence of social stratification, with individuals or groups gaining control over copper resources and developing specialized roles.
4. **Religious Beliefs:** Religious and spiritual practices evolved during the Copper Age, with the construction of megalithic structures and the development of more complex belief systems.

**Distribution of the Copper Age:**
The Copper Age was a global phenomenon, occurring in various regions around the world with varying durations and characteristics. Some notable examples include:
* **Mesopotamia:** The Copper Age in Mesopotamia began around 6000 BCE, with significant developments in irrigation and agriculture.
* **Crete:** Crete's Copper Age lasted from 4500 to 2500 BCE, showcasing advanced metalworking techniques and unique ceramic styles.
* **China:** The Copper Age in China emerged around 5000 BCE, characterized by the development of bronze-like alloys and the construction of substantial tombs.
* **Caral-Supe Civilization (Peru):** This complex civilization in Peru thrived during the Copper Age, showcasing advanced architecture, water management systems, and monumental plazas.

The Copper Age marked a significant turning point in human history, paving the way for the Bronze Age and the subsequent development of civilizations across the globe. It was a period of technological innovation, social transformation, and cultural exchange, laying the foundation for the societies we know today."
[{2023-12-18 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/a2a043f7c63989e8]

name::
* McsEngl.copper-society!⇒socCopper,
* McsEngl.socCopper!=copper-society,
* McsEngl.society.032-copper!⇒socCopper,
* McsEngl.society.copper!⇒socCopper,

evoluting of socCopper

description::
">evolution of copper era:
The evolution of the Copper Age, also known as the Chalcolithic or Eneolithic period, marks a significant phase in human prehistory and early history. This era represents the transition between the Neolithic (Stone Age) and the Bronze Age. Here's an overview of its development:

### Timeline
- **Approximate Period**: The Copper Age generally dates from about 5,000 to 3,000 BCE, though these dates can vary significantly based on region.
- **Regional Variations**: The timing and characteristics of the Copper Age varied greatly from region to region. For example, it began earlier in the Middle East compared to Europe.

### Technological Advancements
- **Copper Working**: The hallmark of this era was the development of metallurgy, starting with the smelting of copper. Early copper tools were likely hammered from native copper without smelting.
- **Combination of Copper and Stone Tools**: During this period, stone tools were still widely used, but copper began to be used for certain implements like axes, chisels, and ornaments.
- **Alloy Experimentation**: Late in the Copper Age, people began experimenting with alloys, leading to the development of bronze (copper and tin), which marks the beginning of the Bronze Age.

### Societal Changes
- **Craft Specialization**: The emergence of metalworking led to the development of specialized crafts and trades.
- **Increased Trade**: The need for raw materials like copper ore stimulated trade networks and the exchange of ideas and goods.
- **Social Stratification**: As some communities gained control over copper resources and production, social hierarchies and more complex societal structures began to emerge.

### Cultural and Artistic Developments
- **Art and Decoration**: Copper was also used for decorative purposes, and this period saw advancements in artistry and design in various cultures.
- **Architecture and Settlements**: Settlements often became more permanent and complex, with improvements in architecture.

### Regional Developments
- **Middle East**: In regions like Anatolia and Iran, there was significant progress in copper smelting techniques.
- **Europe**: Copper Age cultures in Europe, like the Vinča culture and the Beaker culture, demonstrated unique developments in metallurgy and society.
- **Indian Subcontinent**: The Indus Valley Civilization, one of the world's earliest urban cultures, emerged at the tail end of the Copper Age.

### Environmental and Agricultural Impacts
- **Agricultural Practices**: Agriculture continued to be refined, with increasing reliance on domesticated plants and animals.
- **Environmental Manipulation**: The extraction and smelting of copper led to early instances of environmental change and pollution.

### Transition to Bronze Age
- The discovery and increasing use of bronze, a harder and more durable metal, gradually led to the end of the Copper Age. The Bronze Age saw further advancements in metallurgy, trade, and societal complexity.

In summary, the Copper Age was a critical period of human development marked by the beginnings of metallurgy, profound societal changes, and the groundwork for the more advanced Bronze Age civilizations."
[{2023-12-18 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/51f50e1a-fd85-456e-8293-6590f3c47e4f]

name::
* McsEngl.evoluting-of-socCopper,
* McsEngl.socCopper'evoluting,

society.bronze

description::
">bronze-age definition:
The Bronze Age was a significant period in human history, spanning approximately from 3300 BC to 1200 BC. It was characterized by the widespread use of bronze, a metal alloy made from copper and tin, which significantly enhanced the production of tools, weapons, and other artifacts. The development of bronzeworking technology ushered in a new era of technological advancement and social complexity.

**Key Features of the Bronze Age:**
1. **Bronzeworking:** The ability to smelt and forge bronze was a pivotal innovation that allowed for the creation of stronger and more durable tools, weapons, and ornaments. This enabled humans to undertake more elaborate projects, expand trade networks, and establish more complex social hierarchies.
2. **Urbanization:** The Bronze Age witnessed a surge in urbanization, as people began to form larger settlements with specialized roles and functions. This led to the rise of cities, which served as centers of administration, commerce, and cultural exchange.
3. **Writing and Language:** Some Bronze Age civilizations developed writing systems, which enabled them to record information, organize governance, and transmit knowledge across generations. This marked a significant transition from oral tradition to a more codified form of communication.
4. **Trade and Commerce:** The Bronze Age saw the development of extensive trade networks, facilitated by the newfound efficiency of bronze tools and the demand for raw materials like copper and tin. This interconnectedness fostered cultural exchange and the spread of ideas and goods across continents.
5. **Social Stratification:** The Bronze Age was a time of increasing social stratification, with the rise of elites, rulers, and specialized craftsmen. This shift reflected the complexities of urban societies, the accumulation of wealth, and the need for specialized labor.
6. **Military Advancements:** The development of bronze weapons, including swords, shields, and armor, revolutionized warfare and enabled more organized and fierce fighting. This had a profound impact on political power dynamics and the conduct of conflicts.
7. **Art and Cultural Expression:** The Bronze Age saw the flourishing of artistic expression, particularly in the form of metalwork, pottery, and sculpture. These works often showcased craftsmanship, symbolism, and religious beliefs, reflecting the cultural vibrancy of the period.

The Bronze Age marked a pivotal transformation in human civilization, laying the groundwork for the emergence of advanced societies, complex political systems, and the flourishing of culture and technology. It was a period of innovation, social change, and the establishment of lasting legacies that continue to shape our world today."
[{2023-12-18 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/15b8f23bf7e35c16]

name::
* McsEngl.bronze-society!⇒socBronze,
* McsEngl.socBronze!=bronze-society,
* McsEngl.society.033-bronze!⇒socBronze,
* McsEngl.society.bronze!⇒socBronze,

evoluting of socBronze

description::
">evolution of bronze era:
The Bronze Age marks a significant era in human history, characterized by the use of bronze, advancements in metallurgy, and significant developments in culture and society. This period follows the Neolithic era and precedes the Iron Age. Here's an overview of the evolution of the Bronze Age:

### Timeline
- **Approximate Period**: The Bronze Age varied in timing across different cultures and regions, generally occurring between 3300 BCE and 1200 BCE.
- **Regional Differences**: The Bronze Age started at different times in regions like the Middle East, Europe, China, and other parts of Asia.

### Technological Advancements
- **Bronze Making**: The defining feature of this era was the discovery and utilization of bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, which was harder and more durable than copper.
- **Metalworking Skills**: This period saw significant advancements in metalworking techniques, including casting, forging, and alloying.
- **Tools and Weapons**: The development of bronze tools and weapons provided advantages in agriculture, warfare, and craftsmanship.

### Societal and Cultural Changes
- **Urbanization**: The Bronze Age witnessed the rise of the first urban civilizations in regions like Mesopotamia (Sumerians, Akkadians), Ancient Egypt, the Indus Valley, and Ancient China.
- **Trade Networks**: Extensive trade networks developed for the exchange of bronze, tin, and other commodities, linking distant regions and cultures.
- **Writing Systems**: Some of the earliest writing systems, like cuneiform in Mesopotamia and hieroglyphics in Egypt, emerged during this period.
- **Legal Systems and Governance**: The codification of laws and governance structures became more sophisticated, as seen in Hammurabi’s Code.

### Art and Religion
- **Artistic Developments**: Bronze Age cultures produced significant artworks, including sculpture, pottery, and jewelry.
- **Religious and Mythological Systems**: Complex religious systems and mythologies developed, as evidenced in Egyptian, Mesopotamian, and Greek mythologies.

### Warfare and Defense
- **Military Technology**: The use of bronze in weapons and armor led to advancements in military technology and changes in warfare strategies.
- **Fortifications**: Cities and settlements often had complex fortifications for defense against increasing warfare.

### Collapse of the Bronze Age
- **End of the Era**: Around 1200 BCE, many Bronze Age civilizations collapsed, possibly due to a combination of environmental, economic, and social factors, including invasions (e.g., Sea Peoples in the Mediterranean).
- **Transition to Iron Age**: The discovery and utilization of iron, which was more abundant and easier to work with than bronze, marked the end of the Bronze Age and the beginning of the Iron Age.

### Regional Highlights
- **Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent**: Often considered the cradle of civilization, this region saw the rise of powerful city-states and empires.
- **Ancient Egypt**: Characterized by its pyramids, pharaohs, and a complex society structured around the Nile River.
- **Indus Valley**: Known for its advanced urban planning, sanitation systems, and trade practices.
- **Ancient China**: Early dynasties like the Xia and Shang emerged, with significant developments in writing, art, and political organization.
- **Europe**: Cultures like the Minoans and Mycenaeans in the Aegean, and later the Celts and various Indo-European tribes, demonstrated unique Bronze Age cultures.

In summary, the Bronze Age was a period of remarkable technological, societal, and cultural evolution, setting the foundation for further advancements in the Iron Age and beyond."
[{2023-12-18 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/51f50e1a-fd85-456e-8293-6590f3c47e4f]

name::
* McsEngl.evoluting-of-socBronze,
* McsEngl.socBronze'evoluting,

society.iron

description::
·

name::
* McsEngl.iron-society!⇒socIron,
* McsEngl.socIron!=iron-society,
* McsEngl.society.034-iron!⇒socIron,
* McsEngl.society.iron!⇒socIron,

evoluting of socIron

description::
">evolution of iron age:
The Iron Age was a period of significant technological and societal change that began around 1200 BCE in the Middle East and southeastern Europe and continued for over 2,000 years. During this time, iron, which was more abundant and easier to work than bronze, replaced bronze as the primary metal used for tools, weapons, and other objects. This transition had a profound impact on the development of human civilization.

**Early Iron Age (1200-800 BCE):**
The Early Iron Age was characterized by the gradual spread of ironworking technology from its origins in the Middle East to other parts of the world, including Europe, Asia, and Africa. During this period, iron was still relatively rare and expensive, and it was primarily used for making weapons and tools for elites.

**Middle Iron Age (800-500 BCE):**
The Middle Iron Age saw a significant increase in the production and use of iron. This was due to the development of new smelting techniques that made it easier to produce iron from ore. As iron became more abundant and affordable, it began to replace bronze as the primary metal used for everyday objects, such as agricultural tools, household utensils, and jewelry.

**Late Iron Age (500 BCE-500 CE):**
The Late Iron Age was a time of great social, political, and economic upheaval. The development of iron armor and weapons made warfare more deadly, and the increased production of iron tools allowed for more efficient agriculture and manufacturing. These factors contributed to the rise of complex societies, including empires, kingdoms, and city-states.

**Impact of the Iron Age:**
The Iron Age had a profound impact on human society, leading to a number of important changes:
* **Social and political change:** The development of iron weapons and armor led to more frequent and more deadly warfare, which in turn led to the rise of more centralized and powerful states.
* **Economic change:** The increased production of iron tools and weapons allowed for more efficient agriculture and manufacturing, which led to economic growth and the development of new trade routes.
* **Cultural change:** The Iron Age saw the development of new technologies, such as writing and the wheel, which facilitated communication, transportation, and trade. This led to the spread of ideas and cultures across the world.

The Iron Age was a pivotal period in human history, marking the transition from a Bronze Age world to a world of iron and steel. The innovations of the Iron Age laid the foundation for the development of modern civilization."
[{2023-12-18 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/637842b5b180c9f8]

name::
* McsEngl.evoluting-of-socIron,
* McsEngl.socIron'evoluting,

society.spec-div.time

description::
* alive-society,
* aliveNo-society,
===
* historic-society,
* prehistoric-society,

name::
* McsEngl.society.spec-div.time,

society.alive-013

description::
"quantity of alive societies:
The term "alive societies" is a bit ambiguous, but if you're asking about the number of distinct societies or cultures currently existing in the world, it's important to clarify that the concept of a "society" or "culture" can be quite fluid and varies widely in definition.
Generally, societies are defined by shared languages, traditions, beliefs, and social structures. However, due to globalization, migration, and the blending of cultures, the boundaries between societies can be blurred.
As for a specific count, it's challenging to provide an exact number for several reasons:
1. **Overlap and Blending:** Many societies have elements that overlap or are shared with others, making it difficult to categorize them as entirely separate entities.
2. **Minor and Major Societies:** There are numerous small societies, especially among indigenous peoples, that might not be widely recognized or documented.
3. **Language as a Marker:** Some might use language as a proxy to count distinct societies, but this method has limitations as multiple societies can share a language, or a single society might use multiple languages.
In terms of distinct countries, there are currently 195 recognized sovereign states (including 193 United Nations member states and 2 observer states: the Holy See and the State of Palestine). However, this count of countries does not equate to the number of societies, as a single country can encompass multiple distinct societies and cultures.
For a more detailed analysis or a specific focus (like indigenous societies, urban vs. rural societies, etc.), additional information or context would be needed."
[{2023-12-26 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/0bb5f80c-2ef3-4532-aa48-c6d861d65c5b]

name::
* McsEngl.alive-society!⇒socAlive,
* McsEngl.existent-society!⇒socAlive,
* McsEngl.extant-society!⇒socAlive,
* McsEngl.in-existence-society!⇒socAlive,
* McsEngl.living-society!⇒socAlive,
* McsEngl.present-society!⇒socAlive,
* McsEngl.society.013-alive!⇒socAlive,
* McsEngl.society.alive!⇒socAlive,
* McsEngl.socAlive,
* McsEngl.still-existing-society!⇒socAlive,

society.aliveNo-014

description::
· non existing society.

name::
* McsEngl.aliveNo-society!⇒socFormer,
* McsEngl.dissolved-society!⇒socFormer,
* McsEngl.former-society!⇒socFormer,
* McsEngl.non-alive-society!⇒socFormer,
* McsEngl.socAliveNo!⇒socFormer,
* McsEngl.socFormer,
* McsEngl.society.014-aliveNo!⇒socFormer,
* McsEngl.society.aliveNo!⇒socFormer,
* McsEngl.society.dissolved!⇒socFormer,
* McsEngl.society.former!⇒socFormer,

society.spec-div.structure

description::
* complex-society,
* complexNo-society,

name::
* McsEngl.society.spec-div.structure,

society.complex

description::
"overview of complex society:
Complex societies, also known as civilizations, are characterized by a high degree of social, political, and economic organization. They are typically characterized by the following features:
**Large population:** Complex societies have a large and dense population, often numbering in the millions. This allows for specialization of labor and the development of complex social structures.
**Agricultural surplus:** Complex societies are able to produce a surplus of food, which allows for the support of a non-agricultural population, such as artisans, bureaucrats, and soldiers. This surplus is often generated through intensive agriculture, which requires large-scale irrigation systems and other technological innovations.
**Centralized government:** Complex societies have a centralized government that organizes and manages the society's resources. This government typically has a hierarchy of officials, including a ruler or chief, who is responsible for making decisions and enforcing laws.
**Division of labor:** Complex societies have a division of labor, which means that different groups of people specialize in different tasks. This allows for greater efficiency and productivity.
**Record-keeping:** Complex societies often have systems of record-keeping, which are used to track economic transactions, manage resources, and preserve historical information. This record-keeping can be in the form of writing, or it can be based on other methods, such as knotted cords or tally sticks.
**Social stratification:** Complex societies typically have a social hierarchy, with some people having more power and wealth than others. This stratification is often based on factors such as wealth, social status, or occupation.
**Cultural complexity:** Complex societies often have a rich and complex cultural life, with a variety of art, literature, religion, and philosophy. This cultural complexity is often reflected in the built environment, such as the construction of monumental architecture.
**Examples of complex societies:** Some of the earliest complex societies emerged in Mesopotamia around 3,000 BCE, and other examples include ancient Egypt, China, India, Mesoamerica, and the Andes. Modern complex societies include nation-states such as the United States, China, and India.
The emergence of complex societies is a complex process that is not fully understood. However, it is likely that the development of agriculture, the accumulation of wealth, and the need for coordination and governance all played important roles."
[{2023-12-27 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/67204d13bd3b7651]

name::
* McsEngl.complex-society,
* McsEngl.society.041-complex,
* McsEngl.society.complex,

society.complexNo

description::
">primitive societies:
The term "primitive society" is a controversial one, as it has been used to describe a wide range of societies with varying levels of complexity and technology. Some anthropologists argue that the term is outdated and misleading, as it implies that these societies are somehow inferior to more developed ones. Others argue that the term is useful for describing societies that share certain characteristics, such as small-scale social organization, simple technology, and a lack of written language.
Here is a general overview of the characteristics that have been associated with primitive societies:
* **Small-scale social organization:** Primitive societies typically have small populations, with members living in close proximity to one another. This close proximity fosters strong social ties and a sense of community.
* **Simple technology:** Primitive societies rely on basic tools and techniques for survival and production. Their technology is often adapted to the specific environment in which they live.
* **Lack of written language:** Primitive societies typically do not have a written language. Instead, they rely on oral traditions and other forms of non-verbal communication to preserve and transmit knowledge.
* **Egalitarian social structure:** Primitive societies often have a relatively egalitarian social structure, with little or no social stratification. This is reflected in their kinship systems, political organization, and economic practices.
* **Strong sense of community:** Primitive societies typically place a strong emphasis on community and cooperation. This is evident in their shared values, beliefs, and practices.
It is important to note that these characteristics are not always present in all primitive societies. There is a great deal of variation among these societies, both in terms of their specific characteristics and their overall level of complexity.
Here are some examples of primitive societies:
* **Hunter-gatherer societies:** These societies rely on hunting, gathering, and fishing for their food. They typically have small populations and a nomadic lifestyle.
* **Horticultural societies:** These societies practice small-scale agriculture, relying on hand tools and simple techniques. They typically live in villages and have a more settled lifestyle than hunter-gatherers.
* **Pastoral societies:** These societies rely on herding domesticated animals for their food and other needs. They typically have larger populations than hunter-gatherers or horticulturalists.
* **Peasant societies:** These societies are characterized by intensive agriculture, with a focus on rice, maize, or other staple crops. They typically have a strong social hierarchy and a reliance on markets.
It is important to remember that these are just a few examples, and there is a great deal of diversity among primitive societies around the world."
[{2023-12-27 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/67204d13bd3b7651]

name::
* McsEngl.complexNo-society,
* McsEngl.non-complex-society,
* McsEngl.society.042-complexNo,
* McsEngl.society.complexNo,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.μη-πολύπλοκη-κοινωνία!=complexNo,

society.indigenous

description::
">quantity of today indigenous societies:
The exact number of indigenous societies in the world is difficult to determine, as there is no single, universally accepted definition of what constitutes an indigenous group. However, a 2009 report by the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR) estimated that there are at least 5,000 distinct indigenous groups with a total population of over 370 million people. This number is likely to be an underestimate, as many indigenous groups are still poorly documented or have been assimilated into other cultures.
Indigenous societies are found all over the world, from the Arctic to the Amazon rainforest, and from the deserts of Australia to the mountains of the Andes. They represent a wide range of cultures, languages, and traditions, and their ancestral lands cover a significant portion of the Earth's surface.
Indigenous peoples face a number of challenges, including discrimination, poverty, and violence. They are also vulnerable to the effects of climate change and globalization. However, indigenous peoples are also resilient and resourceful, and they are playing an increasingly important role in protecting their lands and cultures."
[{2023-12-27 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/409fcab773704a10]

">quantity of today indigenous societies:
The quantity of indigenous societies existing today varies significantly around the world, with these groups differing greatly in size, culture, language, and geographical location. Indigenous societies, often referred to as First Nations, Aboriginal, Native, or Tribal peoples, maintain a variety of traditions, social structures, and lifestyles, often closely tied to their ancestral lands and natural resources.
It's important to note that the term "indigenous" covers a broad spectrum of societies across every inhabited continent. In the Americas, for example, there are numerous indigenous groups ranging from the Inuit in the Arctic to the Mapuche in southern Chile. Africa, Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands also have diverse indigenous populations, each with their unique cultures and histories.
Quantifying these groups can be challenging due to several factors:
1. **Definition of Indigenous**: There's no universally accepted definition of what constitutes an indigenous society. Different countries and organizations have varying criteria, which affects the count.
2. **Recognition by Governments**: Some indigenous groups are officially recognized by their respective governments, while others are not. This recognition (or lack thereof) impacts their visibility in official statistics.
3. **Population Data**: Reliable population data can be difficult to obtain. Some indigenous groups live in remote areas, and in some cases, there might be political or social reasons for underreporting or overreporting numbers.
4. **Cultural Assimilation and Loss**: Many indigenous groups have faced pressures that led to assimilation into dominant cultures, resulting in a loss of distinct cultural identities. This makes it hard to identify and count these groups accurately.
As of my last update in April 2023, there were estimates suggesting that there are more than 370 million indigenous people worldwide, spread across over 90 countries and representing a significant portion of the world's cultural diversity. However, these numbers are fluid and subject to change due to the factors mentioned above.
For the most current and detailed information, including specific numbers and locations of indigenous societies, it would be best to refer to resources like reports from the United Nations, the World Bank, or specific organizations dedicated to indigenous peoples' rights and issues."
[{2023-12-27 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/bfa8e2fd-55a4-4c62-978a-96f2aca1d603]

name::
* McsEngl.indigenous-society,
* McsEngl.society.indigenous,
====== langoGreek:
* McsElln.κοινωνία-ιθαγενών!=indigenous,

society.spec-div.place

description::
* African-Caribbean-Pacific--society,
* Maghreb-society,
* Mashreq-society,

name::
* McsEngl.society.spec-div.place,

society.Acp-009

description::
">African-Caribbean-Pacific society:
African-Caribbean-Pacific (ACP) society encompasses a diverse range of cultures, traditions, and histories from three distinct regions of the world: Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific. This vast and vibrant community is characterized by its rich heritage, resilience, and strong sense of identity.

**Africa**
Africa, the continent of origin for the vast majority of ACP peoples, is home to a multitude of ethnic groups, languages, and religious traditions. From the bustling cities of Nigeria and Kenya to the serene landscapes of Namibia and Botswana, Africa is a continent of contrasts and endless possibilities. ACP communities in Africa have played a vital role in shaping the continent's history and culture, contributing to its vibrant art, music, and cuisine.

**The Caribbean**
The Caribbean, an archipelago of islands scattered across the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, is a region known for its idyllic beaches, lush rainforests, and vibrant cultural scene. ACP communities in the Caribbean have a rich heritage shaped by the intermingling of African, European, and indigenous influences. This cultural fusion has given rise to unique traditions in music, dance, and cuisine, such as reggae, calypso, and jerk chicken.

**The Pacific**
The Pacific, the largest and deepest ocean on Earth, encompasses a vast expanse of islands and archipelagos. ACP communities in the Pacific are characterized by their strong connection to the sea, which has shaped their way of life, culture, and traditions. From the surfing paradise of Hawaii to the remote atolls of Tuvalu, the Pacific is a region of breathtaking beauty and cultural diversity.

Despite their geographical distance, ACP communities around the world share a common thread: a deep sense of identity, resilience, and a shared history of overcoming challenges. They have faced adversity in the form of colonialism, slavery, and discrimination, yet they have emerged stronger and more united. ACP societies are characterized by their strong family bonds, community spirit, and a deep appreciation for their cultural heritage.

**Contributions to the World**
ACP communities have made significant contributions to the world in various fields, including art, literature, music, science, and technology. They have enriched the world with their creativity, innovation, and unique perspectives. Notable figures from ACP societies include:
* **Wole Soyinka:** Nigerian Nobel Prize-winning playwright and poet
* **Bob Marley:** Jamaican reggae musician and cultural icon
* **Nelson Mandela:** South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist
* **Maya Angelou:** American poet, memoirist, and civil rights activist
* **Marcus Garvey:** Jamaican-American journalist, activist, and entrepreneur

**Challenges and Aspirations**
Despite their progress and achievements, ACP communities continue to face challenges such as poverty, inequality, and the effects of climate change. However, they remain determined to build a brighter future for themselves and their descendants. ACP societies aspire to achieve sustainable development, economic prosperity, and social justice, while preserving their unique cultural heritage.

In conclusion, African-Caribbean-Pacific society is a vibrant and diverse tapestry of cultures, traditions, and histories. These communities have faced adversity yet emerged stronger and more united, contributing significantly to the world in various fields. As they look to the future, ACP societies aspire to achieve sustainable development, economic prosperity, and social justice, while preserving their unique cultural heritage."
[{2023-11-23 retrieved} https://bard.google.com/chat/9af279d187fd97aa?hl=en&pli=1]

name::
* McsEngl.ACP!=African-Caribbean-Pacific-society,
* McsEngl.socAcp!=African-Caribbean-Pacific-society,
* McsEngl.society.009-Acp!⇒socAcp,
* McsEngl.society.Acp!⇒socAcp,

society.Maghreb-state-010

description::
· Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia.

name::
* McsEngl.Maghreb-state,
* McsEngl.society.010-Maghreb-state,
* McsEngl.society.Maghreb-state,

society.Mashreq-state-011

description::
· Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria

name::
* McsEngl.Mashreq-state,
* McsEngl.society.011-Mashreq-state,
* McsEngl.society.Mashreq-state,

society.spec-div.independence

description::
· about every 6 days, one country in the world, celebrates its independence from UK.
[{2023-12-19 retrieved} https://twitter.com/ferminadas85/status/1736810362950103088/photo/1]
* List of countries that have gained independence from the United Kingdom:
* 🇦🇫 Afghanistan: 1919
* 🇦🇬 Antigua and Barbuda: 1981
* 🇧🇭 Bahrain: 1971
* 🇧🇧 Barbados: 1966
* 🇧🇿 Belize: 1981
* 🇧🇼 Botswana: 1966
* 🇧🇳 Brunei: 1984
* 🇨🇾 Cyprus: 1960
* 🇩🇲 Dominica: 1978
* 🇪🇬 Egypt: 1922
* 🇸🇿 Eswatini: 1968
* 🇫🇯 Fiji: 1970
* 🇬🇭 Ghana: 1957
* 🇬🇩 Grenada: 1974
* 🇬🇾 Guyana: 1966
* 🇮🇳 India: 1947
* 🇮🇶 Iraq: 1932
* 🇮🇱 Israel: 1948
* 🇯🇲 Jamaica: 1962
* 🇯🇴 Jordan: 1946
* 🇰🇪 Kenya: 1963
* 🇰🇮 Kiribati: 1979
* 🇰🇼 Kuwait: 1961
* 🇱🇸 Lesotho: 1966
* 🇱🇾 Libya: 1951
* 🇲🇼 Malawi: 1964
* 🇲🇾 Malaya: 1957
* 🇲🇻 Maldives: 1965
* 🇲🇹 Malta: 1964
* 🇲🇺 Mauritius: 1968
* 🇲🇲 Myanmar: 1948
* 🇳🇷 Nauru: 1968
* 🇳🇬 Nigeria: 1960
* 🇴🇲 Oman: 1970
* 🇵🇰 Pakistan: 1947
* 🇶🇦 Qatar: 1971
* 🇱🇨 Saint Lucia: 1979
* 🇰🇳 Saint Kitts and Nevis: 1983
* 🇻🇨 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: 1979
* 🇸🇨 Seychelles: 1976
* 🇸🇱 Sierra Leone: 1961
* 🇸🇧 Solomon Islands: 1978
* 🇾🇪 South Yemen: 1967
* 🇱🇰 Sri Lanka: 1948
* 🇸🇩 Sudan: 1956
* 🇹🇿 Tanganyika: 1961
* 🇧🇸 The Bahamas: 1973
* 🇬🇲 Gambia: 1965
* 🇹🇴 Tonga: 1970
* 🇹🇹 Trinidad and Tobago: 1962
* 🇹🇻 Tuvalu: 1978
* 🇺🇬 Uganda: 1962
* 🇦🇪 UAE: 1971
* 🇺🇸 USA: 1776
* 🇻🇺 Vanuatu: 1980
* 🇿🇲 Zambia: 1964
* 🇹🇿 Zanzibar: 1963
* 🇿🇼 Zimbabwe: 1980
*
* *year of independence or first stage
* Note: this list is not exhaustive
[{2023-12-12 retrieved} https://twitter.com/stats_feed/status/1734607738943217764]

name::
* McsEngl.society.spec-div.independence,

society.spec-div.code

description::
* 2-letter,
* 3-letter,

name::
* McsEngl.society.spec-div.code,

society.code.2-letter-007

description::
"ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 codes are two-letter country codes defined in ISO 3166-1, part of the ISO 3166 standard[1] published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to represent countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest. They are the most widely used of the country codes published by ISO (the others being alpha-3 and numeric), and are used most prominently for the Internet's country code top-level domains (with a few exceptions). They are also used as country identifiers extending the postal code when appropriate within the international postal system for paper mail, and has replaced the previous one consisting one-letter codes. They were first included as part of the ISO 3166 standard in its first edition in 1974."
[{2020-11-22} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_3166-1_alpha-2]

name::
* McsEngl.country-code.2-letter!⇒soc2,
* McsEngl.soc2!=2-letter-code-of-society,
* McsEngl.socXx!⇒soc2,
* McsEngl.society.007-2-letter!⇒soc2,
* McsEngl.society.2-letter!⇒soc2,

addressWpg::
* http://www.mathguide.de/info/tools/countrycode.html,

specific-tree-of-socXx::
* McsEngl.soc2.Ad!=Andorra@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ae!=United-Arab-Emirates@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Af!=Afghanistan@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ag!=Antigua-and-Barbuda@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ai!=Anguilla-(near-Puerto-Rico)@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Al!=Albania@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Am!=Armenia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.An!=Netherlands-Antilles@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ao!=Angola@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Aq!=Antarctica@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ar!=Argentina@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.As!=American-Samoa@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.At!=Austria@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Au!=Australia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Aw!=Aruba@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Az!=Azerbaijan@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ba!=Bosnia-and-Herzegovina@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Bb!=Barbados@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Bd!=Bangladesh@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Be!=Belgium@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Bf!=Burkina-Faso@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Bg!=Bulgaria@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Bh!=Bahrain@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Bi!=Burundi@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Bj!=Benin@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Bm!=Bermuda@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Bn!=Brunei-Darussalam@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Bo!=Bolivia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Br!=Brazil@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Bs!=Bahamas@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Bt!=Bhutan@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Bv!=Bouvet-Island@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Bw!=Botswana@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.By!=Belarus@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Bz!=Belize@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ca!=Canada@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Cc!=Cocos-(Keeling)-Islands@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Cf!=Central-African-Republic@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Cg!=Congo@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ch!=Switzerland@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ci!=Cote-D'Ivoire-(Ivory-Coast)@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ck!=Cook-Islands@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Cl!=Chile@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Cm!=Cameroon@Iso2,
* soc2.Cn!=China@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Co!=Colombia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Cr!=Costa-Rica@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Cs!=Czechoslovakia-(former)@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Cu!=Cuba@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Cv!=Cape-Verde@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Cx!=Christmas-Island@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Cy!=Cyprus@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Cz!=Czech-Republic@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.De!=Germany@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Dj!=Djibouti@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Dk!=Denmark@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Dm!=Dominica@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Do!=Dominican-Republic@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Dz!=Algeria@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ec!=Ecuador@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ee!=Estonia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Eg!=Egypt@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Eh!=Western-Sahara@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Er!=Eritrea@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Es!=Spain@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Et!=Ethiopia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Fi!=Finland@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Fj!=Fiji@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Fk!=Falkland-Islands-(Malvinas)@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Fm!=Micronesia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Fo!=Faroe-Islands@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Fr!=France@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Fx!=France,-Metropolitan@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ga!=Gabon@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Gb!=Great-Britain-(UK)@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Gd!=Grenada@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ge!=Georgia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Gf!=French-Guiana@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Gh!=Ghana@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Gi!=Gibraltar@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Gl!=Greenland@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Gm!=Gambia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Gn!=Guinea@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Gp!=Guadeloupe@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Gq!=Equatorial-Guinea@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Gr!=Greece@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Gs!=S.Georgia-and-S.Sandwich-Islands@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Gt!=Guatemala@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Gu!=Guam@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Gw!=Guinea-Bissau@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Gy!=Guyana@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Hk!=Hong-Kong@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Hm!=Heard-and-McDonald-Islands@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Hn!=Honduras@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Hr!=Croatia-(Hrvatska)@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ht!=Haiti@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Hu!=Hungary@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Id!=Indonesia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ie!=IrelandIL-Israel@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Im!=Isle-of-Man@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.In!=India@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Io!=British-Indian-Ocean-Territory@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Iq!=Iraq@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ir!=Iran@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Is!=Iceland@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.It!=Italy@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Jm!=Jamaica@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Jo!=Jordan@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Jp!=Japan@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ke!=Kenya@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Kg!=Kyrgyzstan@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Kh!=Cambodia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ki!=Kiribati@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Km!=Comoros@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Kn!=Saint-Kitts-and-Nevis@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Kp!=Korea-(North)@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Kr!=Korea-(South)@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Kw!=Kuwait@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ky!=Cayman-Islands@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Kz!=Kazakhstan@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.La!=Laos@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Lb!=Lebanon@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Lc!=Saint-Lucia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Li!=Liechtenstein@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Lk!=Sri-Lanka@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Lr!=Liberia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ls!=Lesotho@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Lt!=Lithuania@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Lu!=Luxembourg@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Lv!=Latvia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ly!=Libya@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ma!=Morocco@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Mc!=Monaco@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Md!=Moldova@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Me!=Modenegro@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Mg!=Madagascar@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Mh!=Marshall-Islands@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Mk!=Macedonia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ml!=Mali@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Mm!=Myanmar@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Mn!=Mongolia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Mo!=Macau@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Mp!=Northern-Mariana-Islands@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Mq!=Martinique@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Mr!=Mauritania@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ms!=Montserrat@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Mt!=Malta@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Mu!=Mauritius@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Mv!=Maldives@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Mw!=Malawi@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Mx!=Mexico@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.My!=Malaysia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Mz!=Mozambique@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Na!=Namibia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Nc!=New-Caledonia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ne!=Niger@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Nf!=Norfolk-Island@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ng!=Nigeria@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ni!=Nicaragua@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Nl!=Netherlands@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.No!=Norway@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Np!=Nepal@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Nr!=Nauru@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Nt!=Neutral-Zone@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Nu!=Niue@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Nz!=New-Zealand-(Aotearoa)@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Om!=Oman@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Pa!=Panama@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Pe!=Peru@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Pf!=French-Polynesia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Pg!=Papua-New-Guinea@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ph!=Philippines@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Pk!=Pakistan@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Pl!=Poland@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Pm!=St.Pierre-and-Miquelon@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Pn!=Pitcairn@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Pr!=Puerto-Rico@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Pt!=Portugal@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Pw!=Palau@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Py!=Paraguay@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Qa!=Qatar@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Re!=Reunion@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ro!=Romania@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ru!=Russian-Federation@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Rw!=Rwanda@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Sa!=Saudi-Arabia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Sb!=olomon-Islands@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Sc!=Seychelles@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Sd!=Sudan@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Se!=Sweden@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Sg!=Singapore@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Sh!=St.Helena@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Si!=Slovenia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Sj!=Svalbard-and-Jan-Mayen-Islands@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Sk!=Slovak-Republic@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Sl!=Sierra-Leone@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Sm!=San-Marino@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Sn!=Senegal@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.So!=Somalia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Sr!=Suriname@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.St!=Sao-Tome-and-Principe@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Su!=USSR-(former)@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Sv!=El-Salvador@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Sy!=Syria@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Sz!=Swaziland@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Tc!=Turks-and-Caicos-Islands@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Td!=Chad@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Tf!=French-Southern-Territories@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Tg!=Togo@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Th!=Thailand@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Tj!=Tajikistan@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Tk!=Tokelau@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Tm!=Turkmenistan@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Tn!=Tunisia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.To!=Tonga@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Tp!=East-Timor@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Tr!=Turkey@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Tt!=Trinidad-and-Tobago@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Tv!=Tuvalu@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Tw!=Taiwan@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Tz!=Tanzania@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ua!=Ukraine@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ug!=Uganda@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Uk!=United-Kingdom@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Um!=US-Minor-Outlying-Islands@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Us!=United-States@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Uy!=Uruguay@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Uz!=Uzbekistan@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Va!=Vatican-City-State-(Holy-See)@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Vc!=Saint-Vincent-and-the-Grenadines@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ve!=Venezuela@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Vg!=Virgin-Islands-(British)@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Vi!=Virgin-Islands-(U.S.)@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Vn!=Viet-Nam@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Vu!=Vanuatu@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Wf!=Wallis-and-Futuna-Islands@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ws!=Samoa@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Ye!=Yemen@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Yt!=Mayotte@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Yu!=Yugoslavia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Za!=South-Africa@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Zm!=Zambia@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Zr!=Zaire@Iso2,
* McsEngl.soc2.Zw!=Zimbabwe@Iso2,
===
* McsEngl.socAfghanistan--AF.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socAlbania--AL.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socAlgeria--DZ.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socAmerican-Samoa--AS.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socAndorra--AD.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socAngola--AO.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socAnguilla--AI.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socAntarctica--AQ.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socAntigua-and-Barbuda--AG.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socArgentina--AR.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socArmenia--AM.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socAruba--AW.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socAustralia--AU.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socAustria--AT.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socAzerbaijan--AZ.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socBahamas--BS.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socBahrain--BH.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socBangladesh--BD.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socBarbados--BB.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socBelarus--BY.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socBelgium--BE.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socBelize--BZ.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socBenin--BJ.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socBermuda--BM.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socBhutan--BT.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socBolivia--BO.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socBosnia-and-Herzegovina--BA.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socBotswana--BW.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socBouvet-Island--BV.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socBrazil--BR.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socBritish-Indian-Ocean-Territory--IO.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socBrunei-Darussalam--BN.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socBulgaria--BG.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socBurkina-Faso--BF.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socBurundi--BI.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socCambodia--KH.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socCameroon--CM.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socCanada--CA.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socCape-Verde--CV.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socCayman-Islands--KY.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socCentral-African-Republic--CF.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socChad--TD.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socChile--CL.Iso2,
* socChina--CN.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socChristmas-Island--CX.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socCocos-Islands--CC.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socColombia--CO.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socComoros--KM.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socCongo--CG.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socCook-Islands--CK.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socCosta-Rica--CR.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socCote-D'Ivoire-(Ivory-Coast)--CI.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socCroatia-(Hrvatska)--HR.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socCuba--CU.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socCyprus--CY.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socCzech-Republic--CZ.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socCzechoslovakia-(former)--CS.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socDenmark--DK.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socDjibouti--DJ.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socDominica--DM.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socDominican-Republic--DO.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socEast-Timor--TP.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socEcuador--EC.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socEgypt--EG.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socEl-Salvador--SV.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socEquatorial-Guinea--GQ.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socEritrea--ER.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socEstonia--EE.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socEthiopia--ET.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socFalkland-Islands-(Malvinas)--FK.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socFaroe-Islands--FO.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socFiji--FJ.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socFinland--FI.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socFrance,-Metropolitan--FX.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socFrance--FR.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socFrench-Guiana--GF.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socFrench-Polynesia--PF.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socFrench-Southern-Territories--TF.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socGabon--GA.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socGambia--GM.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socGeorgia--GE.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socGermany--DE.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socGhana--GH.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socGibraltar--GI.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socGreat-Britain-(UK)--GB.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socGreece--GR.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socGreenland--GL.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socGrenada--GD.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socGuadeloupe--GP.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socGuam--GU.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socGuatemala--GT.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socGuinea-Bissau--GW.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socGuinea--GN.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socGuyana--GY.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socHaiti--HT.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socHeard-and-McDonald-Islands--HM.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socHonduras--HN.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socHong-Kong--HK.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socHungary--HU.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socIceland--IS.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socIndia--IN.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socIndonesia--ID.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socIran--IR.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socIraq--IQ.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socIrelandIL-Israel--IE.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socIsle-of-Man--IM.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socItaly--IT.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socIvory-Coast-(Cote-D'Ivoire))--CI.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socJamaica--JM.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socJapan--JP.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socJordan--JO.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socKazakhstan--KZ.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socKenya--KE.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socKiribati--KI.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socKorea-(North)--KP.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socKorea-(South)--KR.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socKuwait--KW.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socKyrgyzstan--KG.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socLaos--LA.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socLatvia--LV.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socLebanon--LB.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socLesotho--LS.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socLiberia--LR.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socLibya--LY.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socLiechtenstein--LI.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socLithuania--LT.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socLuxembourg--LU.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMacau--MO.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMacedonia--MK.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMadagascar--MG.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMalawi--MW.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMalaysia--MY.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMaldives--MV.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMali--ML.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMalta--MT.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMarshall-Islands--MH.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMartinique--MQ.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMauritania--MR.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMauritius--MU.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMayotte--YT.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMexico--MX.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMicronesia--FM.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMoldova--MD.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMonaco--MC.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMongolia--MN.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMontserrat--MS.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMorocco--MA.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMozambique--MZ.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socMyanmar--MM.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socNamibia--NA.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socNauru--NR.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socNepal--NP.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socNetherlands-Antilles--AN.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socNetherlands--NL.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socNeutral-Zone--NT.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socNew-Caledonia--NC.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socNew-Zealand-(Aotearoa)--NZ.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socNicaragua--NI.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socNiger--NE.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socNigeria--NG.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socNiue--NU.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socNorfolk-Island--NF.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socNorthern-Mariana-Islands--MP.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socNorway--NO.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socOman--OM.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socPakistan--PK.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socPalau--PW.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socPanama--PA.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socPapua-New-Guinea--PG.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socParaguay--PY.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socPeru--PE.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socPhilippines--PH.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socPitcairn--PN.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socPoland--PL.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socPortugal--PT.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socPuerto-Rico--PR.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socQatar--QA.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socReunion--RE.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socRomania--RO.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socRussian-Federation--RU.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socRwanda--RW.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socS.Georgia-and-S.Sandwich-Islands--GS.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSaint-Kitts-and-Nevis--KN.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSaint-Lucia--LC.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSaint-Vincent-and-the-Grenadines--VC.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSamoa--WS.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSan-Marino--SM.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSao-Tome-and-Principe--ST.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSaudi-Arabia--SA.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSenegal--SN.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSeychelles--SC.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSierra-Leone--SL.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSingapore--SG.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSlovak-Republic--SK.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSlovenia--SI.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSomalia--SO.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSolomon-Islands--SB.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSouth-Africa--ZA.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSpain--ES.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSri-Lanka--LK.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSt.Helena--SH.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSt.Pierre-and-Miquelon--PM.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSudan--SD.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSuriname--SR.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSvalbard-and-Jan-Mayen-Islands--SJ.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSwaziland--SZ.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSweden--SE.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSwitzerland--CH.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socSyria--SY.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socTaiwan--TW.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socTajikistan--TJ.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socTanzania--TZ.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socThailand--TH.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socTogo--TG.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socTokelau--TK.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socTonga--TO.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socTrinidad-and-Tobago--TT.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socTunisia--TN.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socTurkey--TR.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socTurkmenistan--TM.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socTurks-and-Caicos-Islands--TC.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socTuvalu--TV.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socUS-Minor-Outlying-Islands--UM.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socUSSR-(former)--SU.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socUganda--UG.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socUkraine--UA.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socUnited-Arab-Emirates--AE.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socUnited-Kingdom--UK.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socUnited-States--US.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socUruguay--UY.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socUzbekistan--UZ.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socVanuatu--VU.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socVatican-City-State-(Holy-See)--VA.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socVenezuela--VE.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socViet-Nam--VN.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socVirgin-Islands-(British)--VG.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socVirgin-Islands-(U.S.)--VI.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socWallis-and-Futuna-Islands--WF.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socWestern-Sahara--EH.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socYemen--YE.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socYugoslavia--YU.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socZaire--ZR.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socZambia--ZM.Iso2,
* McsEngl.socZimbabwe--ZW.Iso2,

society.code.3-letter-008

description::
"ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 codes are three-letter country codes defined in ISO 3166-1, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to represent countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest. They allow a better visual association between the codes and the country names than the two-letter alpha-2 codes (the third set of codes is numeric and hence offers no visual association).[1] They were first included as part of the ISO 3166 standard in its first edition in 1974."
[{2020-11-22} https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_3166-1_alpha-3]

name::
* McsEngl.soc3!=3-letter-code-of-society,
* McsEngl.society.008-3-letter!⇒soc3,
* McsEngl.society.3-letter!⇒soc3,
* McsEngl.socXxx!⇒soc3,

addressWpg::
* https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_alphabetic_country_codes,

specific-tree-of-socXxx::
* McsEngl.soc3.Abw!=Aruba@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Afg!=Afghastan@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Ago!=Angola@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Aia!=Anguilla@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Ala!=Εland-Islands@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Alb!=Albania@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.And!=Andorra@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Are!=United-Arab-Emirates@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Arg!=Argentina@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Arm!=Armenia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Asm!=American-Samoa@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Ata!=Antarctica@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Atf!=French-Southern-Territories@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Atg!=Antigua-and-Barbuda@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Aus!=Australia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Aut!=Austria@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Aze!=Azerbaijan@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Bdi!=Burundi@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Bel!=Belgium@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Ben!=Benin@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Bes!=Bonaire-Sint-Eustatius-and-Saba@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Bfa!=Burkina-Faso@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Bgd!=Bangladesh@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Bgr!=Bulgaria@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Bhr!=Bahrain@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Bhs!=Bahamas@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Bih!=Bosnia-and-Herzegovina@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Blm!=Saint-Barthιlemy@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Blr!=Belarus@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Blz!=Belize@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Bmu!=Bermuda@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Bol!=Bolivia-Plurinational-State-of@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Bra!=Brazil@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Brb!=Barbados@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Brn!=Brunei-Darussalam@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Btn!=Bhutan@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Bvt!=Bouvet-Island@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Bwa!=Botswana@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Caf!=Central-African-Republic@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Can!=Canada@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Cck!=Cocos-(Keeling)-Islands@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Che!=Switzerland@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Chl!=Chile@Iso3,
* socChn!=China@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Civ!=Cτte-d'Ivoire@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Cmr!=Cameroon@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Cod!=Congo-the-Democratic-Republic-of-the@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Cog!=Congo@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Cok!=Cook-Islands@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Col!=Colombia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Com!=Comoros@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Cpv!=Cape-Verde@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Cri!=Costa-Rica@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Cub!=Cuba@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Cuw!=Curaηao@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Cxr!=Christmas-Island@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Cym!=Cayman-Islands@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Cyp!=Cyprus@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Cze!=Czech-Republic@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Deu!=Germany@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Dji!=Djibouti@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Dma!=Dominica@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Dnk!=Denmark@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Dom!=Dominican-Republic@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Dza!=Algeria@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Ecu!=Ecuador@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Egy!=Egypt@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Eri!=Eritrea@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Esh!=Western-Sahara@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Esp!=Spain@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Est!=Estonia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Eth!=Ethiopia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Fin!=Finland@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Fji!=Fiji@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Flk!=Falkland-Islands-(Malvinas)@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Fra!=France@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Fro!=Faroe-Islands@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Fsm!=Micronesia-Federated-States-of@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Gab!=Gabon@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Gbr!=United-Kingdom@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Geo!=Georgia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Ggy!=Guernsey@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Gha!=Ghana@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Gib!=Gibraltar@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Gin!=Guinea@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Glp!=Guadeloupe@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Gmb!=Gambia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Gnb!=Guinea-Bissau@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Gnq!=Equatorial-Guinea@Iso3,
* socGrc!=Greece@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Grd!=Grenada@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Grl!=Greenland@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Gtm!=Guatemala@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Guf!=French-Guiana@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Gum!=Guam@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Guy!=Guyana@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Hkg!=Hong-Kong@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Hmd!=Heard-Island-and-McDonald-Islands@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Hnd!=Honduras@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Hrv!=Croatia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Hti!=Haiti@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Hun!=Hungary@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Idn!=Indonesia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Imn!=Isle-of-Man@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Ind!=India@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Iot!=British-Indian-Ocean-Territory@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Irl!=Ireland@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Irn!=Iran-Islamic-Republic-of@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Irq!=Iraq@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Isl!=Iceland@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Isr!=Israel@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Ita!=Italy@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Jam!=Jamaica@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Jey!=Jersey@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Jor!=Jordan@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Jpn!=Japan@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Kaz!=Kazakhsctan@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Ken!=Kenya@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Kgz!=Kyrgyzstan@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Khm!=Cambodia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Kir!=Kiribati@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Kna!=Saint-Kitts-and-Nevis@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Kor!=Korea-Republic-of@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Kwt!=Kuwait@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Lao!=Lao-People's-Democratic-Republic@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Lbn!=Lebanon@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Lbr!=Liberia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Lby!=Libya@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Lca!=Saint-Lucia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Lie!=Liechtenstein@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Lka!=Sri-Lanka@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Lso!=Lesotho@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Ltu!=Lithuania@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Lux!=Luxembourg@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Lva!=Latvia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Mac!=Macao@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Maf!=Saint-Martin-(French-part)@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Mar!=Morocco@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Mco!=Monaco@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Mda!=Moldova-Republic-of@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Mdg!=Madagascar@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Mdv!=Maldives@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Mex!=Mexico@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Mhl!=Marshall-Islands@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Mkd!=Macedonia-the-former-Yugoslav-Republic-of@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Mli!=Mali@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Mlt!=Malta@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Mmr!=Myanmar@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Mne!=Montenegro@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Mng!=Mongolia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Mnp!=Northern-Mariana-Islands@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Moz!=Mozambique@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Mrt!=Mauritania@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Msr!=Montserrat@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Mtq!=Martinique@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Mus!=Mauritius@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Mwi!=Malawi@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Mys!=Malaysia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Myt!=Mayotte@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Nam!=Namibia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Ncl!=New-Caledonia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Ner!=Niger@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Nfk!=Norfolk-Island@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Nga!=Nigeria@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Nic!=Nicaragua@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Niu!=Niue@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Nld!=Netherlands@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Nor!=Norway@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Npl!=Nepal@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Nru!=Nauru@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Nzl!=New-Zealand@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Omn!=Oman@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Pak!=Pakistan@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Pan!=Panama@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Pcn!=Pitcairn@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Per!=Peru@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Phl!=Philippines@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Plw!=Palau@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Png!=Papua-New-Guinea@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Pol!=Poland@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Pri!=Puerto-Rico@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Prk!=Korea-Democratic-People's-Republic-of@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Prt!=Portugal@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Pry!=Paraguay@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Pse!=Palestinian-Territory-Occupied@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Pyf!=French-Polynesia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Qat!=Qatar@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Reu!=Rιunion@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Rou!=Romania@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Rus!=Russian-Federation-Russia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Rwa!=Rwanda@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Sau!=Saudi-Arabia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Sdn!=Sudan@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Sen!=Senegal@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Sgp!=Singapore@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Sgs!=South-Georgia-and-the-South-Sandwich-Islands@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Shn!=Saint-Helena-Ascension-and-Tristan-da-Cunha@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Sjm!=Svalbard-and-Jan-Mayen@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Slb!=Solomon-Islands@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Sle!=Sierra-Leone@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Slv!=El-Salvador@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Smr!=San-Marino@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Som!=Somalia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Spm!=Saint-Pierre-and-Miquelon@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Srb!=Serbia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Ssd!=South-Sudan@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Stp!=Sao-Tome-and-Principe@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Sur!=Suriname@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Svk!=Slovakia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Svn!=Slovenia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Swe!=Sweden@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Swz!=Swaziland@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Sxm!=Sint-Maarten-(Dutch-part)@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Syc!=Seychelles@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Syr!=Syrian-Arab-Republic@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Tca!=Turks-and-Caicos-Islands@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Tcd!=Chad@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Tgo!=Togo@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Tha!=Thailand@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Tjk!=Tajikistan@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Tkl!=Tokelau@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Tkm!=Turkmenistan@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Tls!=Timor-Leste@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Ton!=Tonga@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Tto!=Trinidad-and-Tobago@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Tun!=Tunisia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Tur!=Turkey@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Tuv!=Tuvalu@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Twn!=Taiwan-Province-of-China@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Tza!=Tanzania-United-Republic-of@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Uga!=Uganda@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Ukr!=Ukraine@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Umi!=United-States-Minor-Outlying-Islands@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Ury!=Uruguay@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Usa!=United-States@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Uzb!=Uzbekistan@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Vat!=Holy-See-(Vatican-City-State)@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Vct!=Saint-Vincent-and-the-Grenadines@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Ven!=Venezuela-Bolivarian-Republic-of@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Vgb!=Virgin-Islands-British@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Vir!=Virgin-Islands-U.S.@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Vnm!=Viet-Nam@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Vut!=Vanuatu@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Wlf!=Wallis-and-Futuna@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Wsm!=Samoa@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Yem!=Yemen@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Zaf!=South-Africa@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Zmb!=Zambia@Iso3,
* McsEngl.soc3.Zwe!=Zimbabwe@Iso3,
===
* McsEngl.socAfghanistan--AFG.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socAland-Islands--ALA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socAlbania--ALB.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socAlgeria--DZA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socAmerican-Samoa--ASM.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socAndorra--AND.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socAngola--AGO.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socAnguilla--AIA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socAntarctica--ATA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socAntigua-and-Barbuda--ATG.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socArgentina--ARG.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socArmenia--ARM.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socAruba--ABW.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socAustralia--AUS.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socAustria--AUT.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socAzerbaijan--AZE.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socBahamas--BHS.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socBahrain--BHR.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socBangladesh--BGD.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socBarbados--BRB.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socBelarus--BLR.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socBelgium--BEL.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socBelize--BLZ.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socBenin--BEN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socBermuda--BMU.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socBhutan--BTN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socBolivia-Plurinational-State-of--BOL.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socBonaire-Sint-Eustatius-and-Saba--BES.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socBosnia-and-Herzegovina--BIH.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socBotswana--BWA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socBouvet-Island--BVT.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socBrazil--BRA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socBritish-Indian-Ocean-Territory--IOT.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socBrunei-Darussalam--BRN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socBulgaria--BGR.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socBurkina-Faso--BFA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socBurundi--BDI.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socCambodia--KHM.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socCameroon--CMR.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socCanada--CAN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socCape-Verde--CPV.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socCayman-Islands--CYM.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socCentral-African-Republic--CAF.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socChad--TCD.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socChile--CHL.Iso3,
* socChina--CHN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socChristmas-Island--CXR.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socCocos-(Keeling)-Islands--CCK.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socColombia--COL.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socComoros--COM.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socCongo--COG.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socCongo-the-Democratic-Republic-of-the--COD.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socCook-Islands--COK.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socCosta-Rica--CRI.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socCroatia--HRV.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socCuba--CUB.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socCuraηao--CUW.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socCyprus--CYP.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socCzech-Republic--CZE.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socCτte-d'Ivoire--CIV.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socDenmark--DNK.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socDjibouti--DJI.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socDominica--DMA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socDominican-Republic--DOM.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socEcuador--ECU.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socEgypt--EGY.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socEl-Salvador--SLV.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socEquatorial-Guinea--GNQ.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socEritrea--ERI.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socEstonia--EST.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socEthiopia--ETH.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socFalkland-Islands-(Malvinas)--FLK.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socFaroe-Islands--FRO.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socFiji--FJI.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socFinland--FIN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socFrance--FRA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socFrench-Guiana--GUF.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socFrench-Polynesia--PYF.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socFrench-Southern-Territories--ATF.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socGabon--GAB.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socGambia--GMB.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socGeorgia--GEO.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socGermany--DEU.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socGhana--GHA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socGibraltar--GIB.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socGreece--GRC.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socGreenland--GRL.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socGrenada--GRD.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socGuadeloupe--GLP.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socGuam--GUM.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socGuatemala--GTM.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socGuernsey--GGY.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socGuinea--GIN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socGuinea-Bissau--GNB.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socGuyana--GUY.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socHaiti--HTI.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socHeard-Island-and-McDonald-Islands--HMD.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socHoly-See-(Vatican-City-State)--VAT.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socHonduras--HND.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socHong-Kong--HKG.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socHungary--HUN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socIceland--ISL.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socIndia--IND.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socIndonesia--IDN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socIran-Islamic-Republic-of--IRN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socIraq--IRQ.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socIreland--IRL.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socIsle-of-Man--IMN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socIsrael--ISR.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socItaly--ITA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socJamaica--JAM.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socJapan--JPN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socJersey--JEY.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socJordan--JOR.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socKazakhsctan--KAZ.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socKenya--KEN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socKiribati--KIR.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socKorea-Democratic-People's-Republic-of--PRK.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socKorea-Republic-of--KOR.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socKuwait--KWT.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socKyrgyzstan--KGZ.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socLao-People's-Democratic-Republic--LAO.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socLatvia--LVA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socLebanon--LBN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socLesotho--LSO.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socLiberia--LBR.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socLibya--LBY.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socLiechtenstein--LIE.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socLithuania--LTU.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socLuxembourg--LUX.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMacao--MAC.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMacedonia-the-former-Yugoslav-Republic-of--MKD.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMadagascar--MDG.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMalawi--MWI.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMalaysia--MYS.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMaldives--MDV.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMali--MLI.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMalta--MLT.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMarshall-Islands--MHL.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMartinique--MTQ.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMauritania--MRT.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMauritius--MUS.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMayotte--MYT.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMexico--MEX.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMicronesia-Federated-States-of--FSM.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMoldova-Republic-of--MDA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMonaco--MCO.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMongolia--MNG.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMontenegro--MNE.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMontserrat--MSR.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMorocco--MAR.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMozambique--MOZ.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socMyanmar--MMR.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socNamibia--NAM.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socNauru--NRU.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socNepal--NPL.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socNetherlands--NLD.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socNew-Caledonia--NCL.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socNew-Zealand--NZL.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socNicaragua--NIC.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socNiger--NER.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socNigeria--NGA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socNiue--NIU.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socNorfolk-Island--NFK.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socNorthern-Mariana-Islands--MNP.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socNorway--NOR.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socOman--OMN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socPakistan--PAK.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socPalau--PLW.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socPalestinian-Territory-Occupied--PSE.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socPanama--PAN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socPapua-New-Guinea--PNG.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socParaguay--PRY.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socPeru--PER.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socPhilippines--PHL.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socPitcairn--PCN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socPoland--POL.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socPortugal--PRT.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socPuerto-Rico--PRI.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socQatar--QAT.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socRomania--ROU.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socRussian-Federation-Russia,--RUS.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socRwanda--RWA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socRιunion--REU.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSaint-Barthιlemy--BLM.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSaint-Helena-Ascension-and-Tristan-da-Cunha--SHN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSaint-Kitts-and-Nevis--KNA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSaint-Lucia--LCA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSaint-Martin-(French-part)--MAF.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSaint-Pierre-and-Miquelon--SPM.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSaint-Vincent-and-the-Grenadines--VCT.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSamoa--WSM.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSan-Marino--SMR.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSao-Tome-and-Principe--STP.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSaudi-Arabia--SAU.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSenegal--SEN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSerbia--SRB.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSeychelles--SYC.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSierra-Leone--SLE.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSingapore--SGP.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSint-Maarten-(Dutch-part)--SXM.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSlovakia--SVK.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSlovenia--SVN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSolomon-Islands--SLB.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSomalia--SOM.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSouth-Africa--ZAF.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSouth-Georgia-and-the-South-Sandwich-Islands--SGS.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSouth-Sudan--SSD.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSpain--ESP.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSri-Lanka--LKA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSudan--SDN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSuriname--SUR.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSvalbard-and-Jan-Mayen--SJM.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSwaziland--SWZ.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSweden--SWE.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSwitzerland--CHE.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socSyrian-Arab-Republic--SYR.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socTaiwan-Province-of-China--TWN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socTajikistan--TJK.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socTanzania-United-Republic-of--TZA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socThailand--THA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socTimor-Leste--TLS.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socTogo--TGO.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socTokelau--TKL.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socTonga--TON.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socTrinidad-and-Tobago--TTO.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socTunisia--TUN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socTurkey--TUR.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socTurkmenistan--TKM.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socTurks-and-Caicos-Islands--TCA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socTuvalu--TUV.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socUganda--UGA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socUkraine--UKR.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socUnited-Arab-Emirates--ARE.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socUnited-Kingdom--GBR.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socUnited-States--USA.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socUnited-States-Minor-Outlying-Islands--UMI.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socUruguay--URY.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socUzbekistan--UZB.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socVanuatu--VUT.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socVenezuela-Bolivarian-Republic-of--VEN.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socViet-Nam--VNM.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socVirgin-Islands-British--VGB.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socVirgin-Islands-US--VIR.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socWallis-and-Futuna--WLF.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socWestern-Sahara--ESH.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socYemen--YEM.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socZambia--ZMB.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socZimbabwe--ZWE.Iso3,
* McsEngl.socΕland-Islands--ALA.Iso3,

society.code.4-letter

description::
· I will-use the-3-letter-code plus 1 more letter|number showing the-evolution of this society.

* McsEngl.soc4.Abwa!=Aruba,
* McsEngl.soc4.Afga!=Afghastan,
* McsEngl.soc4.Agoa!=Angola,
* McsEngl.soc4.Aiaa!=Anguilla,
* McsEngl.soc4.Alaa!=Εland-Islands,
* McsEngl.soc4.Alba!=Albania,
* McsEngl.soc4.Anda!=Andorra,
* McsEngl.soc4.Area!=United-Arab-Emirates,
* McsEngl.soc4.Arga!=Argentina,
* McsEngl.soc4.Arma!=Armenia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Asma!=American-Samoa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Ataa!=Antarctica,
* McsEngl.soc4.Atfa!=French-Southern-Territories,
* McsEngl.soc4.Atga!=Antigua-and-Barbuda,
* McsEngl.soc4.Ausa!=Australia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Auta!=Austria,
* McsEngl.soc4.Azea!=Azerbaijan,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bdia!=Burundi,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bela!=Belgium,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bena!=Benin,
* McsEngl.soc4.Besa!=Bonaire-Sint-Eustatius-and-Saba,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bfaa!=Burkina-Faso,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bgda!=Bangladesh,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bgra!=Bulgaria,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bhra!=Bahrain,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bhsa!=Bahamas,
* McsEngl.soc4.Biha!=Bosnia-and-Herzegovina,
* McsEngl.soc4.Blma!=Saint-Barthιlemy,
* McsEngl.soc4.Blra!=Belarus,
* McsEngl.soc4.Blza!=Belize,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bmua!=Bermuda,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bola!=Bolivia-Plurinational-State-of,
* McsEngl.soc4.Braa!=Brazil,
* McsEngl.soc4.Brba!=Barbados,
* McsEngl.soc4.Brna!=Brunei-Darussalam,
* McsEngl.soc4.Btna!=Bhutan,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bvta!=Bouvet-Island,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bwaa!=Botswana,
* McsEngl.soc4.Cafa!=Central-African-Republic,
* McsEngl.soc4.Cana!=Canada,
* McsEngl.soc4.Ccka!=Cocos-(Keeling)-Islands,
* McsEngl.soc4.Chea!=Switzerland,
* McsEngl.soc4.Chla!=Chile,
* socChna!=China,
* McsEngl.soc4.Civa!=Cτte-d'Ivoire,
* McsEngl.soc4.Cmra!=Cameroon,
* McsEngl.soc4.Coda!=Congo-the-Democratic-Republic-of-the,
* McsEngl.soc4.Coga!=Congo,
* McsEngl.soc4.Coka!=Cook-Islands,
* McsEngl.soc4.Cola!=Colombia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Coma!=Comoros,
* McsEngl.soc4.Cpva!=Cape-Verde,
* McsEngl.soc4.Cria!=Costa-Rica,
* McsEngl.soc4.Cuba!=Cuba,
* McsEngl.soc4.Cuwa!=Curaηao,
* McsEngl.soc4.Cxra!=Christmas-Island,
* McsEngl.soc4.Cyma!=Cayman-Islands,
* McsEngl.soc4.Cypa!=Cyprus,
* McsEngl.soc4.Czea!=Czech-Republic,
* McsEngl.soc4.Deua!=Germany,
* McsEngl.soc4.Djia!=Djibouti,
* McsEngl.soc4.Dmaa!=Dominica,
* McsEngl.soc4.Dnka!=Denmark,
* McsEngl.soc4.Doma!=Dominican-Republic,
* McsEngl.soc4.Dzaa!=Algeria,
* McsEngl.soc4.Ecua!=Ecuador,
* McsEngl.soc4.Egya!=Egypt,
* McsEngl.soc4.Eria!=Eritrea,
* McsEngl.soc4.Esha!=Western-Sahara,
* McsEngl.soc4.Espa!=Spain,
* McsEngl.soc4.Esta!=Estonia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Etha!=Ethiopia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Fina!=Finland,
* McsEngl.soc4.Fjia!=Fiji,
* McsEngl.soc4.Flka!=Falkland-Islands-(Malvinas),
* McsEngl.soc4.Fraa!=France,
* McsEngl.soc4.Froa!=Faroe-Islands,
* McsEngl.soc4.Fsma!=Micronesia-Federated-States-of,
* McsEngl.soc4.Gaba!=Gabon,
* McsEngl.soc4.Gbra!=United-Kingdom,
* McsEngl.soc4.Geoa!=Georgia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Ggya!=Guernsey,
* McsEngl.soc4.Ghaa!=Ghana,
* McsEngl.soc4.Giba!=Gibraltar,
* McsEngl.soc4.Gina!=Guinea,
* McsEngl.soc4.Glpa!=Guadeloupe,
* McsEngl.soc4.Gmba!=Gambia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Gnba!=Guinea-Bissau,
* McsEngl.soc4.Gnqa!=Equatorial-Guinea,
* socGrca!=Greece,
* McsEngl.soc4.Grda!=Grenada,
* McsEngl.soc4.Grla!=Greenland,
* McsEngl.soc4.Gtma!=Guatemala,
* McsEngl.soc4.Gufa!=French-Guiana,
* McsEngl.soc4.Guma!=Guam,
* McsEngl.soc4.Guya!=Guyana,
* McsEngl.soc4.Hkga!=Hong-Kong,
* McsEngl.soc4.Hmda!=Heard-Island-and-McDonald-Islands,
* McsEngl.soc4.Hnda!=Honduras,
* McsEngl.soc4.Hrva!=Croatia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Htia!=Haiti,
* McsEngl.soc4.Huna!=Hungary,
* McsEngl.soc4.Idna!=Indonesia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Imna!=Isle-of-Man,
* McsEngl.soc4.Inda!=India,
* McsEngl.soc4.Iota!=British-Indian-Ocean-Territory,
* McsEngl.soc4.Irla!=Ireland,
* McsEngl.soc4.Irna!=Iran-Islamic-Republic-of,
* McsEngl.soc4.Irqa!=Iraq,
* McsEngl.soc4.Isla!=Iceland,
* McsEngl.soc4.Isra!=Israel,
* McsEngl.soc4.Itaa!=Italy,
* McsEngl.soc4.Jama!=Jamaica,
* McsEngl.soc4.Jeya!=Jersey,
* McsEngl.soc4.Jora!=Jordan,
* McsEngl.soc4.Jpna!=Japan,
* McsEngl.soc4.Kaza!=Kazakhsctan,
* McsEngl.soc4.Kena!=Kenya,
* McsEngl.soc4.Kgza!=Kyrgyzstan,
* McsEngl.soc4.Khma!=Cambodia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Kira!=Kiribati,
* McsEngl.soc4.Knaa!=Saint-Kitts-and-Nevis,
* McsEngl.soc4.Kora!=Korea-Republic-of,
* McsEngl.soc4.Kwta!=Kuwait,
* McsEngl.soc4.Laoa!=Lao-People's-Democratic-Republic,
* McsEngl.soc4.Lbna!=Lebanon,
* McsEngl.soc4.Lbra!=Liberia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Lbya!=Libya,
* McsEngl.soc4.Lcaa!=Saint-Lucia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Liea!=Liechtenstein,
* McsEngl.soc4.Lkaa!=Sri-Lanka,
* McsEngl.soc4.Lsoa!=Lesotho,
* McsEngl.soc4.Ltua!=Lithuania,
* McsEngl.soc4.Luxa!=Luxembourg,
* McsEngl.soc4.Lvaa!=Latvia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Maca!=Macao,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mafa!=Saint-Martin-(French-part),
* McsEngl.soc4.Mara!=Morocco,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mcoa!=Monaco,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mdaa!=Moldova-Republic-of,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mdga!=Madagascar,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mdva!=Maldives,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mexa!=Mexico,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mhla!=Marshall-Islands,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mkda!=Macedonia-the-former-Yugoslav-Republic-of,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mlia!=Mali,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mlta!=Malta,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mmra!=Myanmar,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mnea!=Montenegro,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mnga!=Mongolia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mnpa!=Northern-Mariana-Islands,
* McsEngl.soc4.Moza!=Mozambique,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mrta!=Mauritania,
* McsEngl.soc4.Msra!=Montserrat,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mtqa!=Martinique,
* McsEngl.soc4.Musa!=Mauritius,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mwia!=Malawi,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mysa!=Malaysia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Myta!=Mayotte,
* McsEngl.soc4.Nama!=Namibia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Ncla!=New-Caledonia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Nera!=Niger,
* McsEngl.soc4.Nfka!=Norfolk-Island,
* McsEngl.soc4.Ngaa!=Nigeria,
* McsEngl.soc4.Nica!=Nicaragua,
* McsEngl.soc4.Niua!=Niue,
* McsEngl.soc4.Nlda!=Netherlands,
* McsEngl.soc4.Nora!=Norway,
* McsEngl.soc4.Npla!=Nepal,
* McsEngl.soc4.Nrua!=Nauru,
* McsEngl.soc4.Nzla!=New-Zealand,
* McsEngl.soc4.Omna!=Oman,
* McsEngl.soc4.Paka!=Pakistan,
* McsEngl.soc4.Pana!=Panama,
* McsEngl.soc4.Pcna!=Pitcairn,
* McsEngl.soc4.Pera!=Peru,
* McsEngl.soc4.Phla!=Philippines,
* McsEngl.soc4.Plwa!=Palau,
* McsEngl.soc4.Pnga!=Papua-New-Guinea,
* McsEngl.soc4.Pola!=Poland,
* McsEngl.soc4.Pria!=Puerto-Rico,
* McsEngl.soc4.Prka!=Korea-Democratic-People's-Republic-of,
* McsEngl.soc4.Prta!=Portugal,
* McsEngl.soc4.Prya!=Paraguay,
* McsEngl.soc4.Psea!=Palestinian-Territory-Occupied,
* McsEngl.soc4.Pyfa!=French-Polynesia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Qata!=Qatar,
* McsEngl.soc4.Reua!=Rιunion,
* McsEngl.soc4.Roua!=Romania,
* McsEngl.soc4.Rusa!=Russian-Federation-Russia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Rwaa!=Rwanda,
* McsEngl.soc4.Saua!=Saudi-Arabia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Sdna!=Sudan,
* McsEngl.soc4.Sena!=Senegal,
* McsEngl.soc4.Sgpa!=Singapore,
* McsEngl.soc4.Sgsa!=South-Georgia-and-the-South-Sandwich-Islands,
* McsEngl.soc4.Shna!=Saint-Helena-Ascension-and-Tristan-da-Cunha,
* McsEngl.soc4.Sjma!=Svalbard-and-Jan-Mayen,
* McsEngl.soc4.Slba!=Solomon-Islands,
* McsEngl.soc4.Slea!=Sierra-Leone,
* McsEngl.soc4.Slva!=El-Salvador,
* McsEngl.soc4.Smra!=San-Marino,
* McsEngl.soc4.Soma!=Somalia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Spma!=Saint-Pierre-and-Miquelon,
* McsEngl.soc4.Srba!=Serbia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Ssda!=South-Sudan,
* McsEngl.soc4.Stpa!=Sao-Tome-and-Principe,
* McsEngl.soc4.Sura!=Suriname,
* McsEngl.soc4.Svka!=Slovakia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Svna!=Slovenia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Swea!=Sweden,
* McsEngl.soc4.Swza!=Swaziland,
* McsEngl.soc4.Sxma!=Sint-Maarten-(Dutch-part),
* McsEngl.soc4.Syca!=Seychelles,
* McsEngl.soc4.Syra!=Syrian-Arab-Republic,
* McsEngl.soc4.Tcaa!=Turks-and-Caicos-Islands,
* McsEngl.soc4.Tcda!=Chad,
* McsEngl.soc4.Tgoa!=Togo,
* McsEngl.soc4.Thaa!=Thailand,
* McsEngl.soc4.Tjka!=Tajikistan,
* McsEngl.soc4.Tkla!=Tokelau,
* McsEngl.soc4.Tkma!=Turkmenistan,
* McsEngl.soc4.Tlsa!=Timor-Leste,
* McsEngl.soc4.Tona!=Tonga,
* McsEngl.soc4.Ttoa!=Trinidad-and-Tobago,
* McsEngl.soc4.Tuna!=Tunisia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Tura!=Turkey,
* McsEngl.soc4.Tuva!=Tuvalu,
* McsEngl.soc4.Twna!=Taiwan-Province-of-China,
* McsEngl.soc4.Tzaa!=Tanzania-United-Republic-of,
* McsEngl.soc4.Ugaa!=Uganda,
* McsEngl.soc4.Ukra!=Ukraine,
* McsEngl.soc4.Umia!=United-States-Minor-Outlying-Islands,
* McsEngl.soc4.Urya!=Uruguay,
* soc4.Usaa!=United-States,
* McsEngl.soc4.Uzba!=Uzbekistan,
* McsEngl.soc4.Vata!=Holy-See-(Vatican-City-State),
* McsEngl.soc4.Vcta!=Saint-Vincent-and-the-Grenadines,
* McsEngl.soc4.Vena!=Venezuela-Bolivarian-Republic-of,
* McsEngl.soc4.Vgba!=Virgin-Islands-British,
* McsEngl.soc4.Vira!=Virgin-Islands-U.S.,
* McsEngl.soc4.Vnma!=Viet-Nam,
* McsEngl.soc4.Vuta!=Vanuatu,
* McsEngl.soc4.Wlfa!=Wallis-and-Futuna,
* McsEngl.soc4.Wsma!=Samoa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Yema!=Yemen,
* McsEngl.soc4.Zafa!=South-Africa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Zmba!=Zambia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Zwea!=Zimbabwe,

* McsEngl.soc4.Afghastan!=Afga,
* McsEngl.soc4.Albania!=Alba,
* McsEngl.soc4.Algeria!=Dzaa,
* McsEngl.soc4.American-Samoa!=Asma,
* McsEngl.soc4.Andorra!=Anda,
* McsEngl.soc4.Angola!=Agoa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Anguilla!=Aiaa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Antarctica!=Ataa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Antigua-and-Barbuda!=Atga,
* McsEngl.soc4.Argentina!=Arga,
* McsEngl.soc4.Armenia!=Arma,
* McsEngl.soc4.Aruba!=Abwa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Australia!=Ausa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Austria!=Auta,
* McsEngl.soc4.Azerbaijan!=Azea,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bahamas!=Bhsa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bahrain!=Bhra,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bangladesh!=Bgda,
* McsEngl.soc4.Barbados!=Brba,
* McsEngl.soc4.Belarus!=Blra,
* McsEngl.soc4.Belgium!=Bela,
* McsEngl.soc4.Belize!=Blza,
* McsEngl.soc4.Benin!=Bena,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bermuda!=Bmua,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bhutan!=Btna,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bolivia-Plurinational-State-of!=Bola,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bonaire-Sint-Eustatius-and-Saba!=Besa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bosnia-and-Herzegovina!=Biha,
* McsEngl.soc4.Botswana!=Bwaa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bouvet-Island!=Bvta,
* McsEngl.soc4.Brazil!=Braa,
* McsEngl.soc4.British-Indian-Ocean-Territory!=Iota,
* McsEngl.soc4.Brunei-Darussalam!=Brna,
* McsEngl.soc4.Bulgaria!=Bgra,
* McsEngl.soc4.Burkina-Faso!=Bfaa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Burundi!=Bdia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Cambodia!=Khma,
* McsEngl.soc4.Cameroon!=Cmra,
* McsEngl.soc4.Canada!=Cana,
* McsEngl.soc4.Cape-Verde!=Cpva,
* McsEngl.soc4.Cayman-Islands!=Cyma,
* McsEngl.soc4.Central-African-Republic!=Cafa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Chad!=Tcda,
* McsEngl.soc4.Chla!=Chile,
* McsEngl.soc4.Christmas-Island!=Cxra,
* McsEngl.soc4.Cocos-(Keeling)-Islands!=Ccka,
* McsEngl.soc4.Colombia!=Cola,
* McsEngl.soc4.Comoros!=Coma,
* McsEngl.soc4.Congo!=Coga,
* McsEngl.soc4.Congo-the-Democratic-Republic-of-the!=Coda,
* McsEngl.soc4.Cook-Islands!=Coka,
* McsEngl.soc4.Costa-Rica!=Cria,
* McsEngl.soc4.Croatia!=Hrva,
* McsEngl.soc4.Cuba!=Cuba,
* McsEngl.soc4.Curaηao!=Cuwa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Cyprus!=Cypa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Czech-Republic!=Czea,
* McsEngl.soc4.Cτte-d'Ivoire!=Civa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Denmark!=Dnka,
* McsEngl.soc4.Djibouti!=Djia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Dominica!=Dmaa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Dominican-Republic!=Doma,
* McsEngl.soc4.Ecuador!=Ecua,
* McsEngl.soc4.Egypt!=Egya,
* McsEngl.soc4.El-Salvador!=Slva,
* McsEngl.soc4.Eland-Islands!=Alaa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Equatorial-Guinea!=Gnqa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Eritrea!=Eria,
* McsEngl.soc4.Estonia!=Esta,
* McsEngl.soc4.Ethiopia!=Etha,
* McsEngl.soc4.Falkland-Islands-(Malvinas)!=Flka,
* McsEngl.soc4.Faroe-Islands!=Froa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Fiji!=Fjia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Finland!=Fina,
* McsEngl.soc4.France!=Fraa,
* McsEngl.soc4.French-Guiana!=Gufa,
* McsEngl.soc4.French-Polynesia!=Pyfa,
* McsEngl.soc4.French-Southern-Territories!=Atfa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Gabon!=Gaba,
* McsEngl.soc4.Gambia!=Gmba,
* McsEngl.soc4.Georgia!=Geoa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Germany!=Deua,
* McsEngl.soc4.Ghana!=Ghaa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Gibraltar!=Giba,
* McsEngl.soc4.Greenland!=Grla,
* McsEngl.soc4.Grenada!=Grda,
* McsEngl.soc4.Guadeloupe!=Glpa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Guam!=Guma,
* McsEngl.soc4.Guatemala!=Gtma,
* McsEngl.soc4.Guernsey!=Ggya,
* McsEngl.soc4.Guinea!=Gina,
* McsEngl.soc4.Guinea-Bissau!=Gnba,
* McsEngl.soc4.Guyana!=Guya,
* McsEngl.soc4.Haiti!=Htia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Heard-Island-and-McDonald-Islands!=Hmda,
* McsEngl.soc4.Holy-See-(Vatican-City-State)!=Vata,
* McsEngl.soc4.Honduras!=Hnda,
* McsEngl.soc4.Hong-Kong!=Hkga,
* McsEngl.soc4.Hungary!=Huna,
* McsEngl.soc4.Iceland!=Isla,
* McsEngl.soc4.India!=Inda,
* McsEngl.soc4.Indonesia!=Idna,
* McsEngl.soc4.Iran-Islamic-Republic-of!=Irna,
* McsEngl.soc4.Iraq!=Irqa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Ireland!=Irla,
* McsEngl.soc4.Isle-of-Man!=Imna,
* McsEngl.soc4.Israel!=Isra,
* McsEngl.soc4.Italy!=Itaa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Jamaica!=Jama,
* McsEngl.soc4.Japan!=Jpna,
* McsEngl.soc4.Jersey!=Jeya,
* McsEngl.soc4.Jordan!=Jora,
* McsEngl.soc4.Kazakhsctan!=Kaza,
* McsEngl.soc4.Kenya!=Kena,
* McsEngl.soc4.Kiribati!=Kira,
* McsEngl.soc4.Korea-Democratic-People's-Republic-of!=Prka,
* McsEngl.soc4.Korea-Republic-of!=Kora,
* McsEngl.soc4.Kuwait!=Kwta,
* McsEngl.soc4.Kyrgyzstan!=Kgza,
* McsEngl.soc4.Lao-People's-Democratic-Republic!=Laoa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Latvia!=Lvaa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Lebanon!=Lbna,
* McsEngl.soc4.Lesotho!=Lsoa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Liberia!=Lbra,
* McsEngl.soc4.Libya!=Lbya,
* McsEngl.soc4.Liechtenstein!=Liea,
* McsEngl.soc4.Lithuania!=Ltua,
* McsEngl.soc4.Luxembourg!=Luxa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Macao!=Maca,
* McsEngl.soc4.Macedonia-the-former-Yugoslav-Republic-of!=Mkda,
* McsEngl.soc4.Madagascar!=Mdga,
* McsEngl.soc4.Malawi!=Mwia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Malaysia!=Mysa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Maldives!=Mdva,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mali!=Mlia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Malta!=Mlta,
* McsEngl.soc4.Marshall-Islands!=Mhla,
* McsEngl.soc4.Martinique!=Mtqa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mauritania!=Mrta,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mauritius!=Musa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mayotte!=Myta,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mexico!=Mexa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Micronesia-Federated-States-of!=Fsma,
* McsEngl.soc4.Moldova-Republic-of!=Mdaa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Monaco!=Mcoa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mongolia!=Mnga,
* McsEngl.soc4.Montenegro!=Mnea,
* McsEngl.soc4.Montserrat!=Msra,
* McsEngl.soc4.Morocco!=Mara,
* McsEngl.soc4.Mozambique!=Moza,
* McsEngl.soc4.Myanmar!=Mmra,
* McsEngl.soc4.Namibia!=Nama,
* McsEngl.soc4.Nauru!=Nrua,
* McsEngl.soc4.Nepal!=Npla,
* McsEngl.soc4.Netherlands!=Nlda,
* McsEngl.soc4.New-Caledonia!=Ncla,
* McsEngl.soc4.New-Zealand!=Nzla,
* McsEngl.soc4.Nicaragua!=Nica,
* McsEngl.soc4.Niger!=Nera,
* McsEngl.soc4.Nigeria!=Ngaa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Niue!=Niua,
* McsEngl.soc4.Norfolk-Island!=Nfka,
* McsEngl.soc4.Northern-Mariana-Islands!=Mnpa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Norway!=Nora,
* McsEngl.soc4.Oman!=Omna,
* McsEngl.soc4.Pakistan!=Paka,
* McsEngl.soc4.Palau!=Plwa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Palestinian-Territory-Occupied!=Psea,
* McsEngl.soc4.Panama!=Pana,
* McsEngl.soc4.Papua-New-Guinea!=Pnga,
* McsEngl.soc4.Paraguay!=Prya,
* McsEngl.soc4.Peru!=Pera,
* McsEngl.soc4.Philippines!=Phla,
* McsEngl.soc4.Pitcairn!=Pcna,
* McsEngl.soc4.Poland!=Pola,
* McsEngl.soc4.Portugal!=Prta,
* McsEngl.soc4.Puerto-Rico!=Pria,
* McsEngl.soc4.Qatar!=Qata,
* McsEngl.soc4.Romania!=Roua,
* McsEngl.soc4.Russian-Federation-Russia!=Rusa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Rwanda!=Rwaa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Rιunion!=Reua,
* McsEngl.soc4.Saint-Barthιlemy!=Blma,
* McsEngl.soc4.Saint-Helena-Ascension-and-Tristan-da-Cunha!=Shna,
* McsEngl.soc4.Saint-Kitts-and-Nevis!=Knaa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Saint-Lucia!=Lcaa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Saint-Martin-(French-part)!=Mafa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Saint-Pierre-and-Miquelon!=Spma,
* McsEngl.soc4.Saint-Vincent-and-the-Grenadines!=Vcta,
* McsEngl.soc4.Samoa!=Wsma,
* McsEngl.soc4.San-Marino!=Smra,
* McsEngl.soc4.Sao-Tome-and-Principe!=Stpa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Saudi-Arabia!=Saua,
* McsEngl.soc4.Senegal!=Sena,
* McsEngl.soc4.Serbia!=Srba,
* McsEngl.soc4.Seychelles!=Syca,
* McsEngl.soc4.Sierra-Leone!=Slea,
* McsEngl.soc4.Singapore!=Sgpa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Sint-Maarten-(Dutch-part)!=Sxma,
* McsEngl.soc4.Slovakia!=Svka,
* McsEngl.soc4.Slovenia!=Svna,
* McsEngl.soc4.Solomon-Islands!=Slba,
* McsEngl.soc4.Somalia!=Soma,
* McsEngl.soc4.South-Africa!=Zafa,
* McsEngl.soc4.South-Georgia-and-the-South-Sandwich-Islands!=Sgsa,
* McsEngl.soc4.South-Sudan!=Ssda,
* McsEngl.soc4.Spain!=Espa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Sri-Lanka!=Lkaa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Sudan!=Sdna,
* McsEngl.soc4.Suriname!=Sura,
* McsEngl.soc4.Svalbard-and-Jan-Mayen!=Sjma,
* McsEngl.soc4.Swaziland!=Swza,
* McsEngl.soc4.Sweden!=Swea,
* McsEngl.soc4.Switzerland!=Chea,
* McsEngl.soc4.Syrian-Arab-Republic!=Syra,
* McsEngl.soc4.Taiwan-Province-of-China!=Twna,
* McsEngl.soc4.Tajikistan!=Tjka,
* McsEngl.soc4.Tanzania-United-Republic-of!=Tzaa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Thailand!=Thaa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Timor-Leste!=Tlsa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Togo!=Tgoa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Tokelau!=Tkla,
* McsEngl.soc4.Tonga!=Tona,
* McsEngl.soc4.Trinidad-and-Tobago!=Ttoa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Tunisia!=Tuna,
* McsEngl.soc4.Turkey!=Tura,
* McsEngl.soc4.Turkmenistan!=Tkma,
* McsEngl.soc4.Turks-and-Caicos-Islands!=Tcaa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Tuvalu!=Tuva,
* McsEngl.soc4.Uganda!=Ugaa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Ukraine!=Ukra,
* McsEngl.soc4.United-Arab-Emirates!=Area,
* McsEngl.soc4.United-Kingdom!=Gbra,
* soc4.United-States!=Usaa,
* McsEngl.soc4.United-States-Minor-Outlying-Islands!=Umia,
* McsEngl.soc4.Uruguay!=Urya,
* McsEngl.soc4.Uzbekistan!=Uzba,
* McsEngl.soc4.Vanuatu!=Vuta,
* McsEngl.soc4.Venezuela-Bolivarian-Republic-of!=Vena,
* McsEngl.soc4.Viet-Nam!=Vnma,
* McsEngl.soc4.Virgin-Islands-British!=Vgba,
* McsEngl.soc4.Virgin-Islands-U.S.!=Vira,
* McsEngl.soc4.Wallis-and-Futuna!=Wlfa,
* McsEngl.soc4.Western-Sahara!=Esha,
* McsEngl.soc4.Yemen!=Yema,
* McsEngl.soc4.Zambia!=Zmba,
* McsEngl.soc4.Zimbabwe!=Zwea,
* socChna!=China,
* socGrca!=Greece,

name::
* McsEngl.soc4!=4-letter-code-of-society,
* McsEngl.society.055-4-letter-code!⇒soc4,
* McsEngl.society.4-letter-code!⇒soc4,
* McsEngl.socXxxx!⇒soc4,

society.spec-div.generic

description::
* instance,
* instanceNo,

name::
* McsEngl.society.spec-div.generic,

society.instance-002

description::
· an-individual society.

name::
* McsEngl.socInstance,
* McsEngl.society.002-instance!⇒socInstance,
* McsEngl.society.instance!⇒socInstance,

society.instanceNo-012

description::
· not an-individual society.

name::
* McsEngl.socGeneric,
* McsEngl.society.012-instanceNo!⇒socGeneric,
* McsEngl.society.instanceNo!⇒socGeneric,

society.computer-model (link)

society.International-001 (link)

society.hypocrite-017

description::
· hypocrite-society is a-society[a] with no sustainable social-relations[b] that[a] needs hypocrisy to maintain them[b].
· sooner or later a-new type will-arise or it[a] will-be-destroyed.

name::
* McsEngl.hypocrite-society!⇒socHypocrite,
* McsEngl.hypocritical-society!⇒socHypocrite,
* McsEngl.socHypocrite,
* McsEngl.society.017-hypocrite!⇒socHypocrite,
* McsEngl.society.hypocrite!⇒socHypocrite,

society.civilized

description::
"non-civilized societies:
It seems you are inquiring about societies that might be considered "non-civilized." This term is subjective and can be problematic, as it often reflects a biased view of different cultures and ways of life. In anthropology and sociology, there is a strong focus on understanding and respecting the diversity of human societies without labeling them as "civilized" or "non-civilized."
Each society has its own complexities and should be understood within its own context. The term "non-civilized" is outdated and not used in contemporary discussions about different cultures, as it implies a judgmental and Eurocentric view of progress and development.
If you have specific questions about particular societies, their cultural practices, or their historical context, I would be happy to provide more accurate and respectful information."
[{2023-12-26 retrieved} https://chat.openai.com/c/0bb5f80c-2ef3-4532-aa48-c6d861d65c5b]

name::
* McsEngl.civilized-society,
* McsEngl.society.039-civilized,
* McsEngl.society.civilized,

meta-info

this webpage was-visited times since {2019-12-26}

page-wholepath: synagonism.net / worldviewSngo / dirStn / society

SEARCH::
· this page uses 'locator-names', names that when you find them, you find the-LOCATION of the-concept they denote.
GLOBAL-SEARCH:
· clicking on the-green-BAR of a-page you have access to the-global--locator-names of my-site.
· use the-prefix 'society' for sensorial-concepts related to current concept 'human-society'.
LOCAL-SEARCH:
· TYPE CTRL+F "McsLag4.words-of-concept's-name", to go to the-LOCATION of the-concept.
· a-preview of the-description of a-global-name makes reading fast.

footer::
• author: Kaseluris.Nikos.1959
• email:
 
• edit on github: https://github.com/synagonism/McsWorld/blob/master/dirStn/McsStn000009.last.html,
• comments on Disqus,
• twitter: @synagonism,

webpage-versions::
• version.last.dynamic: McsStn000009.last.html,
• version.1-0-0.2021-04-12: (0-59) ../../dirMiwMcs/dirStn/filMcsSocHmn.1-0-0.2021-04-12.html,
• version.0-1-0.2019-12-26 draft creation,

support (link)